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Batera III Woodcock-Muoz: Pruebas de habilidades cognitivas

(Batera III COG)

Batera III Woodcock-Muoz: Pruebas de aprovechamiento

(Batera III APROV)

Primary Authors

Dr. Ana Muoz-Sandoval

Dr. Richard Woodcock



Dr. Kevin McGrew

Dr. Nancy Mather

Dr. Frederick Schrank


General Features

Measures cognitive and achievement abilities in Spanish Equated to the WJ III to provide a parallel Spanish version for use with ages 2 - 90+ WJ III COG and ACH co-normed allowing for direct comparisons

General Features

Includes scoring software with options to print a brief summary report and/or plot and print age/grade and standard score/percentile rank profiles Offers a computerized summary report in either English or Spanish Uses English abbreviations to lessen confusion Provides all test materials and manuals in Spanish Provides a supplement to the manuals written in English with information specific to the Batera III for examiners and administrators who want information about the Batera III, but do not speak and read Spanish.

General Features

Includes a Language Exposure and Use Questionnaire that addresses:

n n n

Native language Years and months exposed to the language of the test Degree of exposure and use in various settings

Includes a Test Session Observations Checklist that addresses:

n n n n n n n

Conversational proficiency Level of Cooperation Level of activity Attention and concentration Self-confidence Care in responding, and Response to difficult tasks

BATERA III Cognitiva

Batera estndar
n n n n n n n n n n

Comprensin verbal Aprendizaje visual-auditivo Relaciones espaciales Integracin de sonidos Formacin de conceptos Pareo visual (incl. Des. T) Inversin de nmeros Palabras incompletas Memoria de trabajo auditiva Memoria diferida-Aprendizaje visual-auditivo

Batera extendida
n n n n n n n n n n

Informacin general Fluidez de recuperacin Reconocimiento de dibujos Atencin auditiva Anlisis-Sntesis Rapidez en la decisin Memoria para palabras Rapidez en la identificacin de dibujos Planeamiento Cancelacin de pares


Suplemento diagnstico
n n n n n n n n n n n

Memoria para nombres Integracin visual Configuracin de sonidos- Vocalizada Series numricas Nmeros matrices Tachar Memoria para frases Rotacin de bloques Configuracin de sonidos- Musical Memoria diferida- Memoria para nombres Comprensin verbal bilinge


Batera III COG

10 Tests 12 Clusters

10 Tests 14 Clusters

11 Tests 13 Clusters

Selective Testing Table

Habilidades intelectuales
Measures of general intellectual ability (g)
Habilidad intelectual generalEscala
Standard Scale

Estndar (GIA-Std) General Intellectual Ability Extendida (GIA-Ext) General Intellectual Ability
Extended Scale

Pruebas 1 a 7 Pruebas 1 a 7 y 11 a 17 Pruebas 1, 6, 8, 21, 22, y 27 Pruebas 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 21, 23, y 31 Pruebas 1, 5, y 6 Pruebas 3, 5, 6, 7, 21, y 23

Habilidad intelectual generalEscala

Habilidad intelectual generalDesarrollo


temprano (GIA-EDev) General Intellectual AbilityEarly

Habilidad intelectual generalEscala


bilinge (GIA-Bil) General Intellectual AbilityBilingual

Habilidad intelectual breve (BIA) Brief Intellectual


Habilidad cognitiva ampliaVerbal reducida

(BCA-LV) Broad Cognitive AbilityLow Verbal


Habilidades cognitivas
Measure of specific cognitive abilities:

Compuestos CHC estrechos Narrow CHC Clusters

? ? ? ? Percepcin fonmico 3 Razonamiento numrica Memoria diferidaMemoria asociativa Descriminacin de sonidos

? Discernimiento de fonemas

?Memoria de trabajo ? Memoria asociativa ? Visualizacin ? Alcance de la memoria auditiva


Compuestos clnicos Clinical Clusters

? Fluidez cognitiva ? Memoria diferida

? Atencin amplia ? Procesos de ejecucin ? Conocimiento


Habilidades cognitivas
Measure of specific cognitive abilities:

Compuestos del modelo de rendimiento cognitivo

Cognitive Performance Model Cluster
n n n

Habilidad verbalEstndar y Extendida Habilidad de pensarEstndar y Extendida Eficiencia cognitivaEstndar y Extendida

Compuestos CHC amplios Broad CHC Clusters

? ? ? ? Comprensin-conocimiento (Gc) ? Recuperacin a largo plazo (Glr) Percepcin visual-espacial (Gv) ? Procesamiento auditivo (Ga) Razonamiento fluido (Gf) ? Rapidez en el procesamiento (Gs) Memoria de corto plazo (Gsm)

Aprovechamiento predicho
Measure of predicted achievement:



Lenguaje escrito
Written Language

Lenguaje oral
Oral Language

Academic Knowledge 17

BATERA III Aprovechamiento


n n n n n n n n n n n n n

Identificacin de letras y palabras Fluidez en la lectura Rememoracin de cuentos Comprensin de indicaciones Clculo Fluidez en matemticas Ortografa Fluidez en la escritura Comprensin de textos Problemas aplicados Muestras de redaccin Memoria diferida- Rememoracin de cuentos Escritura a mano


n n n n n n n n n n

Anlisis de palabras Vocabulario sobre dibujos Comprensin oral Correccin de textos Vocabulario de lectura Conceptos cuantitativos Conocimeientos acadmicos Anlisis de sonidos Discernimiento de sonidos Puntuacin y maysculas


Selective Testing Table


12 Tests

10 Tests 9 Clusters

10 Clusters


Academic Clusters


Amplia lectura Destrezas bsicas en lectura Comprensin de lectura Lenguaje oral--Std or Ext Comprensin auditiva Expresin oral Amplias matemticas Destrezas en clculos matemticas Razonamiento en matemticas

Lenguaje oral


Academic Clusters
Lenguaje escrito
Amplio lenguaje escrito Destrezas bsicas en escritura Expresin escrita

Otros compuestos

Conocimientos acadmicos Conocimiento de fonemas y grafemas Destrezas acadmicas Fluidez acadmica Aplicaciones acadmicas Aprovechamiento total Destrezas preacadmicasEst Conocimientos y destrezas preacadmicos--Ext


CHC Theory

Theoretical Foundation
Two major empirically derived sources of research on the structure of human cognitive abilities informed the Batera III COG and WJ III COG

Psychometric factor-analytic studies of Raymond Cattell and John Horn known as the Gf-Gc theory Extant factor-analytic research by John Carroll known as Carrolls three-stratum theory

Gf-Gc Theory

Gf-Gc is an acronym for fluid (Gf) and crystallized (Gc) intellectual abilities. Gf and Gc can be traced to Cattell (1941, 1943, 1950). Horn (1965) later provided evidence for shortterm memory (Gsm), long-term retrieval (Glr), processing speed (Gs), and visual-spatial thinking (Gv). Horn and Stankov (1982) added auditory processing (Ga) to the nomenclature. Horn included quantitative ability (Gq) in 1988 and Woodcock (1998) added reading-writing 27 ability (Grw).

Carrolls Three Stratum Theory

Carroll re-factor-analyzed 461 data sets of independentsource structural research on human cognitive abilities. Using exploratory factor analysis, Carroll identified 69 specific or narrow abilities (Stratum I). These narrow abilities are grouped into eight broad categories of cognitive ability (Stratum II) combining together into a general factor which Carroll referred to as General Intelligence, or g (Stratum III) The eight broad categories identified are: Fluid Intelligence, Crystallized Intelligence, General Memory & Learning, Broad Visual Perception, Broad Auditory Perception, Broad Retrieval Ability, Broad Cognitive Speediness, and Processing Speed.

CHC Theory

Similaries between Gf-Gc and Carrolls three stratum theories provide support for the combined CHC theory. CHC stands for Cattell, Horn, Carroll CHC provides the blueprint for the WJ III and Batera III. For most factors, each broad CHC factor in the WJ III and Batera III are comprised of two qualitatively different narrow, or Stratum I, abilities. CHC factors (Stratum II) measuring a broad spectrum of cognitive abilities provide a first-principal component measure of general intelligence, or g (Stratum III)

n n

General Intellectual Ability CHC Theory

General g g General General Intelligence Intelligence

Gsm Gv Ga Gsm Gv Ga Gf Gc Gf Gc General Broad Broad Broad Broad Fluid Crystallized General Fluid Crystallized Memory & Visual Auditory Visual Auditory Intelligence Intelligence Memory & Intelligence Intelligence Learning Perception Perception Learning Perception Perception

Glr Glr Gs Gs Broad Broad Cognitive Cognitive Retrieval Retrieval Speediness Speediness Ability Ability


Narrow Abilities


Bilingual Testing Using the Batera III and WJ III


Special Features for Bilingual Testing


Test batteries in two languages that are parallel and equated allow comparisons of abilities and skills between those two languages.

Batera III COG is statistically equated to the WJ III COG Batera III APROV is statistically equated to the WJ III ACH

EXAMPLE: The Oral languageExtended cluster in English and Spanish can be directed compared to determine language dominance.

Special Features for Bilingual Testing


Administering the Test 1/31 combination of the WJ III COG yields a bilingual verbal comprehension score. (English to Spanish testing) Administering the Prueba 1/31 combination of the Batera III yields a comprensin verbal bilinge score. (Spanish to English testing)

Bilingual verbal comprehension measures oral language in the combination of the subjects two languages and credits knowledge regardless of language specificity.


Special Features for Bilingual Testing


Responses in other languages are accepted on five tests of the WJ III COG and Batera III COG:
n n n n

Prueba 1: Comprensin verbal Prueba 11: Informacin general Prueba 12: Fluidez de recuperacin Prueba 18: Rapidez en la identificacin de dibujos Prueba 22: Integracin visual

Tests requiring responses of letters or numbers can be in any language


Escala Bilinge con Pruebas 1 y 31
n n

Prueba 1: Comprensin verbal Prueba 31: Comprensin verbal bilinge Prueba 21: Memoria para nombres Prueba 3: Relaciones espaciales Prueba 23: Configuracin de sonidos-Vocalizada Prueba 5: Formacin de conceptos Prueba 6: Pareo visual (incl. Des. T.) Prueba 7: Inversin de nmeros

n n n n n n

Bilingual Scale using Test 1 & 31 Test 1: Verbal Comprehension n Test 31: Bilingual Verbal Comp.

Test n Test n Test n Test n Test n Test


21: Memory for Names 3: Spatial Relations 23: Sound Patterns- Voice 5: Concept Formation 6: Visual Matching 7: Numbers Reversed


WJ III COG Bilingual Scale with BVAT

n n

Bilingual Verbal Ability Tests (BVAT) 21: Memory for Names 3: Spatial Relations 23: Sound Patterns- Voice 5: Concept Formation 6: Visual Matching 7: Numbers Reversed

Test n Test n Test n Test n Test n Test



Scores Available
n n n n n

Raw Scores Age and/or Grade Equivalents RPIs (0/90 to 100/90) CALP levels (1 - 5) Comparative Language Index (Spanish/English) Standard Scores (Mean = 100, SD = 15
SS Range = 0 - 200+) Percentile Rank (PR=0.1 to 99.9)

n n

Discrepancy Scores (SD)


Technical Qualities


The Batera III tests are equated,

using Rasch model technology, to like levels of performance of the 8,818 norming subjects on parallel tasks on the Woodcock-Johnson Tests 3rd Edition (WJ III)

U.S. Equated Norms


Batera III standardization data are equated to the WJ III norms. This means that tasks underlying each Batera III test are scaled according to their empirical difficulty on the parallel WJ III test. Equated U.S. norms allow meaningful comparisons between an individuals performance on WJ III and Batera III.

For example, if a 10 year old individual obtains a percentile rank of 87 on a Spanish test, his performance in Spanish is equivalent to 10 year olds in the US who fall at the 87th percentile on the corresponding English test.

Equating Procedures
Banks of items for the WJ III tests developed and Rasch-calibrated Data gathered to norm the WJ III tests, clusters, and scales Items selected for final version of WJ III & Rasch scoring tables computed For tests that were not direct translations: Potential equating items selected from WJ III and translated into Spanish (Linking item example: authority--autoridad). Linking items spaced across full range of ability. Banks of new Spanish items developed. Linking itemsinterspersed. Calibration data collected and Rasch-calibrated. Linking items calibrated difficulties plotted. Extreme outliers excluded. New Spanish items fell between remaining linking items Means and standard deviations computed Batera III item difficulties adjusted to the WJ III item difficulties using transformation equation. 43 Batera III items selected and Rasch scoring tables computed.

Development & Standardization

All Batera III tests are either translations or adaptations of the parallel WJ III tests.
Translated when all items remained the same Adapted when translation was not possible For example, Spatial Relations is one test that was translated because the items remained the same. The directions are also exactly parallel. Auditory Attention is one test that was adapted, with all new items and pictures.

Comparison of WJ III and Batera III Picture Vocabulary

1 ____ tenedor 1 fork ............................................................................................................ 5 ____ cuchara 8 spoon ............................................................................................................ 15 ____ martillo 9 hammer ............................................................................................................ 19 ____ canguro 18 kangaroo 20 ____ pulpo 17 octopus 21 ____ seta 14 mushroom ............................................................................................................ 26 ____ microscopio 16 microscope ............................................................................................................ 30 ____ armnica 25 harmonica 31 ____ frica 30 Africa 37 ____ Partenn 37 Parthenon


Batera III Standardization & Calibration Sample

International Sample
n = 1,413 Argentina Colombia Costa Rica Mexico Panama Puerto Rico Spain

U.S. Sample
n = 279 Arizona California Colorado Florida Georgia New Mexico New York Oregon Texas

Country of OriginU.S. Examiners and Subjects

U.S. Examiners Argentina Colombia Cuba Dominican Republic Mexico Puerto Rico Spain Venezuela

U.S. Subjects
Argentina Peru Chile Puerto Rico Colombia Uruguay Costa Rica U.S. Cuba Venezuela Dominican Republic Ecuador Guatemala Honduras Mexico

Because the Batera III calibration data is equated to the WJ III norms, the underlying psychometric characteristics of the WJ III apply to the Batera III


Reliability Goals

Goal for clusters set at .90 or higher Goal for tests set at .80 or higher


Reliability for Cognitive Clusters

WJ III Standard Battery Clusters General Intellectual Ability .97 Brief Intellectual Ability Verbal Ability Thinking Ability Cognitive Efficiency Phonemic Awareness Working Memory .95 .92 .95 .92 .90 .91 WJ III Extended Battery Clusters
General Intellectual Ability Verbal Ability Thinking Ability Cognitive Efficiency Long-Term Retrieval Visual-Spatial Thinking Auditory Processing Fluid Reasoning Processing Speed Short-Term Memory .98 .95 .96 .93 .88 .81 .91 .95 .93 .88

Comprehension-Knowledge .95

Note: median reliabilities reported


Reliability for Achievement Clusters

WJ III Standard Battery Clusters Total Achievement Oral Language-Std. Broad Reading Broad Math Academic Skills Academic Fluency Academic Applications .98 .87 .94 .95 .96 .93 .95 WJ III Extended Battery Clusters Oral Language-Ext. Oral Expression Basic Reading Skills Reading Comprehension Math Calculation Skills Math Reasoning Basic Writing Skills Written Expression Phoneme/Grapheme Knowledge
Note: median reliabilities reported

.92 .85 .95 .92 .91 .95 .94 .91 .90

Listening Comprehension .89

Broad Written Language .94

Concurrent Validity: WJ III COG

DAS WPPSI-R SBinet-4 WISC-III WAIS-III KAIT CAS .72 .73 .76 .71 .67 .75 ---

.74 .74 .71 .76 -------

.68 .67 .60 .69 .62 .68 .70

Concurrent Validity: WJ III ACH



Rdg. Decoding Comprehension Reading Basic Comprehension Math Calculation Application Math Numerical OP Reasoning Spelling Spelling Writ.Exp.

.67 .65 .67 .63 .68

.66 .66 .44 .82 .82 .68

.81 .74 .62 .78 .70 .79 .66 .65 .52 .70 .57 .66 .60 .67 .40 .69 .59 .60 .41 .49 .29 .56 .38 .60 .77 .77 .57 .57 .42 .31





Subject Selection for Spanish Speakers in the United States

School age subjects -- must have been in

the US for 2 years or less Picture Vocabulary Qualifying Test in English and Spanish
Spanish W _____ English W -_____ Difference _____ Subject qualifies if difference is at least +45 Special for Preschool: Age 2-difference at least +20 Age 3-difference at least +35


Learning Disabilities
7 IDEA Areas Oral Expression Listening Comprehension Written Expression Basic Reading Skills Reading Comprehension Mathematics Calculation Mathematics Reasoning Batera III Tests
Story Recall, Picture Vocabulary Understanding Directions, Oral Comprehension Writing Fluency, Writing Samples Letter-Word Identification, Word Attack Passage Comprehension, Reading Vocabulary Calculation, Math Fluency Applied Problems, Quantitative Concepts

Administration Procedures

Examiner Qualifications
Administration and scoring require proficiency and literacy in Spanish, knowledge of each tests exact administration and scoring procedures, and an understanding of the importance of adhering to standardized procedures. Interpretation requires a higher level of knowledge and experience than is required for test administration. Competent interpretation requires graduate-level training in cognitive ability, language, and academic achievement assessment, knowledge of Spanish language development (and, if appropriate to the subject, knowledge of the impact of second-language acquisition), and a background in diagnostic decision-making. 57

Basal/Ceiling Rules
n n

Provides guides for minimizing testing time Allows estimate of score as if all items had been administered Basal: The lowest set of consecutive correct responses specified, or Item 1 Ceiling: The highest set of consecutive incorrect responses specified, the last item, or the time limit Noted in Test Book and Test Record

Complete Page Rule


Test by complete pages when stimulus items in the easel book are visible to the examinee. Complete the page even if it appears a ceiling has been reached. If the examinee gets an item correct in the process of completing the page, score the item correct, and continue testing until a ceiling is reached, or the last item has been administered.

Administration Reminders
n n

Score the last response given. On Letter-Word Identification or Word Attack, if you dont hear a response to an item, finish the page, then repeat the entire page. Score the one in question only. Follow all pointing, querying, and error or no response directions in the test book.

Scoring Procedures

Age- or Grade-Based Norms


Choose most appropriate reference group n Grade norms: K-12, 2-year college, and 4-year college including first year of graduate school n Age norms: 2-90+ Use same reference group when comparing results from different tests (i.e., age to age, grade to grade) When examinees scores derived from age vs. grade norms are not consistent, score results based on which norms most accurately reflects the examinees background.

For example, a student who has significant gaps in schooling and has been placed in a grade level with other students who are generally younger, grade norms may be more appropriate. Grade norms will not penalize this student for those gaps in schooling. For a student who has had adequate schooling but has had difficulties with the academic demands of school to the point that the student has been retained, consider using age norms. To use grade norms would cancel out the difficulties the student has experienced.

AE/GE are not impacted by choice of norm group