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BEAM DESIGN

1. Calculation of initial constants and loads 1.1. Typical section 1.2. Material strengths and properties (for beam and slab concrete) 1.3. Effective flange width (interior and exterior) 1.4. Section properties 1.4.1. Non-composite 1.4.2. Composite 1.5. Dead loads 1.5.1. Non composite (DC) 1.5.2. Composite (DW) 1.6. LL distribution factor for moment 1.6.1. Interior 1.6.1.1. Range of applicibility 1.6.1.2. Factor by Table 4.6.2.2.2b-1 formula 1.6.1.3. Formula controlls 1.6.2. Exterior 1.7. LL distribution factor for shear 1.7.1. Interior - Check range of applicibility 1.7.2. Exterior 1.8. Summary of distribution factors Loads and load combinations and allowable stresses 2.1. Load combinations for strength I, service I, and service III. Note service III is only to be used for crack control in tension areas only. 2.2. Allowable stresses 2.3. Description of the design truck and other LL 2.4. Live load combinations 2.5. Loads 2.5.1. Service I moments 2.5.2. Service III moments 2.5.3. Strength I moments Beam design 3.1. Estimate number of strands 3.2. Loses 3.2.1. Elastic shortening 3.2.1.1. Modulus of strands and concrete 3.2.1.2. Eccentricity of strands at midspan 3.2.1.3. Stress in bottom of beam from strand force, and beam self weight 3.2.1.4. Stress in top of beam from strand force, and beam self weight 3.2.1.5. Interpolate to stress and c.g. of strands 3.2.1.6. Loss from elastic shortening 3.2.2. Shrinkage (based on relative humidity of 70) 3.2.3. Creep 3.2.3.1. Stress in top and bottom of beam from all permanent loads except those from prestressing force and self weight 3.2.3.2. Interpolate to stress at c.g. of strands 3.2.3.3. Loss from creep 3.2.4. Relaxation at transfer 3.2.5. Relaxation after transfer 3.2.6. Total initial loses 3.2.7. Total final loses 3.2.8. Initial stress in strands 3.2.9. Final stress in strands 3.3. Check initial stresses

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3.3.1. Use pre-stress force, self weight, and initial loses 3.3.2. Tension limit = 0.530 ksi; compression limit = 3.480 ksi 3.4. Check positive envelope at service I (positive only, negative will be checked under service III) 3.4.1. Use all final moments, and final loses 3.4.2. Compression limit = 4.200 ksi 3.5. Check positive and negative envelope at service III 3.5.1. Use final service III moments, and final loses 3.5.2. Tension limit = 0.530 ksi; compression limit = 2.800 ksi 3.6. Flexural strength 3.6.1. Actual stress in pre-stressing strand under final conditions 3.6.2. Calculate depth of compressive stress block, and therefore determine if rectangular section can be assumed, or if T section can be used 3.6.3. Calculate allowable moment and compare it to actual moment 3.7. Reinforcing limits 3.7.1. Maximum reinforcing 3.7.2. Minimum reinforcing 3.7.2.1. Minimum shall be the lesser of 1.2*Mcr or 1.33*the factored moment. That is to say if the allowable moment is < 1.2*Mcr then calculate the required based on 4/3 3.7.2.2. Calculate Mcr based on the AASHTO standard spec method. The LRFD code does not state a method to be used. 3.8. Shear design 3.8.1. List of all code requirements 3.8.2. Required spacing of transverse reinforcement 3.8.2.1. Effective shear depth dv 3.8.2.2. Factored moment 3.8.2.3. Resistance factor 3.8.2.4. Force Vp, this force is not present because there are not any harped strands 3.8.2.5. Shear stress in the concrete 3.8.2.6. Calculate the maximum spacing of the transverse reinforcing 3.8.2.7. Calculate phi and beta factors 3.8.2.7.1. Strain in the reinforcement 3.8.2.7.2. Factors from table 5.8.3.4.2-1 3.8.2.8. Nominal resistance of concrete 3.8.2.9. Required strength from reinforcing 3.8.2.10. Required stirrup spacing at point of maximum shear 3.8.2.11. Check minimum allowable transverse reinforcing 3.9. Bursting resistance 3.10. Interface shear (horizontal shear) 3.10.1. Code requirements 3.10.2. Nominal shear resistance 3.10.3. Applied shear 3.10.4. Check of all points Mathcad output of all the above Conspan output Details

Slab design
1. 2. Interior bay slab design 1.1. Design conditions for using the emperical method 1.2. Transvese and distribution reinforcing using the emperical method Overhang design 2.1. The three cases that the LRFD code states to check 2.2. Calculation of equivalent strip width 2.3. Case I 2.3.1. Design forces for test level 3 (Ft, Fl, Fv) 2.3.2. Design moment 2.3.3. Required reinforcing total over equivalent strip width 2.3.4. Required reinforcing per foot 2.3.5. Spacing of bars 2.4. Case II 2.4.1. Applied moment 2.4.2. Applied moment for case II is < than that for Case I, therefore case II does not control 2.5. Case III 2.5.1. Applied moment 2.5.2. Applied moment for case II is < than that for Case I, therefore case II does not control 2.6. Revisit distribution reinforcement Main slab reinforcement (for negative moment) 3.1. Output from mathcad 3.2. Given data 3.2.1. Section properties 3.2.2. Applied moments used will be those generated by Qcon 3.3. Strength design 3.3.1. Minimum reinforcing 3.3.1.1. The minimum shall be the lesser of 1.2*Mcr or 1.33* the factored moment. Therefore if the allowable is < 1.2*Mcr I shall provide 4/3*As 3.3.1.2. Cracking moment 3.3.2. Flexural strength approach formulas 3.3.2.1. Calculation of depth of compressive stress block 3.3.2.2. Flexural strength formulas for rectangular section and T section. 3.3.3. Output table showing all the design values 3.4. Check crack control 3.4.1. Code requirements 3.4.2. Calculate actual stress in bars 3.4.2.1. A description of the approach that I used for calculating the applied stress 3.4.2.2. Stress for min steel 3.4.2.3. Stress for max steel 3.4.3. Allowable stress 3.4.4. Check actual against allowable 3.5. Check fatigue in the bars, for max and min steel 3.5.1. Description of the whitney (ACI) stress block 3.5.2. Fatigue truck moments 3.5.3. Check for rectangular or T section 3.5.4. Stress formulas for positive or negative sign moments 3.5.5. Stress range 3.5.6. Allowable stress 3.5.7. Tabulated output table of all points 3.6. Embedment length 3.7. Bar splice lengths Details

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BENT LOADS 1. Loads 1.1. LL per foot of lane 1.2. DL per beam 1.3. Column DL 1.4. Cap beam DL 1.5. LL 1.5.1. The different cases to be used 1.5.2. Calculation of loads to be sent to structural analysis Other loads 2.1. Centrifugal force; NOTE: my bridge does not have any centrifugal force over the bents, but I went through the calculations anyway just to show how they are done. 2.2. Braking force 2.3. Stream pressure 2.4. Wind on structures 2.4.1. Calculate the design wind velocity 2.4.2. Wind on super structure 2.4.3. Wind on sub-structure 2.4.3.1. Transverse wind 2.4.3.2. Longitudinal wind 2.5. Wind pressure on vehicles 2.6. Temperature 2.7. Output from mathcad 2.8. Summary 2.9. Output from visual analysis 2.10. Correct output to be used

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COLUMN DESIGN
1. Group loading combinations 1.1. Table from LRFD code showing different loading combinations 1.2. Hand calculations for case I showing service I to III and strength I to V 1.3. Output from mathcad showing output for all cases 1.4. Output from mathcad showing final values to be used for service and strength 1.5. Calculation of slenderness ratio 1.6. Preparation of output for column and footing design 1.7. Output from mathcad for column design Correct output from mathcad Confinement reinforcing for seismic category B 3.1. LRFD minimum sectional area requirements 3.2. Requirements for transverse direction 3.3. Requirements for longitudinal direction Details

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CAP BEAM DESIGN


1. Loads 1.1. Sort LL shear and moment output from VA 1.2. Service I loads shear and moment (input DC and DW loads here) 1.3. Strength I shear and moment Strength design 2.1. Given values for material strengths, and applied loads 2.2. I shall try 2 rows of reinforcing 2.3. Minimum reinforcing 2.3.1. The minimum shall be the lesser of 1.2*Mcr or 1.33* the factored moment. Therefore if the allowable is < 1.2*Mcr I shall provide 4/3*As 2.3.2. Cracking moment 2.4. Required reinforcement based on strength Crack control 3.1. LRFD code approach 3.2. SL stress in bars 3.3. Allowable stress Shear design 4.1. All the applicable code 4.2. Calculation of effective shear depth 4.3. Max spacing of stirrups 4.4. Beta and phi factors 4.5. Resistance provided by the concrete alone 4.6. Required spacing 4.7. Compare to shear design by AASHTO standard spec Output from mathcad Correct output Details

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FOOTING DESIGN
1. 2. Table showing when to use the strength limit state and when to use the service limit state Loads (allowable and applied) 2.1. Strength limit state loads 2.2. Service limit state loads 2.3. Because I do not have any allowable bearing pressures, I shall use the presumptive mehtod of LRFD 10.6.2.3.1. the allowable that I shall use is 10 ksf. The code states that I can use 10 tons per sf, but I shall use 10 ksf to be safe. The code also states that if the presumptive method is used that the service limit state shall be used. Spread footing 3.1. Preliminary footing dimensions 3.1.1. Footing depth. Minimum depths were figured based on development lengths for reinforcement from the column, and the depth of seismic reinforcement. 3.1.2. Footing length and width 3.1.3. I cheated and did my iterations with my mathcad sheet. I shall do the hand calculations based on 15.5x15.5x4.0 3.1.4. Constants for inertia, and CL to outer edge 3.2. Check eccentricity of load 3.3. SL bearing pressure check 3.4. Bending moment 3.4.1. The mathcad output indicates that strength IV governs for transverse moment, and strength I governs for longitudinal moment 3.4.2. Transverse moment reinforcing 3.4.2.1. Applied moment 3.4.2.2. Required steel. I shall increase this value by 4/3 to take care of any cracking moment problems that might occur 3.4.2.3. Approximate spacing to be used 3.4.3. Longitudinal moment reinforcing 3.4.3.1. Applied moment 3.4.3.2. Required steel. I shall increase this value by 4/3 to take care of any cracking moment problems that might occur 3.4.3.3. Approximate spacing to be used 3.5. Shear checks 3.5.1. Code requirements 3.5.2. One way shear 3.5.2.1. Longitudinal direction 3.5.2.1.1. Effective shear depth 3.5.2.1.2. Location of critical section 3.5.2.1.3. Applied shear 3.5.2.1.4. Allowable shear 3.5.2.2. Transverse direction 3.5.2.2.1. Effective shear depth 3.5.2.2.2. Location of critical section 3.5.2.2.3. Applied shear 3.5.2.2.4. Allowable shear 3.5.3. Two way shear 3.5.3.1. Perimeter of shear plane 3.5.3.2. Average bearing pressure, loaded area 3.5.3.3. Applied shear 3.5.3.4. Allowable shear 3.6. Output from mathcad Pile footing 4.1. Preliminary footing dimensions

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4.1.1. Footing depth. Minimum depths were figured based on development lengths for reinforcement from the column, and the depth of seismic reinforcement. I shall use a depth that is 1 ft deeper than that of the spread footing 4.1.2. Footing length and width 4.1.3. I cheated and did my iterations with my mathcad sheet. I shall do the hand calculations based on 13.0x13.0x5.0 4.1.4. Constants for inertia of pile group, distance to outer pile, and additional load per pile from self weight. 4.2. SL bearing force on piles 4.3. Bending moment 4.3.1. The mathcad output indicates that strength V governs for transverse moment, and strength I governs for longitudinal moment 4.3.2. Transverse moment reinforcing 4.3.2.1. Applied moment 4.3.2.2. Required steel. I shall increase this value by 4/3 to take care of any cracking moment problems that might occur 4.3.2.3. Approximate spacing to be used 4.3.3. Longitudinal moment reinforcing 4.3.3.1. Applied moment 4.3.3.2. Required steel. I shall increase this value by 4/3 to take care of any cracking moment problems that might occur 4.3.3.3. Approximate spacing to be used 4.4. Shear checks 4.4.1. Code requirements 4.4.2. One way shear 4.4.2.1. Longitudinal direction shear plane is off the footing 4.4.2.2. Transverse direction shear plane is off the footing 4.4.3. Two way shear 4.4.3.1. Perimeter of shear plane 4.4.3.2. Number of effective piles 4.4.3.3. Applied shear 4.4.3.4. Allowable shear 4.5. Output from mathcad Correct output from mathcad Details