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Anatomy and Physiology of Urinary Tract Infection

1.Human urinary system: 2. Kidney 3. Renal pelvis 4. Ureter,5. Urinary bladder, 6.Urethra


The kidney are organs with several functions. They are seen in many types of animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are an essential part of the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid-base balance, and regulation of blood pressure. They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium; the kidneys also are responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids. The kidneys also produce hormones including calcitriol, renin, anderythropoietin. Located at the rear of the abdominal cavity in the retroperitoneum, the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries, and drain into the paired renal veins. Each kidney excretes urine into a ureter, itself a paired structure that empties into the urinary bladder. Renal physiology is the study of kidney function, while nephrology is the medical specialty concerned with kidney diseases. Diseases of the kidney are diverse, but individuals with kidney disease frequently display characteristic clinical features. Common clinical conditions involving the kidney include the nephritic and nephrotic syndromes, renal cysts, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, urinary tract infection, nephrolithiasis, and urinary tract obstruction.Various cancers of the kidney exist; the most common adult renal cancer is renal cell carcinoma. Cancers, cysts, and some other renal conditions can be managed with removal of the kidney, or nephrectomy. When renal function, measured by glomerular filtration rate, is persistently poor, dialysis and kidney transplantation may be treatment options. Although they are not severely harmful, kidney stones can be a pain and a nuisance. The removal of kidney stones includes sound wave treatment, which breaks up the stones into

smaller pieces which are then passed through the urinary tract. One common symptom of kidney stones is a sharp pain in the medial/lateral segments of the lower back. Renal Pelvis 6.) Renal Pelvis

The renal pelvis is the funnel-like dilated proximal part of the ureter in the kidney.In humans, the renal pelvis is the point of convergence of two or three major calyces. Each renal papilla is surrounded by a branch of the renal pelvis called a calyx. The major function of the renal pelvis is to act as a funnel for urine flowing to the ureter. The renal pelvis is the location of several kinds of kidney cancer. Its mucous membrane is covered with transitional epithelium, and an underlying lamina propria of loose to dense connective tissue.


In human anatomy, the ureters are muscular tubes that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. In the adult, the ureters are usually 2530 cm (1012 in) long and ~3-4 mm in diameter. In humans, the ureters arise from the renal pelvis on the medial aspect of each kidney before descending towards the bladder on the front of the psoas major muscle. The ureters cross the pelvic brim near the bifurcation of the iliac arteries (which they run over). This is a common site for the impaction of kidney stones (the others beings the ureterovesical valve and the pelviureteric junction where the ureter joins the renal pelvis in the renal hilum). The ureters run posteroinferiorly on the lateral walls of the pelvis and then curve anteriormedially to enter the bladder through the back, at the vesicoureteric junction, running within the wall of the bladder for a few centimetres. The backflow of urine is prevented by valves known as ureterovesical valves.In females, the ureters pass through the mesometrium and under the uterine arteries on the way to the urinary bladder.

Urinary Bladder

In human anatomy, the urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination. A hollow muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ, the bladder sits on the pelvic floor. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra. Bladders occur throughout much of the animal kingdom, but are very diverse in form and in some cases are not homologous with the urinary bladder in humans. Embryologically, the human urinary bladder is derived from the urogenital sinus and, it is initially continuous with the allantois. In males, the base of the bladder lies between the rectum and the pubic symphysis. It is superior to the prostate, and separated from the rectum by the rectovesical excavation. In females, the bladder sits inferior to the uterus and anterior to the vagina. It is

separated from the uterus by the vesicouterine excavation. In infants and young children, the urinary bladder is in theabdomeneven when empty. Urethra

Urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the genitals for removal out of the body. In males, the urethra travels through the penis, and carries semen as well as urine. In females, the urethra is shorter and emerges above the vaginal opening. The external urethral sphincter is a striated muscle that allows voluntary control over urination. Female urethra In the human female, the urethra is about 1.52 inches (45 cm) long and exits the body between the clitoris and the vagina, extending from the internal to the external urethral orifice. It is placed behind the symphysis pubis, embedded in the anterior wall of the vagina, and its direction is obliquely downward and forward; it is slightly curved with the concavity directed forward. Its lining is composed of stratified squamous epithelium, which becomes transitional near the bladder. The urethra consists of three coats: muscular, erectile, and mucous, the muscular layer being a continuation of that of the bladder. Between the superior and inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, the female urethra is surrounded by the Sphincter urethae (urethral sphincter). Somatic (conscious) innervation of the external urethral sphincter is supplied by the pudendal nerve. The uro-genital sinus may be divided into three component parts. The first of these is the cranial portion which is continuous with the allantois and forms the bladder proper. The pelvic part of the sinus forms the prostatic urethra and epithelium as well as the membranous urethra and bulbo urethral glands in the male and the membranous urethra and part of the vagina in females.

Male urethra In the human male, the urethra is about 8 inches (20 cm) long and opens at the end of the penis. The urethra provides an exit for urine as well as semen during ejaculation.