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Methods 1, 1A, 2, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 3, 3B, 4, 5, 5A, 5B, 5D, 5E, 5F, 5G, 5H, 6, 6A, 6B, 7, 7A, 7B, 7C, 7D, 8, 10A, 10B, 11, 12, 13A, 13B, 14, 15, 15A, 16, 16A, 16B, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 24A, 25, 25A, 25B, 25C, 25D, 25E, 26, 26A, 27, 28, 28A, and 29 to read as follows: METHOD 1 - SAMPLE AND VELOCITY TRAVERSES FOR STATIONARY SOURCES NOTE: This method does not include all of the

specifications (e.g., equipment and supplies) and procedures (e.g., sampling) essential to its performance. Some

material is incorporated by reference from other methods in this part. Therefore, to obtain reliable results, persons

using this method should have a thorough knowledge of at least the following additional test method: Method 2. 1.0 Scope and Application. 1.1 Measured Parameters. The purpose of the method

is to provide guidance for the selection of sampling ports and traverse points at which sampling for air pollutants will be performed pursuant to regulations set forth in this part. Two procedures are presented: a simplified

procedure, and an alternative procedure (see Section 11.5). The magnitude of cyclonic flow of effluent gas in a stack or duct is the only parameter quantitatively measured in the simplified procedure.

cannot be used when: (1) the flow is cyclonic or swirling; or (2) a stack is smaller than 0.30 meter (12 in.) in diameter, or 0.071 m2 (113 in.2) in cross-sectional area. The simplified procedure cannot be used when the measurement site is less than two stack or duct diameters downstream or less than a half diameter upstream from a flow disturbance. 1.3 Data Quality Objectives. Adherence to the

requirements of this method will enhance the quality of the data obtained from air pollutant sampling methods. NOTE: The requirements of this method must be

considered before construction of a new facility from which emissions are to be measured; failure to do so may require subsequent alterations to the stack or deviation from the standard procedure. Cases involving variants are subject to

approval by the Administrator. 2.0 Summary of Method. 2.1 This method is designed to aid in the

representative measurement of pollutant emissions and/or total volumetric flow rate from a stationary source. A

measurement site where the effluent stream is flowing in a known direction is selected, and the cross-section of the

points are then located within each of these equal areas. 3.0 4.0 5.0 Definitions. Interferences. Safety. 5.1 Disclaimer. This method may involve hazardous This test method may [Reserved] [Reserved]

not address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this test

method to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to performing this test method. 6.0 Equipment and Supplies. 6.1 Apparatus. The apparatus described below is

required only when utilizing the alternative site selection procedure described in Section 11.5 of this method. 6.1.1 Directional Probe. Any directional probe, such

as United Sensor Type DA Three-Dimensional Directional Probe, capable of measuring both the pitch and yaw angles of gas flows is acceptable. Before using the probe, assign an

identification number to the directional probe, and permanently mark or engrave the number on the body of the probe. The pressure holes of directional probes are

holes by "back-purging" with pressurized air is required. 6.1.2 Differential Pressure Gauges. Inclined

manometers, U-tube manometers, or other differential pressure gauges (e.g., magnehelic gauges) that meet the specifications described in Method 2, Section 6.2. NOTE: If the differential pressure gauge produces

both negative and positive readings, then both negative and positive pressure readings shall be calibrated at a minimum of three points as specified in Method 2, Section 6.2. 7.0 8.0 Reagents and Standards. [Reserved]

Quality Control.

performed at a site located at least eight stack or duct diameters downstream and two diameters upstream from any flow disturbance such as a bend, expansion, or contraction in the stack, or from a visible flame. If necessary, an

185 two stack or duct diameters downstream and a half diameter upstream from any flow disturbance. 11.1.2 An alternative procedure is available for

determining the acceptability of a measurement location not meeting the criteria above. This procedure described in

Section 11.5 allows for the determination of gas flow angles at the sampling points and comparison of the measured results with acceptability criteria. 11.2 11.2.1 11.2.1.1 Determining the Number of Traverse Points. Particulate Traverses. When the eight- and two-diameter criterion

can be met, the minimum number of traverse points shall be: (1) twelve, for circular or rectangular stacks with diameters (or equivalent diameters) greater than 0.61 meter (24 in.); (2) eight, for circular stacks with diameters between 0.30 and 0.61 meter (12 and 24 in.); and (3) nine, for rectangular stacks with equivalent diameters between 0.30 and 0.61 meter (12 and 24 in.). 11.2.1.2 When the eight- and two-diameter criterion

cannot be met, the minimum number of traverse points is determined from Figure 1-1. Before referring to the figure,

however, determine the distances from the measurement site to the nearest upstream and downstream disturbances, and divide each distance by the stack diameter or equivalent

186 diameter, to determine the distance in terms of the number of duct diameters. Then, determine from Figure 1-1 the

minimum number of traverse points that corresponds: (1) to the number of duct diameters upstream; and (2) to the number of diameters downstream. Select the higher of the two

minimum numbers of traverse points, or a greater value, so that for circular stacks the number is a multiple of 4, and for rectangular stacks, the number is one of those shown in Table 1-1. 11.2.2 Velocity (Non-Particulate) Traverses. When

velocity or volumetric flow rate is to be determined (but not particulate matter), the same procedure as that used for particulate traverses (Section 11.2.1) is followed, except that Figure 1-2 may be used instead of Figure 1-1. 11.3 Points. 11.3.1 11.3.1.1 Circular Stacks. Locate the traverse points on two Cross-Sectional Layout and Location of Traverse

perpendicular diameters according to Table 1-2 and the example shown in Figure 1-3. Any equation (see examples in

References 2 and 3 in Section 16.0) that gives the same values as those in Table 1-2 may be used in lieu of Table 12.

diameters must coincide with the plane containing the greatest expected concentration variation (e.g., after bends); one diameter shall be congruent to the direction of the bend. This requirement becomes less critical as the

distance from the disturbance increases; therefore, other diameter locations may be used, subject to the approval of the Administrator. 11.3.1.3 In addition, for elliptical stacks having

unequal perpendicular diameters, separate traverse points shall be calculated and located along each diameter. To

determine the cross-sectional area of the elliptical stack, use the following equation: Square Area = D1 X D2 X 0.7854 Where: D1 = Stack diameter 1 D2 = Stack diameter 2 11.3.1.4 In addition, for stacks having diameters

greater than 0.61 m (24 in.), no traverse points shall be within 2.5 centimeters (1.00 in.) of the stack walls; and for stack diameters equal to or less than 0.61 m (24 in.), no traverse points shall be located within 1.3 cm (0.50 in.) of the stack walls. To meet these criteria, observe the

procedures given below. 11.3.2 Stacks With Diameters Greater Than 0.61 m

188 (24 in.). 11.3.2.1 When any of the traverse points as located

in Section 11.3.1 fall within 2.5 cm (1.0 in.) of the stack walls, relocate them away from the stack walls to: (1) a distance of 2.5 cm (1.0 in.); or (2) a distance equal to the nozzle inside diameter, whichever is larger. These

relocated traverse points (on each end of a diameter) shall be the "adjusted" traverse points. 11.3.2.2 Whenever two successive traverse points are

combined to form a single adjusted traverse point, treat the adjusted point as two separate traverse points, both in the sampling and/or velocity measurement procedure, and in recording of the data. 11.3.3 Stacks With Diameters Equal To or Less Than Follow the procedure in Section 11.3.1.1,

noting only that any "adjusted" points should be relocated away from the stack walls to: (1) a distance of 1.3 cm (0.50 in.); or (2) a distance equal to the nozzle inside diameter, whichever is larger. 11.3.4 11.3.4.1 Rectangular Stacks. Determine the number of traverse points as From

explained in Sections 11.1 and 11.2 of this method. Table 1-1, determine the grid configuration.

Divide the

189 areas as traverse points, and then locate a traverse point at the centroid of each equal area according to the example in Figure 1-4. 11.3.4.2 To use more than the minimum number of

traverse points, expand the "minimum number of traverse points" matrix (see Table 1-1) by adding the extra traverse points along one or the other or both legs of the matrix; the final matrix need not be balanced. For example, if a 4

x 3 "minimum number of points" matrix were expanded to 36 points, the final matrix could be 9 x 4 or 12 x 3, and would not necessarily have to be 6 x 6. After constructing the

final matrix, divide the stack cross-section into as many equal rectangular, elemental areas as traverse points, and locate a traverse point at the centroid of each equal area. 11.3.4.3 The situation of traverse points being too

close to the stack walls is not expected to arise with rectangular stacks. If this problem should ever arise, the

Administrator must be contacted for resolution of the matter. 11.4 11.4.1 Verification of Absence of Cyclonic Flow. In most stationary sources, the direction of

stack gas flow is essentially parallel to the stack walls. However, cyclonic flow may exist (1) after such devices as cyclones and inertial demisters following venturi scrubbers,

190 or (2) in stacks having tangential inlets or other duct configurations which tend to induce swirling; in these instances, the presence or absence of cyclonic flow at the sampling location must be determined. The following

techniques are acceptable for this determination. 11.4.2 Level and zero the manometer. Connect a Type

S pitot tube to the manometer and leak-check system. Position the Type S pitot tube at each traverse point, in succession, so that the planes of the face openings of the pitot tube are perpendicular to the stack cross-sectional plane; when the Type S pitot tube is in this position, it is at "0E reference." Note the differential pressure ()p) If a null (zero) pitot

reading is obtained at 0E reference at a given traverse point, an acceptable flow condition exists at that point. If the pitot reading is not zero at 0E reference, rotate the pitot tube (up to 90E yaw angle), until a null reading is obtained. Carefully determine and record the value of the After the null

technique has been applied at each traverse point, calculate the average of the absolute values of "; assign " values of 0E to those points for which no rotation was required, and include these in the overall average. If the average value

191 stack is unacceptable, and alternative methodology, subject to the approval of the Administrator, must be used to perform accurate sample and velocity traverses. 11.5 The alternative site selection procedure may be

used to determine the rotation angles in lieu of the procedure outlined in Section 11.4. 11.5.1 Procedure. Alternative Measurement Site Selection This alternative applies to sources where

measurement locations are less than 2 equivalent or duct diameters downstream or less than one-half duct diameter upstream from a flow disturbance. The alternative should be

limited to ducts larger than 24 in. in diameter where blockage and wall effects are minimal. A directional flow-

sensing probe is used to measure pitch and yaw angles of the gas flow at 40 or more traverse points; the resultant angle is calculated and compared with acceptable criteria for mean and standard deviation. NOTE: Both the pitch and yaw angles are measured from

a line passing through the traverse point and parallel to the stack axis. The pitch angle is the angle of the gas

flow component in the plane that INCLUDES the traverse line and is parallel to the stack axis. The yaw angle is the

angle of the gas flow component in the plane PERPENDICULAR to the traverse line at the traverse point and is measured

192 from the line passing through the traverse point and parallel to the stack axis. 11.5.2 Traverse Points. Use a minimum of 40 traverse

points for circular ducts and 42 points for rectangular ducts for the gas flow angle determinations. Follow

the procedure outlined in Section 11.3 and Table 1-1 or 1-2 for the location and layout of the traverse points. measurement location is determined to be acceptable according to the criteria in this alternative procedure, use the same traverse point number and locations for sampling and velocity measurements. 11.5.3 11.5.3.1 Measurement Procedure. Prepare the directional probe and If the

differential pressure gauges as recommended by the manufacturer. Capillary tubing or surge tanks may be used It is recommended, but not To

perform a leak check, pressurize or use suction on the impact opening until a reading of at least 7.6 cm (3 in.) H20 registers on the differential pressure gauge, then plug the impact opening. The pressure of a leak-free system will

remain stable for at least 15 seconds. 11.5.3.2 Level and zero the manometers. Since the

193 temperature changes, periodically check the level and zero during the traverse. 11.5.3.3 Position the probe at the appropriate

locations in the gas stream, and rotate until zero deflection is indicated for the yaw angle pressure gauge. Determine and record the yaw angle. Record the pressure

gauge readings for the pitch angle, and determine the pitch angle from the calibration curve. each traverse point. Repeat this procedure for

pressure lines and the impact openings prior to measurements of each traverse point. 11.5.3.4 A post-test check as described in Section If the criteria for a leak-free

11.5.3.1 is required.

system are not met, repair the equipment, and repeat the flow angle measurements. 11.5.4 Calibration. Use a flow system as described In addition,

the flow system shall have the capacity to generate two test-section velocities: one between 365 and 730 m/min (1,200 and 2,400 ft/min) and one between 730 and 1,100 m/min (2,400 and 3,600 ft/min). 11.5.4.1 Cut two entry ports in the test section.

The axes through the entry ports shall be perpendicular to each other and intersect in the centroid of the test

the axis of the test section and of sufficient length to allow measurement of pitch angles while maintaining the pitot head position at the test-section centroid. To

facilitate alignment of the directional probe during calibration, the test section should be constructed of plexiglass or some other transparent material. All

calibration measurements should be made at the same point in the test section, preferably at the centroid of the test section. 11.5.4.2 To ensure that the gas flow is parallel to

the central axis of the test section, follow the procedure outlined in Section 11.4 for cyclonic flow determination to measure the gas flow angles at the centroid of the test section from two test ports located 90E apart. angle measured in each port must be 2E of 0E. Straightening vanes should be installed, if necessary, to meet this criterion. 11.5.4.3 Pitch Angle Calibration. Perform a The gas flow

calibration traverse according to the manufacturer's recommended protocol in 5E increments for angles from -60E to +60E at one velocity in each of the two ranges specified above. Average the pressure ratio values obtained for each

195 with the average values of the pressure ratio (or other suitable measurement factor as recommended by the manufacturer) versus the pitch angle. through the data points. traverse point. Draw a smooth line

measured data values and the angle from the calibration curve at the same pressure ratio. The difference at each

comparison must be within 2E for angles between 0E and 40E and within 3E for angles between 40E and 60E. 11.5.4.4 Yaw Angle Calibration. Mark the three-

dimensional probe to allow the determination of the yaw position of the probe. This is usually a line extending the To

length of the probe and aligned with the impact opening. determine the accuracy of measurements of the yaw angle, only the zero or null position need be calibrated as follows: Place the directional probe in the test section,

With

a protractor or other angle measuring device, measure the angle indicated by the yaw angle indicator on the threedimensional probe. This should be within 2E of 0E. Repeat

this measurement for any other points along the length of the pitot where yaw angle measurements could be read in order to account for variations in the pitot markings used to indicate pitot head positions.

196 12.0 Data Analysis and Calculations. 12.1 L n Pi Ravg = Ri Sd W Yi 12.2 = = = = Nomenclature. = = = length total number of traverse points. pitch angle at traverse point i, degree. average resultant angle, degree. resultant angle at traverse point i, degree. standard deviation, degree. width. yaw angle at traverse point i, degree.

diameter (De) shall be calculated using the following equation, to determine the upstream and downstream distances: De ' 12.3 2 (L) (W) L % W

Eq. 1-1

procedure (Section 11.5 of this method) is required, perform the following calculations using the equations below: the resultant angle at each traverse point, the average resultant angle, and the standard deviation. Complete the

calculations retaining at least one extra significant figure beyond that of the acquired data. the final calculations. Round the values after

197 12.3.1 point: Ri = arc cosine [(cosine Yi)(cosine Pi)] 12.3.2 measurements: Ravg = 3 Ri/n 12.3.3 Calculate the standard deviations: n 2 j (R i &Ravg) i'1 (n& 1) Eq. 1-3 Calculate the average resultant for the Eq. 1-2 Calculate the resultant angle at each traverse

Eq. 1-4

Sd'

12.3.4

Acceptability Criteria.

The measurement

location is acceptable if Ravg # 20E and Sd # 10E. 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 Method Performance. Pollution Prevention. Waste Management. References. 1. Determining Dust Concentration in a Gas Stream, New York. 1957. [Reserved] [Reserved]

[Reserved]

November 1963.

198 of Joy Manufacturing Co. 1968. 4. Standard Method for Sampling Stacks for In: 1971 Book of ASTM Standards, Part Philadelphia, PA. 1971. Los Angeles, CA. Bulletin WP-50.

Particulate Sampling

Strategies for Large Power Plants Including Nonuniform Flow. USEPA, ORD, ESRL, Research Triangle Park, NC. EPA-600/2-76-170. 6. June 1976. Determination of

the Optimum Number of Sampling Points: An Analysis of Method 1 Criteria. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA Contract No. Research

Hanson, H.A., R.J. Davini, J.K. Morgan, and A.A. Particulate Sampling Strategies for Large Power USEPA, Research Triangle June 1976.

Sampling Manual.

199 9. Study. Entropy Environmentalists, Inc. EPA Contract No. 68-02-3172. Brown, J. and K. Yu. Traverse Point 19 pp.

June 1977.

10.

The British Coal Utilisation Research Association. pp. 129-133. 12. Knapp, K.T.

Fourth National Conference on Energy and Environment. Theodore, L. et al. (ed). Dayton, Dayton Section of the October 3-7,

American Institute of Chemical Engineers. 1976. pp. 563-568. 13. Smith, W.S. and D.J. Grove.

A Proposed Extension XV

Pollution Engineering.

Investigation of

Field Test Procedures for Large Fans. Akron, OH. 5). (EPRI Contract CS-1651).

December 1980.

200 15. Smith, W.S. and D.J. Grove. A New Look at Source August 1983.

Isokinetic Sampling - Theory and Applications. Evaluation Society Newsletter. 17.0 VIII(3):19-24.

201

202

TABLE 1-1.

RECTANGULAR STACKS

_____________________________________________

Matrix

_____________________________________________

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 x 3

12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 x 3 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 x 4 20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 x 4 25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 x 5 30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 x 5 36 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 x 6 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 x 6 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 x 7 _____________________________________________

203

Figure 1-2. Minimum number of traverse points for velocity (nonparticulate) traverses.

204 TABLE 1-2 LOCATION OF TRAVERSE POINTS IN CIRCULAR STACKS (Percent of stack diameter from inside wall to traverse point)

Traverse Point Number on a Diameter 1 . . . . 2 . . . . 3 . . . . 4 . . . . 5 . . . . 6 . . . . 7 . . . . 8 . . . . 9 . . . . 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.6 85.4 6.7 25.0 75.0 93.3 4.4 14.6 29.6 70.4 85.4 95.6 3.2 10.5 19.4 32.3 67.7 80.6 89.5 96.8 2.6 8.2 14.6 22.6 34.2 65.8 77.4 85.4 91.8 97.4 2.1 6.7 11.8 17.7 25.0 35.6 64.4 75.0 82.3 88.2 93.3 97.9 1.8 5.7 9.9 14.6 20.1 26.9 36.6 63.4 73.1 79.9 85.4 90.1 94.3 98.2 1.6 4.9 8.5 12.5 16.9 22.0 28.3 37.5 62.5 71.7 78.0 83.1 87.5 91.5 95.1 98.4 1.4 4.4 7.5 10.9 14.6 18.8 23.6 29.6 38.2 61.8 70.4 76.4 81.2 85.4 89.1 92.5 95.6 98.6 1.3 3.9 6.7 9.7 12.9 16.5 20.4 25.0 30.6 38.8 61.2 69.4 75.0 79.6 83.5 87.1 90.3 93.3 96.1 98.7 1.1 3.5 6.0 8.7 11.6 14.6 18.0 21.8 26.2 31.5 39.3 60.7 68.5 73.8 78.2 82.0 85.4 88.4 91.3 94.0 96.5 98.9 1.1 3.2 5.5 7.9 10.5 13.2 16.1 19.4 23.0 27.2 32.3 39.8 60.2 67.7 72.8 77.0 80.6 83.9 86.8 89.5 92.1 94.5 96.8 99.9 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Number of traverse points on a diameter

205

6 5 4 Traverse Point 1 2 3 4 5 6 Distance % of diameter 4.4 14.7 29.5 70.5 85.3 95.6

3 2 1

Figure 1-3. Example showing circular stack cross section divided into 12 equal areas, with location of traverse points.

Figure 1-4. Example showing rectangular stack cross section divided into 12 equal areas, with traverse points at centroid of each area.

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