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M.

Vable

One-dimensional heat conduction

Axial Member Differential Equation d du EA = p x dx d x EA= Axial Rigidity px= force per unit length Heat Conduction d dT k = qx d x d x k= Thermal conductivity qx= Heat flow (source) per unit length. fx=heat flux per unit area= qxA T= Temperature dT dx Positive: Flow into body Heat Capacity: Heat flow: q = k 1 dT 2 - U T = -- k dx 2 dx
L L m

u= Displacement in x-direction Internal axial force: N = EA Strain Energy: 1 du 2 U = -- EA dx d x 2

L

du dx

Work Potential:
L m

W A = p x u dx +
0

Fq u ( xq )
q=1

WT =

qx T dx + Qq T ( xq )
0 q=1

Functional

Potential Energy A = UA WA
n

T = UT WT
n

Rayleigh-Ritz u( x) = Matrix K jk Right Hand Side Vector

L

Ci fi ( x )
i=1

T(x) =

Ci fi ( x )
i=1 L

df j df k = EA dx d x d x
0 L m

K jk =
L

k d x d x dx
0 m

df j df k

Rj =

px fj
0

dx +

Fq fj ( xq )
q=1

R j = q x f j dx +
0

Qq fj ( xq )
q=1

Other Applications:
Flow through pipes; Flow through porous media; Electrostatics By non-dimensionalizing the problem a software can be used to solve all the above applications.

M. Vable

Notes for finite element method: Thermal Analysis

Linear Elements:
T = T1 L1 ( x ) + T2 L2 ( x ) [K
(e) (e) (e)

Q1
(e)

(e)

Q2
(e)

(e)

k ] = --------) 1 1 (e L 1 1
(e) (e)

{R

(e) (e) (e) qx L 1 Q1 } = ----------------- + 2 1 (e) Q 2 (e) (e) (e) fx L 1 Q1 } = ---------------- + A 2 1 Q( e ) 2

(e)

[K

(e)

k A ] = ------------------ 1 1 (e) 1 1 L

{R

(e)

T = T1 L1 ( x ) + T2 L2 ( x ) + T3 L3 ( x ) 7 8 1 k (e) [ K ] = ------------ 8 16 8 (e) 3L 1 8 7
(e) (e) (e) (e)

Q1

(e) (e)

Q3
(e) (e) 1 qx L

Q1 (e) { R } = ----------------- 4 + 0 6 (e) 1 Q3

Class Problem 1
Heat qo is being added at point B at a constant rate as shown in Fig. 1. Using two linear elements determine the temperature at point B and the heat flowing out at A and C in terms of k, L, and qo for the following two cases: (a) The ends of the bar are maintained at a constant zero temperature. (b) The ends of the bars are maintained at a constant temperature To.
qo A L B C 2L A L 3qo B L qo C L D

Fig .1

Fig .2

Home Problem 1
Heat 3qo is being added at point B and qo is being taken out at a constant rate at point C as shown in Fig. 2. Using three linear elements determine the temperature at points B and C and the heat flowing out at A and D in terms of k, L, and qo for the following two cases: (a) The ends of the bar are maintained at a constant zero temperature. (b) The ends of the bars A and D are maintained at a temperature To and 2To, respectively. ANS: TB = ( 5qo L ) 3k T C = ( q o L ) 3k q A = ( 5q o 3 )

M. Vable

Notes for finite element method: Thermal Analysis

Thermal Stresses
Stress-strain curve with temperature effects
Normal Stress

O T

O1

-E

Normal Strain

= -- + T = -- + o E E
where, = linear coefficient of thermal expansion. o = Initial strain= Thermal strain unconstrained body due to uniform temperature changes.

No thermal stresses are produced in a homogenous, isotropic,

Axial Problem
We assume that the thermal problem and stress analysis problem can be solved independently.
xx = E ( xx o )
L

U AT

1 = -- xx ( xx o ) dV = 2
V L L

-- E ( xx o ) 2
0 L

A dx or
L L

U AT

1 1 du 2 du 1 2 2 = -- EA xx dx EA xx o dx + -- EA o dx = -- EA dx EA o dx + U o d x d x 2 2 2
0 L 0 m 0 0 0

WA =

px ( x )u ( x ) dx + Fq u ( xq )
0 L q=1

A = U AT W A

1 du 2 du = -- EA dx EA o dx + U o d x d x 2
0 0

px ( x )u ( x ) dx + Fq u ( xq )
0 q=1

M. Vable

Notes for finite element method: Thermal Analysis

1 du 2 = -- EA dx + U o d x 2
0 L m

px ( x )u ( x ) dx + Fq u ( xq ) + EAo d x dx
du
0 L q=1 0

= U A W AT

W AT =
L

px ( x )u ( x ) dx + Fq u ( xq ) + EAo d x dx
du
0 q=1 L L 0 0

du I = EA o dx = EA o u ( x ) d x
0

d o EA u dx = EATu ( x ) dx
0 L

L L 0

d EA T u dx dx
0

0 L m

W AT =

[ px ( x ) + pxT ( x ) ]u ( x ) dx + Fq u ( xq ) + FT2 u ( L ) + FT1 u ( 0 )

0 q=1

where,

F T1 EAT 1 = F T2 EAT 2 qx = 0

EA p xT = ----------- q x k

Special case: Constant Temperature Change

T = Cons tan t

[K
(e)

EA ] = ------- 1 1 L 1 1

{R

(e)

(e) (e) p o L 1 p To L 1 F 1 F T1 } = -------- + ----------- + + 2 1 2 1 (e) (e) F 2 F T2

(e)

[K

7 8 1 EA ] = ------- 8 16 8 3L 1 8 7

F(e ) 1 1 1 p o L p To L { R } = -------- 4 + ----------- 4 + 0 6 6 1 1 F(e ) 3

F( e ) T1 0 + F( e ) T3

M. Vable

Notes for finite element method: Thermal Analysis

Class Problem 2
Heat qo is being added at point B at a constant rate as shown in Fig. 3. Using two quadratic elements determine the displacement of node B, reaction force at A and the axial stress just before B in terms of E, A, , k, L, and qo. Assume that the entire bar was at zero temperature and the ends of the bars are maintained at zero temperature.
qo A L B C 2L A L 3qo B L qo C L D

Fig .3

Fig .4

Home Problem 2
Heat 3qo is being added at point B and qo is being taken out at a constant rate at point C as shown in Fig. 4. Using three linear elements determine the displacements of points B and C, the reaction force at A, and the axial stress just before B in terms of E, A, , k, L, and qo. Assume that the entire bar was at zero temperature and the ends of the bars are maintained at zero temperature. ANS: u B
5q o L = -----------------18k
2

uC

7q o L = -----------------18k

5EAq o L R A = -----------------------9k

M. Vable

Notes for finite element method: Thermal Analysis

Differential Equation:
T T k 2 + 2 = qv x y
2 2

or

k T = q v

UT = T T k x + y
2 2

t dx dy

where t= thickness of the body.

T T x x U T = [ k ] t dx dy T A T y y
T

Isotropic material:

[k] = k

---scaler quantity.

Element Approximation:
(e) T1 n T(e ) 2 (e) T ( x ) = T i f i ( x, y ) = f 1 f 2 f n i=1 (e) Tn

fi(x,y) are Lagrange Polynomials.

T f 1 f 2 x x x = T f 1 f 2 y y y f 3 f n x x f 3 f n y y (e) T1 (e) T2 (e) Tn (e) (e) = [B ]{d }

UT =

-- { d 2

(e) T

} [B

(e) T

] [k

(e)

][B

(e)

]{d

(e)

M. Vable

[ KT ] =
(e)

[B
A

(e) T

] [k

(e)

][B

(e)

]t dx dy

Heat Conduction Boundary Conditions

k T T T = k n x + n y = q n x n y

where,

n= direction of the unit normal to the boundary. nx, ny = direction cosines of the unit normal to the boundary. qn = specified heat flow in the n-direction on the boundary.

Right Hand Side Vector:

(e) { R } = qv (e) A f1 f2 t dx dy + q n (e) fn f1 f2 t ds fn

where,

= the boundary of the element. s= tangential coordinate along the element boundary.
T = h ( Tf T ) n

(e)

Convection Boundary Conditions

k

where,

h = convection heat transfer coefficients Tf = Temperature of the surrounding fluid h depends upon many factors: velocity of fluid, viscosity of fluid, density of fluid, and other properties of fluid. It also depends upon the surface roughness and surface geometry. Addition to Element Matrix: Addition to Element Right Hand Side Vector:
K ij = Ri
(e) (e)

(e)

f i f j t ds f i T f t ds

(e)

(e)

(e)

If

is an element boundary in the interior, then there is no convection there and hence no addition to the matrix or the element RHS vector.

(e)

M. Vable

Notes for finite element method: Thermal Analysis

Heat radiated is proportional to the difference in the fourth power of temperature between the radiating bodies.
k T 4 4 = BC ( Tr T ) n

where,

BC is the proportionality constant. Tr is the temperature of the other radiating body. Temperatures Tr and T are in absolute degrees i.e., oK.

For two infinite parallel black bodies (planes) it is called the Boltzmann
constant. For regular bodies BC depends upon the emissivity of the bodies, the geometry and other factors. Radiation boundary conditions lead to non-linear thermal problem. A general approach is:
k T 2 2 = BC ( Tr + T ) ( Tr + T ) ( Tr T ) = hr ( Tr T ) n

In the iteration process, at each step treat the radiation boundary condition like a convection term with coefficient dependent upon the temperature at a particular step.