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ABSTRACT

VFDs are solid state devices for converting 3-phase AC line voltage to a quasisinusoidal pulse width modulated (PWM) waveform in which the frequency and voltage level can be varied. The output is a series of narrow voltage pulses having constant amplitude but sinusoidal-varying widths. Internally, VFDs consist of three main sections: an AC-to-DC converter based on Arectifier Bridge of diodes, a DC bus that filters and smoothes out the rectifier output, and a DC-to-AC inverter to change the DC back to AC. The inverter, which is most typically based on insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) technology, creates the variable voltage and frequency output that will control the motors speed. A microprocessor in the VFD, with programming resident in firmware, governs the overall operation of the device. VFDs allow a motors speed to be varied electrically instead of by mechanical means. This permits much greater efficiency and flexibility of operation. They are capable of controlling both the speed of the motor and the torque. Without a VFD, industrial induction motors run at full speed continuously; valves, or other mechanical methods, are employed to control the machine output. Unfortunately, running a motor at maximum speed regardless of the varying demands of production means a great deal of electric power is wasted. Another benefit of VFDs is their soft-start capability in which motors are ramped up to speed instead of being abruptly thrown on line. This useful feature reduces mechanical stresses on the entire motor system and leads to lower maintenance costs, as well as a longer motor life. Still another benefit is improved process control. Since industrial process throughput in most operations depends on a range of variables, a motor that is only able to operate at a constant speed even when one or more process variables change might contribute to creation of scrap, not to mention wasted energy. With a VFD, motor speed can be changed almost instantaneously to adapt to changing process conditions. Building a Reliable

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INTRODUCTION
The Company was incorporated on 29th June 1964 as "The Ramadas Paper Mills Ltd." at Rajahmundry. The Ramadas Paper Mills Ltd. was formed with infusion of funds and high calibre management of the well-known industrial house. Ramadas Paper Mills Ltd. has adopted the Sulphate (Kraft) Process for Pulping. Our major raw materials are Casuarinas and Subabul. These raw materials are chipped in drum type of chippers in a fixed proportion and the chips are screened to get the required size (5mm - 35mm). The dust generated is fed to a Bio-Gas plant to generate producer gas. This producer gas is used in Lime kilns to replace Furnace oil. RPM has had a consistent track record of profitability and dividend distribution and is committed to the creation and increase in value of its shareholders and other stakeholders. Writing and Printing Hi Bright Maplitho Cream wove Colour Printing Others Industrial White Poster Color Poster Stiffner Coating Base Copier Office Documentation Multipurpose Color Copier

Pulp Board Blade Wrapper Deluxe Cover Deluxe Ribbed Kraft


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Cup Stock

Integrity of management, union, staff, workers and all people associated with us. Eco-friendly Process, Innovative Value Engineering, Human Engineering, Technology for better Quality and cost effectiveness, Customer satisfaction for untainted growth and business. Consistently increased Profitability for prosperity and growth of the individual and industry. Corporate citizenship for meeting societal objectives. The Values of RPM are: i) Employee Empowerment for commitment to total quality, ii) Team efforts and increased productivity, iii) Ethical Management Practices for Esteem & Credibility. RPM to a very great extent has been successful in unifying quality with eco friendliness. The Company strictly follows the highest-standards-of-quality. This is reflected in the wide acceptance of its products around India. Almost 90 percent of all the wood procured comes from its various farm forestry efforts i.e. from high quality seedlings. This not only ensures better quality raw materials that translate to finer quality products but also a continuous and dependable source of raw materials supply. The ongoing MDP will further help the Company adopt better production techniques which in turn will help ensure even better quality products. Key benefits of the MDP in relation to quality will come in the areas of: The pulp produced will have a brightness of more than 88 percent which when compared to the present brightness levels of 84 percent is significantly higher. RPM will be able to focus its attention towards finer quality alkaline sized papers which
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will facilitate permanence. RPM will be able to improve the quality of copier paper and will be able to increase its brightness to 95 percent. Better technology and better processes will help reduce usage of certain chemicals and increased strength of the pulp which will help improve the papers properties. Elevated quality of the products and services will help us attain zero levels of customer complaints. As the process of bleaching changes and the use of chlorine gas is made redundant, the physical impact to the environment will reduce dramatically.

CHAPTER-1 Introduction of VFD


Variable Frequency Drives

VFDs adjust the speed of a driven shaft to a predetermined speed, often this is done via an automatic speed selection process. These automatic processors often use reference signals generated by other devices, drives, controllers, limiters etc. VFDs can control speeds to within 0.1% tolerance and are the control system of choice in many speed control applications. Typical VFD Applications

Marine propulsion, power generation, dynamic positioning, and work vessel systems. Oil & Gas control systems for pumps, gas and diesel engines, compressors, turbines, boilers, conveyers. Environmental in waste water, potable water, pollution control, pumping, desalination, ozone regeneration. Industrial Paper Mills, Cement Plants, Mining Controls, Car Plants, Steel Mills,

Advantages of VFDs Good process control, no other AC motor control method compares in accuracy and ease of use. Cost savings, by better control of motors, a motor run at half speed only uses 25% of the energy it needs at full speed.
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Smooth start and stop, single speed motors go from stop to full speed abruptly leading to early failures. Reduces motor over heating. VFDs can run special operating patterns for complex processes.

Disadvantages of VFDs

Produces noise due to PWM that can interfere with other susceptible circuits. Reflected Wave Voltages. EMI both reflected and conducted. Noise can lead to drive over current, circuit malfunction, and motor bearing failures. Need to keep cable runs short to limit noise.

Solutions for VFD Disadvantages Develop a cable that reduces the amount of noise produced by the VFD. Make sure such a cable is commercially viable. Develop a Type VFD Cable that combines the user friendly features of the other Gexol Brand Cables. Type VFD exists, is installed, and recommended by several VFD Manufacturers.

Type VFD Advantages

Extremely low dielectric constant reduces cable capacitance, reduces CM current, and reduces motor bearing currents. Lower capacitance allows for longer cable lengths. Smaller mismatch between cable and motor surge impedances reduces reflected wave voltages. Cable symmetry reduces impedance imbalances. 2kV insulation thickness prevents corona inception at 3 x voltage spikes normally seen from VFDs. Combination foil + braid shield and insulated ground wires return reflected wave and common mode currents back to the drive. Combination shield/ground system reduces EMI, both conducted and radiated. Higher temperature rating of Type P Insulation withstands high heat conditions caused by high motor loads.

Non-Electrical Advantages of Type VFD Extremely flexible, makes it easy to install. Small bend radius.
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UL listed as Marine Shipboard Cable, Type TC, and Open Wiring. ABS, DNV, and LRS Type Approved. Open Wiring marking allows installation of cable without using conduit or cable tray for the first/last 20m runs. Suitable for use in Class 1, Division 1 (if armored) and Class 1, Division 2 hazardous areas. Vibration suitability. Reduced installed cost.

Chapter-2 VFD OPERATION


Operation of VFD:
Understanding the basic principles behind VFD operation requires understanding the three basic sections of the VFD: the rectifier, dc bus, and inverter. The voltage on an alternating current (ac) power supply rises and falls in the pattern of a sine wave * When the voltage is positive, current flows in one direction; when the voltage is negative, the current flows in the opposite direction. This type of power system enables large amounts of energy to be efficiently transmitted over great distances. The rectifier in a VFD is used to convert incoming ac power into direct current (dc) power. One rectifier will allow power to pass through only when the voltage is positive. A second rectifier will allow power to pass through only when the voltage is negative. Two rectifiers are required for each phase of power. Since most large power supplies are three phase, there will be a minimum of 6 rectifiers used (see Figure 1). Appropriately, the term 6 pulse is used to describe a drive with 6 rectifiers. A VFD may have multiple rectifier sections, with 6 rectifiers per section, enabling a VFD to be 12 pulse, 18 pulse, or 24 pulse. The benefit of multipulse VFDs will be described later in the harmonics section. Rectifiers may utilize diodes, silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR), or transistors to rectify power. Diodes are the simplest device and allow power to flow any time voltage is of the proper polarity. Silicon controlled rectifiers include a gate circuit that enables a.

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Fig. 1. VFD basics: Existing technology

Fig VFD system microprocessor to control when the power may begin to flow, making this type of rectifier useful for solid-state starters as well. Transistors include a gate circuit that enables a microprocessor to open or close at any time, making the transistor the most useful device of the three. A VFD using transistors in the rectifier section is said to have an active front end. After the power flows through the rectifiers it is stored on a dc bus. The dc bus contains capacitors to accept power from the rectifier, store it, and later deliver that power through the inverter section. The dc bus may also contain inductors, dc links, chokes, or similar items that add inductance, thereby smoothing the incoming power supply to the dc bus. The final section of the VFD is referred to as an inverter. The inverter contains transistors that deliver power to the motor. The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is a common choice in modern VFDs. The IGBT can switch on and off several thousand times per second and precisely control the power delivered to the motor. The IGBT uses a method named pulse width modulation (PWM) to simulate a current sine wave at the desired frequency to the motor. Motor speed (rpm) is dependent upon frequency. Varying the frequency output of the VFD controls motor speed: Speed (rpm) = frequency (hertz) x 120 / no. of poles Example:
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2-pole motor at different frequencies 3600 rpm = 60 hertz x 120 / 2 = 3600 rpm 3000 rpm = 50 hertz x 120 / 2 = 3000 rpm 2400 rpm = 40 hertz x 120 / 2 = 2400 rpm BENEFITS OF VFD As VFD usage in HVAC applications has increased, fans, pumps, air handlers, and chillers can benefit from speed control. Variable frequency drives provide the following advantages: Energy savings Low motor starting current Reduction of thermal and mechanical stresses on motors and belts during starts Simple installation High power factor Lower KVA Understanding the basis for these benefits will allow engineers and operators to apply VFDs with confidence and achieve the greatest operational savings. VFD Capacity Control Saves Energy Most applications do not require a constant flow of a fluid. Equipment is sized for a peak load that may account for only 1% of the hours of operation. The remaining hours of operation need only a fraction of the flow. Traditionally, devices that throttle output have been employed to reduce the flow. However, when compared with speed control, these methods are significantly less efficient. Mechanical Capacity Control Throttling valves, vanes, or dampers may be employed to control capacity of a constant speed pump or fan. These devices increase the head, thereby forcing the fan or pump to ride the curve to a point where it produces less flow (Figure 2). Power consumption is the product of head and flow. Throttling the output increases head, but reduces flow, and provides some energy savings.

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Fig. 2. Comparison of mechanical capacity control and speed capacity control

Low Inrush Motor Starting Motor manufacturers face difficult design choices. Designs optimized for low starting current often sacrifice efficiency, power factor, size, and cost. With these considerations in mind, it is common for AC induction motors to draw 6 to 8 times their full load amps when they are started across the line. When large amounts of current are drawn on the transformers, a voltage drop can occur, adversely affecting other equipment on the same electrical system. Some voltage sensitive applications may even trip off line. For this reason, many engineers specify a means of reducing the starting current of large AC induction motors. VFDs as Starters A VFD is the ideal soft starter since it provides the lowest inrush of any starter type as shown in Table B. Unlike all other types of starters, the VFD can use frequency to limit the power and current delivered to the motor. The VFD will start the motor by delivering power at a low frequency. At this low frequency, the motor does not require a high level of current. The VFD incrementally increases the frequency and motor speed until the desired speed is met. The current level of the motor never exceeds the full load amp rating of the motor at any time during its start or operation. In addition to the benefit of low starting current, motor designs can now be optimized for high efficiency. The motor used in a VFD system is usually a three-phase induction motor. Some types of single-phase motors can be used, but three-phase motors are usually preferred. Various types of synchronous motors offer advantages in some situations, but induction motors are suitable for most purposes and are generally the most economical choice.
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Motors that are designed for fixed-speed operation are often used. Certain enhancements to the standard motor designs offer higher reliability and better VFD performance, such as MG-31 rated motors.

Fig.3 Variable Frequency Starters VFDs as Starters

Fig. VFD Starter Control Panel


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Soft Starters

Fig. VFD Soft starter

Fig. VFD soft starter panel

Wye-delta, part winding, autotransformer, and solid state starters are often used to reduce inrush during motor starting. All of these starters deliver power to the motor at a constant frequency and therefore must limit the current by controlling the voltage supplied to the motor. Wye delta, part winding, and autotransformer starters use special electrical connections to reduce the voltage. Solid-state starters use SCRs to reduce the voltage. The amount of voltage reduction possible is limited because the motor needs enough voltage to generate torque to accelerate. With maximum allowable voltage reduction, the motor will still draw two to four times the full load amps (FLA) during starting. Additionally, rapid acceleration associated with wye-delta starters can wear belts and other power transmission components. Easy Installation Many pieces of equipment are factory shipped with unit mounted VFDs that arrive pre-programmed and factory wired. Motor leads, control power for auxiliaries, and communication lines are all factory wired. The VFD cooling lines on unit-mounted chiller VFDs are also factory installed. The installing contractor needs only to connect the line power supply to the VFD. High Power Factor Power converted to motion, heat, sound, etc. is called real power and is measured in kilowatts (kW). Power that charges capacitors or builds magnetic fields is called reactive power and is measured in Kilovolts Amps Reactive (kVAR). The vector sum of the kW and the kVAR is the Total Power (energy) and is measured in Kilovolt Amperes (KVA) Power factor is the ratio of kW/KVA. Motors draw reactive current to support their magnetic fields in order to cause rotation. Excessive reactive current is undesirable because it creates additional resistance losses and can require the use of larger transformers and wires. In addition, utilities often penalize owners for low power factor. Decreasing reactive current will increase power. Typical AC motors may have a full load power factor ranging from 0.84 to 0.88. As the motor load is reduced, the power factor becomes lower. Utilities may require site
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power factor values ranging from 0.85 to 0.95 and impose penalties to enforce this requirement. Power factor correction capacitors can be added to reduce the reactive current measured upstream of the capacitors and increase the measured power factor. To prevent damage to the motor, power factor correction capacitors should not exceed the motor manufacturers recommendations. In most cases, this results in maximum corrected values of 0.90 to 0.95. The VFDs include capacitors in the DC Bus that perform the same function and maintain high power factor on the line side of the VFD. This eliminates the need to add power factor correction equipment to the motor or use expensive capacitor banks. In addition, VFDs often result in higher line side power factor values than constant speed motors equipped with correction capacitors. Low Full Load KVA Total Power (KVA) is often the limiting factor in the amount of energy that can be transmitted through an electrical device or system. If the KVA required by equipment can be reduced during periods of peak demand, it will help alleviate voltage sags, brown outs, and power outages. The unit efficiency and power factor are equally weighted when calculating KVA. Therefore, equipment that may be equal or worse in efficiency, but higher in power factor has significantly lower KVA.In this example, equipment with a higher power factor uses 15% less KVA while performing the same.

Fig.3 Fixed Speed Fan Application. A drive can control two main elements of a 3-phase induction motor: speed and torque. To understand how a drive controls these two elements, we will take a short review of AC induction motors. Fig. 4 shows the construction of an induction motor. The two basic parts of the motor, the rotor and stator, work through magnetic interaction. A motor contains pole pairs. These are iron pieces in the stator, wound in a specific pattern to provide a north to south magnetic field.

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Figure 4, Basic Induction Motor Construction

Figure 5, Operating Principles of Induction Motor With one pole pair isolated in a motor, the rotor (shaft) rotates at a specific speed: the base speed. The number of poles and the frequency applied determine this speed (Fig. 4). This formula includes an effect called "slip." Slip is the difference between the rotor speed and the rotating magnetic field in the stator. When a magnetic field passes through the conductors of the rotor, the rotor takes on magnetic fields of its own. These rotor magnetic fields will try to catch up to the rotating fields of the stator. However, it never does -- this difference is slip. Think of slip as the distance between the greyhounds and the hare they are chasing around the track. As long as they don't catch up to the hare, they will continue to revolve around the track. Slip is what allows a motor to turn. Motor Slip: Shaft Speed = 120 X F- Slip P Slip for NEMA B Motor = 3 to 5% of Base Speed which is 1800 RPM at Full Load F = Frequency applied to the motor P = Number of motor poles Example: Shaft Speed =120 X 60 Hz - Slip 4

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We can conveniently adjust the speed of a motor by changing the frequency applied to the motor. You could adjust motor speed by adjusting the number of poles, but this is a physical change to the motor. It would require rewinding, and result in a step change to the speed. So, for convenience, cost-efficiency, and precision, we change the frequency. Fig. 6 shows the torque-developing characteristic of every motor: the Volts per Hertz ratio (V/Hz). We change this ratio to change motor torque. An induction motor connected to a 460V, 60 Hz source has a ratio of 7.67. As long as this ratio stays in proportion, the motor will develop rated torque. A drive provides many different frequency outputs. At any given frequency output of the drive, you get a new torque curve.

Figure 6, Volts/Hertz Ratio How Drive Changes Motor Speed Just how does a drive provide the frequency and voltage output necessary to change the speed of a motor? That's what we'll look at next. Fig. 6 shows a basic PWM drive. All PWM drives contain these main parts, with subtle differences in hardware and software components.

Fig.7 Block Diagram of Basic VFD


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Fig. 8 , Basic PWM Drive Components Although some drives accept single-phase input power, we'll focus on the 3-phase drive. But to simplify illustrations, the waveforms in the following drive figures show only one phase of input and output. The input section of the drive is the converter. It contains six diodes, arranged in an electrical bridge. These diodes convert AC power to DC power. The next section-the DC bus section-sees a fixed DC voltage. The DC Bus section filters and smoothes out the waveform. The diodes actually reconstruct the negative halves of the waveform onto the positive half. In a 460V unit, you'd measure an average DC bus voltage of about 650V to 680V. You can calculate this as line voltage times 1.414. The inductor (L) and the capacitor (C) work together to filter out any AC component of the DC waveform. The smoother the DC waveform, the cleaner the output waveform from the drive. The DC bus feeds the final section of the drive: the inverter. As the name implies, this section inverts the DC voltage back to AC. But, it does so in a variable voltage and frequency output. How does it do this? That depends on what kind of power devices your drive uses. If you have many SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)-based drives in your facility, see the Sidebar. Bipolar Transistor technology began super ceding SCRs in drives in the mid-1970s. In the early 1990s, those gave way to using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) technology, which will form the basis for our discussion. Switching Bus with IGBTs Today's inverters use Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) to switch the DC bus on and off at specific intervals. In doing so, the inverter actually creates a variable AC voltage and frequency output. As shown in Fig. 8, the output of the drive doesn't provide an exact replica of the AC input sine waveform. Instead, it provides voltage pulses that are at a constant magnitude.

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Figure 8, Drive Output Waveform The drive's control board signals the power device's control circuits to turn "on" the waveform positive half or negative half of the power device. This alternating of positive and negative switches recreates the 3 phase output. The longer the power device remains on, the higher the output voltage. The less time the power device is on, the lower the output voltage (shown in Fig.9). Conversely, the longer the power device is off, the lower the output frequency.

Figure 9, Drive Output Waveform Components The speed at which power devices switch on and off is the carrier frequency, also known as the switch frequency. The higher the switch frequency, the more resolution each PWM pulse contains. Typical switch frequencies are 3,000 to 4,000 times per second (3KHz to 4KHz). (With an older, SCR-based drive, switch frequencies are 250 to 500 times per second). As you can imagine, the higher the switch frequency, the smoother the output waveform and the higher the resolution. However, higher switch frequencies decrease the efficiency of the drive because of increased heat in the power devices. Shrinking cost and size Drives vary in the complexity of their designs, but the designs continue to improve. Drives come in smaller packages with each generation. The trend is similar to that of the personal computer. More features, better performance, and lower cost with successive generations. Unlike computers, however, drives have dramatically improved in their reliability and ease of use. And also unlike computers, the typical drive of today doesn't spew gratuitous harmonics into your distribution system-nor does it affect your
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power factor. Drives are increasingly becoming "plug and play." As electronic power components improve in reliability and decrease in size, the cost and size of VFDs will continue to decrease. While all that is going on, their performance and ease of use will only get better. Sidebar: What if you have SCRs? With the large installed base of SCRs, you might want to know how these operate. An SCR (originally referred to as a thyristor) contains a control element called a gate. The gate acts as the "turn-on" switch that allows the device to fully conduct voltage. The device conducts voltage until the polarity of the device reverses-and then it automatically "turns off." Special circuitry, usually requiring another circuit board and associated wiring, controls this switching. The SCR's output depends on how soon in the control cycle that gate turns on. The IGBT output also depends the length of time the gate is on. However, it can turn off anytime in the control cycle, providing a more precise output waveform. IGBTs also require a control circuit connected to the gate, but this circuitry is less complex and doesn't require a reversal of polarity. Thus, you would approach troubleshooting differently if you have an SCR-based drive. VFDs allow a motors speed to be varied electrically instead of by mechanical means. This permits much greater efficiency and flexibility of operation. They are capable of controlling both the speed of the motor and the torque. Without a VFD, industrial induction motors run at full speed continuously; valves, or other mechanical methods, are employed to control the machine output. Unfortunately, running a motor at maximum speed regardless of the varying demands of production means a great deal of electric power is wasted. Another benefit of VFDs is their soft-start capability in which motors are ramped up to speed instead of being abruptly thrown on line. This useful feature reduces mechanical stresses on the entire motor system and leads to lower maintenance costs, as well as a longer motor life. Still another benefit is improved process control. Since industrial process throughput in most operations depends on a range of variables, a motor that is only able to operate at a constant speed even when one or more process variables change might contribute to creation of scrap, not to mention wasted energy. With a VFD, motor speed can be changed almost instantaneously to adapt to changing process conditions.

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Fig. 10 Single Phase VFD However, VFDs are not without drawbacks. For example, the very fast voltage rise times associated with IGBT technology contributes to precise motor speed control but can also lead to voltage spikes that damage cables of poor quality, or ones that are improperlyinsulated. Other possible concerns with use of VFDs are the potential for acoustical motor noise and motor heating, when currents, induced by pulse width modulated switching, flow in improperly grounded motor shafts. The result can be damaged bearings. In addition,the purchase cost for a new VFD can be steep, though this must be balanced with the fact that the payback period can be a matter of just a few months to under three years. Special consideration must be given to the proper installation and operation of the overall system that comprises the VFD, the motor it controls, and the cable that connects them. The way in which VFD-based systems are constructed and operated will have an impact on both the longevity and reliability of all the components of the system, as well as nearby or adjacent systems. This paper is primarily concerned with the motor-supply cable in the VFD/motor system. It looks at some fundamental cable design considerations, and presents suggestions for installation. However, to give the reader some context, it makes sense to first describe VFDs, their benefits and potential problems, and their relationship to the motors they control.

VFD controller
Variable frequency drive controllers are solid state electronic power conversion devices. The usual design first converts AC input power to DC intermediate power using a rectifier or converter bridge. The rectifier is usually a three-phase, full-wave-diode bridge. The DC intermediate power is then converted to quasi-sinusoidal AC power using an inverter switching circuit. The inverter circuit is probably the most important section of the VFD,
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changing DC energy into three channels of AC energy that can be used by an AC motor. These units provide improved power factor, less harmonic distortion, and low sensitivity to the incoming phase sequencing than older phase controlled converter VFD's. Since incoming power is converted to DC, many units will accept single-phase as well as threephase input power (acting as a phase converter as well as a speed controller); however the unit must be derated when using single phase input as only part of the rectifier bridge is carrying the connected load. As new types of semiconductor switches have been introduced, these have promptly been applied to inverter circuits at all voltage and current ratings for which suitable devices are available. Introduced in the 1980s, the insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) became the device used in most VFD inverter circuits in the first decade of the 21st century. AC motor characteristics require the applied voltage to be proportionally adjusted whenever the frequency is changed in order to deliver the rated torque. For example, if a motor is designed to operate at 460 volts at 60 Hz, the applied voltage must be reduced to 230 volts when the frequency is reduced to 30 Hz. Thus the ratio of volts per hertz must be regulated to a constant value (460/60 = 7.67 V/Hz in this case). For optimum performance, some further voltage adjustment may be necessary especially at low speeds, but constant volts per hertz are the general rule. This ratio can be changed in order to change the torque delivered by the motor. In addition to these simple volts per hertz control more advanced control methods such as vector control and direct torque control (DTC) exist. These methods adjust the motor voltage in such a way that the magnetic flux and mechanical torque of the motor can be precisely controlled. The usual method used to achieve variable motor voltage is pulse-width modulation (PWM). With PWM voltage control, the inverter switches are used to construct a quasisinusoidal output waveform by a series of narrow voltage pulses with pseudo sinusoidal varying pulse durations. Operation of the motors above rated name plate speed (base speed) is possible, but is limited to conditions that do not require more power than nameplate rating of the motor. This is sometimes called "field weakening" and, for AC motors, means operating at less than rated volts/hertz and above rated name plate speed. Permanent magnet synchronous motors have quite limited field weakening speed range due to the constant magnet flux linkage. Wound rotor synchronous motors and induction motors have much wider speed range. For example, a 100 hp, 460 V, 60 Hz, 1775 RPM (4 pole) induction motor supplied with 460 V, 75 Hz (6.134 V/Hz), would be limited to 60/75 = 80% torque at 125% speed (2218.75 RPM) = 100% power. At higher speeds the induction motor torque has to be limited further due to the lowering of the breakaway torque of the motor. Thus rated power can be typically produced only up to 130...150% of the rated name plate speed. Wound rotor synchronous motors can be run even higher speeds. In rolling mill drives often 200...300% of the base speed is used. Naturally the mechanical strength of the rotor and lifetime of the bearings is also limiting the maximum speed of the motor. It is recommended to consult the motor manufacturer if more than 150% speed is required by the application.
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Fig PWM VFD Output Voltage Waveform

An embedded microprocessor governs the overall operation of the VFD controller. The main microprocessor programming is in firmware that is inaccessible to the VFD user. However, some degree of configuration programming and parameter adjustment is usually provided so that the user can customize the VFD controller to suit specific motor and driven equipment requirements.

VFD operator interface


The operator interface provides a means for an operator to start and stop the motor and adjust the operating speed. Additional operator control functions might include reversing and switching between manual speed adjustment and automatic control from an external process control signal. The operator interface often includes an alphanumeric display and/or indication lights and meters to provide information about the operation of the drive. An operator interface keypad and display unit is often provided on the front of the VFD controller as shown in the photograph above. The keypad display can often be cableconnected and mounted a short distance from the VFD controller. Most are also provided with input and output (I/O) terminals for connecting pushbuttons, switches and other operator interface devices or control signals. A serial communications port is also often available to allow the VFD to be configured, adjusted, monitored and controlled using a computer. When an induction motor is connected to a full voltage supply, it draws several times (up to about 6 times) its rated current. As the load accelerates, the available torque usually drops a little and then rises to a peak while the current remains very high until the motor approaches full speed. By contrast, when a VFD starts a motor, it initially applies a low frequency and voltage to the motor. The starting frequency is typically 2 Hz or less. Thus starting at such a low frequency avoids the high inrush current that occurs when a motor is started by simply applying the utility (mains) voltage by turning on a switch. After the start of the VFD, the applied frequency and voltage are increased at a controlled rate or ramped up to accelerate the load without drawing excessive current. This starting method typically allows a motor to develop 150% of its rated torque while the VFD is drawing less than 50% of its rated current from the mains in the low speed range. A VFD can be adjusted to produce a steady 150% starting torque from standstill right up to full speed. Note, however, that cooling of the motor is usually not good in the low speed range. Thus
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running at low speeds even with rated torque for long periods is not possible due to overheating of the motor. If continuous operation with high torque is required in low speeds an external fan is usually needed. The manufacturer of the motor and/or the VFD should specify the cooling requirements for this mode of operation. In principle, the current on the motor side is in direct proportion to the torque that is generated and the voltage on the motor is in direct proportion of the actual speed, while on the network side, the voltage is constant, thus the current on line side is in direct proportion of the power drawn by the motor, that is U.I or C.N where C is torque and N the speed of the motor (we shall consider losses as well, neglected in this explanation).
1. n stands for network (grid) and m for motor 2. C stands for torque [Nm], U for voltage [V], I for current [A], and N for speed [rad/s]

We neglect losses for the moment:


Un.In = Um.Im (same power drawn from network and from motor) Um.Im = Cm.Nm (motor mechanical power = motor electrical power) Given Un is a constant (network voltage) we conclude: In = Cm.Nm/Un That is "line current (network) is in direct proportion of motor power".

With a VFD, the stopping sequence is just the opposite as the starting sequence. The frequency and voltage applied to the motor are ramped down at a controlled rate. When the frequency approaches zero, the motor is shut off. A small amount of braking torque is available to help decelerate the load a little faster than it would stop if the motor were simply switched off and allowed to coast. Additional braking torque can be obtained by adding a braking circuit (resistor controlled by a transistor) to dissipate the braking energy. With 4-quadrants rectifiers (active-front-end), the VFD is able to brake the load by applying a reverse torque and reverting the energy back to the network. Power line harmonics While PWM allows for nearly sinusoidal currents to be applied to a motor load, the diode rectifier of the VFD takes roughly square-wave current pulses out of the AC grid, creating harmonic distortion in the power line voltage. When the VFD load size is small and the available utility power is large, the effects of VFD systems slicing small chunks out of AC grid generally go unnoticed. Further, in low voltage networks the harmonics caused by single phase equipment such as computers and TVs are such that they are partially cancelled by three-phase diode bridge harmonics. However, when either a large number of low-current VFDs, or just a few very large-load VFDs are used, they can have a cumulative negative impact on the AC voltages available to other utility customers in the same grid. When the utility voltage becomes misshaped and distorted the losses in other loads such as normal AC motors are increased. This may in the worst case lead to overheating
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and shorter operation life. Also substation transformers and compensation capacitors are affected, the latter especially if resonances are aroused by the harmonics. In order to limit the voltage distortion the owner of the VFDs may be required to install filtering equipment to smooth out the irregular waveform. Alternatively, the utility may choose to install filtering equipment of its own at substations affected by the large amount of VFD equipment being used. In high power installations decrease of the harmonics can be obtained by supplying the VSDs from transformers that have different phase shift. Further, it is possible to use instead of the diode rectifier a similar transistor circuit that is used to control the motor. This kind of rectifier is called active in feed converter in IEC standards. However, manufacturers call it by several names such as active rectifier, ISU (IGBT Supply Unit), AFE (Active Front End) or four quadrant rectifier. With PWM control of the transistors and filter inductors in the supply lines the AC current can be made nearly sinusoidal. Even better attenuation of the harmonics can be obtained by using an LCL (inductor-capacitor-inductor) filter instead of single three-phase filter inductor. Additional advantage of the active in feed converter over the diode bridge is its ability to feed back the energy from the DC side to the AC grid. Thus no braking resistor is needed and the efficiency of the drive is improved if the drive is frequently required to brake the motor.

Transmission line effects


The output voltage of a PWM VFD consists of a train of pulses switched at the carrier frequency. Because of the rapid rise time of these pulses, transmission line effects of the cable between the drive and motor must be considered. Since the transmission-line impedance of the cable and motor are different, pulses tend to reflect back from the motor terminals into the cable. The resulting voltages can produce up to twice the rated line voltage for long cable runs, putting high stress on the cable and motor winding and eventual insulation failure. Increasing the cable or motor size/type for long runs and 480v or 600v motors will help offset the stresses imposed upon the equipment due to the VFD (modern 230v single phase motors not effected). At 460 V, the maximum recommended cable distances between VFDs and motors can vary by a factor of 2.5:1. The longer cables distances are allowed at the lower Carrier Switching Frequencies (CSF) of 2.5 kHz. The lower CSF can produce audible noise at the motors. For applications requiring long motor cables VSD manufacturers usually offer du/dt filters that decrease the steepness of the pulses. For very long cables or old motors with insufficient winding insulation more efficient sinus filter is recommended. Expect the older motor's life to shorten. Purchase VFD rated motors for the application.

Motor bearings
Further, the rapid rise time of the pulses may cause trouble with the motor bearings. The stray capacitance of the windings provide paths for high frequency currents that close through the bearings. If the voltage between the shaft and the shield of the motor exceeds few volts the stored charge is
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discharged as a small spark. Repeated sparking causes erosion in the bearing surface that can be seen as fluting pattern. In order to prevent sparking the motor cable should provide a low impedance return path from the motor frame back to the inverter. Thus it is essential to use a cable designed to be used with VSDs.

In big motors a slip ring with brush can be used to provide a bypass path for the bearing currents. Alternatively isolated bearings can be used. The 2.5 kHz and 5 kHz CSFs cause fewer motor bearing problems than the 20 kHz CSFs. Shorter cables are recommended at the higher CSF of 20 kHz. The minimum CSF for synchronize tracking of multiple conveyors is 8 kHz. The high frequency current ripple in the motor cables may also cause interference with other cabling in the building. This is another reason to use a motor cable designed for VSDs that has a symmetrical three-phase structure and good shielding. Further, it is highly recommended to route the motor cables as far away from signal cables as possible. Available VFD power ratings Variable frequency drives are available with voltage and current ratings to match the majority of 3-phase motors that are manufactured for operation from utility (mains) power. VFD controllers designed to operate at 110 V to 690 V are often classified as low voltage units. Low voltage units are typically designed for use with motors rated to deliver 0.2 kW or 0.25 horsepower (hp) up to several megawatts. For example, the largest ABB ACS800 single drives are rated for 5.6 MW. Medium voltage VFD controllers are designed to operate at 2,400/4,162 V (60 Hz), 3 kV (50 Hz) or up to 10 kV. In some applications a step up transformer is placed between a low voltage drive and a medium voltage load. Medium voltage units are typically designed for use with motors rated to deliver 375 kW or 500 hp and above. Medium voltage drives rated above 7 kV and 5,000/10,000 hp should probably be considered to be one-of-a-kind (one-off) designs. Medium voltage drives are generally rated amongst the following voltages : 2.3 kV, 3.3 kV, 4 kV, 6 kV, and 11 kV. The in-between voltages are generally possible as well. The power of MV drives is generally in the range of 0.3 to 100 MW however involving a range a several different type of drives with different technologies. Dynamic braking Using the motor as a generator to absorb energy from the system is called dynamic braking. Dynamic braking stops the system more quickly than coasting. Since dynamic braking requires relative motion of the motor's parts, it becomes less effective at low speed and cannot be used to hold a load at a stopped position. During normal braking of an electric motor the electrical energy produced by the motor is dissipated as heat inside of the rotor, which increases the likelihood of damage and eventual failure. Therefore, some systems transfer this energy to an outside bank of resistors. Cooling fans may be used to

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protect the resistors from damage. Modern systems have thermal monitoring, so if the temperature of the bank becomes excessive, it will be switched off.

CHAPTER-3

Production Of Paper
Cooking Process: The Cooking process of wood chips is carried out in the continuous digester (Lo-Solids cooking).This Lo-solids continuous cooking process is first of its kind in the country. Chips are first pre-steamed in Diamond back chip bin and then charged to the digester. Transportation of the chips from Diamond back chip bin to the digester is done by pumping the chips along with white liquor by three chip pumps installed in series. The continuous digester is a single vertical vessel, where the chips along with the cooking liquor are charged at the top of the digester and the pulp is extracted from the bottom of the digester on a continuous basis. Cooking liquor is injected in to the digester in installments and Black liquor is extracted from the digester in phases maintaining low solids concentration across the digester throughout cooking period. The initial washing of the pulp is done at the bottom of the digester before the stock is blown to the blow tank. The whole cooking process is the most energy efficient system as white liquor (cooking liquor) is pre-heated with black liquor extracted from the digesters. The cooking temperature is also lower than the conventional batch cooking, reducing damage to the cellulose during the cooking process. The blow is done at a much lower temperature than conventional cooking, hence generation of High Volume Low Concentration (HVLC) TRS gases from digester are at negligible level. The odor problem, generally associated with the conventional Kraft pulping process, is at its lowest, as the Non Condensable Gases (NCG) are collected and burnt in Lime kiln (LVHC gases from evaporator section) and Recovery Boiler (HVLC from blow tank and other tanks).

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Fig 11 Chip Conveyer-chips to Silo Stock

Fig. 12 Chip Feeding to Diamond Back Chip Bin and Continuous digester. Brown Stock Washing : Pulp from the digester is blown to the blow tank and sent to brown stock washing. Pulp washing is accomplished in a single Drum Displacer Washer (ANDRITZ DD) equipped with two washing stages. The washed pulp is then sent to the Oxygen Delignification (ODL) stage. Black liquor is sent to the Soda Recovery Plant for chemical recovery.
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Fig.13 Drum displacer Washers for Brown Stock Washing and Post Oxygen Washing

Oxygen Delignification Pulp from the Brown stock washer is sent to the Oxygen Bleaching (Oxygen Delignification) Stage. The process is carried out in two stages where the pulp is allowed to react with oxygen and sodium hydroxide at certain specified conditions. After reaction in ODL, the pulp is sent to the Pulp Screening Section to remove knots and shives. The screening process is carried out in three stages, the primary stage being a combined knotting and screening stage. Accepts from the screening stage are taken to the ODL washer, which again, is a DD washer. The washed pulp is then sent to the High Density (HD) storage tower.

Fig.14 Oxygen Plant

ECF Bleaching With environmental pressures mounting on the Industry and the need for a more energy efficient and cost effective process of pulping and bleaching, the paper industry is hard pressed to adopt new and state-of-the-art technologies and APPM has adopted the
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ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free) bleaching process. In this process, unlike in the standard bleaching processes, usage of Elemental Chlorine (Chlorine in gaseous form) is eliminated. The generation of chlorinated organic compounds is comparatively lesser in ECF bleaching, thus lowering the AOX (Absorbable Organic Halogens) levels in the Bleach Plant effluents per ton of product. The generation of other pollutants like chlorinated phenols, dioxins and furans are also brought down to a minimum level when compared to the standard bleaching sequences. Thus ECF bleaching reduces the impact of pollutants on the environment by reducing their generation during the bleaching process.

Fig.15 ECF Bleaching Plant


Bleaching of Pulp

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The bleaching sequence is an ECF sequence with Do EOP D1 as the sequential stages. Pulp is treated with chlorine dioxide in the Do stage with specified conditions and washed before being sent to the Extraction stage. In the Extraction stage, the pulp is treated with oxygen and hydrogen peroxide under specified conditions and washed again. The extracted and washed pulp is then sent to the D1 stage where it is treated again with chlorine dioxide. After reaction with chlorine dioxide, the pulp is washed again and sent to a HD (High Density) storage Tower from where the pulp is taken to the paper machine/wetlap machine. The final brightness of the pulp is maintained at 88-89% ISO.

Fig.16 Fiberline Stock Preparation and Paper Machines

Bleached pulp from the HD storage tower is supplied to Five paper machines via a centralized refining system. In the centralized refining system, the freeness level is brought up to 24 SR. Refiners located at the individual machines then obtain the required freeness levels, for the various grades of paper. The centralized refining concept has been introduced to conserve energy. Bleached pulp from HD tower is supplied separately to Paper machine No 6, which has its own independent pulp refining system. In the Stock Preparation Section, various additives like Rosin, Alum, PAC, AKD, etc. together with the required dyes are added and the stock is made ready for papermaking. APPM has both MG (Machine Glazed) and MF (Machine Finished) paper machines with size press arrangement on the MF machines to impart starch coating on the surface of the paper. Most modern calendar stacks are provided to impart smoothness to the paper. Hydraulic head box, Duo Former, etc. are some of the new concepts introduced on the paper machines.

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Fig.17 stock Preparation Plant in paper Mill

Variable frequency drives have many uses in paper mills. In this discussion, we will focus on their potential use to control the fan pump in the approach section. The fan pump is the center of the paper mill approach system and serves to mix the pulp stock with white (treated) water. The fan pump delivers this mixture to the headbox, and ultimately, on the wire of the fourdrinier table (see Figure 18).

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Figure 18 - Simplified Paper Mill Approach System. Enhanced Product Quality The fan pump is typically the largest pump in the paper machine system and the demands made on it are very critical to the paper making process. Flow rate and pressure must be stable, without pulsations or surges. Fan pumps must also be able to vary the flow over the entire range of paper machine operation. Because of change in product requirements or operating conditions, the flow from this system is constantly varying. This flow change has traditionally been accomplished by throttling valves, recirculating systems or by turning different pumps on and off. These methods can potentially cause flow and/or pressure transients, and will increase maintenance and power consumption. Today's requirements for paper quality require very close tolerances and extremely tight variation requirements. Increasingly tighter tolerances are expected in the future, as well. The only way to meet these increased requirements is to control each variable that impacts the steady state condition. Precise pressure and water flow is required. As water
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usage in each mill process increases or decreases, the pressure available for any other mill process may vary. Any pressure variation will change water flow at a given header or valve setting. This variability in flow can impact the paper product tolerance. A fast response adjustable speed driven pump can reduce or eliminate this flow transient. Therefore, fan pumps are well suited for variable frequency drives (VFDs) to regulate flow and operate at peak efficiency. Medium voltage AC VFDs like the Dura-Bilt5i MV have become an attractive alternative when focusing on consistent product quality, minimized system and motor maintenance requirements, operational costs, and initial investment. AC drive vector control technology for induction motors in variable torque applications, requiring accurate speed control, has improved to the level where the need for a speed feedback device has been eliminated. This technology, tied in with the excellent performance of AC drive systems in the pump market, makes the Dura-Bilt5i MV a great choice. Reduced Power Consumption Historically, constant speed induction motors have been used to drive fan pumps. When a reduced flow is required, a constant speed pump must be turned off, throttled or re-circulated. Throttling and recirculation techniques cause additional losses in the system. As seen in Figure 19, the pump efficiency is severely affected when flow is controlled by throttling.

Figure 19 - Typical head-flow (H-Q) and throttling efficiency curve of specific pump at rated speed. Applying a VFD to the fan pump eliminates the need for throttling or recirculation. Significant savings can be achieved by operating fan pumps with variable speed AC

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drives. A VFD allows the pump to operate on the system characteristic curve as shown in Figure 20 (thus saving throttling energy loss).

Figure 20 - Typical pump H-Q curve with system curve added. Artificially adding friction by throttling changes the system curve and reduces pump flow. Improved Power Quality Variable speed drives have proven to be superior over all other types of mechanical flow control. Changing the speed of the pump motor, and thus the pump, allows the flow and the head pressure to be controlled. By utilizing pressure sensors, the pump can be controlled to deliver a constant pressure under any conditions. As flow requirement change, the pump will maintain constant pressure. This technique improves system response and reduces energy consumption. The Dura-Bilt5i MV drive maintains a power factor of 0.95 or greater over the entire motor speed range, resulting in a higher input power factor and less reactive power consumption than found in a typical fixed-speed pump application. Additionally, the Dura-Bilt5i MV variable speed drive is capable of providing the same high starting torque across the full motor speed profile. The Dura-Bilt5i MV drive uses a 24-pulse input diode rectifier to convert the utility power into a DC buss for the inversion to Variable frequency by the inverter. This 24-pulse input design is significant in that it produces less than 3% total harmonic distortion in most applications, meeting or exceeding IEEE 519-1992 standards without filters. Retrofits and New Installations
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VFDs are ideal for retrofit applications of existing constant speed pump motors and can usually be applied to existing motors without modifying the motor or pump foundations. This helps avoid considerable cost and expensive downtime. In retrofits and new installations, the Dura-Bilt5i MV provides a controlled application of voltage and current when the motor is started. Motor heating and system mechanical stress from high inrush currents are also eliminated. The ability to vary pump speed, as plant conditions require, results in longer motor and pump life. A VFD also limits the need for flow regulating valves. The valves may be needed for isolation, but the wear associated with constant use for flow regulation is eliminated. The benefit is less wear on motor and pump seals and bearings, as well as shorter downtime for maintenance. Reliability, Service, and Warranty GE Toshiba has a significant number of Medium Voltage VFDs for pump applications in service today. Our current generation Medium Voltage VFD is the DuraBilt5i MV. This product has been designed from the ground up to be a high performing and reliable product. It is also backed by one of the largest field service organizations in the world. GE Toshiba is available 24/7 to meet your engineering, startup, service, and training needs. The concept of installation of variable frequency drive (VFD) is picking up in paper industry. VFDs are recommended wherever speed variation is required from 50 to 100% range. Several mills abroad are operating with VFD for all the pumps. Indian paper industry should also explore the possibility of installing VFD for different equipment. Converting Paper is cut into folio sheet (if the order is in sheets) on Duplex as well as Simplex cutters and converted into reels in case of reel orders. RPM also produces cut sheets on A4 lines. The reels are packed on a semi automatic reel-packing machine.

Fig.22 Sheet Converting Machines in Paper Mill Soda Recovery and Causticizing
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On the soda recovery front, RPM has the most modern, state-of-the-art evaporation plant (Free Flow Falling Film Evaporators) to concentrate the liquor to 75% solids. Recovery boiler (the biggest single recovery boiler in the country) incinerates the black liquor and produces steam at 64 ATA. In the Re-causticizing Section, APPM has employed the CD filter technology (yet another first in the country) for white liquor separation from the causticizing slurry in place of the conventional white liquor clarifier. The CD Filter is highly compact equipment, first of its kind in the country. Limekilns provide for lime mud re-burning, thus taking care of the solid waste disposal.

Fig.23 Paper Wrapping using VFDs

Power Generation: RPM has installed a 34 MW Double Extraction Condensing type turbine to meet its power requirements. Initially, the turbine is supplied with steam generated from the Recovery boiler to produce 18-20 MW of power. Once the power the Boiler comes into operation, the TG will generate power to its full capacity.

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Fig.24 Power Generation Plant in Paper Mill with VFD Inverters

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Chapter-

Installations of VFDs in Different Areas in Paper Industry


Usage of VFD in different areas of paper industry ; The suggested areas where VFDs can be considered in paper industry are as follows i) Recovery Boiler a) Installation of VFD for forced draught fans b) Installation of VFD for induced draught fan ii) Washing, Screening and Bleaching a) Replacement of eddy current drives with VFD for drum washers drives b) Installation of VFD for primary, secondary and tertiary centricleaners, pumps of unbleached/bleached pulp. c) Installation of VFD for all dilution pumps of unbleached and bleached sections. iii) Stock Preparation a) Installation of VFD for stock pumps to blending chest b) Installation of VFD for machine chest pumps iv) Paper Machine a) Installation of VFD for fan pumps b) Installation of VFD for secondary and tertiary centricleaner pumps c) Installation of VFD for mould fan pumps d) Installation of VFD for save-all clarified water pump
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e) Installation of dual speed motors for couch pit and press pit agitators f) Installation of VFD for MG machine/MF machine hood fans g) Installation of VFD for coating knife edge blowers h) Replacement of small steam turbines with DC drives or AC motors with VFDs v) Raw Water/Recycle Water Pumps a) Installation of VFD for raw water/recycle water pumps vi) Effluent Treatment Plant a) Installation of VFD for roots blower (for agitation purposes) b) Installation of VFD for final effluent discharge pumps.

Fig.21 Different Types of VFDs using in Paper Mills.

Recovery Boiler Installation of VFD for Forced Draught Fans & Induced Draught Fan : The new FD fan and its upgraded controls allowed the university to change the way it operates the plant by increasing the steam load on the No. 9 boiler and reducing the steam load on the No. 6 boiler. Additionally, the No. 9 boiler now can run very efficiently throughout the year, regardless of ambient temperature or demand. Other benefits of the VFD installation include precise and efficient control of the No. 9 boiler through the full span of its production rating. The motors average speed is down to about 45 Hz, which has reduced maintenance, vibration, and ambient noise. And because the motor runs cooler, its lifespan, along with the operating life of the FD fan and associated equipment, should be increased.
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High-pressure boilers depend on mechanical draft, rather than natural draft, because of the large amount of air required for proper combustion and because natural draft is subject to ambient-air conditions. The three types of mechanical draft are induced, forced, and balanced. Induced Draft Induced draft can be achieved with a heated chimney or stack (stack effect), a steam jet, or an induced-draft (ID) fan. With a heated chimney or stack, combustion air is forced into and through a boiler, in which the air is less dense than the ambient air. With a steam jet, steam oriented in the direction of flue-gas flow induces flue gas into a stack, increasing flue-gas velocity and overall draft in a boiler. This was common with steam-driven locomotives, which could not have tall chimneys. An ID fan removes flue gases from a boiler and forces exhaust gas up a stack. Nearly every ID furnace operates with a slightly negative pressure. Forced Draft Forced draft (FD) is achieved by forcing air into a furnace with a special fan and ductwork. Often, air is heated prior to entering a boiler to increase overall efficiency. FD boilers usually operate with a positive pressure. Traditionally, dampers have been used to control the quantity of air admitted to a boiler. Using a variable-frequency drive to control the speed of a FD-fan motor eliminates the need for dampers. Balanced Draft Balanced draft is achieved through the use of both induced and forced draft. This is common with larger boilers, in which flue gases have to travel long distances through many boiler passes. An ID fan works in conjunction with a FD fan, allowing boiler pressure to be maintained slightly below atmospheric. Balanced draft is controlled at a slightly negative pressure.

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Fig.

VFD Filter is a state-of-the-art conventional vacuum disc filter that is widely used for paper machine save all and pulp thickening applications. The VDF is built around a horizontal center shaft, which includes tapered filtrate channels leading to the outlet end of the shaft. A vertical drop leg creates a vacuum. The ratio between cloudy and clear filtrate fractions can be adjusted. A third filtrate split is available for super clear filtrate where required. The disc sectors are supplied as cassettes mounted in rugged frames, which are bolted to the center shaft. The slim sectors and taper of the shaft channels are chosen for each application to optimize drainage, provide a sharp split between cloudy and clear filtrate fractions, and maximize discharge consistency.

Regenerative variable-frequency drives Regenerative AC drives have the capacity to recover the braking energy of a load moving faster than the motor speed (an overhauling load) and return it to the power system.

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Fig Line regenerative variable frequency drives, showing capacitors(top cylinders)and inductors attached, which filter the regenerated power.

Cyclo converters and current-source inverters inherently allow return of energy from the load to the line; voltage-source inverters require an additional converter to return energy to the supply.[24] Regeneration is only useful in variable-frequency drives where the value of the recovered energy is large compared to the extra cost of a regenerative system,[24] and if the system requires frequent braking and starting. An example would be use in conveyor belt during manufacturing where it should stop for every few minutes, so that the parts can be assembled correctly and moves on. Another example is a crane, where the hoist motor stops and reverses frequently, and braking is required to slow the load during lowering. Regenerative variable-frequency drives are widely used where speed control of overhauling loads is required.

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Conclusion
A cable should never be the weak link in a VFD system. It must be able to stand up to the operating conditions, and maintain the life of other components in the system. Selecting an appropriate VFD cable can improve overall drive system longevity and reliability by mitigating the impact of reflected waves. Special attention should be paid to the cables insulation type, impedance, and shield/ground system. Cables employing a heavy wall of thermoset insulation are recommended because of the proven electrical benefits and improved high temperature stability it offers. Shielding systems, including copper tape, combination foil/braid, and continuous armoring types, are the most appropriate for VFD applications because of the low impedance path they provide for common-mode noise to return to the drive. When VFD cables are installed in close proximity to low-level communications cables and other susceptible devices, shielded instrumentation cable should be used. It would also be prudent to limit the run length of VFD cable parallel to instrumentation cables to 10 ft. or less to reduce the likelihood of radiated noise issues.

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References 1. Brandon L. Phillips and Eric J. Burlington, "Specifying Cables for VFD Applications," 2007 2. E. J. Bartolucci, B.H. Finke, Cable Design for PWM Variable Speed AC Drives, IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, Sept, 1998 3. E. Bulington, S. Abney, G. Skibinski, Cable Alternatives of PWM AC Drive Applications, IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, Sept, 1999 4. Evon, S., Kempke, D., Saunders, L., Skibinski, G., Riding the Reflected wave - IGBT Drive Technology Demands New Motor and Cable Considerations, IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, Sept, 1996 Belden Technical Support 1.800.BELDEN.1

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