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UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI

Date:

2-Nov-2010

hereby submit this original work as part of the requirements for the degree of:

Master of Science

in

It is entitled:

Mechanical Engineering

Hypoid and Spiral Bevel Gear Dynamics with Emphasis on

Gear-Shaft-Bearing Structural Analysis

Student Signature:

Xia Hua

This work and its defense approved by:

Committee Chair:

Teik Lim, PhD

Teik Lim, PhD

11/12/2010

1,173

I,

Xia Hua

,

Hypoid and Spiral Bevel Gear Dynamics with Emphasis on

Gear-Shaft-Bearing Structural Analysis

A thesis submitted to the

Division of Research and Advanced Studies

of the University of Cincinnati

in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE

in the Program of Mechanical Engineering

of the College of Engineering and Applied Science

November 2010

by

Xia Hua

B.S. Zhejiang University of Technology, Zhejiang, P.R. China, 2007

Academic Committee Chair:

Members:

Dr. Teik C. Lim

Dr. Ronald Huston

Dr. David Thompson

ABSTRACT

Hypoid and spiral bevel gears, used in the rear axles of cars, trucks and off-

highway

equipment,

are

subjected

to

harmful

dynamic

response

which

can

be

substantially affected by the structural characteristics of the shafts and bearings. This

thesis research, with a focus on gear-shaft-bearing structural analysis, is aimed to develop

effective mathematical models and advanced analytical approaches to achieve more

accurate prediction of gear dynamic response as well as to investigate the underlying

physics affecting dynamic response generation and transmissibility. Two key parts in my

thesis are discussed below.

Firstly, existing lumped parameter dynamic model has been shown to be an

effective tool for dynamic analysis of spiral bevel geared rotor system. This model is

appropriate for fast computation and convenient analysis, but due to the limited degrees

of freedom used, it may not fully take into consideration the shaft-bearing structural

dynamic characteristics. Thus, a dynamic finite element model is proposed to fully

account for the shaft-bearing dynamic characteristics. In addition, the existing equivalent

lumped parameter synthesis approach used in the lumped parameter model, which is key

to

representing

the

shaft-bearing

structural

dynamic

characteristics,

has

not

been

completely validated yet. The proposed finite element model is used to guide the

validation and improvement of the current lumped parameter synthesis method using

effective mass and inertia formulations, especially for modal response that is coupled to

the pinion or gear bending response.

Secondly,

a new shaft-bearing model

has

been

proposed

for the effective

supporting stiffness calculation applied in the lumped parameter dynamic analysis of the

iii

spiral bevel geared rotor system with 3-bearing straddle-mounted pinion configuration.

Also, based on 14 degrees of freedom lumped parameter dynamic model and quasi-static

three-dimensional finite element tooth contact analysis program, two typical shaft-

bearing configuration used in automotive application, that are the 3-bearing straddle

mounted pinion configuration and the 2-bearing overhung mounted pinion configuration,

are compared for their different contribution to the spiral bevel gear mesh and dynamics.

Parametric study is also performed to analyze the effect of shaft-bearing configuration on

spiral bevel gear mesh and dynamics.

iv

ACKNOWLEGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to sincerely thank my advisor and committee chair, Dr.

Teik C. Lim, for his guidance and support during my graduate study thus far. Also, my

gratitude is expressed to Dr. David Thompson and Dr. Ronald Huston for serving as my

master supervisory committee members. This thesis research is supported by the Hypoid

and Bevel Gear Mesh and Dynamic Modeling Consortium.

In addition, I wish to thank all my labmates at the Vibro-Acoustic and Sound

Quality Research Laboratory, University of Cincinnati for their cooperation and help.

Finally, I should thank my parents and my wife Gaoyan Shi for their love and

encouragement during my study.

vi

CONTENTS

Chapter 1. Introduction

1

1.1 Literature Review

2

1.2 Motivation, Objectives and Thesis Organization

4

Chapter 2. Finite Element and Enhanced Lumped Parameter Dynamic Modeling of Spiral Bevel Geared Rotor System

6

2.1 Introduction

6

2.2 Proposed Dynamic Finite Element Model

7

2.3 Proposed New Lumped Parameter Synthesis Method for Existing Lumped

Parameter Dynamic Model and Its Difference from the Old Lumped Parameter Synthesis Approach

13

2.3.1 Spiral Bevel Gear 14-DOF Lumped Parameter Dynamic Model

13

2.3.2 Proposed New Lumped Parameter Synthesis Method in Spiral Bevel Gear

16

14 DOF Lumped Parameter Model

16

2.3.3 Difference Between Old Lumped Parameter Synthesis Approach and Proposed

New Lumped Parameter Synthesis Approach

28

2.4 Comparison Results and Discussions

28

2.5 Conclusion

35

Chapter 3. Effect of Shaft-bearing Configurations on Spiral Bevel Gear Mesh and Dynamics

36

3.1 Introduction

36

3.2 Mathematical Model

37

3.2.1 Mesh Model

37

3.2.2 Spiral Bevel Gear 14-DOF Lumped Parameter Dynamic Model

38

3.2.3 Finite Element Modeling of 3-bearing Straddle Mounted Pinion Configuration

for the Effective Lumped Stiffness Calculation

41

3.2.4

Axial Translational Stiffness Model Refinement

44

3.3

Comparison of 3-bearing Straddle Mounted Pinion and 2-bearing Overhung

Mounted Pinion on Gear Mesh and Dynamics

46

3.3.1 Analysis on Equivalent Shaft-bearing Stiffness Models and Pinion‘s Lumped

Shaft-bearing Stiffness Matrices of Two Pinion Configurations

49

3.3.2 Comparison on Gear Dynamics

52

3.3.3 Effect of 2-bearing and 3-bearing Configurations on Mesh Model

57

3.4 Conclusions

70

Chapter 4. Conclusions

72

BIBLIOGRAPHY

74

vii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure2.1 Dynamic finite element model of spiral bevel geared rotor system

8

Figure2.2 Spiral bevel gear pair dynamic model

11

Figure2.3 Spiral bevel gear 14 DOF lumped parameter dynamic model

16

Figure2.4 Static finite element modeling of 3-bearing straddle mounted pinion configuration

19

Figure2.5 Axial translational stiffness model

20

Figure2.6 A design of beam with lumped mass

21

Figure2.7 Beam with lumped mass model of pinion with integrated shaft

23

Figure2.8 Dynamic mesh forces

30

Figure2.9 Dynamic mesh forces

31

Figure2.10 Dynamic mesh forces

32

Figure2.11 Dynamic mesh forces

34

Figure2.12 Dynamic mesh forces Figure2.13 Dynamic mesh forces Figure3.1 Tooth load distribution generated from quasi-static three-dimensional finite element tooth contact analysis program Figure3.2 Spiral bevel gear 14 DOF lumped parameter dynamic model Figure3.3 Static finite element modeling of 3-bearing straddle mounted pinion configuration Figure3.4 Axial translational stiffness model Figure3.5 3-bearing straddle mounted pinion (upper) and 2-bearing overhung mounted

34

35

38

41

44

45

pinion (lower)

49

Figure3.6 Finite element model of 3-bearing mounted pinion (left) and finite element model of 2-bearing mounted pinion (right)

52

Figure3.7 Comparison of 2-bearing and 3-bearing configurations on dynamic mesh force

53

Figure3.8 Comparison of 2-bearing and 3-bearing configurations on modal strain energy

distribution

54

Figure3.9 Comparison of 2-bearing and 3-bearing configurations on dynamic bearing load

56

Figure3.10 Comparison of 2-bearing and 3-bearing configurations on pinion response 57

Figure3.11 Effect of pilot bearing position on mesh point for 3-bearing case

58

Figure3.12 Effect of tapered roller bearing position on mesh point for 3-bearing case

59

Figure3.13 Effect of tapered roller bearing position on mesh point for 2-bearing case

60

Figure3.14 Comparison of 2-bearing and 3-bearing configurations on mesh point

61

Figure3.15 Effect of pilot bearing position on line-of-action vector for 3-bearing case . 62 Figure3.16 Effect of tapered roller bearing position on line-of-action vector for 3-

bearing case

63

Figure3.17 Effect of tapered roller bearing position on line-of-action vector for 2- bearing case

64

Figure3.18 Comparison of 2-bearing and 3-bearing configuration on line-of-action vector

65

Figure3.19 Effect of pilot bearing position on mesh stiffness for 3-bearing case

66

viii

Figure3.20 Effect of tapered roller bearing position on mesh stiffness for 3-bearing case

67

Figure3.21 Effect of tapered roller bearing position on mesh stiffness for 2-bearing case

 

67

Figure3.22 Comparison of 2-bearing and 3-bearing configuration on mesh stiffness

68

Figure3.23 Comparison on dynamic mesh force without considering the difference of mesh stiffness

69

Figure3.24 Comparison on dynamic mesh force considering the difference of mesh stiffness

69

ix

Chapter 1. Introduction

Hypoid and spiral bevel gears are widely used as final set of reduction gear pairs

in the rear axles of trucks, cars and off-highway equipment to transmit engine‘s power to

the drive wheels in non-parallel directions. The hypoid and spiral bevel gear dynamics

becomes more and more significant for the concern of noise and durability, because

under dynamic condition the mesh force acting on gear teeth are amplified which

potentially reduces the fatigue life of gears and the large dynamic force can be

transmitted to housing which causes structure-born gear whine. Accordingly, it is needed

to perform in-depth investigation on hypoid and spiral bevel geared system dynamic

response and resonance characteristics to form a deeper understanding in the physics

controlling dynamic force generation and transmissibility to achieve superior design for

quiet and durable driveline. Though it is the fact that much is known about dynamic

characteristics in parallel axis gear system, research on the dynamics of nonparallel axis

geared systems such as hypoid and spiral bevel gears is not mature.

Most previous analytical work mainly focuses on gear mesh modeling and its

application to analyze gear pair dynamics, nonlinear time-varying gear pair dynamic

analysis considering gear backlash, time-varying mesh characteristics, mesh stiffness

asymmetry effects and friction, coupled multi-body gear pair dynamic and vibration

analysis and so on. Very little amount of attention is given to the gear-shaft-bearing

structure of the geared

rotor system.

The goal

of this

thesis is

to gain

a better

understanding on the effect of gear-shaft-bearing structural design on hypoid and spiral

bevel gear system dynamics and to establish new computational models more accurately

accounting for gear-shaft-bearing dynamic characteristics.

1

1.1 Literature Review

Dynamics of parallel axis geared rotor system has been studied extensively[1-14].

Papers

by

Ozguven

and

Houser[1]

and

Blankenship

and

Singh[2]

provide

a

comprehensive review of mathematical models used to investigate dynamics of parallel

axis geared rotor system. Among these studies, a special attention has been paid on gear-

shaft-bearing structure rather than the dynamics of the gear itself. In 1975, Mitchell and

Mellen[3] indicate the torsional-lateral coupling in a geared rotor system by conducting

experiment study. In 1981, Hagiwara, Ida[4] analytically and experimentally studied the

vibration of geared shafts due to run-out unbalanced and run-out errors and it is observed

that both torsional and lateral modes could be excited by gear errors and unbalanced

forces. In 1984, Neriya, Bhat and Sankar[5] studied the effect of coupled torsional-

flexural vibration of a geared shaft system on dynamic tooth load by using lumped

parameter dynamic model in which equivalent lumped springs were used to represent the

flexibility of shaft-bearing structure. In 1985, Neriya, Bhat and Sankar[6] used finite

element method to model the geared rotor system and introduced the coupling between

torsion and flexure at the gear pair location. In 1991, Lim and Singh[7] developed linear

time-invariant, discrete dynamic models of a generic geared rotor system based on their

newly proposed bearing matrix formulation by using lumped parameter and dynamic

finite element techniques to predict the vibration transmissibility through bearing and

mounts, casing vibration motion, and dynamic response of the internal rotating system. In

2004, Kubur and Kahraman[8] proposed a dynamic model of a multi-shaft helical gear

reduction unit formed by N flexible shafts by finite elements. This model has an accurate

2

representation of shafts and bearings as well as gears, which is used to study the influence

of some key gear-shaft-bearing structure parameters.

Though large numbers of research has been done on parallel axis gear dynamics,

the research on dynamics of right-angle geared rotor system such as bevel and hypoid

gear is still scanty. In recent years, a group led by Lim[15-19] began to develop the

dynamic model of right-angle hypoid and spiral bevel geared rotor system and analyze

the dynamic characteristics of hypoid and spiral bevel geared rotor system. In one of the

study, Cheng and Lim[15] developed the single-point gear mesh-coupling model based

on both unloaded and loaded exact gear tooth contact analysis. This mesh model is then

applied to develop multiple degrees-of-freedom, lumped parameter model of the hypoid

and spiral bevel geared rotor system for linear time-invariant and nonlinear time-varying

analysis. In 2002, Wang, H. and Lim[16] developed a multi-point gear mesh-coupling

model based on Cheng‘ single point gear mesh-coupling model and applied it to dynamic

analysis of hypoid and spiral bevel geared rotor system. In the same year, Jiang and

Lim[17] formulated a low degrees of freedom torsional dynamic model to analyze the

nonlinear phenomenon through both analytical and numerical solutions. In 2007, based

on the low degrees of freedom torsional dynamic model, Wang, J. and Lim[18] extended

Jiang‘s work and further investigated the influence of time-varying mesh parameters and

various nonlinearities on gear dynamics. In 2010, through developing various more

accurate high degrees of freedom lumped parameter dynamic models, Tao and Lim[19]

examines torque load effect on gear mesh and nonlinear time-varying dynamic responses,

coupled multi-body dynamics and vibration, influence of the typical rotor dynamic factor

3

on hypoid gear vibration, effect of manufacturing error or assembly error on gear

dynamics and the interaction between internal and external excitations.

1.2 Motivation, Objectives and Thesis Organization

From above literature review, it could be observed that most of the research on

hypoid and bevel geared rotor system dynamics is concerned with gear mesh dynamics so

the

flexibility

of

gear-shaft-bearing

structure

is

simply

represented

by

equivalent

supporting springs or even ignored in much study only focusing on the effect of gear

mesh characteristics.

Very little attention has been paid to the detailed modeling and

analysis of gear-shaft-bearing structure for the concern of dynamics of the whole geared

rotor system. Therefore, in this thesis, an attention will be given to the gear-shaft-bearing

structural analysis to achieve more accurate prediction of gear dynamic response and to

investigate the effect of shaft and bearing design on gear dynamics.

Chapter 1 presents the general introduction, literature review, motivation and

objective for this thesis research. It discusses current progress in gear dynamics research

and the limitations of the research on hypoid and spiral bevel gear dynamics. The

discussion further illustrates the objectives of this thesis, which is to perform study on

dynamics of hypoid and spiral bevel geared rotor system with emphasis on the gear-shaft-

bearing structural modeling and analysis.

Chapter 2 proposes a finite element dynamic model of hypoid and spiral bevel

geared rotor system to fully account for dynamic characteristics of gear-shaft-bearing

structure. In addition, the proposed finite element dynamic model is used to guide the

improvement of the existing lumped parameter dynamic model using effective mass and

4

inertia formulations, especially for modal response that are coupled to the pinion or gear

bending.

Chapter 3 proposes a new shaft-bearing model for the effective supporting

stiffness calculation for the lumped parameter dynamic analysis of the hypoid and spiral

bevel geared rotor system with 3-bearing straddle-mounted pinion configuration. In

addition, two typical gear-shaft-bearing configurations used in automotive application are

compared for their different contribution to the hypoid and spiral bevel gear mesh and

dynamics. Parametric study is also performed to analyze the effect of gear-shaft-bearing

configuration on gear mesh and dynamics.

Chapter 4 gives a summary of the significant achievement of this thesis research

and the recommendations for future work.

5

Chapter 2. Finite Element and Enhanced Lumped Parameter Dynamic

Modeling of Spiral Bevel Geared Rotor System

2.1 Introduction

Along with the operating speed of geared rotor system growing higher, the

dynamics of geared system becomes more and more significant for the concern of noise

and durability, because under dynamic condition the mesh force acting on gear teeth are

amplified which potentially reduces the fatigue life of gears and the large dynamic force

can be transmitted to housing which causes structure-born gear whine.

Dynamics of gear systems have been studied extensively [1-14]. Though it is the

fact that much is known about dynamic characteristics in parallel axis gear system,

research on the dynamics of nonparallel axis geared systems such as hypoid and spiral

bevel gears is not mature. In recent years, a group led by Lim [15-19] began to develop

the dynamic model of spiral bevel geared rotor system and analyze the dynamic

characteristics of spiral bevel geared rotor system. In one of the study, Cheng and Lim

[15] developed the single-point gear mesh-coupling model based on the exact spiral bevel

gear geometry. This mesh model is then applied to develop multiple degrees-of-freedom,

lumped parameter model of the spiral bevel geared rotor system. Later, based on this

model, Tao and Lim [19] investigated the influence of various gear system parameters on

dynamic characteristics of the spiral bevel geared rotor system. However, due to limited

degrees of freedom, the lumped parameter model may not fully take into account the

shaft-bearing dynamic characteristics and also the lumped parameter synthesis method

used in this model is not mature.

6

In this paper, two modeling methods of spiral bevel geared rotor dynamic system,

i.e. the finite element dynamic modeling and the enhanced equivalent lumped parameter

synthesis, are introduced and compared. This first objective of this paper is to develop a

dynamic finite element model which could better take into account and describe the

shaft-bearing dynamic characteristics than the multiple degrees-of-freedom, lumped

parameter dynamic model [15]. The second objective is to develop a more accurate

lumped point parameter synthesis method fully considering the shaft-bearing structural

characteristics in existing lumped parameter model [15] and compare with the proposed

dynamic finite element model.

2.2 Proposed Dynamic Finite Element Model

As shown in Figure2.1, the mass/inertia of the pinion head and ring gear is

separately lumped at one node and the two nodes have mesh coupling between them.

The mass/inertia of the differential is lumped at one node. The pinion shaft and gear shaft

are modeled with beam elements, for which consistent mass matrix is used. The bearings

are modeled as stiffness matrices according to a bearing stiffness formulation[21,22]. The

engine and load are separately represented by one node. All nodes of the system

respectively have 6 DOFs except for the two nodes representing the engine and load

which only have torsional DOFs. The system totally has 17 nodes and accordingly

6*15 1*2 92 DOFs.

7

Figure2.1 Dynamic finite element model of spiral bevel geared rotor system The stiffness and mass

Figure2.1 Dynamic finite element model of spiral bevel geared rotor system

The stiffness and mass matrices of each beam element are determined and

assembled to form stiffness [

K

sp

]

and mass [

M

sp

]

matrices of pinion shaft and stiffness

[

K

sg

]

and mass [

M sg

]

matrices of gear shaft.

of

[

M s

]

the

system

Diag

[[

M

sp

are

][

M

sg

then

]].

assembled

Overall shaft stiffness and mass matrices

as

[

K

s

]

Diag

[[

K

sp

][

K

sg

]]

and

The engine and load are separately connected to one node at pinion shaft and one

node at gear shaft with torsional springs. The stiffness matrices of the torsional spring

elements used to connect the engine and pinion shaft and to connect the load and gear

8

shaft could be written in terms of individual torsional spring stiffness as[

K

tsp

]

and [

K

tsg

] ,

both of which are 7 by 7. The overall stiffness matrices of torsional spring elements of

the whole system could be written as [

K

ts

]

Diag K

[

[

tsp

]

K

[

tsg

]].

The overall mass

matrices of engine and load of the whole system could be written in terms of torsional

moment of inertia of engine and load

I

E

,I

L

as [

M

E,L

]

[

Diag I

E

I

L

].

In industry, pinion shaft is usually supported by 2 or 3 bearings and gear shaft is

usually supported by 2 bearings. Suppose that the system has a total of n bearings, the

overall bearing stiffness matrix of the whole system could be written by assembling the

individual

[

K

b

]

[

bearing

[

K

b

1

]

[

K

b

2

]

element

[

K

b

3

]

[

K

bn

stiffness

]

].

matrices

[K

bi

](i

1

to

n)

as

The gear stiffness coupling matrix which represents the mesh coupling between

the two nodes representing pinion head and ring gear could be derived from the free

vibration equations of motion of spiral bevel gear pair. The dynamic model of the spiral

bevel gear pair is shown in Figure2.2. The pinion and gear, which are both built as rigid

body, are connected by linear gear mesh spring and damper.

Using a quasi-static three-

dimensional finite element tooth contact analysis program[23,24] and concept of contact

cells[15], the averaged mesh point, averaged line-of-action, averaged mesh stiffness and

loaded transmission error are obtained to represent the mesh spring connecting point,

mesh spring direction , mesh spring stiffness and transmission error excitation between

pinion and gear. Pinion and gear are both allowed to move in 6 directions so the gear pair

dynamic system totally has 12 degrees of freedom. The generalized coordinates of pinion

and

gear

are

separately

9

expressed

as

{q

pg

} {x

p

, y

p

, z

p

,

px

,

py

,

pz

, x

g

, y

g

, z

g

,

gx

,

gy

,

gz

}

T . The undamped free vibration

equations of motion for this gear pair dynamic system could be expressed as:

m

m

p

p

 x

 y

p

p

m

p

 z

p

I

I

I



px

px

py



py

pz



pz

m

g

 x

g

m

g

 y

g

m

g

 z

g

I

I

I



gx

gx

gy



gy

gz



gz

k

m

k

m

k

m

pn

pn

px

py

pn

pz

0

0

0

k

m

pn

pz

y

pm

k

m

pn

px

k

m

pn

py

k

m

pn

gx

k

m

pn

gy

k

m

pn

gz

z

x

pm

pm

0

0

0

k

k

k

m

m

m

pn

pn

pn

gz

gx

gy

y

z

x

gm

gm

gm

k

m

pn

py

z

pm

0

k

m

pn

pz

x

pm

0

k

m

pn

px

y

pm

0

k

m

pn

gy

z

gm

0

k

m

pn

gz

x

gm

0

k

m

pn

gx

y

gm

0

(1)

mesh

where, (

n

lx

,

n

point

vector.

ly

,

n

lz

) is the line-of-action vector, (

x

l p,q refers

to

pinion

and

gear

lm

,

y

lm

,

local

z

lm

)

(l p,q)

is

the

coordinate

systems

respectively.

k

m

is mesh stiffness. p is relative displacement between pinion and gear

along line-of-action and is expressed as:

p

x

g

n

gz

x

gm

gx

n

gy

y

g

n

gy

gz

y

gm

z

n

g

n

gz

gx

 

py

z

pm

n

px

py

x

pm

n

pz

x

p

n

gx

px

y

gm

n

y

p

pz

x

pm

n

py

gz

n

py

z

n

gm

gx

z

p

n

pz

gy

pz

y

pm

n

px

gy

z

gm

n

px

y

pm

n

pz

gx

gy

px

z

x

gm

pm

n

n

gz

py

(2)

Combining equations (1-2), a clearer equation of motion could be obtained as:

[

m

pg

]{

q

pg

}[

k

pg

]{

q

pg

} 0

,

m

p

I

px

 

here,

[

m

pg

]

diag m

[

p

,

m

p

,

,

I

py

,

I

pz

,

m

g

,

m

g

,

m

g

,

I

gx

,

I

gy

,

I

gz

10

 

(3)

]

(4)

[

k

pg

]

Here, {

k


 

h p

m

{

k

m

h

p

}

{

h

g

} and {

T {

}

T

h

g

h

p }

{

}

h

p

}

k

m

k

m

{

{

h

h

g

p

}

}

T

T {

h

{

h

g

g }

}

 

(5)

are the coordinate transformation vectors between the spiral

bevel gear line-of-action direction and generalized coordinate directions for pinion and

gear separately. They are expressed as:

{

{h }

l

{n

lx

,n

ly

  

lx

,

ly

,

lz

}

,n

,

{y n

lz

l

  

lx

,

ly

,

lz

}(l

lz

- z n

l

ly

, z n

l

lx

p,q) , x n

x n

l

lz

,

l

ly

y n

l

lx

 

(6)

}(l

p,q)

.

(7)

y n l lx   (6) }( l  p , q ) . (7) Figure2.2

Figure2.2 Spiral bevel gear pair dynamic model

The gear mesh stiffness matrix [

k

pg

]

and the mass matrix [

m

pg

]

of the gear pair

can be obtained from Equations (3-7). The overall gear mesh stiffness and mass matrices

of

[

M

the

whole

pg

]

Diag

[[

system

m

pg

]]

.

could

be

obtained

11

as

[

K

pg

]

Diag

[[

k

pg

]]

and

The mass and stiffness matrices of the whole dynamic finite element system are

derived as[

]

[

]

[

]

[

[

]

] C K K K K

M

]

s

([

M

pg

s

]

[

M

b

]

s

M

E,L

[

ts

])

,

m

K

[

[

K

pg

]

[

K

s

]

[

K

b

]

The system proportional damping is assumed in this model as

[

pg

]

[

K

ts

].

where,

s

is the system damping ratio,

m

is the mesh damping ratio.

(8)

The excitation of the whole system could be written as

{F(t)}

[

{h

p

}

{h

g

}

]

T

(k

m

c

m

j)e(t)

(9)

The equation of motion of the whole spiral bevel geared rotor system could be

expressed as

[M]{X(t)}[C]{X(t)}[K]{X (t)} {F(t)}.

{

( )}

(10)

The direct method is applied here to calculate the steady state forced response as

X

( )}

t

[

H

(

)]

1

{

F t

.

(11)

The dynamic response of pinion head and ring gear could be derived from X (t) as

X

p

},{

X h

}.

The dynamic transmission error is expressed as

{

p

}{

X

p

}

{

h

g

}{

X

g

}.

g

d

The dynamic mesh force in line-of-action direction is expressed as

F

m

k

m

(

d

0

)

c

m

(

d

0

where,

k

m

is

mesh

transmission error.

stiffness;

)

.

c

m

k

m

m

is

mesh

damping;

0

 

(12)

(13)

is

loaded

The given spiral bevel geared rotor system in Figure2.1 is an example used to

explain proposed dynamic finite element modeling theory. The same theory could be

12

applied

to

spiral

bevel

configurations.

geared

rotor

system

with

other

kinds

of

pinion

or

gear

2.3 Proposed New Lumped Parameter Synthesis Method for Existing Lumped

Parameter Dynamic Model and Its Difference from the Old Lumped Parameter

Synthesis Approach

2.3.1 Spiral Bevel Gear 14-DOF Lumped Parameter Dynamic Model

The spiral bevel gear 14-DOF lumped parameter dynamic model[15] used in

this study comprises of a spiral bevel gear pair, an engine element and a load element

as shown in Figure2.3. Engine and load respectively have 1 DOF which is torsional

coordinate. Pinion and gear are both modeled as rigid body which separately have 6

DOFs. Torsional springs are used to connect pinion and engine as well as to attach

gear and load. Pinion and gear have mesh coupling.

k

m is the averaged mesh stiffness

and TE is the static transmission error. Since pinion and gear are built as rigid body,

their mass and inertia are lumped at each lumped point. Lumped shaft-bearing springs

are connected to each lumped point of pinion and gear to support pinion and gear.

The equation of motion could be expressed as:

[M]{q}[C]{q}[K]{q}{F(t)}

The generalized coordinates are expressed as:

{q} {

{q }

E

,{q

p

}

T

,{q

lx

g

,

}

  

,

T

L

lz

{x , y , z ,

l

l

l

.

l

ly

,

}

}

T

T

(l = p, g) .

The lumped mass matrix is described as:

13

(14)

(15)

(16)

[

M

[

K

]

]

diag I ,

[

E

,

M

M

gx

,

Diag K

[

[

px

,

M

M

gy

,

py

,

M

pz

,

M

gz

,

I

gx

I

,

px

I

gy

,

I

,

py

I

gz

,

,

ll

]

Diag K

]

[

[

pg

]

I

pz

L

I

]

]

Diag

[[

K

tsp

]

K

[

tsg

 

(17)

]]

(18)

Here, [

K

ll

]

is the lumped shaft-bearing stiffness matrix of pinion and gear.

[

K

pg

]

is the gear mesh coupling stiffness matrix. [

K

tsp

]

is the coupling stiffness

matrix of the torsional spring used to connect pinion and engine. [

K

tsg

]

is

the

coupling stiffness matrix of the torsional spring used to connect gear and load.

The damping [C] is assumed to be system proportional, which is expressed as:

[

C

]

s

(

where

s

Diag

[[

K

ll

]]

Diag

[[

K

tsp

][

K

tsg

]])

m

Diag

[[

K

is system damping ratio and

m

is mesh damping ratio.

pg

]]

(19)

The force vector {F(t)}at the right side of Equation (14) is,

{F(t)}

Here, {

[

h

p

}

{h

p

},

and {

h

{h

g

}

]

T

(k

m

c

m

j)e(t)

(20)

g } are the coordinate transformation vectors between the

spiral bevel gear line-of-action direction and generalized coordinate directions for

pinion and gear separately. They are expressed as,

{

{

h

}

l

lx

,

  y n

}

n

ly

n

,

lx

,

lz

{

n   

,

{

,

ly

,

lz

,

lx

ly

,

lz

l

lz

-

z n

l

ly

}

,

z n

l

lx

x n

l

lz

,

x n

l

ly

y n

l

lx

 

(21)

}

.

(22)

Here {n lx , n ly , n lz } is the line-of-action vector; {x l , y l , z l } is the mesh point

vector; l = p, g refers to pinion and gear local coordinate systems seperately.

The dynamic transmission error δ d is solved in frequency domain and

expressed as,

14

d

h

p

{

q

p

}

h

g

{

q

g

}

.

(23)

The dynamic mesh force along line-of-action direction is expressed as:

F

m

k

Here,

m

k

(

m

d

0

)

c

m

(

d

0

is

mesh

stiffness;

transmission error.

)

.

c

m

k

m

m

is

mesh

damping;

0

is

(24)

loaded

The deficiency of this model lies in that it is a lack of a fully validated method

to synthesize the lumped point parameters, i.e. the lumped shaft-bearing stiffness

matrix [

K

ll

] , lumped mass/inertia of pinion

mass/inertia of gear

M

gx

,M

gy

,M

gz

,I

gx

,I

gy

,I

M

px

,M

py

,M

pz

,I

px

,I

py

,I

pz

and lumped

gz

, which is key to representing shaft-

bearing structural dynamic characteristics. It may cause inaccurate dynamic response

prediction if the lumped point parameters are not well determined.

15

Figure2.3 Spiral bevel gear 14 DOF lumped parameter dynamic model 2.3.2 Proposed New Lumped Parameter

Figure2.3 Spiral bevel gear 14 DOF lumped parameter dynamic model

2.3.2 Proposed New Lumped Parameter Synthesis Method in Spiral Bevel Gear

14 DOF Lumped Parameter Model

The basic idea of proposed lumped parameter synthesis method is to

approximate the continuous parameter models of pinion and gear to lumped

parameter models while having the same 1 st order pinion and gear bending modes.

2.3.2.1 Equivalent Lumped Shaft-bearing Stiffness Calculation

Static finite element model of 3-bearing straddle mounted pinion

configuration is shown in Figure2.4. The reason to do this static finite element

16

modeling is to calculate the pinion‘s equivalent shaft-bearing stiffness relative to

the lumped point. The pinion with integrated shaft is modeled with several

uniform cross-section beam elements. Bearing is modeled as bearing stiffness

matrix calculated following a bearing stiffness formula[21,22].

Add a unit load at lumped point and then the equation for this static finite

element model could be expressed as:

{P}{R} S{}

(25)

Here,{P} represents the external load exerted at all the nodes; {R}

represents the reaction load at all the nodes; [S] is the assembled stiffness matrix;

{ } represents the displacements of all the nodes.

A more detailed equation could be drawn from (25) as:

P

P

F

S

         R R

F

S

 

  S

S

FF

SF

S

S

FS

SS

         

 

F

S

(26)

Here, P F means the external load exerted at the nodes at the part of pinion

with integrated shaft. P S means the external load at the nodes at the bearing outer

races. R F represents the reaction load at the nodes at the part of pinion with

integrated shaft. R S represents the reaction load at the nodes at the bearing outer

races.

F represents the displacement of the nodes at the part of pinion with

integrated shaft.

S represents the displacement of the nodes at the bearing outer

races.

Since the reaction load is only exerted at the nodes at the bearing outer

races and the nodes at the bearing outer races are fixed, R F and

could be set to be zeros,

17

S in equation (26)

  P

  P

F

S

0  

R

S

    

   S S

FF

SF

    

S   

S

FS

SS

F

0

 

.

Thus, (28) could be drawn from (27) as:



F

 

S

FF

1

P

F

.

The lumped point displacement {

1 l } could be got from {

relationship among the unit external load at the lumped point {

P 1

l

F

}. The

}, the

(27)

(28)

displacement of the lumped point{

relative to the lumped point [

{

P 1

l

}

ll

{

K

1

l } .

K ll

]

1 l } and the equivalent shaft-bearing stiffness

could be expressed as:

(29)

Following above procedure, by adding a unit load in other five directions

separately to the lumped point, the lumped point displacements corresponding to

each unit load could be calculated and obtained, which are written as

l

{}(i 2,3,4,5,6)

i

. The unit load at the lumped point in each of other 5 directions

could be written as P i

l (i 2,3,4,5,6)

. Similarly, the following formulation

could be obtained as:

{P } K

i

l

ll

{}(i 2,3,4,5,6)

i

l

(30)

Combining (29) and (30),

[

P

l

1

2 l

P

3 l

P

4 l

P

5 l

P

6 l

P

]

[

K

ll

][

l 1

l 2

l 3

l 4

l 5

l 6

]

(31)

So, the equivalent shaft-bearing stiffness relative to the lumped point

[

K

ll

]

could be calculated as:

[

K

ll

]

[

P

l

1

2 l

P

3 l

P

4 l

P

5 l

P

18

6 l

P

][

l 1

l 2

l 3

l 4

l 5

l 6

]

1 (32)

Figure2.4 Static finite element modeling of 3-bearing straddle mounted pinion configuration However, the equivalent

Figure2.4 Static finite element modeling of 3-bearing straddle mounted pinion configuration

However, the equivalent shaft-bearing stiffness calculated from static

finite element model may not accurately describe the equivalent axial translational

stiffness. So the axial translational stiffness model of 3-bearing straddle mounted

pinion configuration shown in Figure2.5 is developed in order to refine the axial

translational stiffness described by equivalent shaft-bearing stiffness [

K ll

]

calculated from static finite element model. In Figure2.5, K b1 and K b2 are axial

translational stiffness of bearing1 and bearing2. K s1 is shaft axial stiffness from

load point to center of bearing1. K s2 is shaft axial stiffness from center of bearing1

to center of bearing2. K c is additional cascade stiffness with bearing2 to represent

the shaft-bolt-york between the center of bearing2 and inner race of bearing2. K hb

is housing bolt stiffness.

19

Figure2.5 Axial translational stiffness model The axial translation stiffness of [ K ll ] calculated

Figure2.5 Axial translational stiffness model

The axial translation stiffness of [

K ll

]

calculated from static FE model

does not take K c and K hb into account. The refinement should be made according

to Figure2.5 in the following way. Before doing finite element calculation, the

cascade stiffness K s3 should be added into the axial translation stiffness of

bearing2 K b2. After doing static finite element modeling, the temporary equivalent

shaft-bearing stiffness is obtained. Then the temporary equivalent shaft-bearing

stiffness should add K hb into its axial translation stiffness to get the eventual

20

equivalent lumped shaft-bearing stiffness of the 3-bearing straddle mounted

pinion.

The equivalent lumped shaft-bearing stiffness of other pinion and gear

configurations could be calculated in the similar way[19].

2.3.2.2 Effective Lumped Mass and Inertia Calculation

The first step is to generate the first bending mode shape functions of

pinion with integrated shaft and gear with integrated shaft. The Initial Parameter

Method[20] used in this paper to calculate first bending mode shape function is

described using the coordinate system I defined below as Figure 2.6. This method

has been proved to be valid for dynamical calculation for beam with arbitrary

peculiarities and different boundary conditions.

arbitrary peculiarities and different boundary conditions. Figure2.6 A design of beam with lumped mass In Figure

Figure2.6 A design of beam with lumped mass

In Figure 2.6., the dotted line at y=0 which is the left end represents an

arbitrary type of support. Transverse displacement

z

0

, angle of rotation

0

,

bending moment

M

0

and shear force

Q

0 at y=0 are called initial parameters.

State parameters transverse displacement z(y), angle of rotation (y) , bending

21

moment M (y) , shear force Q(y) at any position y may be presented in the

following forms (Bezukhov et al, 1969; Babakov, 1965; Ivovich, 1981)[20].

z

( )

y

z

0

S

1

1

k

k

2

EI

(

ky

)

0

R V

i

[

k

T ky

(

)

(

y

k

y

i

)]

M

U

(

ky

)

0

k

2

k

2

EI

M

i

0

z V

i

Q

V

(

ky

)

k

[

k

3

(

EI

y

y

(

y

)

z V

0

(

ky k

)

1

1

k

kEI

R U

i

[

k

0

(

y

S ky

(

)

y

i

)]

M

0

2

k

T ky

(

)

kEI

M

i

Q

0

U

(

ky

)

k

2

EI

z U

i

[

k

(

y

y

i

i

)]

)]

2

2

J

i

i

U

[

k

J

i

i

T k

[

(

(

y

y

y

i

y

i

M

(

y

)

z U

0

(

1

k

R U

i

[

k

ky EIk

)

(

y

y

i

2

)]

0

V ky EIk

(