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CHAPTER 4 PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

[FORM 4 CHEMISTRY]
[THEME: Matter Around Us] CL@RENCE WONG HT [VERSION 1.0 2010]

Chemistry F4

Chapter 4 Periodic Table

4.1

ANALYSING THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

Learning Outcomes You should be able to: Describe the contributions of scientists in the historical development of the Periodic Table, Identify groups and periods in the Periodic Table, State the basic principle of arranging the elements in the Periodic Table from their proton numbers, Relate the electron arrangement of an element to its group and period, Explain the advantages of grouping elements in the Periodic Table, Predict the group and the period of an element based on its electron arrangement. 4.1.1 History of Periodic Table Chemist 1. Antoine Lavoisier Founding Antoine Lavoisier is the first chemist who classifies elements into 4 groups. Into metal and non-metal. He had mistakenly classified light and heat as matter and baryta (barium hydroxide), lime and silica as element. He grouped 3 elements with the same chemical properties called triad. Law of Triads: the atomic mass of the middle element is equals to the average of the other two members and all 3 elements show similar chemical properties. The table below shows the example of triads found by Dobereiner. Alkali triad Earth Alkali Halogen triad Triad Lithium, Barium, Chlorine, Sodium, Calcium, Bromine, Potassium Strontium Iodine In 1864, he arranged the elements according to the ascending order of their atomic mass. He proposed the Law of Octaves (the seven intervals of the musical scale). This law stated element will exhibit similar chemical properties to the eighth element following it in the table. He plotted the atomic volumes of the elements against the atomic weight, and found that the chemical properties of the element recur periodically. He also notice that the elements occupying the corresponding position of the curve show similar chemical properties. For example, all the elements located at the peak of the graph (Lithium, sodium and potassium) show similar chemical properties. He arranges the elements according to the ascending order

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2. Johann Dobereiner Law of Triads

3. John Newlands-Law of Octaves

4. Lothar MeyerMeyers Curve

5. D. MendeleevWONG HT

Chemistry F4

Chapter 4 Periodic Table

First Periodic Table

6. H.J.G. MoseleyModernized the Periodic Table

of atomic mass and put all the elements that have same chemical properties in the same group. He left empty space in the periodic table for elements that haven't been discovery at that time. He arranged the elements in the periodic table according to the ascending order of the proton number, but not the atomic mass (by Mendeleev). This correction was a very important step in modernisation of periodic table.

4.1.2 Modern Periodic Table

In modern periodic table, the elements are arranged in ascending order of Proton Number. 2. The vertical columns is called GROUP whereas the horizontal rows is called the PERIOD.
1.

GROUP 1. There are 18 groups in the periodic table. 2. All the elements in the same group have same number of valence electron(outermost electron). 3. Thus, elements in the same group exhibit same chemical properties. 4. Name of the Group Group 1- Alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) Group 2 - Earth Alkaline Metals (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) Group 17 Halogens ( F, Cl, Br, I, At) Group 18 - Noble Gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn)

PERIOD 1. There are 7 periods in period table. 2. All elements in the same period have the same number of electron shells filled with electrons. 3. The first period only has 2 elements only. 4. The second and third period consist of 8 elements, are called the short period. 5. The forth and the fifth period consist of 18 elements, are called the long period. 6. The sixth and the seventh period have 32 elements.

Lanthanide and Actinide Series: 1. The sixth period has 32 elements. Due to short of space, 14 elements in the transition metal group are removed from the same horizontal row and is placed below the main table. These elements are called the Lanthanide Series.
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Chapter 4 Periodic Table

2. The seventh period also has 32 elements. With the same reason, 14 elements are removed from the same horizontal row and are placed below the main table; these elements are called the Actinide Series. 4.1.3 Periodic Table and Electronic Configuration The classification of Group and Period are totally related to the electron arrangement of the atoms as follows: - All the elements in a same group have same number of valence electron(s) -outer most electron(s). - All the elements in a same period have equal number of electron shell(s) (orbit). 2. For example, Element Electron Group / configuration Period Calcium, 2.8.8.2 Group 2, Ca Period 4 Sulphur, 2.8.6 S Neon, Ne 2.8
1.

Activity 1: Draw lines to match name of scientist with their contribution. Name of Scientist Lothar Meyer Henry J. G. Moseley Antoine Lavoisier Contribution First scientist to classify substances Classified the elements into group of three with similar chemical properties Arranged the known elements in order of increasing atomic mass. Elements with similar properties recurred at every eighth element. Plotted a graph of the atomic volume against the atomic mass of elements Left gaps in the table to be filled by undiscovered elements Rearranging the elements in order of increasing proton number

John Newlands Johann W. Dobereiner Dimitri Mendeleev

Activity 2: 1 Arrangement of elements in the Periodic Table. a) Elements are arranged in an increasing order of b) Each vertical column is called a .. c) Each horizontal rows is called . d) Elements with similar chemical properties are placed in the same e) The period number of an element = The number of . occupied with electrons in its atom
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2. Complete the table below. Element Electron arrangement


1 1 4 2
7 3

Number of valence electrons

Group

Period

H
Li B C N O F N e
2.8 2.8.3 17 5 15 2.1 2.3 2

He

1 1 5 1 2 6 1 4 7 1 6 8 1 9 9 20 10

24 12

Mg
Al

27 13

28 14
3 2 1 6 35 . 17 39 19 40 20

Si
S K C l

Ca 3. An atom of element E has 10 neutrons. The nucleon number of element E is 19. In which group and period is element E located in the Periodic Table? Answer: Group Period
An atom of element G has 3 shells occupied with electrons. It is placed in group 17 of the Periodic Table. What is the electron arrangement of atom G? Answer: Electron arrangement of atom G
4.

4.2

ANALYSING GROUP 18 ELEMENTS

Learning Outcomes: You should be able to: List all Group 18 elements, State in general the physical properties of Group 18 elements, Describe the changes in the physical properties of Group 18 elements, Describe the inert nature of elements of Group 18, Relate the inert nature of Group 18 elements to their electron arrangements, Relate the duplet and octet electron arrangements of Group 18 elements to their stability, Describe uses of Group 18 elements in daily life.
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The "Noble Gases" are the last group in the Periodic Table, they also known as "inert gas", due to their non-reactive behavior. 2. This group consists of six elements, namely Helium, Neon, Argon, Kripton, Xenon and Radon. 3. Physical Properties: Name Proton Electron Melting Boiling o number arrangement point / C point / oC Heliu 2 -270 -269 m Neon 10 -249 -246 Argo 18 -189 -186 n Krypt 36 2.8.18.8 -157 -152 on Xeno 54 2.8.18.18.8 -112 -108 n Rado 86 2.8.18.32.18.8 -71 -62 n
1.

Physical Properties of Group 18 Atomic Size The size of atom ____________ down the group, due to the increase number of _____________. Density The density of noble gases is very low. Nevertheless, the density increases steadily down the group. Solubility All noble gas are ______________ in water. Electrical / All noble gas ____________ conduct heat and electricity. Heat conductivit y Melting The melting and boiling point of noble gases are very Point and ___________. Boiling This is because all noble gases exist as ______________. The Point force in between all these atoms is the weak ______________________. Therefore very little energy is needed to overcome this force during melting and boiling. The melting and boiling point increase down the group. Reason: This is because the atomic size increases down the group. The strength of van de Waals force increases as the size of the particles (atoms) increases. More energy is needed to overcome the force in between the atoms during melting and boiling, hence the melting and boiling point become higher. Chemical Properties of Group 18 Reactivity All the noble gases are non-reactive (very stable) elements. This is because their valence shell is full of electrons. In the chemical world, an atom is in the chemically most stable state if their valence shell is full with eight electrons - octet or
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2 electrons - duplet for Helium. Therefore all noble gases do not react with other elements; they exist as monoatom (single atom). 4.2.1 Uses of the Noble Gases Noble Gases Helium Uses Airship The gas is much less dense than air. Therefore it is used in balloons and 'airships'. Because of its inertness it doesn't burn in air UNLIKE hydrogen which used to be used in large balloons with 'flammable' consequences. Deep-sea Diving Helium is also used in gas mixtures for deep-sea divers. This is because the solubility of the helium is very low. Therefore it will not dissolve in the blood even though the pressure of the surrounding is very high. Neon emits light when high voltage electricity is passed through it. It is used in advertising light bulb and fluorescent lights. Filament Bulb Neon emits light when high voltage electricity is passed through it. Because of this, it is used in glowing 'neon' advertising signs and fluorescent lights. Welding Argon prevents the hot metal from reacting with oxygen gas in the air. Krypton is used in fluorescent bulbs, flash bulbs and laser beams(repair retina of the eye) Used in electron tubes and stroboscopic lamp. To treat cancer because it is radioactive.

Neon

Argon

Krypton Xenon Radon

Activity 3: 1. Physical Properties of Group 18 Elements Circle the correct answer When going down the Group 18: a) Atomic radius /Atomic size increase/ decrease

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b) c)

Melting point and Boiling point Density

increase/ decrease increase/ decrease

2.

Complete the figure below by giving the uses of Group 18.

3.

All noble gases are . which means chemically unreactive. This is because they have stable . Example: (i) (ii) electron arrangement. Helium atom has . valence electrons which is called a electron arrangement Other noble gases has valence electrons which is called an . electron arrangement.

4. 4.3

The noble gases exists as . gases because their electron arrangement are very .. ANALYSING GROUP 1 ELEMENTS

Learning Outcomes You should be able to: List all Group 1 elements. State the general physical properties of lithium, sodium and potassium, Describe changes in the physical properties from lithium to potassium, List the chemical properties of lithium, sodium and potassium, Describe the similarities in chemical properties of lithium, sodium and potassium, Relate the chemical properties of Group 1 elements to their electron arrangements,
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Describe changes in reactivity of Group 1 elements down the group, Predict physical and chemical properties of other elements in Group 1

Introduction
1. The Group 1 metals is called the Alkali Metals. 2. This is because they form oxides and hydroxides that dissolve in water to give

alkaline solutions. 3. The elements are lithium(Li), sodium(Na), potassium(K), rubidium(Rb), cesium(Cs) and francium(Fr). 4. They have 1 valence electron, so they have same chemical properties. 5. All alkali metals are very reactive. They must be stored in paraffin oil prevent reaction with oxygen or water vapour in air. 6. Physical Properties and chemical properties of Group 1 metals: Physical Properties Chemical Properties Good conductors of heat / electricity, Reacts with: High boiling points, Cold water to produce hydrogen gas Shinny surface (but rapidly tarnished by and alkalis. air). Oxygen to produce metal oxide. Low density (first three float on water),

Halogen to produce metal halides. Soft metals (can be cut by a knife). 7. The table shows the physical properties and electron arrangement of Group 1 metals: Proton number 3 11 19 37 55 87 Electron arrangement melting point /oC 180 98 63 39 29 27 boiling point/ oC 1342 883 759 688 671 677 Density g/cm3 0.53 0.97 0.86 1.48 1.87 > 1.87

Name Lithium Sodium Potassiu m Rubidiu m Caesiu m Franciu m

2.8.18.8.1 2.8.18.18.8.1 2.8.18.32.18.8.1

8. When going down the Group 1:

Size of Atom Boiling Point


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Down the group, the size of atom increases. This is due to the increase of number of electron shells. The melting point and boiling point generally decrease down
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and Melting Point

the group. All the atoms of Group 1 metals are bonded together by metallic bond. The strength of metallic bond depends on the distance between the atoms. The nearer the atoms, the stronger the bond. Down the group, the size of the atoms increases, causing the distance of the atoms increases, the metallic bond between the atoms decreases. Therefore, less energy is needed to overcome the metallic bond during melting process. Density The densities of Group 1 metals are low compare with the other metals. The densities of the first 3 elements (Lithium, Sodium and Potassium) are lower than water. Thus, they can float on the surface of water. Nevertheless, the density increases down the group. Reactivity Reactivity of group 1 increases down the group. Reactivity of group 1 refer to the ability to release electrons to form positive ion. When an alkali metal atom reacts, it loses its valence electron to form a positive ion. As going down the group 1, the atomic radius getting bigger. The valence electron is further away from the nucleus. Thus the attraction force between the nucleus and the valence electron become weaker. This causes the valence electron is easier to be released to form an cation. Important trends down the group with increase in atomic number. 1. Size of atoms increases 2. The melting point and boiling point decrease 3. The density increases. 4. Reactivity increases. 5. The hardness decreases. 4.3.1 Chemical Properties 1. Group 1 metals are very reactive metals. 2. They all show the same chemical properties because they have the same valence electron. 3. When an alkali metal atom reacts, it loses the valence electron to form a positively charged ion (Cation). Examples:

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4. 5.

They tend to react mainly with non-metals to form ionic compounds. In this chapter, we are going to discuss 3 examples of reaction of Group 1 metal: a) Reaction with water. b) Reaction with chlorine gas. c) Reaction with oxygen gas.

The Reaction of Alkali Metals with cold water Observation: Metal Observation
1. 2.

Inference 1. The hydrogen gas is released. 2. An alkaline solution is produced.

Lithium
3.

Lithium floats on the surface of the water with 'fizzing' sound. It moves slowly on the surface of water. Colourless gas is released. A lighted wooden splinter is brought close to the mouth of the test tube contains the gas; a "pop" sound is heard. The colourless solution turns the red litmus paper to blue.

1. 2.

Sodium
3.

Sodium also floats on the surface of the water with 1. The 'fizzing' sound. It moves rapidly on the surface of water. hydrogen gas Colourless gas is released. A lighted wooden splinter is released. is brought close to the mouth of the test tube contains 2. An alkaline the gas; a "pop" sound is heard. solution is The colourless solution turns the red litmus paper to produced. blue. Sodium also floats on the surface of the water and burns with a lilac flame. It reacts vigorously with water. Colourless gas is released. A lighted wooden splinter is brought close to the mouth of the test tube contains the gas; a "pop" sound is heard. The colourless solution turns the red litmus paper to blue. 1. The hydrogen gas is released. 2. An alkaline solution is produced.

1.

Potassiu m

2.

3.

Discussion: 1. Based on the observation, write the reactivity of the reaction between alkaline metals and water in ascending order. Reactivity increases 2. Write the balace chemical equations for the reactions: Reaction Lithium + Water Lithium hydroxide + Hydrogen Gas Sodium+ Water Sodium hydroxide + Hydrogen
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Chemical Equation

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Gas Potassium + Water Potassium hydroxide + Hydrogen Gas How does the reactivity of alkaline metals change when going down Group 1? (Increase / Decrease) 4. Explain your answer. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ __ Reaction of alkali metal with oxygen gas
3.

1. The diagram shows that when hot alkali metal is put into a gas jar filled with oxygen gas, the alkali metal will burn with bright flame. 2. They form white oxide powders after reaction. 3. These oxides dissolve in water to form strongly alkaline metal hydroxide solutions with pH value 13-14. 4. Lithium, sodium and potassium have similar chemical properties. All react with oxygen to produce white metal oxide. 5. The reactivity increases down the group from lithium, sodium to potassium. Observation: Group 1 Lithium Observation Lithium burns slowly with red flame and produces white powder immediately after reaction. 2. When the white powder is dissolved in water, it produces a colourless solution which turned red litmus paper blue.
1.

Inference 1. Lithium oxide is produced. 2. An alkaline solution is produced.

Sodium

Sodium burned rapidly with bright yellow flame, forming white powder immediately after reaction. 2. When the white powder is dissolved in water, it produces a colourless solution which turned red litmus paper blue.
1.

1.

Lithium oxide is produced. 2. An alkaline solution is produced.

Potassiu m

Potassium burned vigorously with very bright purplish flame, forming white powder immediately after reaction. 2. When the white powder is dissolved in water, it produces a colourless solution which turned red litmus paper blue.
1.

1.

Lithium oxide is produced. 2. An alkaline solution is produced.

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Discussion: 1. Based on the observation, write the reactivity of the reaction between alkaline metals and oxygen in ascending order.

Reactivity increases 2. Write the balace chemical equations for the reactions: Reaction Chemical Equation Lithium+ Oxygen Lithium Oxide Sodium + Oxygen Sodium Oxide Potassium + Oxygen Potassium Oxide Reaction with chlorine
1.

Chlorine gas,

The diagram shows that when hot alkali metal is put into a gas jar filled with chlorine gas, the alkali metal will burn with bright flame. 2. All alkali metals react with chlorine gas to form white metal

chlorides salt. 3. Lithium, sodium and potassium have similar chemical properties. 4. The metal chlorides salt formed is soluble in water to give a neutral solution of pH 7. 5. The reactivity increases down the group from lithium, sodium to potassium. Observation: Lithium Sodium Potassi um Lithium burned slowly with a reddish flame. A white solid is produced. Sodium burned rapidly and brightly with a yellowish flame. A white solid is produced. Potassium burned vigorously and very brightly with a purplish flame. A white solid is produced.

Discussion: 1. Based on the observation, write the reactivity of the reaction between alkaline metals and chlorine gas in ascending order.

Reactivity increases 2. Write the balace chemical equations for the reactions:
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Reaction Lithium+ Chlorine Lithium Chloride Sodium + Chlorine Sodium Chloride Potassium + Chlorine Potassium Chloride Safety Precaution

Chemical Equation

1. Alkali metals are very reactive. 2. Therefore it must be kept in paraffin oil to prevent them from reacting with oxygen and water vapour in the air. 3. We must avoid holding group 1 metals with bare hand because they may react with water on our hand. 4. We must wear safety goggles and gloves during handling experiment involving group 1 metal.

Activity 4: A) State 3 physical properties of group 1 elements. a) b) c) Chemical Properties of Group 1 Elements (Alkali metals ) 1. Group 1 elements react vigorously with water to produce alkaline metal hydroxide solutions and hydrogen gas Example: 2 Li + 2 H 2 O 2 LiOH + H 2 Write down the balanced equation when potassium reacts with water .. 2. Group 1 elements react with oxygen gas rapidly to produce white solid metal oxides. Example: 4 Li + O2 2 Li 2 O Write down the balanced equation when rubidium reacts with oxygen
3.

B)

l Group 1 elements react t with chlorine gas C 2 , to form white solid metal chlorides.
Example:

l 2 Na + C 2 2 NaCl
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Write down the balanced equation when potassium reacts with chlorine gas .. 4 The reactivity of Group 1 elements increases when going down the group. Explain why. a. When going down Group 1 the single valence electron in the outermost occupied shell become .... from the nucleus. b. The attraction between the nucleus and the valence electron become . . c. Therefore it is ... for the atom to donate the single valence electron to achieve the stable electron arrangement. 5 Potassium reacts more vigorously with water as compared to sodium. Explain. (Proton number: Na, 11 ; K, 19) . .

Activity 5: Complete the table below and answer the following questions: Alkali Metal Lithium Sodium Potassium Rubidium Caesium Proton number 3 11 19 37 55 Number of electrons Electron arrangement No. of valence electrons

37 55

2.8.18.8.1 2.8.18.18.8.1

1) Lithium, sodium and potassium have similar chemical properties. Explain why. Answer: Lithium, sodium and potassium have .. electron in their outermost occupied shell. 2) What has to happen to an atom of alkali metal for it to achieve a stable electron arrangement of inert gas?
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3) What is the charge of an alkali metal ion?..................................................... 4) Reactivity of alkali metals increases from Lithium to Caesium . Explain why . .. . .. . .. . Activity 6: To investigate the Chemical Properties of Lithium, Sodium & Potassium 1) The Reaction of alkali metals with water, H2O Problem Statement: How does the reactivity of Group 1 elements change when they react with water? Hypothesis: When going down Group 1, alkali metals become more reactive in their reactions with water. Variables: Manipulated variable Different types of alkali metals Responding variable Reactivity of metals with water Fixed variables water, size of metals Alkali metal water a) Write the procedure to carry out this experiment. b) Complete this table (Data & Observation ) Alkali Observation metal Lithium Sodium Potassium

2) The Reaction of alkali metals With Oxygen, O2


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(This procedure can also be used to test the reaction of alkali metals with chlorine gas!) a) Problem Statement:

. . b) Hypothesis: .. . .. . c) Variables: Manipulated variable . Responding variable . Fixed variables ...

Alkali metal oxygen

d) e) Alkali metal Lithium Sodium Potassium

Write the procedure of this experiment. (refer to practical book pg 36) Data & Observation: Observation

f) Based on your results, arrange the alkali metals in ascending order of reactivity. .. . 4.4 ANALYSING GROUP 17 ELEMENTS Learning Outcomes You should be able to: List all Group 17 elements,
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State the general physical properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine, Describe changes in the physical properties from chlorine to iodine, List the chemical properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine, Describe the similarities in chemical properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine, Describe changes in reactivity of Group 17 elements down the group, Predict physical and chemical properties of other elements in Group 17.

Introduction Group 17 elements are typical non-metals and also known as halogens. 2. Elements in this group are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. 3. In nature, all halogens exist as diatomic molecules. They are written as F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 and At2. 4. The word 'Halogens' means 'salt formers' because they can form salt easily with metals. 5. Halide is the name given to the ion of halogens. Table below shows the corresponding halide of the halogen. Halogen Halide Fluorine Fluoride Chlorine Chloride Bromine Bromide Iodine Iodide
1.

6. Physical and chemical properties of Group 17: Physical Properties Chemical Properties 1. All group 17 elements are non1. Group 17 elements have same metals. chemical properties because each has 7 2. They are heat and electricity insulator valence electrons. (consist of molecules only). 2. Halogens reacts with: Water to produce acids. Metals (eg: iron) to produce metal halides. Sodium hydroxide to produce salt and water. 7. Table below shows the electron arrangement and physical properties of group 17 elements. Name Proton Number 9 17 35 2.8.18.7 Electron arrangeme nt colour Melting point/oC -220 -102 -7 Boiling point/oC -188 -34 59

Fluorin e Chlorin e Bromin e


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pale yellow gas Yellowish green gas dark red liquid, brown vapour

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Iodine

53

2.8.18.18.7

Astatin 85 2.8.18.32.18 e .7 8. When going sown Group 17: Size of Atom


black solid, purple vapour black solid, dark vapour

114 302

184 380

The size of atom increases. This is due to the increase of number of electron shells. Boiling Point The melting point and boiling point generally increase down the and Melting group. Point Intermolecular attractive force (van der Waals force) increase with increasing size of atom or molecule. Density The density increases down the group. Colour The colour of the halogen gets darker down the group. Reactivity Reactivity (Electronegativity) of group 17 decreases down the group. Reactivity of group 17 refers to the ability to attract electrons to form negative ion. As going down the group 17, the atomic radius getting bigger. The attraction force between the nucleus and the valence electron become weaker. This causes the lower tendency to attract an electron to form an anion. Important trends down the group 17: 1. Size of atoms increases 2. The melting point and boiling point increase 3. The density increases 4. Reactivity decreases
9. 1.

Chemical properties of Group 17:

All group 17 elements are poisonous. Astatine is very radioactive. 2. In the SPM chemistry syllabus, we discuss 3 reaction of group 17 elements: a) Reaction with water. b) Reaction with metal. c) Reaction with alkali solution, for example sodium hydroxide. a) Reaction with water Solubility and colour of the solution Chlorine gas dissolves quickly in water to form a pale yellow solution. Bromine liquid dissolves Effect on the blue and red litmus paper The solution turns the blue litmus paper turns red before it is bleached (solution is acidic and contain bleaching agent). The solution turns the blue litmus paper
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Experiment Chlorine with water Bromine with


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water Iodine with water Discussion:

slowly in water to form a brown solution. Iodine dissolves slightly in water to form a pale brown solution.

turns red before it is bleached. The solution turns the blue litmus paper turns red but it is not bleached.

1. Based on the observation, write the reactivity of the reaction between halogens and water in ascending order.

Reactivity increases 2. Write the balace chemical equations for the reactions: Reaction Chlorine + Water Hydrochloric acid + Hypochlorus (I) acid Bromine + Water Hydrobromic acid + Hypobromous(I) acid Iodine + Water Hydroiodic acid + Hypoiodous(I) acid

Chemical Equation

3. State the substances that enable the bleaching property to be shown in this experiment. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _ b) React with Alkali Solution Solubility and colour of the solution The greenish chlorine gas dissolves quickly in sodium hydroxide to form a colourless solution. The reddish-brown liquid bromine dissolves steadily in sodium hydroxide to form a colourless solution. The black iodine crystals dissolve slowly in sodium hydroxide to form a colourless solution. Inference Chlorine gas react with sodium hydroxide to form salt of sodium chloride, sodium chlorate(I) and water. Bromine liquid react with sodium hydroxide to form salt of sodium bromide, sodium bromate(I) and water. The reddish-brown liquid bromine dissolves in sodium hydroxide, forming a colourless solution.

Experiment Chlorine with sodium hydroxide

Bromine with sodium hydroxide Iodine with sodium hydroxide


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2. Write the balace chemical equations for the reactions: Reaction Chlorine + Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Chloride + Sodium Chlorate(I) + Water. Bromine+ Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Bromide + Sodium Bromate(I) + Water. Iodine + Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Iodide + Sodium Iodate(I) + Water.

Chemical Equation

c)

Reaction with Iron Reactivity of the reaction / colour of the product The iron wool burns vigorously with bright flame, forming a brown solid after reaction. The iron wool glows brightly but less vigorously. A brown solid is formed. Inference Chlorine reacts with iron to form brown iron (III) chloride. Bromine reacts with iron to form brown iron (III) bromide.

Experiment Chlorine with iron Bromine with iron Iodine with iron Discussion:

The iron wool glows dimly. A brown solid Iodine reacts with iron to form is formed after reaction. brown iron (III) iodide.

1. Based on the observation, write the reactivity of the reaction between halogens and iron in ascending order.

Reactivity increases 2. Write the balace chemical equations for the reactions: Reaction Chemical Equation Chlorine + Iron iron(III) chloride Bromine+ Iron iron(III) bromide Iodine+ Iron iron(III) Iodide 3. What is the function of the sodium hydroxide solution? _______________________________________________________________________________________ _ 4. Do the 3 halogen elements show the same chemical properties? ______________ Explain.

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_______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ __
5.

How does the reactivity of halogen elements change when going down the Group 17? Explain. _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________ ___

Safety Precaution 1. Fluorine, chlorine and bromine gases are poisonous. 2. Therefore all the experiments involving these gases should be carried out in a fume chamber.The experiments involve fluorine are nor done in school. This is because fluorine is so reactive that it will react with most of the substance it comes into contact with. Activity 7: 1. State the uses of: a) Chlorine . . b) Iodine . ..

2. (a) Give the physical state of halogens below at room temperature : i) Fluorine: ii) Chlorine: iii) Bromine: . iv) Iodine : . (b) Fill in the blanks below.

C 2 l B 2 r I2

melting and boiling points ..

colour of

Density .

halogens becomes ..

3. When going down the Group 17, the melting and boiling points increase. Explain .. .. .. ..
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.. .. 4. Chemical Properties of Group 17 Elements a. Group 17 elements react with water to form two acids l Example: C 2 + H 2 O HCl + HOCl hydrochloric acid hypochlorus(I)acid Write a balanced equation when bromine reacts with water. ..

b. In gaseous state they react with hot iron to form a brown solid, iron (III) halides. 2F r 3 eB r Example: 2 Fe + 3B 2 Write a balanced equation when iodine vapour reacts with iron Group 17 elements react t with sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH , to form sodium halide, sodium halate (I) and water NaI + NaOI + H 2 O Example: I 2 + 2 NaOH
c.

Write a balanced equation when chlorine reacts with sodium hydroxide solution . 5. The reactivity of Group 17 elements decreases when going down the group. Explain why. a) When going down the Group 17 atomic size .. b) The outermost occupied shell becomes . from the nucleus. c) Therefore the strength to attract one electron into the outermost occupied shell by the nucleus becomes Chlorine gas reacts more vigorously with hot iron as compared to bromine gas. Explain (Proton number: Cl, 17 ; Br, 35) .. .. .. .. .. ..
3.

Activity 8: To investigate the Chemical properties of Group 17 elements. The Reaction of halogens with iron (refer practical book pg 44) 1) Data and Observation
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(Complete the following table)


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Halogen Reactant Water Chlorine

Observation Bromine

Iodine

Iron wool Sodium hydroxide , NaOH solution

l r 2) Based on your results, arrange the halogens, C 2 , B 2 , I 2 in ascending order of reactivity. .. ..

3) Element E is placed below element D in Group 17 of the Periodic Table. (a) Compare the melting and boiling points of element D with element E. Explain your answer .. . .. .. .. .. (b) Write a chemical equation for the reaction between element D and hot iron. . ANALYSING ELEMENTS IN A PERIOD

4.6

Learning Outcomes You should be able to: List all elements in Period 3, Write electron arrangements of all elements in Period 3, Describe changes in the properties of elements across Period 3, State changes in the properties of the oxides of elements across Period 3, Predict changes in the properties of elements across Period 2.

Period is the horizontal rows of elements in the Periodic Table. The period number indicates the number of electron shell. 3. The proton number of elements increases from left to right crossing the period. 4. Complete the table below:
1. 2.
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Elements Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulphur Chlorine Argon

Symbol

Proton Number 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Electron Arrangement

Group

5. Changes across Period 3: Size of Atom The size of atom decreases. All the elements have 3 shells filled with electrons but proton number increases by 1 unit across the period. Thus, the attraction force between the nucleus (proton) and the valence electrons is stronger across a period. This force will pull the valence electrons closer to the nucleus and thus reduces the atomic radius (size). The melting point and boiling point increase from left to middle (Na<Mg<Al<Si) and then decrease again (P, S, Cl, Ar).

Boiling Point and Melting Point Valence electron Electronegativi ty

Increases across the period.

Electronegativity increases across the period. Electronegativity refers to the ability of atom to attract electrons to form anion. The atomic radius decreases across period. The attraction force between the nucleus and the valence electron become stronger. This causes the higher tendency to attract an electron to form an anion. Nature of metal From left to right, the elements change from metals to metalloid (semi-metal) and finally to non-metals. Metals: Na, Mg, Al Metalloid: Si Non metal: P, S, Cl, Ar Nature of oxide The oxides of the elements change from basic to amphoteric and then to acidic. Amphoteric oxide can react with both acid and bases to form salt and water. (Al2O3) Important trends across the period: 1. Size of atoms decreases 2. Electronegativity increases
6.

Property of oxide in Period 3:


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Chemistry F4

Chapter 4 Periodic Table

Element oxide in Period 3 Sodium oxide, Na2O Magnesium oxide, MgO Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3 Silicon (IV) oxide, SiO2 Phosphorus pentoxide, P2O5 Sulphur dioxide, SO2 Dichlorine heptoxide, Cl2O7 Type of oxide

Solubility in water

Effect on universal indicator

Observation Reaction with dilute nitric Reaction with sodium acid hydroxide solution

Magnesium oxide, MgO Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3 Silicon (IV) oxide, SiO2 Discussion: 1. Complete the table below using word acid, base or amphoteric. Sodium oxide, Na2O Magnesium oxide, MgO Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3 Silicon (IV) oxide, SiO2 Phosphorus pentoxide, P2O5 Sulphur dioxide, SO2 Dichlorine heptoxide, Cl2O7

2. a. based on the observation, does aluminium oxide show the property of i. An acid? ________________ ii. A base? ________________ b. Name the property of aluminium oxide. ___________________________ 3. How does the property of element oxide changes when going across Period 3? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Activity 9: 1) Complete the table and answer the question given below: Element Proton number Electron arrangement No. of valence electrons Atomic radius (pm)
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Na 11

Mg 12

Al 13

Si 14

P 15

S 16

Cl 17

Ar 18

186

160

143

118

110

104

100

94
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Chapter 4 Periodic Table

Physical state Electronegativity

Solid 0.9

Solid 1.2

Solid 1.5

Solid 1.8

Solid 2.1

Solid 2.5

Gas 3.0

Gas -

2) Fill in the blanks with the correct answer. a) The proton number .. by one unit from one element to the next element. b) All the atoms of elements have .. shells occupied with electrons. c) The number of valence electrons in each atom . from 1 to 8. d) The physical state at room temperature changes from to .. e) The atomic radius (atomic size) of elements from left to right across the period 3. f) The electronegativity of elements. .. from left to right across the period 3. Activity 10: 1) Below are some oxides of elements of Period 3.
*Sodium oxide, Na 2 O *Silicon (IV) oxide, SiO 2 *Sulphur dioxide, SO 2

l *Aluminium oxide, A 2 O3

(a) Which of these oxides can react with (i) dilute nitric acid? . (ii) sodium hydroxide solution? . (b) Based on your answers in (a), what inferences can you make about the properties of each of the oxides? Oxide of elements in Acidic / Basic / Amphoteric Period 3 Sodium oxide Magnesium oxide Aluminium oxide Silicon (IV) oxide Phosphorus (V) oxide Sulfur dioxide 2)
7 3

Li ,

1 2 6

9 C , 19 F

The diagram above shows the symbols of lithium, carbon and fluorine. (a) Which period in the Periodic Table can you find the three elements? Explain.
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Chapter 4 Periodic Table

(b)

Arrange the three elements in order of increasing atomic size.

(c) Compare the electronegativity of the three elements. Explain your answer. The electronegativity of the elements (i) from Li, C , F. This is due to the (ii).. nuclei attraction on the valence electrons and the (iii) in atomic size.

4.7

TRANSITION ELEMENTS

Learning Outcomes You should be able to: Identify the positions of transition elements in the Periodic Table, Give examples of transition elements, Describe properties of transition elements, State uses of transition elements in industries. Transition Elements and Its Properties

Transition metal is a block of metallic elements in between Groups 2 and 12 in the Periodic Table. 2. They are much less reactive than the alkali metals. 3. They do not react as quickly with water or oxygen as alkali metal.
1.

General Physical Characteristics of Transition Elements 1. All transition elements are metals. Therefore they have the all the physical properties of metal such as: a) high melting point and boiling point. The metallic bond between atoms of metal is very strong b) hard
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Chapter 4 Periodic Table

c) d) e) f) g) h)

high density high electrical conductivity high tensile strength shinny surfaces ductile malleable

Special Properties of Transition Elements Special Characteristics 1. Form Coloured Compounds and Ions Examples Colo ur gree + n 3 Fe Brow + n 2 Ni Gree + n 3 Cr Gree + n Transition Elements or Its Compound Platinum Nickel Iron powder Vanadium(V) oxide 3. Have Vary Oxidation State Transition Elements Iron (II) sulphate Iron (III) chloride Io n Fe2 Mn2+ Cu2+ Co2+ MnO4
-

CrO42
-

Cr2O7
2-

Pink Blue Pink Purpl e Yello w Oran ge

2. Have Catalytic Properties

Uses Ostwald Process in the manufacture of nitric acid. Catalyst for 'hydrogenation' in the margarine industry. Haber Process in the manufacture of ammonia. Contact Process in the manufacture of sulphuric acid . Io Oxidation ns Number Fe2 +2
+

Fe3
+

+3 +1 +2 +3 +6 Formul a Cu(NH3)
4 2+

Cu Copper (I) oxide Copper (II) oxide Cromium (III) chloride Potassium dichromate (VI) 4. Form Complex Ions Complex Ions Tetraaminecopper (II)
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+

Cu2
+

Cr3
+

Cr6
+

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Hexaaminechromiu m (III) Hexaaquocobalt (II) Hexacynoferate (II) Activity 11: 1 (a) (b)

Cr(NH3)6
3+

Co(H2O)
6 2+

Fe(CN)64

Transtition elements are elements from Group . to Group . State 3 examples of transtition elements found in Period 4 . .. 2 Complete the diagram below. Special characteristics of Transition elements

Transition elements and their compounds are useful catalysts. Complete the table below Product Catalysts

Chemical Process Haber Ostwald Contact 4

Transition elements form coloured ions or compound. Complete the table below: Ion of transition element Coper (II) ion Iron (II) ion Iron (III) ion Chromium (III) ion Formula of the ion Colour of aqueous solution Yellowish Brown
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Fe

2+

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Chemistry F4

Chapter 4 Periodic Table

Chromate (VI) ion Dichromate (VI) ion Manganese (II) ion Manganate (VI) ion 5 Transition elements form ions with different Oxidation Numbers. Elements Compound Chemical Formula Oxidation Number Manganese Manganese (II) chloride Manganese (IV) oxide Potassium manganate (VI) Iron Iron (II) chloride Iron (III) chloride Copper Copper (I) chloride Copper (II) oxide **(Precious stones such as emerald, rubies, sapphire and jade are beautiful due to the colours of the transition element compounds present in them ) Activity 12: 1 Diagram 1 shows part of the Periodic Table of the Elements. D, E, G, L, M, and J, that do not represent the actual symbol of the element

D
E

G Diagram 1

Using the letters in the Periodic Table of the Elements in Diagram 1, answer the following questions. (a) (i) State the position of element E in the Periodic Table. .. Choose the element which exhibit different oxidation numbers in its compounds. ..

(ii)

(b)
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Element D combines with element L to form a compound.


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Write the chemical formula of this compound. .............................. (c) D and E have the same chemical properties (i) Which element is more reactive? ............................................................................................................... ................ Explain your answer in (c) (i). .. .. Which element exists as diatomic molecules? .. 2 Z. The information shows the chemical symbols which represent elements W, X, Y and

(ii)

(d)

27 13 (a)

35 17

12
6

23 11

State three subatomic particles in an atom.

.. (b) (i) What is the meaning of the period in the Periodic Table of element?

.. (ii) Explain. .. ..
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State the period of element W in the Periodic Table of element.

Chemistry F4

Chapter 4 Periodic Table

(c)

(i)

Compare the atomic size of element W and X. ............................................................................................................. Explain your answer in (c) (i).

(ii)

.. ..

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