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Preparing to teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector.

Table of Contents
Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 3 1. Task 1: Roles, responsibilities and boundaries of the teaching role ............................................... 4 1.1- Role............................................................................................................................................... 4 1.2- Responsibilities............................................................................................................................. 4 1.3- Boundaries ................................................................................................................................... 5 1.4- Records ......................................................................................................................................... 5 1.5- Legislation and codes ................................................................................................................... 6 1.6- Role of initial assessments in teaching and learning ................................................................... 6 1.7- Points of referral that teachers can use to help meet potential needs of learners..................... 7 1.8- The need to take account of the diverse needs of learners ........................................................ 7 1.9- Assessment methods ................................................................................................................... 7 1.10- Advantages and disadvantage of different ways of embedding functional skills ...................... 8 2. Task 2: Plan and prepare for a teaching session ............................................................................. 9 2.1- Meet the needs of individual learners: ........................................................................................ 9 2.2- Approach teaching and learning ................................................................................................ 10 2.3- Strengths and limitations of the resources ................................................................................ 10 2.4 -Functional skills .......................................................................................................................... 11 3. Task 3: Deliver your teaching session and assess learning............................................................ 12 3.1- Lesson plan ................................................................................................................................. 13 3.2- PowerPoint Presentation ........................................................................................................... 14 3.3- Tutor feedback ........................................................................................................................... 15 4. Task 4: Reflect and learn ............................................................................................................... 16 4.1- Performance and experiences ................................................................................................... 16 4.2- Micro Teach Self-Evaluation Pro-Forma..................................................................................... 17 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 23 Reference .............................................................................................................................................. 24 Website Reference ................................................................................................................................ 24 APPENDIX 1: Original Lesson plan ......................................................................................................... 25 APPENDIX 2: Peer Feedback for Evaluation .......................................................................................... 28

Introduction
I have been an engineer for the last eight years and a private mathematics teacher since 1998. Throughout these different experiences I have been involved in training co-workers and customers from various countries and taught A-level students. I was unable to appreciate the difference between teaching, learning and effective teaching. This assignment is a step towards becoming a professional teacher and a way to shape methods to make my teaching and learning more effective. First, I will define teachers role, responsibilities and boundaries. Secondly, I will explain how I planned and prepared my micro teaching. Finally, I will reflect on my micro teaching.

1. Task 1: Roles, responsibilities and boundaries of the teaching role


In this assignment I will give some information about teachers function and the limit of their teaching areas.

1.1- Role
The role of a teacher has evolved throughout time. Today, he has multiple functions. He is the one who delivers knowledge and helps learners by using appropriate teaching strategies, resources and material to make it understandable in order for them to learn and progress in a safe learning environment. Therefore, the planning and designing of courses are also a part of his function. Effectively, he has to produce a lesson plan with clear and reachable aims and objectives that follow the curriculum of his specific subject. His learners will then understand the aim of the learning, where they are in relation to this aim and how they can achieve it. Finally, his role is not restrained to the classroom; he is part of a community. He has to collaborate with his colleagues. Francis and Gould have pictured a non exhaustive sub-role of a teacher (2009, p.8).

1.2- Responsibilities
The key responsibilities of a teacher in the lifelong sector are very well listed by Francis and Gould (2009, p.9).The teacher is responsible for the learners in their class and to promote assessment for learning. He makes sure that his students comply with the rules of the college. Moreover, it is his responsibility to monitor, evaluate and improve the quality and effectiveness of his delivery by taking into account learners progression. Furthermore, a teacher in the Life Long Learning Sector should encourage his learners to take responsibility for their own learning by promoting an attitude to learning as a lifelong process rather than a short-term acquisition. To do so, he will have to encourage self-reflection in students to allow their personal growth and development to be useful to their lives. Lastly, the teacher must

have a level of control and authority over a class of learners. If he does not maintain his authority then he may struggle to get across the educational benefits to the learners and the session will inevitably loose its effectiveness.

1.3- Boundaries
As a teacher will be creating a working relationship with learners, he will have to realise, determine and set limits by cooperating with his students. Boundaries can also be set by following legislation and school policy. Once he has done that, it is his responsibility to control and maintain the line. If a learner crosses the line, it is the teachers duty to answer to that by talking to him or by taking disciplinary action respecting the school policy. Naturally, these boundaries can be adjusted. If for example a student requires a specific need, the teacher might have to broaden or adapt his boundaries.

1.4- Records
The records below will contribute to quality teaching and learning. They will help the educator to know where his learners are, where he is, and above all how he can manoeuvre and work on specific teaching areas. Records of learners progress and needs: We can put in this section exams paper,

assignments, feedbacks, workshop activities or preferred learning styles. Record of teaching progress: Resources and lesson plans can be placed in this section as

well as other information about his classes in case of illness. Record of absentees: If a student misses a lesson the teacher will be able to help him by

providing specific individual help. Register: This record is more for administration purposes. It helps to know who is in

school or not. It can be used for example in case of emergency evacuation.

1.5- Legislation and codes


Since 11 May 2010 a new UK government took office. The teacher will be responsible to know, understand and keep up to date on all the current legislation and code of practice that affects his duty. These laws and codes exist to help and guide teachers, staff members and other individuals who work or help in Education. A non exhaustive list of act can be found from the chronology section of Armitage et al.s book (2007,p.245). This includes the Data Protection Act (1998) which has important implications for keeping personal information and gives the individual the right to view and correct data stored about him. The Children Act (2004) considers anyone under 18 years old to be a child. Moreover, this act provides for disabled children. The Equality Act (2006) is about the rights of learners to attend and participate, regardless of the gender, race, ethnic origin, religion, disability, sexual orientation and age. ICT has drastically transformed the process of learning and teaching. There are specific laws related to this subject that are described on the Next Generation Learning website such as Copyright, Design and Patents act (1989) and Computer Misuse Act (1990). The first act is against piracy and makes it a criminal offence to copy software without the permission of the copyright owner. The second is against unauthorised access to a computers software or data and alteration. Finally, teachers in the Lifelong Learning Sector should read and follow the code of conduct introduced in April 2008 by The Institute of Learning.

1.6- Role of initial assessments in teaching and learning


Adult Learning Inspectorate (n.d) highlighted that Initial assessment is the cornerstone of any learning programme. Effectively, if you do not know where your students are you have no chance to bring them where you want. It is a key aspect in the learning and teaching procedure. It must be taken at the beginning of the course so that the teacher can assess learners current level, motivations, difficulties and how he can help them.

1.7- Points of referral that teachers can use to help meet potential needs of learners
Students come from various backgrounds, and may have some difficulties that affect their learning capabilities. Teachers must remain up to date with their knowledge of points of referral and promote them to help these students. For example at College, points of referral which are available to meet the potential needs of learners include; Mentoring for success, Colleges Additional Learning Support and Colleges Counselor. External referrals, such as Learner Support Fund or Job Centre Plus, are available to meet the potential needs of learners.

1.8- The need to take account of the diverse needs of learners


Classes are different because it is made up of different individuals (Armitage et al. 2007:61). Each student is unique and may have special needs or different learning capabilities and achievements. Some learners may be disadvantaged if teachers do not take their preferred ways of learning into account (Avis 2010,p.95). Teachers must know each student well and needs to deliver the content by adopting different teaching methods and styles and use diverse material resources. This ensures inclusive learning and no one will be left aside. By using Kolbs learning style inventory (Armitage et al. 2007, p.78) or (Visual Auditory

Kinaesthetic) learning style analysis (Avis 2010, p.95) it is possible for the teacher to determine the preferred learning styles of his class and consequently adapt his approach of teaching to best fit his learners styles.

1.9- Assessment methods


Assessment is one of the most important areas of all educational systems and it is part of the learning process. The main goal is to use assessment to inform a teachers teaching and feedback to students that is the central and most important function of assessment in relation to student learning (Nicholls 2002,p.105). Teachers must prepare well the assessment in order to test whether the aims and objectives of learning experience has been achieved (Armitage

et al. 2007, p.147) There are two different types of assessment. Formative assessment gives information which can aid further progress. It diagnoses reasons for both good and bad performances during the course for example, observations in a classroom or periodic quiz. Finally, summative assessment measures and reports learners progress as a verdict on what has been achieved such as unit or semester tests. In brief, it summarizes achievements and will inform the teacher and students that we can move to the next level.

1.10- Advantages and disadvantage of different ways of embedding functional skills


The functional skills are composed of English, Mathematics and ICT. These three skills are crucial in education and employment as factor and are used in everyday life. These skills are constantly used and must be encouraged in computer science. Consequently, learners will improve their functional skills. The problem or task is presented in writing or through spoken words. The students will have to analyse and understand it. Also, they will have to write reports explaining how they would implement the solution. Maths skills will be used to determine how many times a function is executed or to enter correct formulas into spreadsheets. ICT skills will be implemented by using tools such as Microsoft Office.

By completing this assignment, I have realised that roles, responsibilities and boundaries are key aspects of a teachers life. In the Lifelong Learning Sector, the teacher has to create effective and stimulating opportunities through his teaching that enable the development of all learners individually and equally.

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2. Task 2: Plan and prepare for a teaching session


This task is about planning and preparing a micro-teaching session. Here I will explain which subject I chose to teach, my plan to meet the needs of individual, the approaches, functional skills and the strengths and limitations Computer Science is a vast discipline where we find topics such as algorithms, computer elements and architecture, artificial intelligence, database and software system. For my micro teaching session I have chosen the memory management because it is the key element of computer science and it is present in the different topic mentioned above. Moreover, doing the micro teaching on this subject will be challenging because students come from different backgrounds and may not have studied computer science in their educational path. Therefore, I would expect most of them will find this subject very challenging. To make it accessible for all, I will explain it at a very high level of description, associate memory block to a day by day use like a bookshelf and avoid complicated notions such as page system, memory addresses, virtual memory and more. I wanted to make sure that after 25 minutes my students would not only gain knowledge of memory management ( memory bar is not a storage unit) but they achieved something ( quiz and exercise) and be able to explain to others (by using analogy).

2.1- Meet the needs of individual learners:


My learners are PGDE students. The lesson plan is built to follow this sequence of question: what is a memory? Why do computers need memory? And how it works? For this microteaching session, I will combine mostly visual and auditory teaching methods. I will add gesture to emphasis some ideas, be dynamic during the presentation to keep learners attention and check understanding by asking questions. Kinesthetic teaching methods will be used during the practice session. The ground rules within a class are mutually established by the teacher and learners who attend the class. Everyone in the class has responsibility and ownership of them and this enables them to feel part of a team.

2.2- Approach teaching and learning


The approach will be basic, I will provide information and then they will use this information to do exercises. Key elements will be displayed on the screen but additional information would be communicated orally. As they are post-16 students, I would not just transfer my knowledge but make them be independent learners and pick what is for them important or not. For that reason, the handout will be given at the beginning so they will be able to write additional points. Further reading will be given too during the micro teaching to enhance their curiosity. I will put a book from Professor Tanenbaum that I read during my Master degree, a researchers report from University of Texas that I read during my time in industry and Wikipedia because it is easily accessible and it very up to date on this subject. I will be using PowerPoint tools and a whiteboard for additional explanation or answering questions. During the presentation I will interact with students to make them part of the lesson as it will be a challenging one. The end of session will involve all learners in a practical quiz and exercise (that needs mathematical skills) to allow them to demonstrate their knowledge. In the meantime, I will go around the class to see how they are coping and to see if they are doing the exercise or not. I will assess by observing each learners progress and ability, which will allow me to provide constructive feedback. By asking open questions I can provide additional information and feedback.

2.3- Strengths and limitations of the resources


As for the resources, I have chosen handouts, PowerPoint and a whiteboard. The handout will be given at the beginning and will assist the students. I prefer to provide the handout earlier in the lesson for a few reasons. The first one is to cue the learner into what will be discussed and also to those who wish to annotate the notes so that the learning is personalized and more meaningful. However, having to take notes and listen to me at the same will demand effort

and concentration and may lead to disruption. At last, one possible problem of the use of handouts is that they may promote passive learning. To avoid this I plan a lot of interaction. PowerPoint is a great presentation tool. In effect, it highlights the main points of the teaching offers various animation functions to clarify difficult aspect such as the filling process. I cans see two problems with PowerPoint presentation. Firstly, it will provoke a linear lesson. In order to solve this issue, I will ask questions during the micro teaching and use the whiteboard to give additional information or solve a problem. Secondly, I have prepared my slides not necessarily in response to the needs of my students but according to an ideal lesson that I have in mind for this level of learners.

2.4 -Functional skills


The three functional skills will be presented during my micro teach. The presentation will be done in English and the vocabulary will of a computer science nature. Some students will discover a new definition for a word because of the context. Mathematic skills will be tested during the exercise part. The students will have to represent a memory bar according to the subject. The subject will be English written with mathematical words that student will have to understand such as equally. ICT skills will be improved by understanding how memory is managed inside of a computer desktop/laptop.

The subject will be a challenging one to teach due to the general nature of the subject and the lack of students prior knowledge. The lesson will be at high level definition which has forced me to find an easy way to explain this topic. The quiz and exercise are doable but require student to be very active.

3. Task 3: Deliver your teaching session and assess learning


In this section you will find a copy of the corrected lesson plan, the PowerPoint presentation that I also used as a handout and the tutor feedback sheet. I produced the original lesson plan as an appendix to my report.

3.1- Lesson plan

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3.2- PowerPoint Presentation

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3.3- Tutor feedback

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4. Task 4: Reflect and learn


4.1- Performance and experiences
After completing task 1-3, I could say I did not make a mistake by changing my career path. Even if English is not my first language, I proved during these tasks that I have the skills, attitudes and willpower to become a teacher. The first task gave me the opportunities to investigate the teaching role. Though, it was very hard to keep 1500 words for this research. However, at one moment during this task, I had the feeling that if a student fails it is not his fault but teachers one. He didnt find the right learning strategy to help the student. If I push a little more this feeling, the teacher may have found a specific strategy and may have a negative reaction among other student. The result is teacher must find equilibrium between his students capabilities and learning style. Furthermore, on this task, I may not have precise a teacher has to follow the evolution of modern society. For example, the usage of new technologies appeared in school and there are more and more children whose first native language is not English. These two elements had change the way teacher deliver his knowledge. Finally, this task is mandatory to become a teacher. By doing it I realise I will have different roles and duties and have to adapt my teaching methods to meet my learners needs. Preparing the lesson plan was similar as planning a software development cycle. However, the lesson plan was designed for a 25 minutes session. It will be interesting to prepare a 16 hours course, break the subject in several lessons and link the different lesson plan. I strongly believe lesson plan will change following the previous lesson. Indeed, some outcomes may not have been achieved within the time limit allowed or students may still struggle with a specific notion. While preparing this micro teaching, I enjoyed preparing the exercises. For the quiz I deliberately did not put how many answer was possible. Like in real life, students have to make a decision and life would be so easy if they know that there is only one answer for each problem. In this quiz, they will need to think about each answer. More, I liked preparing the

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problem on the filling process. With this exercise, I could found out if students have difficulty in relating English word to mathematic formula. Furthermore, even if some student did not find the right size of the block they still could do the exercise. Finally, to plan this lesson, I had to know first which topic I am going to choose and what goal I am aiming. By knowing the destination point I had to figure out the departure one. This point is given by knowing my student. The third task gave me an opportunity to teach to non IT students a difficult subject in computer science which is memory management. In the past, I used to teach IT subject to engineers. With them, I could go deep in explanation and the example is always around hardware or software architecture. Contrary to the non IT students, I could not use these kinds of examples. A few students will understand it but the majority would not. Therefore, I always tried to relate the principle of memory management with an example that they are familiar with such as a bookshelf or restaurant. By being dynamic in the classroom make the lesson more welcoming. Finally, I was happy about my performance. I prove myself that I could explain a difficult concept and maintain my non IT students attention throughout the session. Unfortunately, I discover that one of my students is dyslexic. If I had this information earlier I would have made some change on my resource.

4.2- Micro Teach Self-Evaluation Pro-Forma


At the end of the micro teach session, it was confirmed that the subject was challenging for most students However, at the end of lesson, the entire outcome was met. There were 20slides including: 2 slides for title and Q/A, 6 slides of transition and 12 slides with information. I thought I would hold 25 minutes, but something was not right on slide 5 and I started to lose students. I changed my presentation by adding examples, checking their understanding, rephrasing and working on words (there was a misunderstanding between computer words and daily word such as running a program). I attached as an appendix all the peer feedback for evaluation.

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Teaching And Learning


1. How effective was the learning? During the micro-teach, I used oral questioning to change the rhythm of the class, to make sure that everybody understood my explanation and to build their confidence by using closed questions or to extend their thinking concerning the filling process with an open question. Effectively, on slide 14, I asked an open ended question concerning an issue that might happen if the size of the memory was bigger. It gave me the opportunity to see if students had understood the principle and enabled me to foresee any future problems. At the end of the micro teaching, I gave a quiz and an exercise. The answers of the quiz sum up the main ideas of the lesson and can be found by going through the handout. The problem dealt with the filling process and was text-written. Students had to use English and maths skill to understand and solve this exercise. While they were doing the two exercises, I walked around the class to see if they were actually doing the exercise, they exchange ideas and strategies they uses to answer the quiz and the problem. When they asked me if they were right, I never gave the answer straight away, I strived to make them reflect on their answers and praise them if they gave the right answer. Otherwise, I recall the slide where the information is given or rephrase the text. 2. How were individual learners needs met? The topic was hard for the group. Exercise 2, very hard to understand, difficult subject, may have geared too high for the group. Despite these critics, I made the subject alive and learners at the end of the session understand memory management. One of the students was dyslexic and I only realised this during the micro-teaching. All learners were active during the micro session. 3. How might the lesson plan be modified/revised for future use? The topic and content was overall satisfactory. At the end of the lesson I achieved all my targets and all students at the end understood that memory is not a storage unit and it is managed like a book. However, the time schedule was not respected. It took me 10 minutes more than originally planned. Next time, I might regroup slides 2 and 4 to one slide. The quiz could be integrated during the presentation and operated orally. I would probably avoid the

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open ended question during the sum up of filling process that cost me 5minutes, but it would be a dilemma. Students would not try to forecast issues that might happen, analysis or problem solving skill would not be involved in the lesson. The exercise 2 might have been difficult even if they had worked in pairs. From my observation, the math made the exercise hard to understand. A few students made mistakes on the size of memory block and as a cause and effect made the rest of the exercise difficult. Effectively, this exercise asks a lot from the students. They need to understand the text, break it down in parts, and draw memory bars and use slide 12 and 13 to fill these bars. 4. How appropriate and effective were the teaching and learner methods used? Like I mentioned on Task 2 I used PowerPoint, Whiteboard, Handout and exercises. PowerPoint because by displaying only the important points it is a good visual aid and associated with additional oral information it is a great tool in delivering knowledge. I explained each bullet point by adding examples, analogy and rephrasing it. I used the whiteboard during the correction of the exercise. By using for a very short period of time, it drew attention to one area of the classroom. I used their answers to correct the exercise and while I was writing the correction on the board, I explained again some parts of the lesson. To assess the knowledge of students, I designed a quiz and a problem activity. I used paired activities so that students could work together. I also set a ground rule by telling them to work in pairs not chat in their pairs. I used a lot of oral assessment because it was the fastest way to know the status of the class and have feedback from the classroom. The exercise allowed me to observe each student, see how they work. I had explicitly told them to work in pairs. I went to see each student to see how they were working. 5. How appropriate and effective were the teaching and learning materials and resources used? I created my own PowerPoint presentation and the content was a high level description of memory. I had to make to lesson appropriate for my learners by removing some elements and

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finding guidelines. Everybody thought the PowerPoint was clear except for two people (make the writing bigger and coloured background). Other than that, the PowerPoint was appreciated (good interactive PP, very good pp).

Assessment
1-How was assessment information used to judge how the learning objectives had been achieved? As it is a hard subject, I had to make sure that students were still active and understood exposition. I first found out that my lesson was going to shift on the first slide of the memory. By looking through the class while explaining what the memory is, I had this feeling that I had lost a few students. So I put effort into group dynamism, and asked if everything was ok? I explained the difficulties in other words. Afterwards I regularly check their understanding at different stage of the lesson. During the quiz, I used positive praise when students gave the right answer. When a student gave me a wrong answer I didnt react negatively, I asked him if he was sure about his answer and ask others learners for help. 2-Based on assessment information gathered in the lesson, how might the teaching be improved? I have been told that I had too many slides during the micro teaching. I had six transitions slide indicating where we are in the plan. I could incorporate the content of these transitions slide to the twelve slides that contain the key point of the lesson. As it is a challenging subject for my students I preferred to display our progress in the plan to inform them visually that we are going to see the next point of the lesson. During this micro teaching, I talked a lot. I could reduce my time of speech by doing more activities for learners. To do so, I would have to condense some explanation as it is already concentrate and it would probably lead to a lot of misunderstanding from the students. However, I could present only one filling process and concentrated my course around it.

Other
1-Identify and reflect on the strengths you displayed when teaching your micro-session. Sense of humour To teach to non IT students was a challenge. Sense of humour is an important aspect of my

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personality and it is reflected during the micro teaching. This makes them comfortable and relaxed. Relating information to day to day activities / Analogy By representing memory block like a bookshelf or the memory controller like a waiter who seats people in a restaurant seemed to make more sense to the students. That was seen positive by both students and tutor. very visual / Interactive Like Confucius said "A picture is worth a thousand words." The use of an animated block to explain the filling process makes the idea more understandable. Using additional information to encourage curiosity or more information was appreciated Providing info/books website to find out more detail or useful further reading

2-Identify and reflect ways to improve your session and areas for further development A general comment concerned the hand out could be stapled. I discovered during the session that one student is dyslexic. If I had this information earlier I would have changed the background of my PowerPoint and hand provided him with a coloured release of the handout. Otherwise I could have asked everybody individually if they have needs. Finally, one student told me that there was a Lot of information to take in. A way to solve this issue is to write down more information on the handout. Nevertheless, it could lead to several problems. The first one, the handout will not capture the key points and would be more like a text book instead. Finally, by having too much information on it, it will make the learner less active. I prefer for the student to work independently by taking key points and annotating the handouts accordingly.

After completing this task, I realised that a lesson can only be improved by self evaluation; critical reflection of ones own work and by accepting criticism from others. If I am able to do all this, I hope I will become a very effective teacher who always considers individual learners

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needs. I gather the different peer feedback for evaluation. Finally, it was very instructional to see various micro-sessions and different teaching and learning styles.

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Conclusion
A teachersrole is multifaceted and he has many different duties as a professional depending on the situation. To improve student achievement he must make his teaching effective by including different learning styles in his lesson, by knowing both his subject and students and plan his lesson well. He must pick the right resources to facilitate delivery of the subject and to make his students become active learners. He has to be a reflective practitioner and has always to reflect on what has happened in the classroom. As well as reflecting he must understand why, how and what if. A reflective journal will allow teachers to record significant events or an aspect of teaching and learning to promote reflective thinking.

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Reference
Armitage, A, Bryant, R, dunnill, R, Hayes,D ,Hudons, A, Kent, flanaga, K,J, Lawes, S. and Renwick, M (2007) Teaching and Training in Post-Compulsory education 3rd edition, Buckingham: Open University Press Avis, J, Fisher, R, and Thompson, R, (2010) Teaching in Lifelong Learning: a guide to theory and practice. Milton Keynes: Open University Press Francis,M, and Gould,J,(2009) A Practical Guide to Successful Teaching in The Lifelong Learning Sector.London Nicholls, G, (2002) Developing teaching and learning in higher education. London: Routledge Falmer

Website Reference
Institute for Learning, The Code of Professional Practice. Available at: http://www.ifl.ac.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/4903/2010_06_code_of_professional_practice.pd f [Accessed 20 October 2010] Adult Learning Inspectorate n.d, /* ALI Survey Report *//. Available at: http://live.ofsted.gov.uk/publications/goodpractice/htm/03/03.04.htm [Accessed 20 October 2010] Next Generation Learning n.d, Copyright issues for schools and college. Available at: http://www.nextgenerationlearning.org.uk/safeguarding-learners/Case-studies/Copyright-issues-forschools-and-colleges/ [Accessed 20 October 2010] Next Generation Learning n.d, Computer misuse in educational setting. Available at: http://www.nextgenerationlearning.org.uk/safeguarding-learners/Case-studies/Computer-misusein-educational-settings/ [Accessed 20 October 2010]

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APPENDIX 1: Original Lesson plan

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APPENDIX 2: Peer Feedback for Evaluation

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