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SOLVED NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

1.1. While doing orthogonal machining with a cutting tool having a 10 0 rake angle, the chip thickness is measured to be 0.4 mm, the uncut thickness being 0.16mm. Find out the shear plane angle and also the magnitude of shear strain. Soln. From the given data, chip thickness ratio or cutting ratio
r= t1 0.16 = = 0 .4 t2 0.4
r.Cos 0.4 Cos 10 0 = = 0.4232 1 r.Sin 1 0.4 Sin 10 0

Since, tan =

Therefore, = tan-1(0.4232) = 22.9380 Again, shear strain is given by = Cot + tan( ) = Cot 22.9380 + tan (22.9380-100) = 2.36+0.23 = 2.59 1.2. During orthogonal machining of a mild steel part, an uncut chip thickness of 0.8mm is used at 55rpm. If the chip thickness is 1.6mm, determine the chip thickness ratio. Also calculate the length of the chip removed in one minute if the work diameter is 50mm. Assume a continuous type of chip. Soln. Given that, t1 = 0.8mm and t2 = 1.6 mm. t1 0.8 = 0.5 Thus, r = = t 2 1.6 Length of the chip before cutting, L1 = .D.N = 5055 = 8635 mm/min L2 L = 2 Now, r = L1 8635 or, L2 = 8635 r = 8635 0.5 = 4137.5mm/min 1.3. During orthogonal cutting process, a chip length of 75mm was obtained with an uncut chip length of 195mm and the rake angle used was 200 with uncut chip thickness 0.45mm. The tangential and thrust components of cutting force were 1950N and 190N respectively. Calculate the shear plane angle, chip thickness, friction angle and resultant cutting force. Soln. Since L1 and L2 are given, the cutting ratio can be obtained as L 75 r= 2 = = 0.3846 L1 195 r.Cos 0.3846 Cos 20 0 tan = = = 0.4161 1 r.Sin 1 0.3846 Sin 20 0 So, = 22.590 Again, since r = 0.3846 t1 t 0.45 =r t2 = 1 = = 1.17 or, t2 r 0.3846

tan = tan =

Fxy + Fz . tan Fz Fxy . tan 190 + 1950 tan 20 = 0.4783 1950 190 tan 20

Or,

= 25.560
R=
2 Fz2 + Fxy

The resultant cutting force, 1.4.

R = (190 ) 2 +(1950 ) 2 =1959 .23 N

For an orthogonal cutting process on mild steel, using the following data: t1 = 0.3 mm, = 00 t2 = 0.85 mm Fz = 900N b1 = 2.5 mm Fxy = 450N

Calculate (a) the coefficient of friction between the tool and the chip, (b) the ultimate shear stress s of the work material. Soln. Applying the equation, = tan =
=
Fxy + Fz . tan Fz Fxy . tan

450 + 900 tan 10 608 .69 = = 0.74 900 450 tan 10 820 .653
tan = r.Cos 1 r.Sin

Again, we have, and


r=

t1 0.3 = = 0.3529 t 2 0.85

tan =

r.Cos 0.3529 Cos 10 0 0.3457 = = = 0.37 0 1 r.Sin 1 0.3529 Sin 10 0.9387

= 20 .3 0

Since, Fs = Fz .Cos Fxy .Sin


Fs = 900 Cos 20 .3 0 450 Sin 20 .3 0 = 844 .1 156 .12

Thus, Fs = 687.98 N Since, s =


Fs .Sin (where, A1 = b1 x t1) A1
687 .98 Sin 20 .3 = 318 .24 N/mm2 ( 2.5 0.3)

s =

1.5.

From the following data, calculate (i) shear angle (ii) chip thickness (iii) velocity of chip along the tool face and (iv) coefficient of friction. Steel rod diameter 45mm, tool rake angle 30 0, cutting speed 25mpm, main cutting force 225kg and thrust force 100kg, uncut chip thickness 0.15mm and length of chip in one revolution 75mm.

Soln. Chip thickness ratio, r =

t1 L L2 = 2 = t2 L1 .D.N
75 45

r=

(for one revolution, i.e. N = 1)

= 0.53 Now, tan = Or, And, r =


t1 t2
r.Cos 0.53 Cos 30 0 0.45899 = = = 0.62447 0 1 r.Sin 1 0.53 Sin 30 0.735

= 31.980 or,
t2 = t1 0.15 = = 0.283 mm r 0.53
Sin Cos ( )

Using the velocity relationship equation, V f = Vc


V f = 25

Sin 31 .98 25 0.5296 = = 13 .2479 m/min Cos (31 .98 30 ) 0.9994

Coefficient of friction,
= tan =
= Fxy + Fz . tan Fz Fxy . tan

100 + 225 tan 30 229 .9038 = = 1.374 225 100 tan 30 167 .265

1.6.

For an orthogonal cutting operation, the machining data is as follows: uncut chip thickness 1.3mm, chip thickness 2mm, shear strength 6500kg/cm2, width of cut is 12mm, cutting speed 35mpm, coefficient of friction 0.95, and the tool rake angle 120. Calculate chip thickness ratio, shear angle, shearing force, friction angle, main cutting force and horse power consumed at the cutting tool. Soln. Chip thickness ratio, t1 t 2 = 1.3 / 2 = 0.65 Shear angle,
= tan 1
r.Cos 1 r.Sin 0.65 Cos 12 0 = tan 1 1 0.65 Sin12 0 0.63579 1 = tan 1 = tan (0.735 ) 0.86486

= 36.320

s =

Fs .Sin A1

Or, shearing force

Fs =

s A1 s .(b1 t1 ) = Sin Sin


and t1 = 1.3mm or 0.13cm

Given that, b1= 12mm or 1.2 cm

Fs =

6000 .(1.2 0.13) 936 = = 1580 .3 kg. 0 0.59229 Sin 36 .32

Again, since = tan , Thus, Fz = Fs .

where = tan-10.95 = 43.530

Cos ( ) Cos ( + ) = 1580 .3 Cos ( 43 .53 12 ) 0.852366 = 1580 .3 = 3572 .9 kg Cos (36 .32 + 43 .53 12 ) 0.377

Horse power at the tool =

Ft Vc 3572 .9 35 = 4500 4500

HP = 27.789 1.7. During orthogonal cutting of mild steel at 210mpm with a tool of rake angle 12 0, the width of cut and the uncut thickness are 1.8mm and 0.2mm respectively. If the average value of the coefficient of friction between the tool and the chip is 0.55 and shear stress of the workpiece material is 390N/mm2, calculate (i) the shear angle (ii) the cutting and the trust component of the machining force. Soln. = 120 And = tan or, = tan-1 = tan-1 0.55 = 28.80 Using Merchants first solution, 2 + = 2 = 90 0
2 = 90 + = 90 28 .8 +12 = 73 .2

Thus, = 36.60 F s = s .Sin A1 Or


Fs =

or

Fs =

390 1.8 0.2 = 235 .57 N Sin 36 .6 Since, Fs = R.Cos ( + ) Fs 235 .57 235 .57 R= = = = 395 .12 N Cos ( + ) Cos (36 .6 + 28 .8 12 ) 0.5962

s A1 s .(b1 t1 ) = Sin Sin

Thus, Fz = R.Cos ( ) = 395 .12 Cos (28 .8 12 ) = 378 .256 N And, Fxy = R.Sin ( ) = 395 .12 Sin (28 .8 12 ) =114 .189 N.

2.10 UNSOLVED EXERCISES:


2.1 Determine the (i) chip reduction coefficient, (ii) shear force and normal force at shear plane, (iii) shear stress, (iv) kinetic coefficient of friction and (v) specific cutting energy for friction, from the following data: Workpiece material C25 steel, tool signature 0-10-6-7-8-90-1mm, feed 0.2mm/rev, depth of cut 2mm, chip thickness 0.38mm, cutting speed 160mpm, cutting force 150 kg, and feed force 75kg.

2.2 Calculate the cutting components of the force, shear angle, shear strain and work done in deformation, using the following data: cutting speed 16mpm, rake angle 100, chip thickness ratio 0.3, coefficient of friction 0.65, friction force on the tool chip interface 50kgf. 2.3 From the following data recorded during orthogonal cutting of an aluminum alloy, calculate the cutting force, feed force and the power consumed. t1 = 0.15mm, L1 = 160mm, = 180 L2 = 40mm, b1 = 3.8mm, s = 25kg/mm
2

b2 = 4.2mm = 0.8 and Vc = 32mpm.