Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 21

Inorganic Commodity Chemicals

HYDROCHLORIC ACID
HYDROCHLORIC ACID

ChE 313 Industrial Chemistry

Lecture

Engr. May V. Tampus

Hydrochloric Acid:

interesting facts

Hydrochloric Acid: interesting facts  Found naturally in the gases evolved from volcanoes  Present in
 Found naturally in the gases evolved from volcanoes  Present in the atmosphere of the
Found naturally in the gases evolved
from volcanoes
Present
in
the
atmosphere
of
the
planet Venus
Present in the digestive system
most mammals
of
Listed
as
one
of the prohibited
substance

Hydrochloric Acid Production

Hydrochloric Acid Production *Data source: Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Today worldwide usage of HCl exceeds

*Data source: Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology

Today worldwide usage of HCl exceeds 20 M tons annually.

Industrial Uses of HCl

 Descaling agent   Catalyst in food processing Regenerant of ion-exchange resins  Pickling liquor
Descaling agent
Catalyst in food processing
Regenerant of ion-exchange
resins
Pickling liquor to dissolve
Gelatin manufacture
mill scales in steel industry
Soy sauce production
Dissolve pulverized stone
during petroleum operation –
oil-well acidiIng
Magnesia and metal
production
CaCl 2 manufacture
Oil & gas well acidizing
Production of high-fructose
corn syrup (HFCS)
Manufacture of chemical
intermediates, e.g., FeCl 3 ,
ZnCl 2 , Al 2 Cl 3 , etc.
Manufacture of dyes, phenols, &
plastics
Ore reduction (Mn, Ra, V, Ta,
Sn, W)
pH control and neutralization
Leather processing

Hydrochloric Acid

Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrochloric Acid

Forms of Hydrochloric Acid

Hydrogen chloride: gas at ordinary temperature

Hydrochloric acid: aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride

Muriatic acid: commercial grade of HCl solution; clear colorless to slightly

yellow liquid with a strong pungent

and irritating odor; strong and highly corrosive; soluble in water and alcohol

but insoluble in hydrocarbon

Forms of Hydrochloric Acid  Hydrogen chloride: gas at ordinary temperature  Hydrochloric acid: aqueous solution

Common Grades of Muriatic Acid

Density Mass % HCl Specific gravity O Be 27.92 1.1417 18 31.45 1.1600 20 35.21 1.1789
Density
Mass %
HCl
Specific gravity
O Be
27.92
1.1417 18
31.45
1.1600 20
35.21
1.1789 22

Industrial Grades of HCl

1) Concentrated grade 38-40%

2) Bulk-industrial grade 30-34% (optimized for transport & limit product loss)

3) Household grade 10-12% (intended for cleaning)

Industrial Grades of HCl 1) Concentrated grade – 38-40% 2) Bulk-industrial grade – 30-34% (optimized for

Physical Properties of Hydrochloric Acid

Properties

Value

Molar mass

36.46 g/mol

Melting point

-114.8 o C

Boiling point

-84.9 o C

Specific gravity

1.84

Solubility in water

720 g/L (at 20 o C)

Vapor pressure

423 kPa

pKa

-7

pKb

21.0

NFPA ratings

Health: 3 Flammability: 0 Reactivity: 1 Other: ACID

Stability

Stable under ordinary conditions

Thermochemistry of HCl

Thermodynamic Properties

Std enthalpy of formation Δ f H o

298

Std enthalpy of combustion Δ c H o

298

Standard molar entropy S o Specific heat capacity, C

298

92.31 kJ mol -1

95.31 kJ mol -1

186.902 J K -1 mol -1

0.7981 J K -1 g -

Chemical Properties of Hydrochloric Acid

Chemical Properties of Hydrochloric Acid • Hydrochloric acid readily ionizes in water: HCl (g) + H
Chemical Properties of Hydrochloric Acid • Hydrochloric acid readily ionizes in water: HCl (g) + H

Hydrochloric acid readily ionizes in water:

HCl (g) + H 2 O(l) Cl - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq)

Even in the absence of water it still reacts as an acid to form:

HCl (g) + CH 3 OH (l) Cl - (aq) + CH 3 O + H 2 (aq)

Industrial Production of Hydrochloric Acid

  • Direct Synthesis from hydrogen and chlorine

  • Decomposition of metal chlorides by acids

  • As by-product from chemical

processes

  • Recovery by incineration of waste organics

  • Recovery from hydrochloric acid solutions

Industrial Production of Hydrochloric Acid  Direct Synthesis from hydrogen and chlorine  Decomposition of metal

Synthesis from Hydrogen and Chlorine

Less than 10% of HCl in U.S.

is made via this reaction

 

Reaction

is

adiabatic

and

takes place in an HCl burner

or HCl oven

Acid

produced

is

called

BURNER ACID

H Cl 2 HCl 184 k J (44 kcal ) 2 ( ) g 2 (
H
Cl
2
HCl
184
k J
(44
kcal
)
2 ( )
g
2 ( )
g
(
g
)

Synthesis from Hydrogen and Chlorine

PROCESS CONDITIONS

Temperature: 2490 o C Pressure: 14 kPa

Rapid cooling of free H 2 & Cl 2 to 200 o C

Equilibrium mixture contains 4.2% v/v free Cl 2

Use a stoichiometric amount of feed gas mixture in order to produce 99% HCl

  • 30-32% HCl (burner acid) is produced

by absorption

Decomposition of Metal Chlorides by Acids

  • 1. Salt-Sulfuric Acid (Saltcake) Process

NaCl + H 2 SO 4 HCl + NaHSO 4 at 150 o C (1) NaCl + NaHSO 4 HCl + Na 2 SO 4 at 550-660 o C (2)

  • Both reactions are endothermic.

  • Reactions occur in a Mannheim mechanical furnace.

  • Produces 30-60% HCl

Decomposition of Metal Chlorides by Acids 1. Salt-Sulfuric Acid (Saltcake) Process  NaCl + H SO

Decomposition of Metal Chlorides by Acids

2. Hargreaves Process & Leblanc Process

2SO 2 + O 2 + 2H 2 O + 4NaCl 4HCl + 2Na 2 SO 4

  • Reaction is at 4000-5500 o C

  • Reaction is self-sustaining.

  • Reaction is exothermic.

  • Produces 10-12% HCl

Hydrogen chloride as By-products from

Chemical Processes

1.

As

a

by-product

in

chlorination

of

both

aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons

integration of organic and inorganic chemicals industry

Hydrogen chloride as By-products from Chemical Processes 1. As a by-product in chlorination of both aromatic
Hydrogen chloride as By-products from Chemical Processes 1. As a by-product in chlorination of both aromatic

RH + Cl 2 RCl + HCl RCl + HF RF + HCl

Hydrogen chloride as By-products from

Chemical Processes

2. As a by-product of the Leblanc Process

NaCl + H 2 SO 4 NaHSO 4 + HCl NaHSO 4 + NaCl Na 2 SO 4 + HCl

4HCl + MnO 2 2Cl 2 + MnCl 2 + H 2 O Na 2 SO 4 + C + CaCO 3 Na 2 CO 3 + CaSO 4 Na 2 CO 3 + Ca(OH) 2 2NaOH + CaCO 3

Hydrogen chloride as By-products from

Chemical Processes

3.

As

a

by-product

Isocyanate

of

the

Manufacture

of

Hydrogen chloride as By-products from Chemical Processes 3. As a by-product Isocyanate of the Manufacture of

RNH 2 + COCl 2 RNCO + 2HCl

But HCl cannot be recycled other than the regeneration of chlorine!

Group Assignment

INSTRUCTION:S Write your answer on a short bondpaper. Cite references used. Submit assignment on July 13, WED, not later than 5:00 PM. Group members must affix their signature.

  • 1. Enumerate at least five industries which use hydrochloric acid and describe how HCl is used or applied in each industry.

  • 2. List down at least seven chemical reactions of HCl with other compounds. Literature source: Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia.

  • 3. Identify

the

presented.

sources

of raw materials for each production method

  • 4. Tabulate the operating temperature, operating pressure, enthalpy of reaction, yield, and other process conditions for the following:

    • a. Production of HCl via the Saltcake process

    • b. Productio of HCl via the Hargreaves process

    • c. Production of HCl as by-product of chlorination of benzene

    • d. Production of HCl as by-product of the Leblanc process

    • e. Production of HCl as by-product of the Isocyanate manufacture