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Q.1 Describe the following conflict resolution styles: a.

Avoidant Approach Some people will do anything to avoid a direct confrontation. They agree even though they are opposed to the outcome. This style cannot be tolerated on the project team. Each persons input and opinion must be sought. It is the responsibility of the project manager to make sure that this happens. A simple device is to ask each team member in turn what he or she thinks about the situation and what he or she suggests be done about it. Often this approach will diffuse any direct confrontation between two individuals on the team. b. Accommodating Approach Here, one party is ready for keeping the psychological door open to the other party. When the issue is more important to oneself than to the other person, this strategy works better under such situations. Forgetting or Forgiving on one issue may be key to moving the conflict to a new level where issues may be discussed better. It can be a useful, but a temporary fix among the parties. c. Consensus Approach Consensus building is a process that a team can follow to reach agreement on which alternative to proceed with for the item (action, decision, and so forth) under consideration. The agreement is not reached by a majority vote, or any vote for that matter. Rather, the agreement is reached through discussion, whereby each participant reaches a point when he or she has no serious disagreement with the decision that is about to be taken. The decision will have been revised several times for the participants to reach that point. Consensus building is an excellent tool to have in the project team tool kit. In all but a few cases, there will be a legitimate difference of opinion as to how a problem or issue should be addressed. There will be no clear-cut action on which all can agree. In such situations the team must fashion an action or decision with which no team members have serious disagreement even though they may not agree in total with the chosen action. If the project manager chooses to operate on a consensus basis, he or she must clearly define the situations in which consensus will be acceptable. The team needs to know these situations. d. Collaborative Approach In this approach, the team looks for win-win opportunities. The approach seeks out a common ground as the basis for moving ahead to a solution. This approach encourages each team member to put his or her opinions on the table and not avoid the conflict that may result. At the same time, team members do not seek to create conflict unnecessarily. The approach is constructive, not destructive.

Q.2 List and explain in brief the key features of a project. A project is defined as a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. Unique means that the product or service is different in some distinguishing way from all other products or services. They key features of a project are; Objectives - A project has a fixed set of objectives to be achieved. Lifespan - A project cannot continue endlessly. It has to come to an end. Single entity - A project is one entity and is normally entrusted to one responsibility while the participants in the project are many Teamwork - A project calls for team work. It is constituted of members belonging to different disciplines, organisations and even countries. Life cycle - A project has a life cycle reflected by growth, maturity and decay. Uniqueness - No two projects are exactly. The location, the infrastructure, the agencies and the people make each project unique Change - A project sees many changes throughout its life. There can be some change which will change the entire character or course of the project. Successive principle - More is known about a project when it enters the construction phase than what was known, say, during the detailed engineering phase Made to order - A project is always made to the order of its customer. Unity in diversity - A project is a complex set of thousands of inter-related varieties, in terms of technology, equipment and materials, machinery and people, work culture and ethics. Outsourced - A high percentage of the work in a project is done through contractors. Risk & uncertainly - Every project has risk and uncertainty associated with it.

Q.3 Write a note on human resource planning. A Project is a planned undertaking that requires a set of human tasks and activities towards achieving a specific objective within a defined time period. Projects are temporary, though they may last from few hours to many years; a team project involves a group of people with complementary skills and experiences, working together to accomplish the goals and objectives of the project. The purpose of the team is to develop and execute a work plan that will meet the expectations of the project. Everyone on the team is committed and deducted to the same thing meeting the goals of the project. Although the goals may be same, how the team elects to execute the work plan is variable. Different team runs the same project differently. This Variation is attributable to differences in people, process and interactions. The interactions of a team are dependent on the collective knowledge, skills, experiences, personalities, and behaviors of the group. Each person has personal preferences regarding how to run the project and how to work within the project, People have different work and communication styles, and these personal preferences and differences represent the diversity of the team. All team members want the same thing (to achieve the project goals), but each goes after it differently due to their diversity. This can generate both positive and negative interactions. How well we mange human interactions is the key to the success of any project. This is been grouped into six general areas. Problem solving Decision making Conflict resolution Consensus building Brainstorming Team meetings