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Take-Off Decision Speed is the speed at which when an engine failure
is recognized, the distance to continue the take-off to a height of 35'
will not exceed the usable take-off distance, or the distance to bring the
airplane to a full stop will not exceed the accelerate-stop distance
- V
will not be less than V
- Greater than V
- Greater than maximum brake energy speed (V

Rotation Speed is the speed at which rotation of the airplane is
initiated by lifting the nosewheel off the ground. V
occurs before lift-
off, but is selected to provide lift-off and climb speeds with safe
margins above the minimum control and stall speeds and will allow
reaching V
before reaching a height of 35' above the take-off surface.
By definition V
cannot be less than:
- V
speed, or
- 105% of minimum control speed in the air (V
), or
- A margin above the minimum speed at which the airplane can be
made to lift off the ground and continue the take-off without
displaying any hazardous characteristics. This speed is referred to as
minimum unstick speed, (V

Take-off Safety speed is the speed at which the airplane should be
flown after lift-off in the event an engine fails at or subsequent to
reaching V
speed during the Take-off run. This speed provides the
necessary climb gradient for obstacle clearance with an engine failed.
must be attained at or prior to the 35' height. By definition it must not
be less than:
- 110% of the minimum control speed in the air (V
), or
- 120% of the idle thrust stalls speed with flaps at the take-off setting.

In the case of the four-engine take-off, the speed resulting at the 35' height
will be higher than V
due to the greater acceleration available from the
same rotation speed used to establish the three-engine take-off distance.
Thus, if an engine fails during the take-off run, and the take-off is
continued, the pilot is assumed to fly as close to V
speed (never below)
as possible. If no engine failure occurs, he may allow the airplane to
climb out at higher speeds.

Landing Reference Speed is the minimum CAS at the 50' height in a
normal landing. This speed is equal to 1.3 times the stall speed in the
landing configuration (VSO).


Balanced Field Length The condition where the take-off distance is equal
to the accelerate-stop distance. This distance must not exceed the length of
the runway.

Unbalanced Field Length The condition where the take-off distance and
accelerate-stop distance are not equal.

Gradients of Climb
1- Gross Gradient is the demonstrated ratio expressed as a percentage of:

Change of Beight
Boiizontal Bistance Tiaveleu

Example - A climb gradient of 3.0% means an increase in altitude of
3' for every 100' forward travel.

2- Net Gradient is the demonstrated gross climb gradient reduced by the
decrement required by regulation.

Clearway is an area beyond the runway, not less than 500' wide, centrally
located about the extended center line of the runway, and under the control
of the airport authorities. The clearway is expressed in terms of a clearway
plane, extending from the end of the runway with an upward slope not
exceeding 1.25%, above which no object nor any portion of the terrain
protrudes, except that threshold lights may protrude above the plane if their
height above the end of the runway is not greater than 26" and if they are
located to each side of the runway.

NOTE: For the purposes of establishing takeoff distances and takeoff
runs, the clearway plane is considered to be the takeoff surface.

Stop-way is an area beyond the runway, not less in width than the width of
the runway, centrally located about the extended centerline of the runway,
and designated by the airport authorities for use in decelerating the airplane
during an aborted takeoff. To be considered as such, a stop-way must be
capable of supporting the airplane during an aborted take-off without
inducing structural damage to the airplane.

NOTE: The use of clearways and stop-ways (where existing) are
allowed by the regulations. Currently, there are no airports for
which AA uses stop-ways and clearways to increase maximum
Take-off gross weights. The stop-way and clearway concept
has been used by AA at some airports in the past, and if
warranted, may be used in the future.

In order to achieve compliance with the regulation, the takeoff gross weight
for any given flight must not exceed the lowest of the maximum weights
allowed for:
- Compliance with runway length and obstacle clearance requirements,
- Compliance with takeoff climb requirements,
- Compliance with en route performance requirements,
- Compliance with maximum landing weight taking into account
normal fuel burnout en route,
- Structural limit of the airplane.

Takeoff Runway Limit In determining the maximum allowable gross
weight for takeoff for any given runway, the performance of the airplane
must be related to the dimensions of the airport; that is, the required takeoff
distance for the gross weight must not exceed the effective takeoff length

Effective Takeoff Length In determining the effective length for takeoff of
any particular runway, many factors require consideration:

Runway length - Normally, the length available will be limited to the
paved area of the runway. In some cases, however, an area at the far
end of a given runway may be designated as a "stop-way" which can
be used for roll-out in the event a takeoff is aborted. Also, some
runways may have areas beyond the far end designated as a
"clearway" which will 'provide obstacle clearance while accelerating
to a safe climb speed.

Gradient - Account must be taken for the effect of runway slope on
acceleration, stopping distance and climb out to 35'. Uphill grades
increase the ground run to reach takeoff speed, but improve stopping
distance; overall, more distance is required to reach the 35' elevation.
The reverse is true of downgrades.

Wind - The effect of a headwind in shortening the takeoff distance
may be considered, but in doing so, only one-half of the wind
components parallel to the runway may be used. For a downwind
takeoff, 150% of the reported tailwind must be taken into account.
Additional conservatism is provided in that wind data is measured 50'
above the runway, whereas the effective wind at runway level will be
somewhat less due to ground friction, obstacles and so on. Since this
is automatically built into Airport Analyses and performance charts,
crews need use only the reported wind.

Obstacle Clearance - The effective length of a runway may also be
reduced by the presence of obstacles in the takeoff flight path. The
takeoff gross weight of the airplane must be limited so that all
obstacles not cleared by at least 300 feet horizontally will be cleared
vertically by at least 35, by the "net" flight path. The "net" flight path
for takeoff is derived by subtracting 1. 0% gradient from the actual
climb-out path the airplane is capable of flying.



Required Take-Off Distance - is the longer of the following distances:

4Engine Take-Off Distance: The total of the distance required to:

- Accelerate, with all engines at take-off thrust to 35'
height above the runway;
- Plus a 15% margin.

Accelerate-Stop Distance: The total of the distance required to:

- Accelerate, with all engines at take-off thrust from a
standing start to Take-Off Decision Speed, V
- Make a transition from take-off to idle thrust, decelerate,
- Bring the airplane to a full stop within the length of the
runway remaining.

In the certification tests that were conducted to determine the accelerate-stop
distance, stopping distance was based on the drag from the take-off wing
flap setting, speed brakes, and maximum wheel braking. No credit was taken
for reverse thrust which can be used for an additional margin of stopping

3 Engine Take-Off Distance: The total of the distance required to:

- Accelerate to V
as above;
- Continue with one engine inoperative to a rotation speed
at which time the nose wheel is raised off the ground,
- Climb out through 35' height at the take-off safety speed

It can be seen from the above that, except for an aborted take-off, the Take-
Off Distance consists of two parts, a ground run and an air distance. The
ground run is the distance from the start of take-off to lift-off. The air
distance may be either:
(a) The distance required to reach a height of 35' after lifting off with one
engine inoperative, or:
(b) 115% of the distance required to reach a height of 35' from the lift-off
point with all four engines operating.

Take-Off Climb Limit - The maximum weight for take-off from any given
runway may be limited to allow airplane performance equal to certain
minimum climb gradients on three engines assuming the critical engine to
have failed at V
speed and the take-off continued.

The Take-Off Path - is the accelerate-stop distance plus the take-off flight
path profile made good on a take-off with the most critical engine failure
occurring at V
speed. The path extends from the standing start to a point in
the take-off where a height of 1,500' above the take-off surface is reached, or
to where transition from take-off to en route configuration is complete,
whichever is higher. For performance specifications, the take-off flight path
is broken down into the following segments:

- 1st Segment - Starts at 35' height and ends when gear retraction
is complete. The weight may not be in excess of that which will
allow 0.5% climb gradient.
- 2nd Segment - Starts when gear retraction is completed and
ends at height of not less than 400' above the take-off surface.
The weight may not be in excess of that which will allow a
climb 3.0% gradient with the remaining engines at take-off
thrust, the flaps at the take-off setting and the airplane flown at
- 3rd Segment - Starts at not less than 400' height and continues
until flaps are retracted while accelerating to V
+ 50 knots, at
take-off thrust.
- Final Segment - Extends to a gross height of 1500' AFL or
more, at a constant speed of V
+ 50 knots, flaps up, with
maximum continuous thrust.

The Gross Take-Off Flight Path - From 400' height to the end of the final
segment must have a climb gradient of not less than 1.7%.

The Net Take-Off Flight Path - Is a profile starting at reference zero,
having a gradient 1.0% below the actual take-off flight path. The "net" flight
path must clear all obstacles by 35' vertically or 300 horizontally.

Since there is no means for a pilot to determine his gradient of climb while
in flight, it is important that he observe quite closely the prescribed
techniques and airspeeds, particularly during the early stages of flight, to
assure obstacle and terrain clearance in the event of engine failure.

En Route Performance Limit - To establish the maximum allowable gross
weight for any given flight, the performance of the airplane must be related
to the terrain over which it is to be flown. Consideration must be taken of the
possibility of engine failure en route and the resulting performance
deterioration, to affect a safe landing after either one or two engine failures.

Effective Runway Length
Landing Runway Requirements
Destination & Alternate Airports

The diagram above illustrates the method of determining an effective
runway length using a 20 to 1 obstruction plane ratio.

EXAMPLE (Dry Runway)
Known conditions:
1- Obstruction height = 100 feet
2- Distance from obstruction to beginning of runway = 1500
3- Actual runway length = 6000 feet

Solution for effective runway length:
1- Obstruction plane distance = 2000 feet
(100 ft. obstruction

2- Effective runway length = Actual runway length & distance
from obstruction to beginning of runway - obstruction plane
distance (6000 + 1500 - 2000 = 5500 feet)

For wet runways the effective runway length must be at least 115% of the
dry effective runway length.

APPROACH & LANDING' LIMITS - The allowable weight for take-off
must be limited so as to comply with the following approach, climb and
landing performance at the airport of destination.

APPROACH CLIMB - In the approach configuration, (gear up, with
speed not exceeding 110% of V
for the configuration) a go-around
can be accomplished with:
- The critical engine inoperative.
- The remaining engines at available take-off thrust.
- Climb gradient not less than 2.7%.
- Climb speed not to exceed 1.5 V
LANDING CLIMB - In the landing configuration a go-around can be
accomplished with:
- Four engines operating.
- Thrust that is available 8 seconds after throttle movement from
idle to take-off position.
- Climb gradient not less than 3.2%.
- Climb speed not to exceed 1. 3 V
LANDING DISTANCE - The landing weight must be limited so that
the landing distance will not exceed 60% of the effective runway
length. (See page 10, for effective runway length). The landing can be
accomplished with:
- Speed not less than 1.3 V
at 50' height above runway.
- Flaps, speed brakes and wheel brakes used (reverse thrust not
- Wind correction factors for not more than 50% for headwind
and not less than 150% for tailwind must be used.
- The landing distance increased 15% if landing on wet or
slippery runway.