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PHY1004W 2010 Electricity and Magnetism

Part 1

Prof Andy Buffler Room 503 RW James andy.buffler@uct.ac.za

PHY1004W Second Semester 2008 60 lectures: 3rd period, Monday to Friday 12 weekly problem sets 12 Tuesday afternoon tutorials and laboratories 2 class tests 1 final examination (November) Class tutors: Maciej Stankiewicz and Michael Malahe Use them! Also check the course website regularly for resources These lecture notes are not a substitute for check for significant errata files on website

My expectations of you

1. that if you come to lectures, then you will engage with what is happening 2. that you read M&I daily (before and after lectures) 3. that you do what I ask you to do 4. that you will not copy another students work, but work together, where appropriate. (Collaboration becomes copying when both parties are not gaining positive learning from the activity.) 5. spend enough time at home working on what you need to what you can expect from me
1. the best course that I can deliver 2. a reasonable and appropriate homework load. 3. no mercy in the face of plagiarism 4. an open door policy

When making sense of the ideas in this course, its useful to think about both the nature of physics and how you learn physics yourself ...

Physical theories
(shared, acontextual)

particularization Physical model


(shared, contextual)

idealization

Real world
(phenomena)

An approach to solving physics problems


Step 1. Think carefully about the problem situation and draw a picture of what is going on (Pictorial Representation). Draw one or more pictures which show all the important objects, their motion and any interactions. Now ask What is being asked? Do I need to calculate something? Think about what physics concepts and principles you think will be useful in solving the problem and when they will be most useful. Construct a mental image of the problem situation - do your friends have the same image? Specify a convenient system to use - circle this on your picture. Identify any idealisations and constraints present in the situation write them down! Specify any approximations or simplifications which you think will make the problem solution easier, but will not affect the result significantly.

Step 2. Describe the physics (Physics Representation). Draw a coordinate axis (or axes) onto your picture (decide where to put the origin and on the direction of the axes). Translate your pictures into one or more diagrams (with axes) which only gives the essential information for a mathematical solution. If you are using kinematic concepts, draw a motion diagram specifying the objects velocity and acceleration at definite positions and times. If interactions or statics are important, draw idealised, free body and force diagrams. When using conservation principles, draw initial and final diagrams to show how the system changes. For optics problems draw a ray diagram. For circuit problems, a circuit diagram will be useful. Define a symbol for every important physics variable in your diagram and write down what information you know (e.g. T1 = 30 N). Identify your target variable? (What unknown must I calculate?).

Step 3. Represent the problem mathematically and plan a solution (Mathematical Representation). Only now think about what mathematical expressions relate the physics variables from your diagrams. Using these mathematical expressions, construct specific algebraic equations which describe the specific situation above. Think about how these equations can be combined to find your target variable. Begin with an equation that contains the target variable. Identify any unknowns in that equation Find equations which contain these unknowns Do not solve equations numerically at this time. Check your equations for sufficiency... You have a solution if your plan has as many independent equations are there are unknowns. If not, determine other equations or check the plan to see if it is likely that a variable will cancel from your equations. Plan the best order in which to solve the equations for the desired variable.

Step 4. Execute the plan Do the algebra in the order given by your outline. When you are done you should have a single equation with your target variable. Substitute the values (numbers with units) into this final equation. Make sure units are consistent so that they will cancel properly. Calculate the numerical result for the target variable.

Step 5. Evaluate your solution


Do vector quantities have both magnitude and direction ? Does the sign of your answer make sense ? Can someone else follow your solution ? Is it clear ? Is the result reasonable and within your experience ? Do the units make sense ?

Have you answered the question ?

In-class voting questions

1 2 3 4 5

Bring your 12345 sheets along with you to class every day and have them ready ! A practice question: I am really pleased to be back in PHY1004W because:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

All vacation long I dreamed of physics I missed the smell of this lecture theatre Physics is my best course I am a masochist None of the above.

1 2 3 4 5 Which textbook do you have?

1.

2.

3. None, and I dont think I need one. 4. None, but I am planning to get one. 5. None, but I share with a friend.

The story so far.


Right handed coordinate system: i j Unit vectors k i j
A B ( Ax , Ay , Az ) ( Bx , By , Bz ) ( Ax ( Ax , Ax i Ay j Az k Bx By Bz k i j By , Az Az ) Bx , Ay B y , Az Bz ) Bz )

Vector algebra
k 1

z
k
i

A B A A B cA A B

Bx , Ay Ay ,

A ( B) ( Ax (cAx , cAy ,cAz ) Ax Bx Ay By

Az Bz

A B B A k k 1 i i j j

A A A2 k k i j j i

11

A B

( Ay Bz Az By ) + (Az Bx Ax Bz ) + (Ax By Ay Bx )k i j
G where G
i

A
j Ay By

and
k Az Bz

easy to remember:

Ax Bx

always

A B (B A ) k k i i j j

A A 0 k; k i j j

; k i i j

In polar form in 2D:


A B AB cos

and

A B

AB sin k
12

where

is the angle between tails of A and B .

Az

The spherical polar coordinate system

k
i

A
j

A Ax Ay Az k i j Ax
Ay y

A cos sin A sin sin A cos Ax 2 Ay 2 Az 2 Az A Ay Ax

Ay Az A
:

Ax
x

Spherical coordinates: A, ,

cos tan

The cylindrical polar coordinate system Az z

A Ax Ay Az k i j

k
i

A
j

Ax
z

cos sin z Ax 2 Ay 2

Ay
Ay
y

Az

Ax x Cylindrical coordinates: , , z :

tan z Az

Ay Ax

Differentiation of vector functions If A (t )

Ax (t ) Ay (t ) Az (t )k i j d A(t ) dt

Also:

dAx (t ) dAy (t ) dAz (t ) then i j k dt dt dt d dA (t ) dB(t ) A (t ) B(t ) dt dt dt d dc(t ) dA(t ) c(t ) A(t ) A (t ) c ( t ) dt dt dt d dB(t ) dA(t ) A (t ) B(t ) A(t ) B(t ) dt dt dt d dB(t ) dA(t ) A (t ) B(t ) A(t ) B(t ) dt dt dt

Example of the time derivatives of a vector function If position

r (t )

x(t ) i

y (t ) z (t )k j

then the instantaneous velocity v(t )

dr (t ) m s-1 dt

v(t )

dx(t ) dy (t ) dz (t ) i j k dt dt dt
a(t ) dv(t ) dt

and the instantaneous acceleration

m s-2

a(t )

dvx (t ) dv y (t ) dvz (t ) i j k dt dt dt

M&I Chapter 13

Electric Field

Scalar and vector fields A scalar or vector field is a distribution of a scalar or vector quantity on a specified surface or throughout a specified region of space such that there is a unique scalar or vector associated with each position. Examples of scalar fields: Temperature, T ( x, y, z )or T (r ) Potential, V ( x, y, z ) or V (r ) Examples of vector fields: Electric field E(r ) Velocity v (r )

Fields may be time independent, e.g. T ( x, y, z ) or time dependent T ( x, y, z , t )

Scalar fields A scalar field can be represented by specifying a finite number of scalar values at strategic positions in the region of interest. It is also possible to draw contour curves - continuous curves joining points where the scalar values are the same. In 3D space these contours are surfaces. Such representations are always incomplete, since an infinite number of contours or surfaces should really be drawn.

A third way of representing a scalar field is by a mathematical function.

Scalar fields in 2D ....

... and 3D ...

Vector fields A vector field is a vector function of position. Vector fields may be represented visually by field lines which are everywhere parallel to the local value of the vector function. These lines are sometimes called lines of force in mechanics and stream lines in fluid mechanics.

A vector field may also be represented by lines which are everywhere a tangent to the vectors. Although we lose track of the lengths of the vectors, we can keep track of the strength of the field by drawing lines far apart where the field is weak, and close where it is strong.

We adopt the convention that the number of lines per unit area at right angles to the lines is proportional to the field strength.

Vector fields may also be represented mathematically, often using differential equations.

Example of a vector field function of position: the electric field The electric field around a point charge q may be written as q E (r ) r 2 4 0r r where r 0 and r r
In Cartesian form r x y zk i j r x y zk i j r x2 y 2 z 2

and r q 4 ( x2 0 y2

E(r )

( x y zk ) i j z2 ) x2 y2 z2

q ( x y zk ) i j 4 0 ( x 2 y 2 z 2 )3 2

Digital resources VPython scripts used in class can be found in the EM section of the PHY1004W web site. Also look at these PhET simulations from the University of Colorado:

Electric field

Electric field hockey

Charges and fields

Travoltage

1 2 3 4 5

A proton is at location < 0, 3, 2 > m. An electron is at location <1, 0, 6 > m. What is the relative position vector from the proton to the electron?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. < 1, 3, 8 > m < 1, 3, 4 > m < 1, 3, 4 > m < 1, 3, 8 > m < 1, 0, 6 > m

Electrostatics Thales of Miletus (640-548 BC) basic phenomena of charging on intimate contact (friction) William Gilbert, 1574-1603, physician to Queen Elizabeth amber, rubbed with cloth or fur, acquires the property of attracting small bodies the amber has become electrified. Dufay, 1733, originated (?) the two fluid theory of electrification, calling the two sorts of electricity vitreous (on glass) and resinous (on amber) Benjamin Franklin (1747) introduced the terms positive and negative

The Electrostatic Force Can be either attractive or repulsive (gravity only attractive) Can act through empty space Very much stronger than gravitational force From experiments we find that the electrostatic force decreases with distance r as 1 r 2 , and it is also proportional to the product of the amount of charge on each of the charges:
F q1q2

Electrostatic forces are mutual forces of attraction i.e. they obey Newtons 3rd law.

Coulombs Law Coulomb (1785) put a quantitative basis to the observations that charged particles attracted or repelled one another. ... measured the forces using a tensional balance and found that ...
F21 q1q2 2 r12

or

F21

q1q2 k 2 r12

Coulombs Law

where: F21 is the force on q2 due to q1


k constant (from experiment) 1 4 0 9 109 N m 2 C-2

permittivity of free space = 8.85 10-12 C 2 N -1 m-2

F21

1 q1q2 r12 2 4 0 r12

Coulombs Law

Where r12 is the unit vector (magnitude = 1) which indicates the direction along which the force is acting i.e. from q1 to q2.

So r12 r12 r12

Note:

F12 i.e. F12


F12

F21 F21 but r12


r12
q1
r12 r21

r21
+

F21
q2

Silicon atoms

Some charged particles

Particle electron positron

Mass 9.11 9.11 10-31 kg 10-31 kg

Charge e= 1.60 10-19 C

+e = 1.60 10-19 C

proton
antiproton muon pion

1.67
1.67 1.88 2.48

10-27 kg
10-27 kg 10-28 kg 10-28 kg

+e = 1.60

10-19 C

e = 1.60 10-19 C +e ( +) or e ( ) +e (+) or e ( )

M&I 13.3

The electric field

a region in which a charge experiences a (mechanical) force is called an electric field. we assume that a charge creates a field of influence around it. Any other charge present in that region will experience a force. This force is described by Coulombs Law. E
1

Definition of electric field:

F2 = q2 E1

q2 F2

... where E1 is the electric field at the location of charge q2


Units: N C
1

E E( x , y , z , t )

The electric field of a point charge The electric field around a point charge q may be written as q E (r ) r 2 4 0r r where r 0 and r r
In Cartesian form r x y zk i j r x y zk i j r x2 y 2 z 2

and r q 4 ( x2 0 y2

E(r )

( x y zk ) i j z2 ) x2 y2 z2

q ( x y zk ) i j 4 0 ( x 2 y 2 z 2 )3 2

The electric field 2


E (r ) q ( x y zk ) i j 4 0 ( x 2 y 2 z 2 )3 2

This vector function is the sum of a 3 component vector:


E x ( x, y , z ) E y ( x, y , z ) E z ( x, y , z ) 4 4 4 qx ( x2 y 2 0 qy ( x2 y 2 0 qz ( x2 y 2 0 z 2 )3 2 z 2 )3 2 z 2 )3 2

where E x , E y and E z are the three scalar components of E(r ).

A note on vector notation In these notes, a vector in 3D such as E(r )


4 q
0

will be written

E (r )

q ( x y zk ) i j 4 0 ( x 2 y 2 z 2 )3 2

The Matter and Interactions textbooks use a notation which is similar to the notation use in VPython syntax:
E (r ) q x, y , z ( x 2 y 2 z 2 )3 2 0

You should be comfortable with both!

E_pointcharge_drag.py

1 2 3 4 5

At location x there is an electric field in the direction shown below, due to nearby charged particles. If an electron were placed at location x, what would be the direction of the force on the electron? 1
x

2 3

5 zero

Electric field lines What is the direction of the electric field at the different positions below? Your arrows should be of the appropriate relative length. B D

A
F G E

A charge as a projectile A positive charge q of mass m initially moving at constant velocity, enters and leaves a region where there is constant, downward electric field.

+
E 0
E

(a)Draw the trajectory of the charge as it moves through each of the three regions. (b) Write down an expression for the acceleration of the charge in each of the three regions. (c) If the mass of the charge is doubled, then what will its trajectory look like?

M&I 13.4

The superposition principle

The net electric field at a location is the vector sum of the individual electric fields contributed by all charged particles located elsewhere.
The electric field contributed by a charged particle is unaffected by the presence of other charged particles.
q2 q1

E1
E net

E2 E2

Enet

E1

The superposition principle: Example The negative charge below has twice the magnitude of each positive charge. Use graphical vector addition to estimate the direction and relative magnitude of the electric field at each position. D B A

The superposition principle: an important worked example A small object with charge Q1 = 6 nC is located at the origin. A second small object with charge Q2 = 5 nC is located at 0.05,0.08,0 m. What us the net electric field at a location 0.04,0.08,0 m due to Q1 and Q2 ?
E net

r1

0.04,0.08,0
0.04,0.08,0 m

0,0,0

E1

Q2

E2
i

r1

r1 r1

0.04,0.08,0 ( 0.04) 2 (0.08) 2 (0) 2


0.447,0.894,0 m

Q1

E1

Q1 4
0

r1

r1

(9 109 )(6 10 9 ) (0.0894) 2

0.447,0.894,0

3.02 103 ,6.04 103 ,0 N C-1

The superposition principle: an important worked example cont


r2 0.04,0.08,0 0.05,0.08,0
0.09,0,0 m
2

r2

r2 r2
Q2 4
0 2

0.09,0,0 ( 0.09)
r2
2

(0)

1,0,0

(0)

E2

r2

(9 109 )( 5 10 9 ) (0.09) 2

1,0,0

5.56 103 ,0,0 N C-1


Enet E1 E2 3.02 103 ,6.04 103 ,0
2.54 103 ,6.04 103 ,0 N C-1

5.56 103 ,0,0

or we can write a short VPython programme


from visual import *

Q1 = sphere(pos=(0, 0, 0), radius=.3e-2, color = (0,0,1), charge = 6e-9) Q2 = sphere(pos=(0.05, 0.08, 0), radius=.3e-2, color = (1,0,0), charge = -5e-9) location = vector(-0.04, 0.08, 0) k = 9e9 r1 = location - Q1.pos E1 = k*Q1.charge*(r1/(r1.x**2+r1.y**2+r1.z**2)**0.5)/mag(r1)**2 r2 = location - Q2.pos E2 = k*Q2.charge*norm(r2)/mag(r2)**2 Enet = E1 + E2 print Enet compare Escale = 3e-6 Earrow = arrow(pos=location, color=(1,.6,0), axis=Enet*Escale, shaftwidth = .5e-2)

Note that norm(A) gives the unit vector A of A and mag (A) gives the magnitude A of A

The electric field of a dipole

The electric field of a dipole


Along the x-axis:
s
q

Ex
q

x
Ex E E 1 4
1 4
0
0

q x
1 2

x s
2

1 2

s i
1 2

1 4
i
0

q x
1 2

x s
2

1 2

s i
1 2

2qsx 2 1 x 2s x

1 2

Dipole field 2 Along the y-axis:


r
1 2

j
E

s y i j

1 2

s y i j

Ey E
r
r
s y

Then
r
1 2

1 2

Ey 4

E 1
0

E q
1 2 1 2

i
1 2

s y i j s
2

1
2

q
0 1 2

s y i j s
2

y2

1 2

y2

1 2

y2

1 4
0 1 2

qs s
2
3

i
2

Dipole field 3

Far along the x-axis:

Ex

x
If x >>s , then
x
1 2

1 2

x2

r2

and

Ex

1 2qs i 3 4 0 r Ey Ez

Far along the y- and z-axis:

1 qs ( i) 3 4 0r

Interaction between a point charge and a dipole


Edipole
s

F
q
q
d s

+Q

QEdipole

1 2qs Q ( i) 3 4 0 d

Hence force on dipole due to Q = F () i


E point
Fon +
q

Edipole
Fon q

+Q
F

Fon - Fon +

The dipole moment p Write p = qs for a dipole with p in a direction from q to q


s

E
q

E
p
q

See movie oscillation of an electric field in an external electric field and try the challenge problem.

Electric field of a uniformly charged sphere of radius R ... see later ... + + + + + +
E sphere
Q +

+
+

r
+
0

+ +

r
1 4
0

E sphere

Q r 2 r

for r > R
A uniformly charged sphere acts like a point charge, at locations outside the sphere.

for r < R

The dipole and charged ball worked example in M&I


b

j
R

q q

s
E net
C

E dipole 1 2qs j 3 4 0 a 4

Eball 1
0

Q b2 a 2

b a i j b2 a2

M&I 13.5

Choice of system

Consider the following when making sense of things: Split the Universe up according to: the charges that are the source of the field the charge that is affected by the field

E E( x , y , z , t ) M&I Why bother with a field? 13.6 ... knowing the field at a location means that we know the force acting on any charge q placed at that location... ... no matter how that field was produced. ... and there is the issue of retardation ...

Take q away

For how long will you still detect E ?

A real example (e e+ annihilation): e + e+ + ... so is the electric field real, or only a construct?

M&I Chapter 14

Matter and Electric Fields

M&I 14.1

Charged particles net charge of an object sum of all the charges of all its constituent particles conservation of charge the net charge of a system and its surroundings cannot change e+ + e +

M&I 14.2

Electric interactions between charged particles Do it yourself experiments with U and L tapes

M&I 14.3

Interaction of charges and neutral matter

The electron cloud around the nucleus of an atom is described by a probability distribution : bring another charge close to atom the electron cloud will be distorted by the electric field average location of the electron no longer at the centre where the nucleus is located the atom is polarized
E

can be represented simply:


+

Such polarized atoms are induced dipoles return back to original state when external electric field is removed.

Write: p

where p is the dipole moment, E is the external field, and the constant is the polarizability
which is characteristic of the particular material (measured)

A neutral atom and a point charge


E1
r

q1 Charge polarizes the atom q1


p2 E1

s
E1

q2

+
q2

F2

F1

+
E2

which makes electric field E2 at q1


1 4
0 2

E2

1 2p 4 0 r3 q1E2 = q1

1 2 E1 4 0 r3 1 4
0 2

1 2 1 q1 4 0 r3 4 0 r2 1 4
0 2

2 q1 r5

F1

2 q1 r 5 r

2 q12 r 5 r

F2

M&I 14.4

Conductors and insulators

Conductors: contain mobile charges that can move through the material. Insulators: have no mobile charges Insulators can be polarized:
+ + + +

Eapplied

+
+

+
+ +

so can conductors such as ionic solutions

Ionic solutions

+ + + + + Eapplied

+ + + + Eapplied

+ + + +

+
Eapplied

Epolarization Enet

Epolarization Enet= 0

Model of a metal Metal: atoms arranged in regular 3D geometric lattice, most electrons tightly bound, one or two outer electrons per atom free to move within the metal (sea of electrons) but are not easily removed from the metal. + ++++++++++ +++++++++ ++++++++++ +++++++++ ++++++++++ +++++++++ ++++++++++ +++++++++ ++++++++++ +++++++++ ++++++++++ +++++++++ ++++++++++ +++++++++ ++++++++++ +++++++++ Eapplied static equilibrium Epolarization + + + + +

Epolarization Eapplied

conductor mobile charges polarization yes entire sea of mobile charges move Enet = 0 inside only on surface

insulator no individual atoms or molecules polarize Enet nonzero inside anywhere on or inside material located in patches

static equilibrium location of excess charge distribution of excess charge

spread out over entire surface

1 2 3 4 5 A negatively charged ion is located to the left of a neutral molecule. Which diagram correctly shows the polarization of the neutral molecule?

1 2 3 4 5

A point charge is brought near a neutral molecule. (There is nothing else nearby). Is it possible for the point charge and the neutral molecule to repel each other? 1. Yes. The molecule can polarize so that it repels the point charge. 2. No. The molecule can only polarize in a way that will attract the point charge.

1 2 3 4 5

In a region of space there is an electric field upward (in the +y direction), due to charges not shown in the diagram. A neutral copper block is placed in the region. Which diagram best describes the charge distribution on the block?

1 2 3 4 5

A negatively charged iron block is placed in a region where there is an electric field downward (in the y direction) due to charges not shown. Which diagram best describes the charge distribution in and/or on the iron block?

M&I 14.5

Charging and discharging

An object is charged when its net charge is non-zero and may be discharged by contact or grounding An object may be charged by induction Try it yourself 1. 2. + + + +

3.

+ + + +

4.

+ + + +

5.

+ + ++

1 2 3 4 5 A and B are identical metal blocks. What is the final charge of block B? 1. +6 nC 2. +3 nC 3. 0 nC 4. 3 nC 5. 6 nC

What happens? 1. protons move from A to B 2. positrons move from A to B 3. electrons move from B to A 4. both protons and electrons move 5. no charges move

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5 You neutralize a positively charged tape by running your finger across it. What happens? 1. electrons move from skin to tape 2. Cl- ions move from skin to tape 3. protons move from tape to skin 4. + ions move from tape to skin 5. no charges move

1 2 3 4 5

Two aluminum blocks, A and B, are initially neutral. They have insulating handles, which are not shown. This sequence occurs:

At a time after t4, what is the net charge of A? 1. positive 2. negative 3. neutral

Example problem: What force does the charged ball exert on the neutral wire? r Q

the ball polarizes the wire which becomes a dipole with +q and q on either ends
Fon ball Fon ball Fon wire Qball Ewire

Ewire

1 2qL 4 0 r3

E wire

Example problem 2 Inside the wire at static equilibrium:


Enet 0
2
2

E wire E sphere
q Q L 8 r

1 4
0

q L2
2

1 4
0

Q r2

Then Fon ball

1 4
0

2qL r3

2 Q2 L 4 0 8 r

L r3
3

1 Q 2 L3 4 0 4r 5

Putting in some sensible numbers: 2 -9 10 C 4 10-3 m Fon ball 9 109 N m 2 C-2 5 4 0.1 m

1.4 10-11 N

M&I Sparks in air 14.7 ... air is an excellent insulator, consisting mainly of neutral N2 and O2 during a spark, these molecules are ionized N2+ and O2+ How can electric charge move through air?

Take two charged balls, closely located, but not touching


+ + + + + +

+
+ + +

- + + +

+
+ + + + + +

More charge here (polarized)

Join 2 balls with wire, and free electrons move onto positive ball

For a 1 m long wire, there are about 1023 free electrons. The balls are charged about 10-9 coulombs (1010 e) So in a fraction 1010/1023 (=10 13) of the 1 m long wire are enough electrons to neutralize the positive ball i.e. the electron sea shifts about 10-13 m!

What happens in the case when there is only air between the balls? ? Electrons jump between the balls ? how far (mean free path) does an electron travel in air before colliding with a gas molecule ?

Mean free path d of electrons in air

d
e

At STP, one mole of air occupies 0.0224 m3

No. of molecules in cylinder 1 No. of molecules/m3 volume of cylinder 1


6 1023 0.0224 (1.5 10
10 2

) d

giving d

5 10-7 m

? Positive ions and electrons move in ionized air ? If the oxygen and nitrogen molecules in air become ionized (how?) . Then we have a gas of charged particles (a conductor) E

+ +

+ + + +

+ + + + + + +

what happens here?


No particle moves further than one mean free path (no electrons move between the balls)

The spark! electrons drift towards the positive ball and positive ions drift (more slowly) to the negative ball. As the electrons from the air move onto the positively charged ball, the electric field between the balls decreases slightly. electrons also move off the negative ball to neutralize positively charged molecules.

The spark only lasts a short time, unless the charge on the balls is replenished, since the excess charge on the balls will not be sufficient to maintain an electric field large enough to keep the air ionized. A photon of light is given off when a free electron re-combines with a positive ion the energy of the photon is equal to the difference between the high energy unbound state and the lower energy bound state.
-

? How does the air become ionized ? Need E = 3 106 N C-1 (experimentally determined) to maintain the air in an ionized state What is the electric field between the atomic core (nucleus + inner electrons) and a single outer electron
E 1 4
0

e r2

9 109 N m 2 C-2

1.6 10-19 C 10
-10

1.4 1011 N C-1

which is much larger than the experimentally observed E=3 106 N C-1

so if its not having a strong electric field, what ionizes the air ?

fast moving charged particles knock electrons out of atoms muons from cosmic rays, particles from radioactive sources, Once there is a single free electron, which is then accelerated in an electric field, a chain reaction can start, as 2, 4, 8, electrons can be knocked out of molecules and the air becomes ionized. need about
U 1 4
0

2.4

10-18 J to knock one electron from a molecule


9 10 N m C
9 2 -2

(e)( e) r

1.6 10

-19

10-10 m

Then

eEcritical d

Ecritical

2.4 10 18 J 2.4 10-18 J

1.6 10-19 C 5 10-7 m

30 106 N C-1

close enough?

Drift speed of free electrons in a spark


1 2

mv 2

2.4 10

18

2 2.4 10-18 J 9 10-31 kg

2 106 m s -1

The magnitude of the electric field is not uniform between the two charged metal balls, and is largest near the balls

Why is this the case? How can a region of ionization propagate though space?

M&I Chapter 15

Electric Field of Distributed Charges


General approach:
1. Think about the distribution ... draw it! ... are there any symmetries? 2. Cut up the distribution into pieces and consider the electric field from a single piece. 3. Write down an expression for the electric field from that one piece. 4. Repeat for all other pieces and sum (integrate) over the entire distribution. 5. Check your result.

M&I 15.2

The electric field of an uniformly charged rod


j

... with total length L and total charge Q


Q y Q L

x i

y0

y j

y y

Q
r

Magnitude of r :
E

x
x i x2

y0
y0 y0

y
y j y
2

y0

Then
r
i

r r

Magnitude of

E:

1 4
0

Q r2

1 4
0

Q y0 y

A uniformly charged rod 2


E 1 4
0

Q r2

1 4
0

x2

Q y0 y

Then

1 4
1
0

x2

Q y0 y

x i
2

y0 y0

y j y
2

x2

Ex

x Q
0

y0

3 2

1 Q 4 0 L x2

x y0 y
2
3 2

Ey
Ez

1 4
0
0

y0 x2

y y0

Q y
2
3 2

y0 y 1 Q 4 0 L x2 y y 0

3 2

A uniformly charged rod 3 ... now sum up the contributions of all the pieces
E2 E1 E = E1

and set y0 = 0
E2

The y-components of all the E sum to zero The x-components: As


y 0

Ex

Ex
L 2

1 Q x 4 0 L x2 y 2

3 2

Ex

1 Q x 4 0L

1 x
2

L 2

3 2

dy

A uniformly charged rod 4


Ex 1 Q x 4 0L
L 2

1 x
2

L 2

3 2

dy

Evaluate the integral ... try it yourself ... or look it up ...


L 2

Ex

1 4
1 4 1 4
0 0

Q y x L x2 x2
Q x x2 Q r r2 L2
2

y2

L 2

Ex

L2

Write

or E

1 4
0

Q r r2 L2
2

A uniformly charged rod 5


E 1 4
0

Q r r
2

L2

Check the result ... units? ... direction? Special cases r


L and L L r :

1 4
0

Q r 2 r

Another special case: r


2 Then r r

L2

r
1 4

L2

r L2

and

2 Q L r r

from visual import * scene.x = scene.y = 0 scene.height = 800 scene.width = 600

Erod.py

kel = 9e9 Q = 1e-8 N = 50. L = 1.0 dl = L/N Escale = 3e-5 rod = [] for y in arange (-(L/2.)+(dl/2.), (L/2.), dl): a = sphere(pos=(0,y,0), color=color.red, radius=0.01, q=Q/N) rod.append(a) obs = [] dy = L/4. r = 0.05 for y in arange (-(L/2.), (L/2.)+dy, dy): for theta in arange(0,2*pi,(2*pi/6.)): pt = vector(r*cos(theta), y, r*sin(theta)) obs.append(pt) for pt in obs: E = vector(0,0,0) ar = arrow(pos=pt, color=(1,.5,0), axis=Escale*E, shaftwidth=0.01) for source in rod: r = pt - source.pos E = E + norm(r)*kel*source.q/mag(r)**2 ar.axis = Escale*E if pt.y == 0: print '%e' %mag(E)

M&I Electric field along the axis of a uniformly charged thin ring 15.4
j
Q

... with radius R and total charge Q


Q Q

r
r

0 0 zk i j

R cos R sin 0k i j

R cos R sin zk i j

z
E

Magnitude of r : r
k

R2

z2

Magnitude of E :

1 4
0

Q r2

1 4
0

Q R2 z 2

A uniformly charged thin ring 2


E 1 4
0

Q R2 z 2

Q Q

Then

Er

1 4
0

Q 2 R2

R cos R sin zk i j z2
Ex
3 2

R2

z2

From thinking about the symmetry, and


Ez 1 4
0

Ey = 0

Q z 2 R2 z 2
2

Then

Ez

1 4
0

Q z 2 R2 z 2

3 2

d
0

1 4
0

Qz R
2

3 2

A uniformly charged thin ring 3 Along the axis of the ring: Special cases: Exact centre of the ring, z = 0: E
0

1 4
0

Qz R
2

3 2

Another special case: z


Then
R
E
2

R
2
3 2

3 2

z3

Ez

and

1 Qz 4 0 z3 1 Q 4 0 z2

z (point charge)

Ering.py

Electric field at a few other positions:

M&I 15.5

Electric field along the axis of a uniformly charged disc


j

... with radius R and total charge Q


Q Q area of ring area of disc 2 R2

i
R

Again, only
r

Ez is nonzero

Ez
k

Magnitude of E z :
z 1 z
2

Ez

1 4
2 0

Q z
2

Qz
0 2

3 2

uniformly charged disc 2


Ez 1 4
Ez k
0 2

Qz z
1 4
0 2

Q Q
3 2

2 R2

Ez

Qz z2

3 k
2

1 4
0

2 R
2 2
3 2

z2

Ez

1 2 0

Q R2
R

z
2

3 2

Ez

1 2 0

Q z 2 R

2 0

3 2

1 2 0

Q R2

1 R
2

z z
2
1 2

uniformly charged disc 3 Write A


R2

then

Q A 1 2 0

z R
2

1 2

Special case: z

Q A z 1 2 0 R
z 1 R 1

If z / R is extremely small, then


Q A 2 0

and

which is true near any large uniformly charged plate

Edisk_add_rings.py Edisk.py

A charged disk viewed edge on:

M&I 15.6

The capacitor
consider two uniformly charged metal disks, of area A, a close distance s apart, carrying charges Q and Q

What are the directions of the electric fields at locations 1, 2 and 3?


s At location 2:
Q Q

1
x

+ + + 2 3 + x x + + + k 0 z s

E2

Q A z 1 2 0 R Q A
0

Q A (s z ) 1 2 0 R Q A
0

s 2 1 R
( k)

E2

Q A
0

The capacitor 2
Q

At location 3 (fringe field): 3


E3 Q A z s 1 2 0 R Q A s 2 0 R
E3 Q A s (k ) 2 0 R E1

1
x

+ + + 2 3 + x x + + + 0 s z

Q A z 1 2 0 R

E3 E2

Q A s 2 0 R Q A
0

s 2R

very small, if s

M&I 15.7

Electric field of a uniformly charged spherical shell ... with radius R and total charge Q +

3+ + 2+ +

+5

r
+ 4
+ + +6

1 r + For r > R:
E sphere
Every point on sphere

Ei

1 4
0

Q r 2 r

For r < R:
E sphere
Every point on sphere

Ei

Esphere_outside_rings.py

Esphere_rings.py

1 2 3 4 5 A negatively charged hollow plastic sphere is near a negatively charged plastic rod. What is the direction of the net electric field at location P, inside the sphere?

1 2 4

3 5 zero magnitude

1 2 3 4 5

You stand at location A, a distance d from the origin, and hold a small charged ball. You find that the electric force on the ball is 0.008 N. You move to location B, a distance 2d from the origin, and find the electric force on the ball to be 0.004 N. What object located at the origin might be the source of the field?

0. A point charge 1. A dipole 2. A uniformly charged rod 3. A uniformly charged ring 4. A uniformly charged disk 5. A capacitor

1 2 3 4 5

You stand at location A, a distance d from the origin, and hold a small charged ball. You find that the electric force on the ball is 0.08 N. You move to location B, a distance 2d from the origin, and find the electric force on the ball to be 0.01 N. What object located at the origin might be the source of the field?
0. A point charge 1. A dipole 2. A uniformly charged rod 3. A uniformly charged ring 4. A uniformly charged disk 5. A capacitor

1 2 3 4 5

You stand at location A, a distance d from the origin, and hold a small charged ball. You find that the electric force on the ball is 0.009 N. You move to location B, a distance 2d from the origin, and find the electric force on the ball to be 0.00899 N. What object located at the origin might be the source of the field?

0. A point charge 1. A dipole 2. A uniformly charged rod 3. A uniformly charged ring 4. A uniformly charged disk 5. A capacitor

M&I 15.8

Electric field of a uniformly charged solid sphere ... with radius R and total charge Q For r > R:
1 4
0

E sphere

Q r 2 r

(think of a series of concentric spherical shells, all uniformly charged)


For r < R: Contribution to E at r due to all concentric spherical shells between r and R is zero

Contribution to E at r due to all concentric spherical shells 1 Q between 0 and R is 4 0 r2

Electric field of a uniformly charged solid sphere 2


Q Q volume of inner shells volume of sphere
4 3 4 3

r3 R3

Therefore, inside the sphere:


E 1 4
0

Q r2

1 4
0

Q r2

4 3 4 3

r3 R3

1 4
0

Qr R3

E (r )

Try it yourself M&I 15.9 The hollow 3/4 cylinder

1 2 3 4 5 What is the direction of the electric field due to the two charged rods at each of the positions shown? B
+ + + + + + + + +

F
+ + + + + + + + +

A
+ + + + + + + + + _ _ _

E
_ _ _ _ _ _

1.

2.

3.

4.

5. zero

1 2 3 4 5 What is the direction of the electric field at the centre of the ring in each case?
_ _ _

_ _ _

_ _ _

_ _ _ + +

_ _ _ _ A _ _ _ _ _ _ _

B
+ + +

_ _
+

+
+ _ _

C
+ _ _

+
+

1.

2.

3.

4.

5. zero

1 2 3 4 5 What is the direction of the electric field due to the charged ring at the position shown in each case?
_
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ +
_ _ +

_ _
+

+ + _ _

+ + +

A 1. 2. 3.

B 4.

C 5. zero