UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI
Date:
2Nov2010
hereby submit this original work as part of the requirements for the degree of:
Master of Science
in
It is entitled:
Mechanical Engineering
Hypoid and Spiral Bevel Gear Dynamics with Emphasis on
GearShaftBearing Structural Analysis
Student Signature:
Xia Hua
This work and its defense approved by:
Committee Chair:
Teik Lim, PhD
Teik Lim, PhD
11/12/2010
1,173
I,
Xia Hua
,
Hypoid and Spiral Bevel Gear Dynamics with Emphasis on
GearShaftBearing Structural Analysis
A thesis submitted to the
Division of Research and Advanced Studies
of the University of Cincinnati
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of
MASTER OF SCIENCE
in the Program of Mechanical Engineering
of the College of Engineering and Applied Science
November 2010
by
Xia Hua
B.S. Zhejiang University of Technology, Zhejiang, P.R. China, 2007
Academic Committee Chair:
Members:
Dr. Teik C. Lim
Dr. Ronald Huston
Dr. David Thompson
ABSTRACT
Hypoid and spiral bevel gears, used in the rear axles of cars, trucks and off
highway
equipment,
are
subjected
to
harmful
dynamic
response
which
can
be
substantially affected by the structural characteristics of the shafts and bearings. This
thesis research, with a focus on gearshaftbearing structural analysis, is aimed to develop
effective mathematical models and advanced analytical approaches to achieve more
accurate prediction of gear dynamic response as well as to investigate the underlying
physics affecting dynamic response generation and transmissibility. Two key parts in my
thesis are discussed below.
Firstly, existing lumped parameter dynamic model has been shown to be an
effective tool for dynamic analysis of spiral bevel geared rotor system. This model is
appropriate for fast computation and convenient analysis, but due to the limited degrees
of freedom used, it may not fully take into consideration the shaftbearing structural
dynamic characteristics. Thus, a dynamic finite element model is proposed to fully
account for the shaftbearing dynamic characteristics. In addition, the existing equivalent
lumped parameter synthesis approach used in the lumped parameter model, which is key
to
representing
the
shaftbearing
structural
dynamic
characteristics,
has
not
been
completely validated yet. The proposed finite element model is used to guide the
validation and improvement of the current lumped parameter synthesis method using
effective mass and inertia formulations, especially for modal response that is coupled to
the pinion or gear bending response.
Secondly,
a new shaftbearing model
has
been
proposed
for the effective
supporting stiffness calculation applied in the lumped parameter dynamic analysis of the
iii
spiral bevel geared rotor system with 3bearing straddlemounted pinion configuration.
Also, based on 14 degrees of freedom lumped parameter dynamic model and quasistatic
threedimensional finite element tooth contact analysis program, two typical shaft
bearing configuration used in automotive application, that are the 3bearing straddle
mounted pinion configuration and the 2bearing overhung mounted pinion configuration,
are compared for their different contribution to the spiral bevel gear mesh and dynamics.
Parametric study is also performed to analyze the effect of shaftbearing configuration on
spiral bevel gear mesh and dynamics.
iv
v
ACKNOWLEGEMENTS
First of all, I would like to sincerely thank my advisor and committee chair, Dr.
Teik C. Lim, for his guidance and support during my graduate study thus far. Also, my
gratitude is expressed to Dr. David Thompson and Dr. Ronald Huston for serving as my
master supervisory committee members. This thesis research is supported by the Hypoid
and Bevel Gear Mesh and Dynamic Modeling Consortium.
In addition, I wish to thank all my labmates at the VibroAcoustic and Sound
Quality Research Laboratory, University of Cincinnati for their cooperation and help.
Finally, I should thank my parents and my wife Gaoyan Shi for their love and
encouragement during my study.
vi
CONTENTS
Chapter 1. Introduction 
1 
1.1 Literature Review 
2 
1.2 Motivation, Objectives and Thesis Organization 
4 
Chapter 2. Finite Element and Enhanced Lumped Parameter Dynamic Modeling of Spiral Bevel Geared Rotor System 
6 
2.1 Introduction 
6 
2.2 Proposed Dynamic Finite Element Model 
7 
2.3 Proposed New Lumped Parameter Synthesis Method for Existing Lumped 

Parameter Dynamic Model and Its Difference from the Old Lumped Parameter Synthesis Approach 
13 
2.3.1 Spiral Bevel Gear 14DOF Lumped Parameter Dynamic Model 
13 
2.3.2 Proposed New Lumped Parameter Synthesis Method in Spiral Bevel Gear 
16 
14 DOF Lumped Parameter Model 
16 
2.3.3 Difference Between Old Lumped Parameter Synthesis Approach and Proposed
New Lumped Parameter Synthesis Approach 
28 
2.4 Comparison Results and Discussions 
28 
2.5 Conclusion 
35 
Chapter 3. Effect of Shaftbearing Configurations on Spiral Bevel Gear Mesh and Dynamics 
36 
3.1 Introduction 
36 
3.2 Mathematical Model 
37 
3.2.1 Mesh Model 
37 
3.2.2 Spiral Bevel Gear 14DOF Lumped Parameter Dynamic Model 
38 
3.2.3 Finite Element Modeling of 3bearing Straddle Mounted Pinion Configuration
for the Effective Lumped Stiffness Calculation 
41 

3.2.4 
Axial Translational Stiffness Model Refinement 
44 
3.3 Comparison of 3bearing Straddle Mounted Pinion and 2bearing Overhung 

Mounted Pinion on Gear Mesh and Dynamics 
46 
3.3.1 Analysis on Equivalent Shaftbearing Stiffness Models and Pinion‘s Lumped
Shaftbearing Stiffness Matrices of Two Pinion Configurations 
49 
3.3.2 Comparison on Gear Dynamics 
52 
3.3.3 Effect of 2bearing and 3bearing Configurations on Mesh Model 
57 
3.4 Conclusions 
70 
Chapter 4. Conclusions 
72 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 
74 
vii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure2.1 Dynamic finite element model of spiral bevel geared rotor system 
8 
Figure2.2 Spiral bevel gear pair dynamic model 
11 
Figure2.3 Spiral bevel gear 14 DOF lumped parameter dynamic model 
16 
Figure2.4 Static finite element modeling of 3bearing straddle mounted pinion configuration 
19 
Figure2.5 Axial translational stiffness model 
20 
Figure2.6 A design of beam with lumped mass 
21 
Figure2.7 Beam with lumped mass model of pinion with integrated shaft 
23 
Figure2.8 Dynamic mesh forces 
30 
Figure2.9 Dynamic mesh forces 
31 
Figure2.10 Dynamic mesh forces 
32 
Figure2.11 Dynamic mesh forces 
34 
Figure2.12 Dynamic mesh forces Figure2.13 Dynamic mesh forces Figure3.1 Tooth load distribution generated from quasistatic threedimensional finite element tooth contact analysis program Figure3.2 Spiral bevel gear 14 DOF lumped parameter dynamic model Figure3.3 Static finite element modeling of 3bearing straddle mounted pinion configuration Figure3.4 Axial translational stiffness model Figure3.5 3bearing straddle mounted pinion (upper) and 2bearing overhung mounted
34
35
38
41
44
45
pinion (lower) 
49 
Figure3.6 Finite element model of 3bearing mounted pinion (left) and finite element model of 2bearing mounted pinion (right) 
52 
Figure3.7 Comparison of 2bearing and 3bearing configurations on dynamic mesh force 
53 
Figure3.8 Comparison of 2bearing and 3bearing configurations on modal strain energy
distribution 
54 
Figure3.9 Comparison of 2bearing and 3bearing configurations on dynamic bearing load 
56 
Figure3.10 Comparison of 2bearing and 3bearing configurations on pinion response 57
Figure3.11 Effect of pilot bearing position on mesh point for 3bearing case 
58 
Figure3.12 Effect of tapered roller bearing position on mesh point for 3bearing case 
59 
Figure3.13 Effect of tapered roller bearing position on mesh point for 2bearing case 
60 
Figure3.14 Comparison of 2bearing and 3bearing configurations on mesh point 
61 
Figure3.15 Effect of pilot bearing position on lineofaction vector for 3bearing case . 62 Figure3.16 Effect of tapered roller bearing position on lineofaction vector for 3
bearing case 
63 
Figure3.17 Effect of tapered roller bearing position on lineofaction vector for 2 bearing case 
64 
Figure3.18 Comparison of 2bearing and 3bearing configuration on lineofaction vector 
65 
Figure3.19 Effect of pilot bearing position on mesh stiffness for 3bearing case 
66 
viii
Figure3.20 Effect of tapered roller bearing position on mesh stiffness for 3bearing case
67
Figure3.21 Effect of tapered roller bearing position on mesh stiffness for 2bearing case
67 

Figure3.22 Comparison of 2bearing and 3bearing configuration on mesh stiffness 
68 
Figure3.23 Comparison on dynamic mesh force without considering the difference of mesh stiffness 
69 
Figure3.24 Comparison on dynamic mesh force considering the difference of mesh stiffness 
69 
ix
Chapter 1. Introduction
Hypoid and spiral bevel gears are widely used as final set of reduction gear pairs
in the rear axles of trucks, cars and offhighway equipment to transmit engine‘s power to
the drive wheels in nonparallel directions. The hypoid and spiral bevel gear dynamics
becomes more and more significant for the concern of noise and durability, because
under dynamic condition the mesh force acting on gear teeth are amplified which
potentially reduces the fatigue life of gears and the large dynamic force can be
transmitted to housing which causes structureborn gear whine. Accordingly, it is needed
to perform indepth investigation on hypoid and spiral bevel geared system dynamic
response and resonance characteristics to form a deeper understanding in the physics
controlling dynamic force generation and transmissibility to achieve superior design for
quiet and durable driveline. Though it is the fact that much is known about dynamic
characteristics in parallel axis gear system, research on the dynamics of nonparallel axis
geared systems such as hypoid and spiral bevel gears is not mature.
Most previous analytical work mainly focuses on gear mesh modeling and its
application to analyze gear pair dynamics, nonlinear timevarying gear pair dynamic
analysis considering gear backlash, timevarying mesh characteristics, mesh stiffness
asymmetry effects and friction, coupled multibody gear pair dynamic and vibration
analysis and so on. Very little amount of attention is given to the gearshaftbearing
structure of the geared
rotor system.
The goal
of this
thesis is
to gain
a better
understanding on the effect of gearshaftbearing structural design on hypoid and spiral
bevel gear system dynamics and to establish new computational models more accurately
accounting for gearshaftbearing dynamic characteristics.
1
1.1 Literature Review
Dynamics of parallel axis geared rotor system has been studied extensively[114].
Papers
by
Ozguven
and
Houser[1]
and
Blankenship
and
Singh[2]
provide
a
comprehensive review of mathematical models used to investigate dynamics of parallel
axis geared rotor system. Among these studies, a special attention has been paid on gear
shaftbearing structure rather than the dynamics of the gear itself. In 1975, Mitchell and
Mellen[3] indicate the torsionallateral coupling in a geared rotor system by conducting
experiment study. In 1981, Hagiwara, Ida[4] analytically and experimentally studied the
vibration of geared shafts due to runout unbalanced and runout errors and it is observed
that both torsional and lateral modes could be excited by gear errors and unbalanced
forces. In 1984, Neriya, Bhat and Sankar[5] studied the effect of coupled torsional
flexural vibration of a geared shaft system on dynamic tooth load by using lumped
parameter dynamic model in which equivalent lumped springs were used to represent the
flexibility of shaftbearing structure. In 1985, Neriya, Bhat and Sankar[6] used finite
element method to model the geared rotor system and introduced the coupling between
torsion and flexure at the gear pair location. In 1991, Lim and Singh[7] developed linear
timeinvariant, discrete dynamic models of a generic geared rotor system based on their
newly proposed bearing matrix formulation by using lumped parameter and dynamic
finite element techniques to predict the vibration transmissibility through bearing and
mounts, casing vibration motion, and dynamic response of the internal rotating system. In
2004, Kubur and Kahraman[8] proposed a dynamic model of a multishaft helical gear
reduction unit formed by N flexible shafts by finite elements. This model has an accurate
2
representation of shafts and bearings as well as gears, which is used to study the influence
of some key gearshaftbearing structure parameters.
Though large numbers of research has been done on parallel axis gear dynamics,
the research on dynamics of rightangle geared rotor system such as bevel and hypoid
gear is still scanty. In recent years, a group led by Lim[1519] began to develop the
dynamic model of rightangle hypoid and spiral bevel geared rotor system and analyze
the dynamic characteristics of hypoid and spiral bevel geared rotor system. In one of the
study, Cheng and Lim[15] developed the singlepoint gear meshcoupling model based
on both unloaded and loaded exact gear tooth contact analysis. This mesh model is then
applied to develop multiple degreesoffreedom, lumped parameter model of the hypoid
and spiral bevel geared rotor system for linear timeinvariant and nonlinear timevarying
analysis. In 2002, Wang, H. and Lim[16] developed a multipoint gear meshcoupling
model based on Cheng‘ single point gear meshcoupling model and applied it to dynamic
analysis of hypoid and spiral bevel geared rotor system. In the same year, Jiang and
Lim[17] formulated a low degrees of freedom torsional dynamic model to analyze the
nonlinear phenomenon through both analytical and numerical solutions. In 2007, based
on the low degrees of freedom torsional dynamic model, Wang, J. and Lim[18] extended
Jiang‘s work and further investigated the influence of timevarying mesh parameters and
various nonlinearities on gear dynamics. In 2010, through developing various more
accurate high degrees of freedom lumped parameter dynamic models, Tao and Lim[19]
examines torque load effect on gear mesh and nonlinear timevarying dynamic responses,
coupled multibody dynamics and vibration, influence of the typical rotor dynamic factor
3
on hypoid gear vibration, effect of manufacturing error or assembly error on gear
dynamics and the interaction between internal and external excitations.
1.2 Motivation, Objectives and Thesis Organization
From above literature review, it could be observed that most of the research on
hypoid and bevel geared rotor system dynamics is concerned with gear mesh dynamics so
the
flexibility
of
gearshaftbearing
structure
is
simply
represented
by
equivalent
supporting springs or even ignored in much study only focusing on the effect of gear
mesh characteristics.
Very little attention has been paid to the detailed modeling and
analysis of gearshaftbearing structure for the concern of dynamics of the whole geared
rotor system. Therefore, in this thesis, an attention will be given to the gearshaftbearing
structural analysis to achieve more accurate prediction of gear dynamic response and to
investigate the effect of shaft and bearing design on gear dynamics.
Chapter 1 presents the general introduction, literature review, motivation and
objective for this thesis research. It discusses current progress in gear dynamics research
and the limitations of the research on hypoid and spiral bevel gear dynamics. The
discussion further illustrates the objectives of this thesis, which is to perform study on
dynamics of hypoid and spiral bevel geared rotor system with emphasis on the gearshaft
bearing structural modeling and analysis.
Chapter 2 proposes a finite element dynamic model of hypoid and spiral bevel
geared rotor system to fully account for dynamic characteristics of gearshaftbearing
structure. In addition, the proposed finite element dynamic model is used to guide the
improvement of the existing lumped parameter dynamic model using effective mass and
4
inertia formulations, especially for modal response that are coupled to the pinion or gear
bending.
Chapter 3 proposes a new shaftbearing model for the effective supporting
stiffness calculation for the lumped parameter dynamic analysis of the hypoid and spiral
bevel geared rotor system with 3bearing straddlemounted pinion configuration. In
addition, two typical gearshaftbearing configurations used in automotive application are
compared for their different contribution to the hypoid and spiral bevel gear mesh and
dynamics. Parametric study is also performed to analyze the effect of gearshaftbearing
configuration on gear mesh and dynamics.
Chapter 4 gives a summary of the significant achievement of this thesis research
and the recommendations for future work.
5
Chapter 2. Finite Element and Enhanced Lumped Parameter Dynamic
Modeling of Spiral Bevel Geared Rotor System
2.1 Introduction
Along with the operating speed of geared rotor system growing higher, the
dynamics of geared system becomes more and more significant for the concern of noise
and durability, because under dynamic condition the mesh force acting on gear teeth are
amplified which potentially reduces the fatigue life of gears and the large dynamic force
can be transmitted to housing which causes structureborn gear whine.
Dynamics of gear systems have been studied extensively [114]. Though it is the
fact that much is known about dynamic characteristics in parallel axis gear system,
research on the dynamics of nonparallel axis geared systems such as hypoid and spiral
bevel gears is not mature. In recent years, a group led by Lim [1519] began to develop
the dynamic model of spiral bevel geared rotor system and analyze the dynamic
characteristics of spiral bevel geared rotor system. In one of the study, Cheng and Lim
[15] developed the singlepoint gear meshcoupling model based on the exact spiral bevel
gear geometry. This mesh model is then applied to develop multiple degreesoffreedom,
lumped parameter model of the spiral bevel geared rotor system. Later, based on this
model, Tao and Lim [19] investigated the influence of various gear system parameters on
dynamic characteristics of the spiral bevel geared rotor system. However, due to limited
degrees of freedom, the lumped parameter model may not fully take into account the
shaftbearing dynamic characteristics and also the lumped parameter synthesis method
used in this model is not mature.
6
In this paper, two modeling methods of spiral bevel geared rotor dynamic system,
i.e. the finite element dynamic modeling and the enhanced equivalent lumped parameter
synthesis, are introduced and compared. This first objective of this paper is to develop a
dynamic finite element model which could better take into account and describe the
shaftbearing dynamic characteristics than the multiple degreesoffreedom, lumped
parameter dynamic model [15]. The second objective is to develop a more accurate
lumped point parameter synthesis method fully considering the shaftbearing structural
characteristics in existing lumped parameter model [15] and compare with the proposed
dynamic finite element model.
2.2 Proposed Dynamic Finite Element Model
As shown in Figure2.1, the mass/inertia of the pinion head and ring gear is
separately lumped at one node and the two nodes have mesh coupling between them.
The mass/inertia of the differential is lumped at one node. The pinion shaft and gear shaft
are modeled with beam elements, for which consistent mass matrix is used. The bearings
are modeled as stiffness matrices according to a bearing stiffness formulation[21,22]. The
engine and load are separately represented by one node. All nodes of the system
respectively have 6 DOFs except for the two nodes representing the engine and load
which only have torsional DOFs. The system totally has 17 nodes and accordingly
6*15 1*2 92 DOFs.
7
Figure2.1 Dynamic finite element model of spiral bevel geared rotor system
The stiffness and mass matrices of each beam element are determined and
assembled to form stiffness [
K
sp
]
and mass [
M
sp
]
matrices of pinion shaft and stiffness
[
K
sg
]
and mass _{[}
M sg
_{]}
matrices of gear shaft.
of
[
M s
]
the
system
Diag
[[
M
sp
are
][
M
sg
then
]].
assembled
Overall shaft stiffness and mass matrices
as
[
K
s
]
Diag
[[
K
sp
][
K
sg
]]
and
The engine and load are separately connected to one node at pinion shaft and one
node at gear shaft with torsional springs. The stiffness matrices of the torsional spring
elements used to connect the engine and pinion shaft and to connect the load and gear
8
shaft could be written in terms of individual torsional spring stiffness as[
K
tsp
]
and _{[}
K
tsg
_{]} ,
both of which are 7 by 7. The overall stiffness matrices of torsional spring elements of
the whole system could be written as _{[}
K
ts
_{]}
Diag K
_{[}
_{[}
tsp
_{]}
K
_{[}
tsg
_{]}_{]}_{.}
The overall mass
matrices of engine and load of the whole system could be written in terms of torsional
moment of inertia of engine and load
I
E
,I
L
as [
M
E,L
]
[
Diag I
E
I
L
].
In industry, pinion shaft is usually supported by 2 or 3 bearings and gear shaft is
usually supported by 2 bearings. Suppose that the system has a total of n bearings, the
overall bearing stiffness matrix of the whole system could be written by assembling the
individual
[
K
b
]
[
bearing
[
K
b
1
]
[
K
b
2
]
element
[
K
b
3
]
[
K
bn
stiffness
]
].
matrices
_{[}_{K}
bi
_{]}_{(}_{i}
_{1}
_{t}_{o}
_{n}_{)}
as
The gear stiffness coupling matrix which represents the mesh coupling between
the two nodes representing pinion head and ring gear could be derived from the free
vibration equations of motion of spiral bevel gear pair. The dynamic model of the spiral
bevel gear pair is shown in Figure2.2. The pinion and gear, which are both built as rigid
body, are connected by linear gear mesh spring and damper.
Using a quasistatic three
dimensional finite element tooth contact analysis program[23,24] and concept of contact
cells[15], the averaged mesh point, averaged lineofaction, averaged mesh stiffness and
loaded transmission error are obtained to represent the mesh spring connecting point,
mesh spring direction , mesh spring stiffness and transmission error excitation between
pinion and gear. Pinion and gear are both allowed to move in 6 directions so the gear pair
dynamic system totally has 12 degrees of freedom. The generalized coordinates of pinion
and
gear
are
separately
9
expressed
as
{q
pg
} {x
p
, y
p
, z
p
,
px
,
py
,
pz
, x
g
, y
g
, z
g
,
gx
,
gy
,
gz
}
T . The undamped free vibration
equations of motion for this gear pair dynamic system could be expressed as:
m
m
p
p
x
y
p
p
m
p
z
p
I
I
I
px
px
py
py
pz
pz
m
g
x
g
m
g
y
g
m
g
z
g
I
I
I
gx
gx
gy
gy
gz
gz
k
m
k
m
k
m
pn
pn
px
py
pn
pz
0
0
0
k
m
pn
pz
y
pm
k
m
pn
px
k
m
pn
py
k
m
pn
gx
k
m
pn
gy
k
m
pn
gz
z
x
pm
pm
0
0
0
k
k
k
m
m
m
pn
pn
pn
gz
gx
gy
y
z
x
gm
gm
gm

k m pn py z 
pm 
0 

k m pn pz x 
pm 
0 

k m pn px y 
pm 
0 

k m pn gy z 
gm 
0 

k m pn gz x 
gm 
0 

k m pn gx y 
gm 
0 
(1)
mesh
where, _{(}
n
lx
_{,}
n
point
vector.
ly
_{,}
n
lz
_{)} is the lineofaction vector, _{(}
x
l p,q refers
to
pinion
and
gear
lm
_{,}
y
lm
_{,}
local
z
lm
_{)}
(l p,q)
is
the
coordinate
systems
respectively.
k
m
is mesh stiffness. p is relative displacement between pinion and gear
along lineofaction and is expressed as:
p
x
g
n
gz
x
gm
gx
n
gy
y
g
n
gy
gz
y
gm
z
n
g
n
gz
gx
py
z
pm
n
px
py
x
pm
n
pz
x
p
n
gx
px
y
gm
n
y
p
pz
x
pm
n
py
gz
n
py
z
n
gm
gx
z
p
n
pz
gy
pz
y
pm
n
px
gy
z
gm
n
px
y
pm
n
pz
gx
gy
px
z
x
gm
pm
n
n
gz
py
(2)
Combining equations (12), a clearer equation of motion could be obtained as:
[ 
m 
pg 
]{ 
q 
pg }[ 
k 
pg 
]{ 
q 
pg } 0 , m p I px 

here, [ m pg 
] diag m [ 
p 
, 
m 
p 
, 
, 
I 
py 
, 
I 
pz 
, 
m 
g 
, 
m 
g 
, 
m 
g 
, 
I 
gx 
, 
I 
gy 
, 
I 
gz 
10
(3) 

] 
(4) 
[
k
pg
]
Here, _{{}
k
h p
m
{
k
m
h
p
}
{
h
g
_{}} and _{{}
T {
}
T
h
g
h
p }
{
_{}}
h
p
}
k
m
k
m
{
{
h
h
g
p
}
}
T
T {
h
{
h
g
g }
}
(5)
are the coordinate transformation vectors between the spiral
bevel gear lineofaction direction and generalized coordinate directions for pinion and
gear separately. They are expressed as:
{
{h }
l
{n
lx
,n
ly
lx
,
ly
,
lz
}
,n
,
{y n
lz
l
lx
,
ly
,
lz
}(l
lz
 z n
l
ly
, z n
l
lx
p,q) , x n
x n
l
lz
,
l
ly
y n
l
lx
(6) 

}(l 

p,q) 
. 
(7) 
Figure2.2 Spiral bevel gear pair dynamic model
The gear mesh stiffness matrix [
k
pg
]
and the mass matrix [
m
pg
]
of the gear pair
can be obtained from Equations (37). The overall gear mesh stiffness and mass matrices
of
[
M
the
whole
pg
]
Diag
[[
system
m
pg
]]
.
could
be
obtained
11
as
[
K
pg
]
Diag
[[
k
pg
]]
and
The mass and stiffness matrices of the whole dynamic finite element system are
derived as[
]
[
]
[
]
[
[
]
] C K K K K
M
]
s
([
M
pg
s
]
[
M
b
]
s
M
E,L
[
ts
])
,
m
K
[
[
K
pg
]
[
K
s
]
[
K
b
]
The system proportional damping is assumed in this model as
[
pg
]
[
K
ts
].
where,
s
is the system damping ratio,
m
is the mesh damping ratio.
(8)
The excitation of the whole system could be written as
{F(t)}
[
{h
p
}
{h
g
}
]
T
(k
m
c
m
j)e(t)
(9)
The equation of motion of the whole spiral bevel geared rotor system could be
expressed as
[M]{X(t)}[C]{X (t)}[K]{X (t)} {F(t)}.
{
( )}
(10)
The direct method is applied here to calculate the steady state forced response as
X
( )}
t
[
H
(
)]
1
{
F t
.
(11)
The dynamic response of pinion head and ring gear could be derived from X (t) as
X
p
},{
X h
}.
The dynamic transmission error is expressed as
{
p
}{
X
p
}
{
h
g
}{
X
g
}.
g
d
The dynamic mesh force in lineofaction direction is expressed as
F
m
k
m
(
d
0
)
c
m
(
d
0
where,
k
m
is
mesh
transmission error.
stiffness;
)
_{.}
c
m
k
m
m
is
mesh
damping;
0
(12) 

(13) 

is 
loaded 
The given spiral bevel geared rotor system in Figure2.1 is an example used to
explain proposed dynamic finite element modeling theory. The same theory could be
12
applied
to
spiral
bevel
configurations.
geared
rotor
system
with
other
kinds
of
pinion
or
gear
2.3 Proposed New Lumped Parameter Synthesis Method for Existing Lumped
Parameter Dynamic Model and Its Difference from the Old Lumped Parameter
Synthesis Approach
2.3.1 Spiral Bevel Gear 14DOF Lumped Parameter Dynamic Model
The spiral bevel gear 14DOF lumped parameter dynamic model[15] used in
this study comprises of a spiral bevel gear pair, an engine element and a load element
as shown in Figure2.3. Engine and load respectively have 1 DOF which is torsional
coordinate. Pinion and gear are both modeled as rigid body which separately have 6
DOFs. Torsional springs are used to connect pinion and engine as well as to attach
gear and load. Pinion and gear have mesh coupling.
k
m is the averaged mesh stiffness
and TE is the static transmission error. Since pinion and gear are built as rigid body,
their mass and inertia are lumped at each lumped point. Lumped shaftbearing springs
are connected to each lumped point of pinion and gear to support pinion and gear.
The equation of motion could be expressed as:
[M]{q}[C]{q}[K]{q}{F(t)}
The generalized coordinates are expressed as:
{q} {
{q }
E
,{q
p
}
T
,{q
lx
g
,
}
,
T
L
lz
{x , y , z ,
l
l
l
.
l
ly
,
}
}
T
T
(l = p, g) .
The lumped mass matrix is described as:
13
(14)
(15)
(16)
[
M
[
K
]
]
diag I ,
[
E
,
M
M
gx
,
Diag K
[
[
px
,
M
M
gy
,
py
,
M
pz
,
M
gz
,
I
gx
I
,
px
I
gy
,
I
,
py
I
gz
,
,
ll
]
Diag K
]
[
[
pg
]
I
pz
L
I
]
]
Diag
[[
K
tsp
]
K
[
tsg
(17) 

]] 
(18) 
Here, _{[}
K
ll
_{]}
is the lumped shaftbearing stiffness matrix of pinion and gear.
[
K
pg
]
is the gear mesh coupling stiffness matrix. _{[}
K
tsp
_{]}
is the coupling stiffness
matrix of the torsional spring used to connect pinion and engine. _{[}
K
tsg
_{]}
is
the
coupling stiffness matrix of the torsional spring used to connect gear and load.
The damping [C] is assumed to be system proportional, which is expressed as:
[
C
]
s
(
where
s
Diag
[[
K
ll
]]
Diag
[[
K
tsp
][
K
tsg
]])
m
Diag
[[
K
is system damping ratio and
m
is mesh damping ratio.
pg
]]
(19)
The force vector {F(t)}at the right side of Equation (14) is,
{F(t)}
Here, {
[
h
p
}
{h
p
},
and {
h
{h
g
}
]
T
(k
m
c
m
j)e(t)
(20)
g } are the coordinate transformation vectors between the
spiral bevel gear lineofaction direction and generalized coordinate directions for
pinion and gear separately. They are expressed as,
{
{
h
}
l
lx
,
y n
}
n
ly
n
,
lx
,
lz
{
n
,
{
,
ly
,
lz
,
lx
ly
,
lz
l
lz

z n
l
ly
}
,
z n
l
lx
x n
l
lz
,
x n
l
ly
y n
l
lx
(21) 

} 
. 
(22) 
Here {n _{l}_{x} , n _{l}_{y} , n _{l}_{z} } is the lineofaction vector; {x _{l} , y _{l} , z _{l} } is the mesh point
vector; l = p, g refers to pinion and gear local coordinate systems seperately.
The dynamic transmission error δ _{d} is solved in frequency domain and
expressed as,
14
d
h
p
{
q
p
}
h
g
{
q
g
}
.
(23)
The dynamic mesh force along lineofaction direction is expressed as:
F
m
k
Here,
m
k
(
m
d
0
)
c
m
(
d
0
is
mesh
stiffness;
transmission error.
)
_{.}
c
m
k
m
m
is
mesh
damping;
0
is
(24)
loaded
The deficiency of this model lies in that it is a lack of a fully validated method
to synthesize the lumped point parameters, i.e. the lumped shaftbearing stiffness
matrix [
K
ll
] , lumped mass/inertia of pinion
mass/inertia of gear
M
gx
,M
gy
,M
gz
,I
gx
,I
gy
,I
M
px
,M
py
,M
pz
,I
px
,I
py
,I
pz
and lumped
gz
, which is key to representing shaft
bearing structural dynamic characteristics. It may cause inaccurate dynamic response
prediction if the lumped point parameters are not well determined.
15
Figure2.3 Spiral bevel gear 14 DOF lumped parameter dynamic model
2.3.2 Proposed New Lumped Parameter Synthesis Method in Spiral Bevel Gear
14 DOF Lumped Parameter Model
The basic idea of proposed lumped parameter synthesis method is to
approximate the continuous parameter models of pinion and gear to lumped
parameter models while having the same 1 ^{s}^{t} order pinion and gear bending modes.
2.3.2.1 Equivalent Lumped Shaftbearing Stiffness Calculation
Static finite element model of 3bearing straddle mounted pinion
configuration is shown in Figure2.4. The reason to do this static finite element
16
modeling is to calculate the pinion‘s equivalent shaftbearing stiffness relative to
the lumped point. The pinion with integrated shaft is modeled with several
uniform crosssection beam elements. Bearing is modeled as bearing stiffness
matrix calculated following a bearing stiffness formula[21,22].
Add a unit load at lumped point and then the equation for this static finite
element model could be expressed as:
{P}{R} S{}
(25)
Here,{P} represents the external load exerted at all the nodes; {R}
represents the reaction load at all the nodes; [S] is the assembled stiffness matrix;
{ } represents the displacements of all the nodes.
A more detailed equation could be drawn from (25) as:
P
P
F
S
R R
F
S
S
S
FF
SF
S
S
FS
SS
F
S
(26)
Here, P ^{F} means the external load exerted at the nodes at the part of pinion
with integrated shaft. P ^{S} means the external load at the nodes at the bearing outer
races. R ^{F} represents the reaction load at the nodes at the part of pinion with
integrated shaft. R ^{S} represents the reaction load at the nodes at the bearing outer
races.
F represents the displacement of the nodes at the part of pinion with
integrated shaft. 
S represents the displacement of the nodes at the bearing outer 
races. 
Since the reaction load is only exerted at the nodes at the bearing outer
races and the nodes at the bearing outer races are fixed, R ^{F} and
could be set to be zeros,
17
S in equation (26)
P
P
F
S
0
R
S
S S
FF
SF
S
S
FS
SS
F
0
.
Thus, (28) could be drawn from (27) as:
F
S
FF
1
P
F
.
The lumped point displacement {
1 l } could be got from {
relationship among the unit external load at the lumped point {
P 1
l
F
}. The
}, the
(27)
(28)
displacement of the lumped point{
relative to the lumped point [
{
P 1
l
}
ll
{
K
1
l } .
K ll
]
1 l } and the equivalent shaftbearing stiffness
could be expressed as:
(29)
Following above procedure, by adding a unit load in other five directions
separately to the lumped point, the lumped point displacements corresponding to
each unit load could be calculated and obtained, which are written as
l
{ }(i 2,3,4,5,6)
i
. The unit load at the lumped point in each of other 5 directions
could be written as P i
l (i 2,3,4,5,6)
. Similarly, the following formulation
could be obtained as:
{P } K
i
l
ll
{ }(i 2,3,4,5,6)
i
l
(30)
Combining (29) and (30),
[
P
l
1
2 l
P
3 l
P
4 l
P
5 l
P
6 l
P
]
[
K
ll
][
l 1
l 2
l 3
l 4
l 5
l 6
]
(31)
So, the equivalent shaftbearing stiffness relative to the lumped point
[
K
ll
]
could be calculated as:
[
K
ll
]
[
P
l
1
2 l
P
3 l
P
4 l
P
5 l
P
18
6 l
P
][
l 1
l 2
l 3
l 4
l 5
l 6
]
1 (32)
Figure2.4 Static finite element modeling of 3bearing straddle mounted pinion configuration
However, the equivalent shaftbearing stiffness calculated from static
finite element model may not accurately describe the equivalent axial translational
stiffness. So the axial translational stiffness model of 3bearing straddle mounted
pinion configuration shown in Figure2.5 is developed in order to refine the axial
translational stiffness described by equivalent shaftbearing stiffness [
K ll
]
calculated from static finite element model. In Figure2.5, K _{b}_{1} and K _{b}_{2} are axial
translational stiffness of bearing1 and bearing2. K _{s}_{1} is shaft axial stiffness from
load point to center of bearing1. K _{s}_{2} is shaft axial stiffness from center of bearing1
to center of bearing2. K _{c} is additional cascade stiffness with bearing2 to represent
the shaftboltyork between the center of bearing2 and inner race of bearing2. K _{h}_{b}
is housing bolt stiffness.
19
Figure2.5 Axial translational stiffness model
The axial translation stiffness of [
K ll
]
calculated from static FE model
does not take K _{c} and K _{h}_{b} into account. The refinement should be made according
to Figure2.5 in the following way. Before doing finite element calculation, the
cascade stiffness K _{s}_{3} should be added into the axial translation stiffness of
bearing2 K _{b}_{2}_{.} After doing static finite element modeling, the temporary equivalent
shaftbearing stiffness is obtained. Then the temporary equivalent shaftbearing
stiffness should add K _{h}_{b} into its axial translation stiffness to get the eventual
20
equivalent lumped shaftbearing stiffness of the 3bearing straddle mounted
pinion.
The equivalent lumped shaftbearing stiffness of other pinion and gear
configurations could be calculated in the similar way[19].
2.3.2.2 Effective Lumped Mass and Inertia Calculation
The first step is to generate the first bending mode shape functions of
pinion with integrated shaft and gear with integrated shaft. The Initial Parameter
Method[20] used in this paper to calculate first bending mode shape function is
described using the coordinate system I defined below as Figure 2.6. This method
has been proved to be valid for dynamical calculation for beam with arbitrary
peculiarities and different boundary conditions.
Figure2.6 A design of beam with lumped mass
In Figure 2.6., the dotted line at y=0 which is the left end represents an
arbitrary type of support. Transverse displacement
z
0
, angle of rotation
0
,
bending moment
M
0
and shear force
Q
0 at y=0 are called initial parameters.
State parameters transverse displacement z(y), angle of rotation (y) , bending
21
moment M (y) , shear force Q(y) at any position y may be presented in the
following forms (Bezukhov et al, 1969; Babakov, 1965; Ivovich, 1981)[20].
z
( )
y
z
0
S
1
1
k
k
2
EI
(
ky
)
0
R V
i
[
k
T ky
(
)
(
y
k
y
i
)]
M
U
(
ky
)
0
k
2
k
2
EI
M
i
0
z V
i
Q
V
(
ky
)
k
[
k
3
(
EI
y
y
(
y
)
z V
0
(
ky k
)
1
1
k
kEI
R U
i
[
k
0
(
y
S ky
(
)
y
i
)]
M
0
2
k
T ky
(
)
kEI
M
i
Q
0
U
(
ky
)
k
2
EI
z U
i
[
k
(
y
y
i
i
)]
)]
2
2
J
i
i
U
[
k
J
i
i
T k
[
(
(
y
y
y
i
y
i
M
(
y
)
z U
0
(
1
k
R U
i
[
k
ky EIk
)
(
y
y
i
2
)]
0
V ky EIk
(
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