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A Technical Comparison

DCS versus PLCs


Presented By Jim Cushman Emerson Process Management Power & Water Solutions

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Evolution in Automation
Instrumentation Process Controls

Loop Controllers
PID loops Electrical

Field Intelligence, Comm Tech, IT Integration

DCS
Integrated Control Factory Automation

PlantWeb

Relays
Logic sequences

P Control PLCs
Low cost Compact

1970
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1980

1990

2000

[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 2

History of PLC
Developed from Automotive Assembly and Factory Automation where discrete points are used Developed to replace mechanical timers and solid state relays Evolved where process restart is not a major concern but processing speed is important Designed with digital logic as the most important design feature

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 3

History of DCS
Evolved from single loop controllers Evolved from analog based signal handling Evolved with extensive involvement from the process control end-users Developed with alarm handling, diagnostics and fail safe as important design feature
[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 4

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DCS Designed with Latest Technology


Windows or Solaris platform Off-the-shelf Pentium controller Off-the-shelf Ethernet network Oracle configuration database Oracle historical process data AutoCAD control builder (varies between vendor)

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 5

CTLRCTLR

CTLRCTLR

DCS Architecture
Realtime Data Server

(Single point failure here)

PLC-MMI Architecture

DCS - SCADA Configuration


Control Room

Local Site
CTLR CTLR

Ovation eDB Engineer

RS232 or Ethernet Redundant SCADA Servers

Ovation Network

Redundant PLC/RTU Radios RS232 or Ethernet

In

Out

Radio Repeater Repeater Site

Remote Site
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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 7

Comparison Of PLC & DCS Operator Interface


PLC HMI have a separate database from the control system and needs to be configured separately. Database consistency is a major issue Alarms and faceplates have to be specially configured PLC station to station communications are tedious and are via third party integrators Requires the use of network servers, external hard disks with huge configuration effort Limited OPC server functionality DCS HMI is part of the single integrated database DCS has built in feature in the HMI as standard and optimized for handling alarm messages and data from controllers Real time integration is available via a serial card, OPC, or NetDDE. Transaction integration is via Historian.

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 8

Comparison of PLC & DCS Configuration Vs Programming


PLC Programming is usually the familiar ladder logic DCS configuration uses graphical function blocks that follow SAMA standards DCS configuration comes with alarms and signal conditioning as standard, part of the database parameters It is generally easier to understand a Boolean Logic Block diagram than separate analog logic diagram and ladder logic diagram

PLC Programming requires writing of logic for alarms and signal conditioning

Challenge to write analog PID control using ladder logic

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 9

DCS Windows Edition Developer Studio


System Configuration Tools System Database Tools Control Builder Graphics Builder

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 10

Comparison of PLC & DCS Control Algorithms


PLC does not have standard algorithms and requires programmers to build the logical conditions and equations from scratch Besides having a standard library of algorithms such as PID, lead-lag, etc., DCS also features other in DCS such as drag-and-drop configuration and graphical configuration.

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 12

DCS Developer Studio


The DCS System Database manages all items in the system
Input, output and calculated points Control modules Process graphics System configuration

This allows simplified engineering via standard drag & drop functionality
Drag & drop points, control, graphics and system configuration to desired locations Download changes

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 13

Data and Event Historian of PLC & DCS Operator Interface


Data historian is often a basic package supplied by the HMI software vendor Little analysis and exporting capability Difficult to integrate a sophisticated historian package and requires a new configuration database DCS uses a sophisticated historian engine as a standard. The link and configuration is integrated within the single database of DCS. Analysis of cause and effect can be done.

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 14

DCS Operator Interface - HMI

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 15

DCS eDB Historian Architecture Features Distributed Data Scanners


Data scanning is de-coupled from the eDB database server Scanners to be available for DCS, WDPF and OPC Scans process values and sends exceptions, aggregates and messages to the eDB Scanner buffer stores during brief network or server outages Does not rely on process data network requires only TCP/IP Third-Party
WEStation Controller OPC Server

eDB
Historian TCP/IP Network DCS WDPFII

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 16

Alarm Management of PLC & DCS Operator Machine Interface


Certain alarms and faceplates have to be specially configured Very basic alarm handling capability that is built for discrete industry Difficult to bring maintenance bits/flags into alarm system. Difficult to relate alarms with operational philosophy DCS alarm management is built upon the strength of DCS DCS enhances alarm management by minimizing nuisance alarms simplifying alarm tracing

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 17

DCS Operator Station Functions


Process Diagrams
Compatible with Solaris process diagrams

Alarm System
Alarm List, Alarm History, Unacknowledged Alarms & Reset List functions DCS alarm functionality - 4 high & 4 low limits Iconic and audible alarms

Point Menu
Triggers display of trends, graphics and point information

Trends
3-D graph option Drag & Drop trend building with points Trend groups

Point Reviews
Similar to Solaris but with different look & feel

Options
DCS membrane keyboard and dual-CRT options

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 18

DCS Operator Station Functions


Alarm System
Tabs for mode switching between List, History,Unacknowledged, and Reset displays Find function to locate alarm points Title bars move for more or less information displayed Moveable menu tool bar Number of alarm windows configurable based on system limitations Line-by-line printing of alarm messages to a local printer User-selectable fonts; standard alarm fields displayed or removed by menu selection Audible alarms use Wave files

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 19

Comparison of PLC & DCS Smart Transmitter Interface


PLC presently lack smart interfaces and have to use workaround solution Not proactive Field Bus and Open Architecture technologies HART is available with DCS DCS provides implementation to Foundation Fieldbus in a customer plant

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 21

DCS with HART I/O Modules & AMS


Maintenance Shop Manage the Field Devices AMS Inside
AMS Pass Through SW

Control Room Manage the Process DCS

CTLR

CTLR

HART AI & AO Modules


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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 22

AMS (Asset Management Software)

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 23

Comparison of PLC & DCS Diagnostics and Failure Handling


PLCs have relatively little diagnostic status and may only be indicative Limited use of diagnostic bits in logic All key diagnostic bits reflecting system health status can participate in logics for proper safety actions DCS diagnostics allow us to drill down all the way to the field instruments including HART & Fieldbus. DCS I/O is selectable either in HOLD-LAST or FAIL-SAFE positions in the event of failure

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 24

Comparison of PLC & DCS Advanced Control


PLC has limited advanced control features A primitive auto-tuning software is all they can show DCS has all the depth and experience of implementing advanced control DCS has a full suite of advanced control applications to improve yield and productivity known as Smart Process

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 25

Comparison of PLC & DCS Hardware Functionality


PLC I/O does NOT support hot swap especially those in remote areas Limited redundancy options DCS cards have complete diagnostic and hot swap capability DCS has redundancy options for most key hardware components A highly scalable system that allows you to add/change or upgrade workstation, controller, I/O online.

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 26

Lower Total Cost of Ownership


Total cost of ownership, including long term maintenance, upgrades, and replacement cost, is typically lower for a DCS.
configuration savings start up savings long term maintenance upgrade/expansion change management vs. replacement

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 27

You Decide
A PLC-HMI system will work. It will run your plant. It will do ladder logic. It will even do PID control.
Can you integrate well with external systems? Do you have easy to use Advanced Control? Do you have performance monitoring software? Do you have an integrated asset management solution?

AMS

DCS provide best value, highest return, lowest long term running cost.

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[File Name or Event] Emerson Confidential 27-Jun-01, Slide 28

Systems Comparison
Redundancy Controller Redundancy Controller Power Supply Redundancy Communications Redundancy Programming/Configuration Drag & Drop Configuration Device Configuration Change Tracking Configuration Audit Trail
Ovation Siemens PCS7 Rockwell ProcessLogix Rockwell ControlLogix

Yes Yes Yes

Some Some Some

Some Some Some

Some Some No

Yes Yes Yes

Some No No

Some No No

Some No No

Systems Comparison (Contd.) (Contd.)


Traditional Control Technology Regulatory Sequence Advanced Control Technology Fuzzy Logic Neural Network Technology Auto-Tune Technology Multivariable Predictive Control
Ovation Siemens PCS7 Rockwell ProcessLogix Rockwell ControlLogix

Yes Yes

Some Yes

Yes Some

Some Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

No No No No

No No Some No

No No Some No

Systems Comparison (Contd.) (Contd.)


Service and Support 24 x 7 Technical Support Worldwide Configuration Services Hardware Maintenance Services Installation Services Software Support & Upgrade Support Training Single Source Supplier
Ovation Siemens PCS7 Rockwell ProcessLogix Rockwell ControlLogix

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Some Yes Some Yes Some Yes Some

Some Some Some Some Some Some Some

Some Some Some Some Some Some Some

Systems Comparison (Contd.) (Contd.)


System Management Event Historian Sequence of Events Recording Asset Management Global Database Alarm Time Stamping System Architecture DCS / PLC Integration Scalable OPC Support Automated System Time Management Automated System Diagnostics
Ovation Siemens PCS7 Rockwell ProcessLogix Rockwell ControlLogix

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Some Some No No No Some Some Some Some Some

Some Some No No Some Some Some Yes Some Some

Some Some No No Some Some Some Yes Some Some

Systems Comparison (Contd.) (Contd.)


System Aspects Time Synchronization Capability Online Upgrade Modifications without Shutdown Support for Control in the Field OPC Alarms and Events Scalability I/O Simulation Capability
Ovation Siemens PCS7 Rockwell ProcessLogix Rockwell ControlLogix

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

No No No No No Some No

No No No No No Some No

No No No No No Some No