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# Primitive Network:Primitive Network is a set of uncoupled elements which gives the information regarding characteristics of individual element, it does

not give any information about their interconnections For Single Phase System These performance equation in impedence & admittance form for complete network will be as follows: v + e = [z] i impedence form i + j = [y] v admittance form For Three Phase System V pqa,b,c + e pqa,b,c = [Z pqa,b,c ] i pqa,b,c i pqa,b,c + j pqa,b,c = [Y pqa,b,c ] V pqa,b,c

Z Bus Formulation: By inverting Ybus By current injection technique or by open circuit Zbus by building algorithms

Z Bus Modification:Type I modification Type II modification Type III modification Type IV modification

Problem definition/formulation
For the sake of this paper, any interconnected network of size n can be thought as a collection of s separate subnetworks linked together by means of m ideal CBs, as shown in Fig. 1. Actually, these fictitious CBs split up boundary buses located between two adjacent subnetworks, which consequently increase the size of the overall Zbus by m. Keeping such a clustering view in mind, the nodal Zbus equation can be written as follows for s subnetworks collection:

(11) where vectors V and I as well as square matrix Z are of size (n + m). For a given

## subnetwork, say x, the algebraic form of (11) is as follows:

(12) where Zxx and Zxy are respectively referred here as self and mutual nodal Zbus. For a given subnetwork, Zxx is exactly the same parameter required to run all kind of fault calculations locally. On the other hand, Zxy is needed when we are interested in local effects of a fault occurred in yth subnetwork. To achieve the goal of this paper, we just need to find a true expression for Zxx to be used locally by individual subnetworks moreover a true relation for prefault voltage profile across subnetworks. All of these will be automatically accomplished if a piecewise expression for nodal admittance matrix equation is determined first, because it is the basis of fault analysis in practical applications

## Fig. 1. Interconnected network as a collection of subnetworks linked by ideal CBs.

Consider above-mentioned interconnected network of size n, which is torn apart into s separate subnetworks of size nx (x = 1 s) through insertion of m fictitious ideal CBs. In order to solve this decomposed network using the LCS rules and achieve a piecewise representation for nodal admittance equation to be used later for fault analysis, some changes must be made in the conventional

approach. For a while, suppose these subnetworks are substantially isolated. Under such a circumstance, the original nodal formulation will be used to solve individual subnetworks, i.e.: (13) The fact is, however, that these subnetworks are interconnected. Since the interconnection has been made through insertion of the ideal CBs between boundary buses, thus an unknown current exchange Iex will be appropriately added to or subtracted from the current equilibrium equation at either side of any torn boundary buses, i.e.: (14) where Cx(nx m) is the incidence matrix of the xth subnetwork locating the ideal CBs and Iex is the vector of current exchanges of size m. But appearance of Iex in (14) as a new unknown requires introduction of a new equation. Inspecting Fig. 1, the following relation can be written for every ideal CB splitting a given boundary bus, say i, between two adjacent subnetworks (A&B): (15)F(ViA-ViB)+(F-1)Iex=0where F is a scalar representing the operational state of the ideal CB. If F is 0 then the CB is open and either side of the torn boundary bus has different quantities. While, if F is 1, then the CB is closed and either side of the torn boundary bus has the same quantities. Equally, the matrix version of (15) can be written as follows for the whole network:

(16) Taking (14) and (16) simultaneously into account, there are the same number of unknowns and equations; hence the problem is logically solvable. If they are put together into a common framework, the general expression for the piecewise nodal admittance equation will be obtained as follows:

(17) As can be seen, an apparent feature of (17) is its well-known Block Bordered Diagonal Form (BBDF), which is a favorable condition for Diakoptical methods, i.e. parallel and distributed implementations [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19] and [20]. 4.2. Nodal Zbus modification Extending (24) using (19) and (22) and then substituting (20) and (24) in (26), the following relation is obtained:

(27) Obviously, it is the same as (12) and its parameters are as follows: (28.a) (28.b) Now, individual subnetworks have the required expression to modify their nodal Zbus as discussed in Section 3. Having known Zxx by means of (28.a) and, of course, upon modifying prefault voltage profile by means of (26), they are able to cope with all fault analysis requirements, locally. They just need to access specific rows and columns of k parameter, which is formed externally by coordinator. Fig. 4. LG fault simulation results using (a) the traditional approach on the whole network and (b, c) the proposed piecewise method on the decomposed network.

Development Of N/W Matrices From Graph Theoretic Approach (Singular Transformation): Bus admittance and bus impedance matrices Ybus =A[Y]AT and Zbus =Y-1 bu = [A[Y]AT] 1 Branch impedance & admittance matrices Ybr = C[Y] CT and Zbr = [C[Y] CT] 1 Loop impedance & admittance matrix Zloop = B [Z] BT and Yloop = [B [Z] BT] -1

Non-Singular Transformation: Augment cutest incidence matrix Augmented Loop Incident Matrix

Augment Cutest Incidence Matrix :Fictitious cut set (equal to no. of links) called tie cutest can be introduced in order that total no. of cutest are equal to no of element of the connected graph. Each tie cutest contains only one link (co tree) and is oriented in same direction as that of a link The augmented cutest incidence can be formed by adding the basic cutest incidence matrix C, an additional row is corresponding to these tie cut sets. Augmented Loop Incident Matrix:In order to have total no of loops equal to elements, fictions loop called open loop which are equal to no of branches can be introduce . An open loop is defined as path between adjacent nodes connected by a branch and oriented in same direction.The augmented loop incident matrix is formed by adding the basic loop incident matrix B with addition of rows corresponding to open loop.