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From Papavera Somniferum to Diacetylmorphine (diamorphine) Sequence: Poppy head; latex; opium; morphine; heroin (diamorphine) Extracting the

latex: d) 2 weeks after petal fall; b) 1mm deep incisions in seed capsule; c) latex exudes, dries and oxidises; d) harvested 1 day later; 1 pod produces circa 10 100 mg e) Composition (dried/oxidised) of opium: The most important constituents of opium are the alkaloids, which constitute (in good opium) about one-fifth of the weight of the drug. Around 25 alkaloids ha ve been reported. The principal alkaloid, both as regards its medicinal importance, and the quantity in which it exists, is morphine. Narcotine and codeine are of secondary importance. Meconic acid exists to the extent of about 5% and is corroborative of the presence of opium. Meconin and meconiasin exist in small quantity only. The drug should not contain more than 12.5% moisture. In summary: about 25 alkaloids; 10 20wt %; sugars; proteins; lipids; gums; water. Major alkaloids: a) morphine (4 21%) d) noscapine (4 8%)

b) codeine (0.8 2.5%) e) papaverine (0.5 2.5%)

c) thebaine (0.2 2%) f) meconic acid (3 5%)

Some Minor alkaloids: a) narceine (0.1 0.5%) b) cryptopine (0.03 0.003%) c) protopine (0.005%) d) Laudanine (0.005%) e) codamine (0.003%) f) laudanosine (0.0008%) Synthetic steps / Preparation: This procedure begins with a non-selective hot-water extraction of the opium poppy; Calcium hydroxide (the lime) is added and the material is heated and filtered; Already the sample contains characteristics of the batch of opium poppies, as well as residuals from the water and the lime used in the initial steps; The filtrate is brought to a boil and ammonium chloride is added; The morphine base is captured as the solid while the filtrate is discarded; To convert morphine to heroin (diacetylmorphine), the morphine base and other constituents associated with it are treated with acetic anhydride and heated; A carbonate base is added to produce heroin base; Acetone is added to the solid and the solution is acidified, precipitating the hydrochloride salt; The solid is then subjected to further processing, such as grinding or bleaching, and is diluted with adulterants, diluents, or both; Each step introduces components into the product that reflect the process and reagents used and that can be considered characteristic of that batch.

In a little more detail Opium to Morphine (free base): Add to boiling water; alkaloids dissolve; filter insoluble residues; add Ca(OH)2 ; cool most alkaloids ppte, morphine and some codeine remain in solution. Heat; add NH4 Cl/EtOH/ET2 O ppte of morphine and codeine forms at pH 8/9; dry to give crude morphine. Dissolve in HCl (aq) over activated charcoal;- morphine salt (white); add NH4 OH to form free base. Morphine to heroin: Acetylate using acetic anhydride; heat/85o /5h until morphine dissolves. Repeated addition of water/activated charcoal until clear; filter; basify (Na2 CO3 ) in hot water. Heroin base precipitates; filter and dry. Dissolve in ETOH/ET2 O; acidify (HCl); add further ETOH/ET2 O; collect crystalline diamorphine hydrochloride. Product contains diamorphine, 6-O-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, codeine, acetylcodeine. Impurities: Diluents: Generally lactose or powdered sugar (sucrose), but some times mannitol or some other substance e.g., calcium carbonate may be used. Adulterants: Quinine, Procaine (anaesthetic), barbiturates, caffeine, acetphenetidin, methadone, and amphetamine. The presence of starch, tannin, oxalic acid and oils, common constituents of most plants, also indicates adulteration. Powdered poppy capsules, small shot, pieces of lead, gum, grape must, sugary fruits, and other mechanical impurities such as ground glass, have also been used as adulterants of opium. Other Impurities: From Source: codeine (present as acetylcodeine after the acetylation), papaverine, meconic acid, and brown colouring matter, mucilage/caoutchouc (secreted plant gums/latexes containing proteins and polysaccharides), waxes, and salts of calcium, and magnesium; sulphuric acid is found in the ash. From Manufacture: acetylcodeine, papaverine, monoacetylmorphine, morphine. Impurities also include solvent residues.