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Algae Biorefinery - Concepts

Dr. Ulrike Schmid-Staiger

National German Workshop on Biorefineries 15 th September 2009, Worms

Algae Biorefinery - Concepts Dr. Ulrike Schmid-Staiger National German Workshop on Biorefineries 15 September 2009, Worms
Algae Biorefinery - Concepts Dr. Ulrike Schmid-Staiger National German Workshop on Biorefineries 15 September 2009, Worms
Algae Biorefinery - Concepts Dr. Ulrike Schmid-Staiger National German Workshop on Biorefineries 15 September 2009, Worms

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Microalgae - microscopic small „plants“ Ubiquitous - seawater freshwater soil air About 40.000 different algae in

Microalgae - microscopic small „plants“

Microalgae - microscopic small „plants“ Ubiquitous - seawater freshwater soil air About 40.000 different algae in

Ubiquitous

-

seawater

 

freshwater

soil

air

Microalgae - microscopic small „plants“ Ubiquitous - seawater freshwater soil air About 40.000 different algae in

About 40.000 different algae in marine water sytems

Algae are consumed by mankind for thousand of years

40-50 Gigatons of carbon are fixed by marine algae every year

Microalgae - microscopic small „plants“ Ubiquitous - seawater freshwater soil air About 40.000 different algae in

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Algae biomass– a sustainable renewable resource for fine chemicals and energy

Advantages of using microalgae as renewable resource

Growth rate is 5 to 10 times higher compared to plants Essential for growth are sunlight, CO 2 , and anorganic nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous

Carbon dioxide emitted from combustion processes can be used as a source of carbon for algal growth (1 kg of dry algal biomass requiring about 1.8 kg of CO 2 ).

Microalgae can be cultivated in seawater or brackish water on non-arable land, and do not compete for resources with conventional agriculture.

Microalgae biomass can be harvested during all seasons. The biomass is homogenous and free of lignocellulose.

Algae biomass– a sustainable renewable resource for fine chemicals and energy Advantages of using microalgae as
Algae biomass– a sustainable renewable resource for fine chemicals and energy Advantages of using microalgae as

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Main components of microalgae

Algae
Algae
Main components of microalgae Algae Carbo- hydrates • storage products ά -(1-4)-glucans ß-(1-3)-glucans, fructans sugars, glycerol
Main components of microalgae Algae Carbo- hydrates • storage products ά -(1-4)-glucans ß-(1-3)-glucans, fructans sugars, glycerol
Carbo- hydrates
Carbo-
hydrates

• storage products

ά-(1-4)-glucans

ß-(1-3)-glucans,

fructans sugars, glycerol

• only very low cellulose content

Main components of microalgae Algae Carbo- hydrates • storage products ά -(1-4)-glucans ß-(1-3)-glucans, fructans sugars, glycerol
Lipids
Lipids
Main components of microalgae Algae Carbo- hydrates • storage products ά -(1-4)-glucans ß-(1-3)-glucans, fructans sugars, glycerol

storage lipids • mainly TAGs up to 50% of DW • with solvents extractable from wet biomass • recovery by pressing out the dry and ruptured biomass

membrane lipids

• different lipid classes

up to 40% of total lipids are PUFA

• solubilised by solvent extraction of wet biomass, then transesterification

Main components of microalgae Algae Carbo- hydrates • storage products ά -(1-4)-glucans ß-(1-3)-glucans, fructans sugars, glycerol
Proteins
Proteins

• high content up to 50% of dry weight in growing cultures

all 20 amino acids

Main components of microalgae Algae Carbo- hydrates • storage products ά -(1-4)-glucans ß-(1-3)-glucans, fructans sugars, glycerol
 

valuable

Compounds

pigments

• antioxidants

fatty acids

vitamins

anti

-fungal,

-microbial

-viral

toxins

sterols

MAAs

Main components of microalgae Algae Carbo- hydrates • storage products ά -(1-4)-glucans ß-(1-3)-glucans, fructans sugars, glycerol

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Valuable compounds from microalgae

Pigments / Carotenoids

Fatty acids (PUFAs)

ß-Carotene

DHA (C22:6)

Astaxanthin

EPA (C20:5)

Lutein

ARA (C20:4)

Zeaxanthin

GAL (C18:3)

Canthaxanthin

Chlorophyll

Phycocyanin

Phycoerythrin

Fucoxanthin

Antioxidants

Catalases Polyphenols Superoxid Dismutase Tocopherols

Vitamins

A, B1, B6, B12, C, E Biotine

Riboflavin Nicotinic acid Pantothenate Folic acid

Valuable compounds from microalgae Pigments / Carotenoids Fatty acids (PUFAs) ß-Carotene DHA (C22:6) Astaxanthin EPA (C20:5)

Other / Pharmaceuticals

Antifungal Antimicrobial Antiviral Toxins Amino acids, Proteins Sterols MAAs as light protectant

Valuable compounds from microalgae Pigments / Carotenoids Fatty acids (PUFAs) ß-Carotene DHA (C22:6) Astaxanthin EPA (C20:5)

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Utilization of microalgae biomass

Feed
Feed

Production

in closed PBR

Harvest and Processing dewatering drying

Harvest

and

Processing

dewatering

drying

Harvest and Processing dewatering drying

Algae biomass

 

fractionation

 
Proteins Carbo- hydrates Lipids valuable

Proteins

Carbo-

hydrates

 

Lipids

valuable

Compounds

Utilization of microalgae biomass Feed Production in closed PBR Harvest and Processing dewatering drying Algae biomass
Utilization of microalgae biomass Feed Production in closed PBR Harvest and Processing dewatering drying Algae biomass
Food
Food

Chemical

Building Blocks

Utilization of microalgae biomass Feed Production in closed PBR Harvest and Processing dewatering drying Algae biomass
Utilization of microalgae biomass Feed Production in closed PBR Harvest and Processing dewatering drying Algae biomass
Utilization of microalgae biomass Feed Production in closed PBR Harvest and Processing dewatering drying Algae biomass
Utilization of microalgae biomass Feed Production in closed PBR Harvest and Processing dewatering drying Algae biomass
 

Bioenergy

Biofuels

  • Feed

 
 

Food

  • Cosmetics

Utilization of microalgae biomass Feed Production in closed PBR Harvest and Processing dewatering drying Algae biomass
Utilization of microalgae biomass Feed Production in closed PBR Harvest and Processing dewatering drying Algae biomass
Utilization of microalgae biomass Feed Production in closed PBR Harvest and Processing dewatering drying Algae biomass
Utilization of microalgae biomass Feed Production in closed PBR Harvest and Processing dewatering drying Algae biomass

Aquaculture

Poultry breeding

Bifunctional building blocks

acids

alcohols

Diesel

Kerosene

Methane

Syngas

Fatty acids/lipids

Pigments Vitamins

Antioxidants

Nutraceuticals

Utilization of microalgae biomass Feed Production in closed PBR Harvest and Processing dewatering drying Algae biomass

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Sustainable Algae-based Processes

Input

Production

DSP

Output

Carbohydrates

Micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mg)

Proteins Lipids, PUFAs

Antioxidants

Pigments Silicates

Operating Power Solar Energy Nutrients N , P, Mg, K CO 2 Biogas Technology Lignocellulose free
Operating Power
Solar Energy
Nutrients
N , P, Mg, K
CO 2
Biogas Technology
Lignocellulose free
Residual Biomass
Algae Biomass
Concentrating
Wet Biomass
Recycling
Cultivation
Microalgae
CHP-Plant
Extraction
Drying

Methane electr. Energy thermal Energy

Sustainable Algae-based Processes Input Production DSP Output • Carbohydrates • Micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mg) • Proteins

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Comparison between different cultivation systems

System Raceway ponds Tubular reactors Flat panel airlift reactors Light efficiency Temperature control Fairly good excellent
System
Raceway ponds
Tubular reactors
Flat panel airlift
reactors
Light efficiency
Temperature control
Fairly good
excellent
excellent
None
excellent
excellent
Gas transfer
Oxygen accumulation
Biomass concentration
Poor
Low-high
Low-high
low
high
low
low
high
high
Sterility
Cost to scale-up
Volumetric productivity
low
high
high
low
high
high
low
high
high
Energy demand per kg
biomass produced
high
high
low

Net energy production is possible !

Comparison between different cultivation systems System Raceway ponds Tubular reactors Flat panel airlift reactors Light efficiency

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Characteristics of the Flat Panel Airlift Reactor

deep-drawn PVC half-shells including the static mixers

Characteristics of the Flat Panel Airlift Reactor deep-drawn PVC half-shells including the static mixers static mixer

static mixer main targeted flow

High productivity by a sophisticated system of static mixers resulting in efficient light distribution to all algal

cells and low shear forces effecting to the algal cells

Low production cost of the reactor by construction of plastics

High scalability and modularity

Low energy consumption for inter-mixing due to airlift- driven intermixing

A pure photoautotrophic production process

  • - Low requirements of energy as sunlight as main energy source can be used

Provides the possibility to grow all kind of algae with high productivity at high biomass concentration

Characteristics of the Flat Panel Airlift Reactor deep-drawn PVC half-shells including the static mixers static mixer
Characteristics of the Flat Panel Airlift Reactor deep-drawn PVC half-shells including the static mixers static mixer

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Scale-up Step to a Pilot Plant

Scale-up Step to a Pilot Plant 21,6 MJ/kg TS 64 MJ/kg TS Link of several reactor
Scale-up Step to a Pilot Plant 21,6 MJ/kg TS 64 MJ/kg TS Link of several reactor

21,6 MJ/kg TS

Scale-up Step to a Pilot Plant 21,6 MJ/kg TS 64 MJ/kg TS Link of several reactor

24 MJ/kg TS

Scale-up Step to a Pilot Plant 21,6 MJ/kg TS 64 MJ/kg TS Link of several reactor

64 MJ/kg TS

Scale-up Step to a Pilot Plant 21,6 MJ/kg TS 64 MJ/kg TS Link of several reactor

Link of several reactor modules (with a volume of 180 litre each) and joint operation outdoors

Production of algal products in the range of several hundred kilograms.

Net energy production is possible, due to reduction of energy demand with scale-up

Scale-up Step to a Pilot Plant 21,6 MJ/kg TS 64 MJ/kg TS Link of several reactor

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Comparison of the energy input per kg DW of different production systems

Energieaufwand / Energy

demand

(MJ/kg DW)

Rohrreaktor Almeria* gepumpt** gepumpt* gepumpt* Reaktor, Uni vertikal, helical, horizontal, FPA , Subitec, Ziel § FPA
Rohrreaktor
Almeria*
gepumpt**
gepumpt*
gepumpt*
Reaktor, Uni
vertikal,
helical,
horizontal,
FPA , Subitec,
Ziel §
FPA , Subitec
derzeit §
Flat Panel
0
Rohrreaktor
Rohrreaktor
Raceway
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Comparison of the energy input per kg DW of different production systems Energieaufwand / Energy demand

11

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Sustainable Algae-based Processes

Input

Production

DSP

Output

• Proteins • Lipids, PUFAs

• Carbohydrates

• Micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mg)

Antioxidants

Pigments • Silicates

Operating Power Solar Energy Nutrients N , P, Mg, K CO 2 Biogas Technology Lignocellulose free
Operating Power
Solar Energy
Nutrients
N , P, Mg, K
CO 2
Biogas Technology
Lignocellulose free
Residual Biomass
Algae Biomass
Concentrating
Wet Biomass
Cultivation
Microalgae
CHP-Plant
Extraction
Drying

Methane electr. Energy thermal Energy

Sustainable Algae-based Processes Input Production DSP Output • Proteins • Lipids, PUFAs • Carbohydrates • Micronutrients

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Growth and Biomass Productivity in FPA-Reactors exemplary of

Phaeodactylum tricornutum

Phaeodactylum tric.: Growth in FPA-Reaktor

800 0 30 25 20 15 10 400 1200 5 0 Light intensity (µE m -2
800
0
30
25
20
15
10
400
1200
5
0
Light intensity
(µE m -2 s -1 )
DW (g/l)
20
25
30
15
10

time

High biomass productivity at even high biomass concentrations due to efficient intermixing

Dependency of biomass productivity of relative light intensity per cell

Optimum biomass yield at relatively low light availability (g DW produced per mole of photons E).

1,6 1,2 0,8 0,4 0,0 Prod. (g DW l -1 d -1 ) 20 25 10
1,6
1,2
0,8
0,4
0,0
Prod. (g DW l -1 d -1 )
20
25
10
15
0
5

biomass concentration (g DW l -1 )

1,6 1,2 0,8 Y light (g DW/E) 0,4 0,0 0,0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 rel.
1,6
1,2
0,8
Y light (g DW/E)
0,4
0,0
0,0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
rel. light availability (E g DW -1 d -1 )
Prod. (g DW l -1 d -1 ); Y light (g DW/E)
Growth and Biomass Productivity in FPA-Reactors exemplary of Phaeodactylum tricornutum Phaeodactylum tric.: Growth in FPA-Reaktor 800
Growth and Biomass Productivity in FPA-Reactors exemplary of Phaeodactylum tricornutum Phaeodactylum tric.: Growth in FPA-Reaktor 800

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Production of storage products in microalgae

Carbohydrates as energy storage product

valuable

pigments compound lipids proteins
pigments
compound
lipids
proteins

Growing algal cells

valuable pigments compound lipids N- and P-limitation proteins carbohydrates
valuable
pigments
compound
lipids
N- and P-limitation
proteins
carbohydrates

lipids

carbohydrates

valuable

pigments compound proteins carbohydrate
pigments
compound
proteins
carbohydrate

s

Lipids as energy storage product

Production of storage products in microalgae Carbohydrates as energy storage product valuable pigments compound lipids proteins

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Energetic use: Microalgal lipid production

20 2 8 6 0 4 10 lipids (% of dry weight) 10 Nanno.l 30 40
20
2
8
6
0
4
10
lipids (% of dry weight)
10
Nanno.l
30
40
50
60
0
Chl.v.
Nanno.o2
Nanno.o.

time (d)

Optimized production 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Lipid increase per day (%) 0,4 0,6
Optimized production
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Lipid increase per day (%)
0,4
0,6
0,8
0,2
1,2
0
1

rel. light availability (E g DW -1 *d -1 )

Microalgal lipid production depends strongly on available light per cell

Energetic use: Microalgal lipid production 20 2 8 6 0 4 10 lipids (% of dry

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Fatty acid composition

Growth phase

Chlorella vulg. - Wachstumsphase

C14:0

C18:1n9c C18:0 C16:0 C16:1n7 C20:0 C18:2n6c
C18:1n9c
C18:0
C16:0
C16:1n7
C20:0
C18:2n6c

Gesamtlipidgehalt 9 % der TS

Lipid phase

Chlorella vulg. - Lipidphase

C18:2n6c

C16:0 C16:1n7 C14:0 C20:0 C18:0
C16:0
C16:1n7
C14:0
C20:0
C18:0

C18:1n9c

Ölsäure

Total lipid content 9 % of DW

Total lipid content 45% of DW Main fatty acid: C 18:1 oleic acid

Fatty acid composition Growth phase Chlorella vulg. - Wachstumsphase C14:0 C18:1n9c C18:0 C16:0 C16:1n7 C20:0 C18:2n6c

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Downstream Processing

Algae

production

Process line 1 2 3
Process line
1
2
3

Cell harvest

Drying

Separation

Spray drying Superheated steam
Spray drying
Superheated
steam
 

Filtration

 

Precipitation

 
 

Flotation

 

Cell disruption

High pressure

homogenizer

 

Ball mill

 

Fast expansion

 

Extraction /

Purification

from dry biomass
from dry
biomass

Fluid extraction

 

org. solventsl / H 2 O

 

Supercritical fluids

 

scCO 2

from wet biomass
from wet
biomass

Fluid extraction org. solventsl / H 2 O

 

Products

hydrophilic • Proteins • Starch • Glycerine
hydrophilic
• Proteins
• Starch
• Glycerine

• Vitamins • Micronutrients

lipophilic • Oils
lipophilic
• Oils

• Fatty acids (PUFA) • Carotenoids • Steroids

Residual biomass
Residual
biomass
FhG1
FhG1

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Slide 17

FhG1

Th e challenge for algal biomass harvesting is to take the very low cell density and concentrate it to a point where lipid extraction is possible (as much as 1000X) using the lowest possible cost and process options. Th erefore, energy-intensive processes such as centrifugation may be feasible for high-value products but are far too costly in an integrated system producing lower-value products, such as algal oils for biofuels applications.

Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, 12-09-2009

Sustainable Algae-based Processes

Input

Production

DSP

Output

• Proteins • Lipids, PUFAs

• Carbohydrates

• Micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mg)

Antioxidants

Pigments • Silicates

Operating Power Solar Energy Nutrients N , P, Mg, K CO 2 Biogas Technology Lignocellulose free
Operating Power
Solar Energy
Nutrients
N , P, Mg, K
CO 2
Biogas Technology
Lignocellulose free
Waste Biomass
Algae Biomass
Concentrating
Wet Biomass
Cultivation
Microalgae
CHP-Plant
Extraction
Drying

Methane electr. Energy thermal Energy

Sustainable Algae-based Processes Input Production DSP Output • Proteins • Lipids, PUFAs • Carbohydrates • Micronutrients

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

• part of the membrane lipids of algal chloroplasts • occurs as one of the fatty acids of the monogalactosyldiglycerides cell disruption preextraction of the monogalactosyldiglyceride necessary • only fatty acid ethyl esters or free fatty acids can be extracted by use of scCO 2 transesterification of the monogalactosyldiglyceride

EPA Fatty acid Glycerol
EPA
Fatty acid
Glycerol
Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) • part of the membrane lipids of algal chloroplasts

Ethanol

+

Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) • part of the membrane lipids of algal chloroplasts

Lipase/

Alkali-catalyst

monogalactosyldiglyceride

EPA Fatty acid + Glycerol
EPA
Fatty acid
+
Glycerol

Fatty acid ethyl ester

Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) • part of the membrane lipids of algal chloroplasts
Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) • part of the membrane lipids of algal chloroplasts

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

Expansion

Lipase/ EtOH KOH r EPA Extraction Centrifugation Trans- (2. steps) (filtration) esterification/ 1h, RT scCO 2
Lipase/
EtOH
KOH
r
EPA
Extraction
Centrifugation
Trans-
(2. steps)
(filtration)
esterification/
1h, RT
scCO 2 Source
Saponification
scCO 2 -Extraction
Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) Expansion Lipase/ EtOH KOH r EPA Extraction Centrifugation Trans-

Algae

cultivation

Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) Expansion Lipase/ EtOH KOH r EPA Extraction Centrifugation Trans-

Preextraction with transesterification

Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) Expansion Lipase/ EtOH KOH r EPA Extraction Centrifugation Trans-

Extraction with scCO 2

Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) Expansion Lipase/ EtOH KOH r EPA Extraction Centrifugation Trans-
Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) Expansion Lipase/ EtOH KOH r EPA Extraction Centrifugation Trans-

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Downstream processes of microalgae: Astaxanthin

Downstream processes of microalgae: Astaxanthin Drying Grinding Expansion r Astaxanthin oil scCO -Extraction scCO Source Algae
Drying
Drying
Downstream processes of microalgae: Astaxanthin Drying Grinding Expansion r Astaxanthin oil scCO -Extraction scCO Source Algae
Grinding
Grinding

Expansion

r Astaxanthin oil
r
Astaxanthin
oil

scCO 2 -Extraction

scCO 2 Source

Downstream processes of microalgae: Astaxanthin Drying Grinding Expansion r Astaxanthin oil scCO -Extraction scCO Source Algae

Algae

cultivation

Downstream processes of microalgae: Astaxanthin Drying Grinding Expansion r Astaxanthin oil scCO -Extraction scCO Source Algae

Drying and grinding

Downstream processes of microalgae: Astaxanthin Drying Grinding Expansion r Astaxanthin oil scCO -Extraction scCO Source Algae

Extraction with scCO 2

Downstream processes of microalgae: Astaxanthin Drying Grinding Expansion r Astaxanthin oil scCO -Extraction scCO Source Algae
Downstream processes of microalgae: Astaxanthin Drying Grinding Expansion r Astaxanthin oil scCO -Extraction scCO Source Algae

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Energy conversion processes from microalgae

Energy conversion processes from microalgae schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de
Energy conversion processes from microalgae schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de
Energy conversion processes from microalgae schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Schematic process of biodiesel production

Schematic process of biodiesel production schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de
Schematic process of biodiesel production schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de
Schematic process of biodiesel production schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Sustainable Algae-based Processes

Input Production DSP Output Solar Energy Concentrating Wet Biomass Microalgae Operating Power Cultivation Drying Extraction Nutrients
Input
Production
DSP
Output
Solar Energy
Concentrating
Wet Biomass
Microalgae
Operating Power
Cultivation
Drying
Extraction
Nutrients
N , P, Mg, K
Lignocellulose free
Algae Biomass
CO 2
Residual Biomass
• Carbohydrates
• Proteins
• Lipids, PUFAs
• Antioxidants
• Pigments
• Silicates
• Micronutrients
(Fe, Zn, Mg)
CHP-Plant
Biogas Technology
Methane
electr. Energy
thermal Energy
Recycling
Sustainable Algae-based Processes Input Production DSP Output Solar Energy Concentrating Wet Biomass Microalgae Operating Power Cultivation

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Outlook: Integrated process for mass and energy based utilization of microalgae

Algal biomass

Outlook: Integrated process for mass and energy based utilization of microalgae Algal biomass Products: pigments ω
Outlook: Integrated process for mass and energy based utilization of microalgae Algal biomass Products: pigments ω

Products: pigments

ω-3-fatty acids vitamins

Energie CO 2 H 2 O ADP+ Pi +NADP + Calvin- Zyklus Lichtreaktionen ATP+NADPH+H + O
Energie
CO 2
H 2 O
ADP+ Pi
+NADP +
Calvin-
Zyklus
Lichtreaktionen
ATP+NADPH+H +
O 2
CH 2 O

1,85 kg CO 2 are fixed per kg algal biomass produced

Outlook: Integrated process for mass and energy based utilization of microalgae Algal biomass Products: pigments ω
CO 2
CO 2

residual biomass

organic wastes

Outlook: Integrated process for mass and energy based utilization of microalgae Algal biomass Products: pigments ω
Outlook: Integrated process for mass and energy based utilization of microalgae Algal biomass Products: pigments ω
NH 4 , PO 4 recycling
NH 4 ,
PO 4
recycling
Outlook: Integrated process for mass and energy based utilization of microalgae Algal biomass Products: pigments ω
digestion / codigestion Biogas
digestion /
codigestion
Biogas

CHPS

8 MJ electricity

12 MJ heat per m³ biogas

Outlook: Integrated process for mass and energy based utilization of microalgae Algal biomass Products: pigments ω
Outlook: Integrated process for mass and energy based utilization of microalgae Algal biomass Products: pigments ω

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Demands to Microalgal Biorefinery Processes

Energy efficient algae biomass production process high rate of photosynthesis, photobioreactor, CO 2 -utilization, net energy balance • Product recovery solvents (which and quantity) extraction from wet biomass, avoiding energy intensive drying steps • Residual biomass utilization free of lignocellulose, conversion to biogas by anaerobic digestion, • Recycling of nutrients CO 2 , nitrogen, phosphate • Water use quantity and quality

Demands to Microalgal Biorefinery Processes • Energy efficient algae biomass production process high rate of photosynthesis,
Demands to Microalgal Biorefinery Processes • Energy efficient algae biomass production process high rate of photosynthesis,

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Thank you for your attention Ulrike Schmid-Staiger, Ph.D. Fraunhofer IGB Nobelstr. 12 70569 Stuttgart Tel. +49-(0)711-970
Thank you for your attention
Ulrike Schmid-Staiger, Ph.D.
Fraunhofer IGB
Nobelstr. 12
70569 Stuttgart
Tel. +49-(0)711-970 4111
Email: schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de
Thank you for your attention Ulrike Schmid-Staiger, Ph.D. Fraunhofer IGB Nobelstr. 12 70569 Stuttgart Tel. +49-(0)711-970

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de

Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

100 3. extraction 2. extraction 90 1. extraction 0,0 9,6 80 70 60 50 5,3 40
100
3.
extraction
2.
extraction
90
1.
extraction
0,0
9,6
80
70
60
50
5,3
40
77,6
12,7
30
20
27,4
10
0
Yield [%]

2% dried biomass

2% wet biomass

• preextraction with EtOH

• wet Biomass shows better

results than dried biomass

• only 2 extraction steps are

necessary

Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 100 3. extraction 2. extraction 90 1. extraction 0,0
Downstream processes of microalgae: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 100 3. extraction 2. extraction 90 1. extraction 0,0

schmid-staiger@igb.fraunhofer.de