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Rulings pertaining to
Ramadan
A Collection of Works by
Sheikh Muhammad Salih Al-Munajjid
Ldited bv the Islamic Propagation Oice at Rabwah
Rivadh. Saudi Arabia
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Contents
J. Seventy Matters R elated to Iasting 9
Introduction 10
1he Deinition o Sivaam lasting, 13
Ruling on lasting 13
1he Virtues o lasting 14
1he Beneits o lasting 1
Ltiquette and Sunan o lasting 18
\hat should be done in this Great Month 23
Some Rulings concerning lasting 24
low is the Onset o Ramadan Determined 25
\ho is Obliged to last 26
1raelers 28
1he Sick 32
1he Llderlv 36
Nivvah intention, in lasting 3
\hen to Start and Stop lasting 40
1hings that Break the last 42
Rulings on lasting or \omen 52
2. 1he Night Prayer in Ramadan 59
Lavlat Al-Oadr and its 1iming 60
Praving Oivaam in (ongregation 61
\hv did not the Prophet , (ontinuallv Lead the
Praver in (ongregation 62
\omen mav Prav Oivaam in (ongregation 63
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Number o Rakahs o Oivaam 63
Reciting Our`aan in Oivaam 64
1he 1iming o Oivaam 66
Recitation during 1hree Rakahs o \itr 68
Duaa al-Ounoot 69
\hat Should be Said at the Lnd o \itr 1
1wo Rakahs ater \itr 2
Selected Verdicts regarding the 1araaweeh 73
1he Number o Rakahs in 1araaweeh 3
(ompleting with the Imaam
Reciting the Lntire Our`aan in 1araaweeh 8
1he Imaam lolding a Musha 9
One o the lollowers lolding a Musha 9
Supplication ater the (ompletion o the Our`aan 80
Ounoot in the \itr and lajr Pravers 82
Raising the lands in the Ounoot 83
Joining the 1araaweeh with the Nivvah o Ishaa 84
Reading Our`aan or Praving Nawaail 85
Adding Another Rakah to the Imaam`s \itr 86
3. I'tikaaf 87
Deinition 88
1he Beneits o I`tikaa 88
1he (onnection between lasting and I`tikaa 90
\ith the Prophet , in his I`tikaa 91
lis Guidance (oncerning I`tikaa 96
1he Aims o I`tikaa 99
Dierent 1vpes o I`tikaa 100
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1he Ruling on I`tikaa 100


1he (onditions o I`tikaa 101
1he Pillars o I`tikaa 103
1he Place. 1ime and Starting Point o I`tikaa 104
1he Aadaab Ltiquette, o I`tikaa 105
1hings which are lorbidden in I`tikaa 108
Lducational Aspects o I`tikaa 109
4. Zakaat al -Iitr JJ7
Deinition 118
\hv Zakaat al-litr has been Legislated 118
Ruling on Zakaat al-litr 119
\hen it must be Gien 120
\ho must pav it 120
Amount o Zakaat al-litr 123
1vpes o 1hings that mv be Gien 124
1he 1ime or giing Zakaat al-litr 12
1o \hom it mav be Gien 129
Pavment and Distribution 130
\here to gie Zakaat al-litr 132
5. Lid , Ltiquette and Rulings J33
Muslims are Distinguished bv their lestials 135
J-Ahkaam al- Lid (Rulings on Lid) J37
lasting 13
Ruling on the Lid Pravers 13
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Lssentials and 1iming o Lid Praver 138
Description o the Lid Praver 138
Recitation o Our`aan in Lid Pravers 140
1he Praver comes beore the Khutbah 140
Not Delaving the Praver 142
Nail Pravers in the Praver-Place 142
Not Knowing about Lid until the Next Dav 143
\omen`s Attendance at Lid Pravers 143
2-Aadaab al-Lid (Ltiquettes of Lid) J47
Ghusl 1aking a Bath, 14
Lating beore (oming Out 14
1akbeer on the Dav o Lid 148
1he \ording o the 1akbeer 150
(ongratulating One Another 150
Looking One`s Best or Lid 152
Ruling on Listening to the Lid Khutbah 153
(hoosing Dierent Routes 155
A (aution against \rongdoing 156
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Seventy Matters
Related to
lasting
bv
Sheikh Muhammad Salih Al-Munajjid
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Introduction
Praise be to Allaah. we praise lim and seek lis help and or-
gieness. \e seek reuge with Allaah rom the eil o our own
seles and rom our eil deeds. \homsoeer Allaah guides can-
not be misled. and whomsoeer le leaes astrav cannot be
guided. I bear witness that there is no god except Allaah alone.
with no partner or associate. and I bear witness that Muhammad
is lis slae and Messenger.
Allaah has blessed lis slaes bv assigning or them certain sea-
sons o goodness in which hasanaat rewards or good deeds, are
multiplied. savvi`aat bad deeds, are orgien. people`s statuses
are raised and the hearts o belieers turn to their Master. 1hose
who puriv themseles attain success and those who corrupt
themseles ail. Allaah has created lis slaes to worship lim. as
le savs:

And I (Allaah) created not the jinns and humans except
that they should worship Me (Alone). |Surah adh-
Dhaarivaat 51:56|
One o the greatest acts o worship is asting. which Allaah has
made obligatorv on lis slaes. le , savs:


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Observing al-siyaam (the fast) is prescribed for you as it
was prescribed for those before you, that you may be-
come al-muttaqoon (the pious). |Surah al-Baqarah 2:183|
Allaah encourages lis slaes to ast:

. And that you fast, is better for you, if only you
know. |Surah al-Baqarah 2:184|
le guides them to gie thanks to lim or haing made asting
obligatorv on them:

. that you should magnify Allaah for having guided
you so that you may be grateful to Him. |Surah al-
Baqarah 2:185|
le has made asting dear to people and has made it easv or them
so that thev do not ind it too diicult to gie up their habits and
what thev are accustomed to. Allaah savs:

.for a fixed number of days. |Surah al-Baqarah 2:184|
le has mercv on them and keeps them awav rom diiculties and
harm. as le savs:
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. but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same
number (should be made up) from other days. |Surah
al-Baqarah 2:184|
It is no wonder then that in this month. the hearts o the belie-
ers turn to their Most Merciul Lord. earing lim aboe them.
and hope to attain lis reward and the great ictorv |o Paradise|.
As the status o this act o worship is so high. it is essential to
learn the ahkaam rulings, pertaining to this month o asting so
that Muslims will know what is obligatorv in order to do it. what
is haraam orbidden, in order to aoid it. and what is permissible
so that thev do not unnecessarilv subject themseles to anv hard-
ship bv depriing themseles rom it.
1his book is a summarv o the rulings. etiquette and Sunnah o
asting. Mav Allaah make it o beneit to mvsel and mv Muslim
brothers. Praise be to Allaah. Lord o the \orlds.
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1he Definition of Siyaam (Iasting)
1, Linguisticallv. sivaam in Arabic means abstinence. In Islamic
terminologv. it means abstainingrom things that break the ast.
rom dawn until sunset. haing irst made the intention nivvah,
to do so.
1he Ruling concerning Iasting
2, 1he Ummah Islamic nation, is in agreement to the act that
asting the month o Ramadan is obligatorv. the eidence or
which is in the Our`aan and Sunnah. Allaah , savs:


O you who believe! Observing al-sawn (the fasting) is
prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before
you, that you may become al-muttaqoon (the pious).
|Surah al-Baqarah 2:183|
1he Prophet , said:
Islam is built on five pillars.
1
.among which he mentioned asting in Ramadan.
2
1
Al-Bukhaari.
2
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. al-lat`h. 149.
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\hoeer breaks the ast during Ramadan without a legitimate
excuse has committed a serious major sin. 1he Prophet , said
when describing a dream that he had seen:
.until I was at a mountain where I heard loud voices. I
asked, What are these voices?' 1hey said, 1his is the
howling of the people of Hellfire.' 1hen I was taken to
another place, and I saw people hanging from their
hamstrings with the corners of their mouths torn and
dripping with blood. I said, Who are these?' 1hey said,
1he people who broke their fast before it was the proper
time to do so (i.e., before the time of breaking fast).'
3
Al-laaidh al-Dhahabi mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said.
Among the belieers it is well-established that whoeer does
not ast in Ramadan without a alid excuse is worse than an
adulterer or drunkard: thev doubt whether he is een a Muslim
at all. and thev regard him as a heretic and proligate.`
Shavkh al-Islam |Ibn 1avmivvah| mav Allaah hae mercv on
him, said:
I a person does not ast in Ramadan knowing that it is haraam
but making it halaal permissible, or himsel to do so. he must
be executed: and i he does it because he is immoral |but be-
liees it is haraam impermissible,|. then he must be punished
or not asting.`
4
3
Saheeh al-1argheeb. 1420.
4
Majmoo` al-lataawaaa. 25265.
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1he Virtues of Iasting
3, 1he irtues o asting are great indeed. and one o the things
reported in authentic saheeh, ahaadeeth is that Allaah has chosen
asting or limsel. and le will reward it and multiplv the reward
without measure. as le savs |in a ladeeth Oudsi
5
|:
Lxcept for fasting which is only for My sake, and I will
reward him for it.
6
- lasting has no equal

. and the duaa supplication, o the asting


person will not be reused.
8
- 1he asting person has two moments o jov: one when he
breaks his ast. and one when he meets his Lord and rejoices oer
his asting
9
.
- lasting will intercede or a person on the Dav o Judgment and
will sav.
O Lord, I prevented him from his food and physical de-
sires during the day, so let me intercede for him.
10
- 1he smell that comes rom the mouth o a asting person is
more beloed to Allaah than the scent o musk.
11
5
Hadeeth Qudsi: a hadeeth which the Prophet , narrates rom Allah ex-
actlv what le said. It diers rom the Our`an in that it is not recited. and it
diers rom a regular hadeeth in that the words themseles are reealed and
not just the meanings.
6
Al-Bukhaari. al-lat`h. no. 1904: Saheeh al-1argheeb. 140.

Al-Nasaa`i. 4165: Saheeh at-1argheeb. 1413.


8
Reported bv al-Bavhaqi. 3345: al-Silsilat al-Saheehah. 19.
9
Reported bv Muslim. 280.
10
Reported bv Ahmad. 214. Al-lavthami classed its isnaad as hasan in al-
Majma`. 3181. See also Saheeh al-1argheeb. 1411.
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- lasting is a protection and a strong ortress that keeps a person
sae rom the lire.
12
- \hoeer asts one dav or the sake o Allaah. Allaah will re-
moe his ace a distance o seentv vears rom the lire.
13
- \hoeer asts one dav seeking the pleasure o Allaah. i that is
the last dav o his lie. he will enter Paradise.
14
- In Paradise there is a gate called al-Rayyaanthrough
which those who fast will enter, and no one will enter
through it except them, when they have entered it will be
locked, and no-one else will enter through it.
15
- Ramadan is a pillar o Islam. the Our`aan was reealed in this
month. and in it there is a night that is better than a thousand
months.
- When Ramadan begins, the gates of Paradise are opened
and the gates of Hell are closed, and the devils are put in
chains.
16
- lasting Ramadan is equialent to asting ten months.
1
- Whoever fasts Ramadan out of faith and with the hope of
(Allah's) reward, all his previous sins will be forgiven.
18
11
Muslim. 280.
12
Reported bv Ahmad. 2402: Saheeh al-1argheeb. 1411: Saheeh al-Jaami`.
3880.
13
Reported bv Muslim. 2808.
14
Reported bv Ahmad. 5391: Saheeh al-1argheeb. 1412.
15
Al-Bukhaari. lath. no. 19.
16
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. al-lat`h. no. 32.
1
See Musnad Ahmad. 5280: Saheeh al-1argheeb. 1421.
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- \ith the breaking o eerv ast. Allaah will choose people to
ree rom lellire.
19
1he Benefits of Iasting
4, 1here is much wisdom and numerous beneits in asting
which relate to the taqwaa Allah mentioned in the aavah erse,:

.that you may become al-muttaqoon (the pious).
|Surah al-Baqarah 2:183|
1he interpretation o this aavah is that i a person rerains rom
halaal things hoping to gain the pleasure o Allaah and out o ear
o lis punishment. it will be easier or him to rerain rom doing
haraam things.
\hen a person`s stomach is emptv and he is hungrv. manv o his
other aculties are kept rom eeling hunger or desires: but when
his stomach is satisied. his tongue. eves. hands and priate parts
start to eel hunger. lasting leads to the deeat o Shavtaan: it
controls desires and protects one`s aculties.
\hen the asting person eels the pangs o hunger. he experi-
ences how the poor eel. thus he eels compassion towards them
and gies them something to ward o their hunger. learing
18
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. lath. no. 3.
19
Reported bv Ahmad. 5256: Saheeh al-1argheeb. 1419.
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about them is not the same as sharing their suering. just as a
rider does not understand the hardship o walking until he gets
down and walks.
lasting trains the person to aoid desires and to keep awav rom
sin: it helps a person to oercome his own nature and to wean
himsel awav rom bad habits. It also trains a person to get used
to being organized and punctual. which will sole the problem
that manv people hae o being disorganized. i onlv thev real-
ized.
lasting is also a demonstration o the unitv o the Muslims. as the
Ummah Islamic nation, asts and breaks its ast all at the same
time.
lasting also proides a great opportunitv or those who are call-
ing others to Allaah. In this month manv people come to the
mosque or the irst time. and also those who hae not been to
the mosque or a long time. and their hearts are open. so we must
make the most o this opportunitv bv preaching in a gentle man-
ner. teaching appropriate lessons and speaking beneicial words.
whilst also cooperating in righteousness and good deeds. 1he
teacher should not be so preoccupied with others though that he
orgets his own soul and becomes like a candle that lights the wav
or others while it is itsel consumed.
1he Ltiquettes and Sunan of Iasting
Some aspects o asting are obligatorv ard, and others are rec-
ommended mustahab,.
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\e should make sure that we eat and drink something at suhoor
the time beore dawn,. and that we delav it until just beore the
adhaan o lajr. 1he Prophet , said:
Have suhoor, for in suhoor there is blessing (bara-
kah).
20
Suhoor is blessed food, and it involves being different
from the people of the Book. What a good suhoor for the
believer is dates.
21
One should not delav itaar breakast ater dusk,. because the
Prophet , said:
1he people remain upin goodness so long as they do
not delay iftaar.
22
A person should break his ast in the manner described in the
hadeeth narrated bv Anas ,:
1he Prophet () used to break his fast with fresh dates
before praying, if fresh dates were not available, he
would eat (dried) dates, if dried dates were not available,
he would have a few sips of water.
23
Ater itaar. it is Sunnah to recite the words reported in the
hadeeth narrated bv Ibn Umar mav Allaah be pleased with them
both,. according to which the Prophet ,. when he broke his
ast. would sav:
20
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. lat`h. 4139.
21
Reported bv Abu Dawood. no. 2345: Saheeh al-1argheeb. 1448.
22
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. lat`h. 4198.
23
Reported bv al-1irmidhi. 39 and others. le said it is a ghareeb hasan
hadeeth. (lassed as saheeh in al-Irwaa. no. 922.
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Dhahaba adh-dhama, wabtallat il-urooq, wa thabat al-
ajru in shaa Allaah (1he thirst has gone, the veins are
flowing again, and the reward is confirmed, in shaa Al-
laah).
24
Keeping awav rom sin. because the Prophet , said:
When any of you is fasting, let him not commit any
sin.
25
1he Prophet , said:
Whoever does not stop speaking falsehood and acting
in accordance with it, Allaah has no need of him giving
up his food and drink. Al-Bukhaari. al-lat`h. no. 1903,
1he asting person should aoid all kinds o haraam actions. such
as backbiting. obscenitv and lving. otherwise his reward mav all
be lost. 1he Prophet , said:
It may be that a fasting person gets nothing from his
fast except hunger.
26
Among the things that can destrov one`s hasanaat good deeds,
and cause savi`aat bad deeds, to be recorded is allowing onesel
to be distracted bv quiz-shows. soap operas. moies and sports
matches. idle gatherings. hanging about in the streets with eil
people and time-wasters. driing around or no purpose. and
crowding the streets and sidewalks. 1he month o tahajjud. dhikr
and worship or manv people becomes a month in which thev
24
Reported bv Abu Dawood. 265: its isnaad was classed as hasan bv al-
Daaraqutni. 2185.
25
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. al-lat`h. no. 1904.
26
Reported bv Ibn Maajah. 1539: Saheeh al-1argheeb. 1453.
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sleep during the dav - so as to aoid eeling hunger - and spend
their nights in entertainment and indulging in their desires. 1his
urther causes them to miss their pravers and the opportunitv to
prav them in congregation. Some people een greet this month
with eelings o annovance. thinking onlv o the pleasures thev
will miss out on. In Ramadan. some people een trael to the
lands o the disbelieers to enjov a holidav! Len the mosques are
not ree rom such eils. as women also attend wearing makeup
and perume. Len the Sacred louse o Allaah Ka`bah, is not
ree o these ills. Some people make this month a season or beg-
ging. een though thev are not in need. Some entertain them-
seles with dangerous ireworks and the like. and some o them
waste their time in the markets. wandering around the shops. or
haing new clothes stitched and ollowing ashions. Some shop
owners introduce new products and new stvles in their stores
during the last ten davs o the month. thus keeping people awav
rom earning rewards and hasanaat.
A person should not allow himsel to be prooked. because the
Prophet , said:
If someone fights him or insults him, he should say, I
am fasting, I am fasting.'
2
One reason or this is to remind himsel. and the other reason is
to remind the one who is prooking him. But anvone who looks
at the conduct o manv o those who ast will see something quite
dierent. It is essential to exercise sel-control and be calm. but
we see the opposite among the crazv driers who speed up when
thev hear the adhaan or Maghrib.
A person should not oereat. because the Prophet , said:
2
Reported bv al-Bukhaari and others. Al-lat`h. no. 1894.
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1he son of Adam fills no vessel worse than his stom-
ach.
28
1he wise person eats to lie. not lies to eat. 1he best tvpe o
ood is that which is there to be used. not that which is there to
be sered. People indulge in making all kinds o ood during
Ramadan, and treating ood preparation as a irtual art orm. and
thus housewies and serants spend all their time on making
ood. 1his keeps them awav rom worship. and people spend ar
more on ood during Ramadan than thev ordinarilv do. 1hus the
month becomes the month o indigestion. obesitv and gastric ill-
ness in which people eat like gluttons and drink like thirstv cam-
els. \hen thev stand to prav 1araaweeh the night praver in
Ramadan, thev do so reluctantlv. and some o them leae ater
the irst two rakahs.
A person should increase in his generositv bv sharing knowledge.
giing charitv. using one`s position o authoritv or phvsical
strength to help others. and haing a good attitude. Al-Bukhaari
and Muslim reported that Ibn Abbaas , said:
1he Messenger of Allaah () was the most generous of
people in doing good, and he was most generous of all
in Ramadan when Jibreel met with him, he used to meet
him every night in Ramadan and teach him the Qur`aan.
1he Messenger of Allaah () was more generous in do-
ing good than a blowing wind.
29
low can people preer stinginess to generositv and laziness to
action to the extent that thev do not do their work nor treat one
another properlv. and thev use asting as an excuse or all this!
28
Reported bv al-1irmidhi. no. 2380: he said. this is a hasan saheeh hadeeth.
29
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. al-lat`h. no. 6.
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(ombining asting with eeding the poor is one o the means o
attaining Paradise. as the Prophet , said:
In Paradise there are rooms whose outside can be seen
from the inside and the inside can be seen from the out-
side. Allaah has prepared them for those who feed the
poor, those who are gentle in speech, those who fast
regularly, and those who pray at night when people are
asleep.
30
1he Prophet , said:
Whoever gives food to a fasting person with which to
break his fast, he will have the reward equal to his (the
fasting person), without it detracting in the slightest
from the reward of the fasting person.
31
Shavkh al-Islam |Ibn 1avmivah| mav Allaah hae mercv on him,
said. \hat is meant is that he should eed him until he is satis-
ied.`
32
A number o the Sala
33
mav Allaah hae mercv on them, pre-
erred the poor oer themseles when breaking their ast at the
time o itaar. Among these were Abd-Allaah ibn Umar. Maalik
ibn Deenaar. Ahmad ibn lanbal and others. Abd-Allaah ibn
Umar would not break his ast unless there were orphans and
poor people with him.
30
Reported bv Ahmad 5343: Ibn Khuzavmah. no. 213. Al-Albaani said in
his ootnote. its isnaad is hasan because o other corroborating reports.
31
Reported bv al-1irmidhi. 311: Saheeh al-1argheeb. 1451.
32
Al-Ikhtivaaraat al-liqhivvah. p. 109.
33
Salaf: Our pious predecessors. particularlv those o the irst three genera-
tions. Lditor,
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What should be done in this Great Month
Prepare vourseles and vour enironment or worship |bv doing
the ollowing|:
- lasten to repent and turn back to Allaah.
- Rejoice at the onset o this month.
- last properlv.
- lae the correct rame o mind and ear Allaah when praving
1araaweeh.
- Do not become tired during the middle
34
ten davs o the month.
- Seek Lavlat al-Oadr.
- Read the entire Our`aan repetitielv. trv to weep. and trv to un-
derstand what vou are reading.
- Umrah during Ramadan is equialent to lajj |perormed tith
the Prophet ,|.
- (haritv gien during this irtuous time is multiplied.
- I`tikaa retreat in the mosque or worship, is a conirmed Sun-
nah o the Prophet ,.
- 1here is nothing wrong with congratulating one another at the
beginning o the month. 1he Prophet , used to tell his (om-
34
Usuallv people start o the month with great enthusiasm. and also spend the
last ten davs in worship due to its great merits. As a result. people mav eel
apathetic during the middle o the month. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
25
panions the good news o the onset o Ramadan and urge them
to make the most o it. Abu luravrah , said:
1he Messenger of Allaah () said, 1here has come to
you Ramadan, a blessed month. Allaah has made it
obligatory on you to fast (this month). During it, the
gates of Paradise are opened and the gates of Hell are
locked, and the devils are chained up. In it there is a
night that is better than a thousand months, and who-
ever is deprived of its goodness has indeed been de-
prived.'
35
Some Rulings concerning Iasting
6, One kind o asting is that which must be done on consecu-
tie davs. such as the ast o Ramadan. asting in expiation or
killing someone bv mistake. diorcing one`s wie bv dhihaar
36
. or
haing intercourse during the dav in Rama dan. Also. one who
makes a ow to ast consecutie davs must ulill it.
Another kind o asting is that which does not hae to be done
on consecutie davs. such as making up davs missed in Ramadan.
asting ten davs i one does not hae a sacriice |in lajj|. asting
or breaking an sworn oath according to the majoritv,. asting to
compensate or iolating the conditions o ihraam according to
the most correct opinion,. and asting in ulillment o a ow in
35
Reported bv al-Nasaa`i. 4129: Saheeh al-1argheeb. 1490.
36
A jaahili orm o diorce in which a man savs to his wie. \ou are to me as
the back o mv mother` - 1ranslator.
www.IsIumIouse.com
26
cases where one did not hae the intention o asting consecutie
davs.
, Voluntarv asts make up or shortcomings in the obligatorv
asts. Lxamples o oluntarv asts include Aashooraa. the Dav
o Araah or those not perorming lajj,. Avvaam al-Beed
3
.
Mondavs and 1hursdavs. six davs o Shawwaal. and the speciics
asts o Muharram and Sha`baan.
8, It is not permitted to single out lridav or asting
38
or to ast
on a Saturdav unless it is an obligatorv ast
39
. \hat is intended
here is singling it out without there being a alid reason. It is not
permitted to ast or an entire lietime. or to ast or two davs or
more without a break i.e.. to ast two or three davs |straight|
without breaking one`s ast each dav ater Maghrib,.
It is haraam to ast on the two Lid davs or on the Avvaam al-
1ashreeq - the 11
th
. 12
th
and 13
th
o Dhu`l-lijjah. - or these are
davs o eating. drinking and remembering Allaah. It is permissible
though or pilgrims perorming lajj to ast them Avvaam al-
1ashreeq, in Minaa i thev do not hae a sacriice to oer.
How is the Onset of Ramadan Determined?
9, 1he onset o Ramadan is conirmed bv the sighting o the
new moon or bv the completion o thirtv davs o Sha`baan. \ho-
3
1he 13
th
. 14
th
and 15
th
davs o each lijri month - 1ranslator.
38
Al-Bukhaari. lat`h al-Baari. no. 1985.
39
Reported and classed as hasan bv al-1irmidhi. 3111.
www.IsIumIouse.com
2
eer sees the crescent o the new moon or hears about it rom a
trustworthv source is obliged to ast.
Using calculations to determine the onset o Ramadan is a bidah
innoation,. because the hadeeth o the Prophet , clearlv
states:
Iast when you see it (the new moon) and break your
fast when you see it.
40
I an adult. sane. trustworthv. reliable Muslim who has good eve-
sight savs that he has seen the crescent with his own eves. then
we should take his word or it and act accordinglv i.e.. start ast-
ing,.
Who is Obligated to Iast?
10, lasting is an obligation on eerv adult. sane. resident |i.e..
not traeling| Muslim who is able to ast and has nothing to pre-
ent him or her rom doing so. such as menstruation or postpar-
tum bleeding.
A person is deemed to hae reached adulthood when anv one o
the ollowing three things occur:
1, emission o semen. whether in a wet dream or otherwise:
2, growth o coarse pubic hair around the priate parts:
3, attainment o iteen vears o age.
40
Muslim. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
28
In the case o emales. there is a ourth. namelv menstruation.
\hen a girl reaches menarche starts her periods,. she is obliged
to ast een i she has not vet reached the age o ten.
11, (hildren should be instructed to ast at the age o seen i
thev are able to. and some scholars said that as in the case o Sa-
laah. a child mav be phvsicallv disciplined at the age o ten i he
does not ast.
41
(hildren will be rewarded or asting. and their
parents will be rewarded or bringing them up properlv and guid-
ing them to do righteous deeds. Al-Rubavvi` bint Muawwidh ,
said. speaking about Ramadan when it was made obligatorv:
We used to make our children fast, and we would make
them a toy made out of wool. If any one of them started
to cry for food, we would give them that toy to play with
until it was time to break the fast.
42
Some people do not think that it is important to instruct their
children to ast. Indeed a child mav be enthusiastic about asting
and mav be capable o doing it. but his ather or mother mav tell
him not to ast out o so-called pitv` or him. 1hev do not real-
ize that true pitv and compassion consist o helping him to be-
come accustomed to asting. Allaah savs:
41
See al-Mughni. 390.
42
Al-Bukhaari. lat`h. no. 1960.
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29



O you who believe! Ward off from yourselves and your
families a Iire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, over
which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who
disobey not, (from executing) the Commands they re-
ceive from Allaah, but do that which they are com-
manded. |Surah al-1ahreem 66:6|
Lxtra attention must be gien to the matter o girls when thev
hae just reached the age o maturitv. or thev mav ast during
their menses out o shvness without making up their asts later.
12, I a kaair non-Muslim, becomes Muslim. i a child reaches
pubertv. or i an insane person comes to his senses during the
dav. thev should rerain rom eating until dusk. or thev are now
among those who are obligated to ast. 1hev do not though. hae
to make up or the davs o Ramadan that thev hae missed. or at
that speciic time thev were not among those upon whom asting
was obligatorv.
13, 1he insane are not held responsible or their actions their
deeds are not recorded,. but i a person is insane at times and
sane at others. he must ast during his periods o sanitv and is
excused during his periods o insanitv. I he becomes insane dur-
ing the dav. this does not inalidate his ast. just as is the case i
someone becomes unconscious because o illness or some other
www.IsIumIouse.com
30
reason. or he had the intention o asting when he was sane.
43
A
similar case is the ruling goerning epileptics.
14, I someone dies during Ramadan. there is no debt` on him
or his heirs with regard to the remaining davs o the month.
15, I someone does not know that it is obligatorv to ast Rama-
dan or that it is haraam to eat or hae sexual intercourse during
the dav in this month. then according to the majoritv o scholars.
this excuse is acceptable. 1his mav be the case or a new conert
to Islam. a Muslim liing in Daar al-larb non-Muslim lands, and
a Muslim who grew up among the kuaar. As or those who
were raised amongst Muslims and were able to ask questions and
ind out. thev hae no excuse.
1ravelers
16, lor a traeler to be allowed to break his ast. certain condi-
tions must be met. lis journev should be lengthv. or else be
known as traeling although there is a well-known dierence o
opinion among the scholars on this matter,. and he should hae
let the citv and its suburbs. 1he majoritv o scholars sav that the
traeler should not break his ast beore he passes the citv limits.
1hev sav that a journev has not reallv begun until a person passes
the citv limits. and a person who is still in the citv is settled` and
present`. Allaah savs:
43
Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan` bv Ibn Uthavmeen. p.28.
www.IsIumIouse.com
31

. So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first
night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his
home), he must observe sawm (fasts) that month.
|Surah al-Baqarah 2:185|
le is not considered a traeler until he has let the citv. I he is
still within the citv. he is regarded as a resident and is not permit-
ted to shorten his pravers. lis journev should also not hae been
one undertaken or some sinul purposes according to the ma-
joritv o scholars,. or or the purpose o eading the ast.
1, A traeler is allowed to break his ast according to the con-
sensus o the Ummah. and no regards is taken as to his leel o
abilitv or diicultv in doing so. Len i his journev is easv and he
has someone to sere him. he is still permitted to break his ast
and shorten his pravers.
44
18, \hoeer is determined to trael in Ramadan should not
hae the intention o breaking his ast until he is actuallv trael-
ing. because something mav happen to preent him rom se tting
out on his journev.
45
A traeler should not break his ast until he has passed bevond
the inhabited houses o his town: once he has passed the citv lim-
its. he mav break his ast. Similarlv i he is lving. once the plane
has taken o and has gone bevond the citv limits. he mav break
his ast. I the airport is outside his citv. he can break his ast
there. but i the airport is within his citv or attached to it. he
44
Majmoo` al-lataawaaa. 25210.
45
1aseer al-Ourtubi. 228.
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32
should not break his ast in the airport because he is still within
the bounds o his own citv.
19, I the sun sets and he breaks his ast on the ground. and then
the plane takes o and he sees the sun. he does not hae to stop
eating. le has alreadv completed his dav`s asting. and there is no
wav to repeat an act o worship once it has alreadv been com-
pleted. I the plane takes o beore sunset and he wants to com-
plete that dav`s ast during the journev. he should not break his
ast until the sun has set rom whereer he is in the air. 1he pilot
is not permitted to bring the plane down to an altitude rom
which the sun cannot be seen just or the purposes o breaking
the ast. or this would just be a kind o trickerv. I the pilot were
to bring the plane down lower or a genuine reason though. and
the disk o the sun disappears as a result. he mav break his ast.
46
20, \hoeer traels to a destination and intends to stav there or
more than our davs must ast according to the majoritv o schol-
ars. 1hus. i a person traels to studv abroad or seeral months
or vears. then according to the majoritv o scholars - including
the our imaams - he is regarded as one who is settled` there
and so he has to ast and prav his pravers in ull.
I a traeler passes through a citv other than his own. he does not
hae to ast unless his stav there is longer than our davs. I it is
so. he must ast. because the rulings that applv to those who are
settled applv also to him.
4
21, \hoeer begins asting while he is settled`. then embarks
on a journev during the dav is allowed to break his ast. because
46
lrom the lataawaaa o Shavkh Ibn Baaz. issued erballv.
4
See lataawaa al-Da`wah bv Ibn Baaz. 9.
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33
Allaah has made trael in general a legitimate excuse not to ast.
Allaah savs:

. and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number
of days on which one did not observe sawm must be
made up from other days. |Surah al-Baqarah 2:185|
22, A person who habituallv traels is permitted not to ast i he
has a home to which he returns. such as a courier who traels to
sere the interests o the Muslims and also taxi driers. pilots
and airline emplovees. een i their trael is dailv,. but thev hae
to make up the asts later. 1he same applies to sailors who hae a
home on land. But i the sailor has his wie and all he needs with
him on the ship and is constantlv traeling. then he is not allowed
to break his ast or shorten his pravers. I nomadic bedouins are
traeling rom their winter home to their summer home or ice
ersa. thev are allowed to break their ast and shorten their
pravers. Once thev hae settled in either their summer home or
their winter home though. thev should not break their ast or
shorten their pravers. een i thev are ollowing their locks.
48
23, I a traeler arries during the dav. there is a well-known di-
erence among the scholars as to whether he should stop eating
and drinking.
49
1o be on the sae side though. he should stop eat-
ing and drinking out o respect or the month. but he must make
48
See Majmoo` lataawaa Ibn 1avmivah. 25213.
49
Majmoo` al-lataawaa. 25212.
www.IsIumIouse.com
34
the dav up later whether or not he stops eating and drinking ater
his arrial.
24, I he starts Ramadan in one citv and then traels to another
citv where the people started asting beore him or ater him. he
should ollow the ruling goerning the people to whom he has
traeled. le should onlv end Ramadan when thev end Ramadan.
een i it means that he is asting or more than thirtv davs. be-
cause the Prophet , said:
Iast when everyone is fasting, and break your fast when
everyone is breaking their fast.
50
I this means that his ast is less than twentv-nine davs. he must
make it up ater Lid. because the hijri month cannot be less than
twentv-nine davs.
51
1he Sick
25, In the eent o anv sickness that makes people eel unwell. a
person is allowed not to ast. 1he basis or this is the aavah:

. and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number
of days on which one did not observe sawm must be
made up from other days. |Surah al-Baqarah 2:185|
50
Muslim. Lditor,
51
lrom lataawaa al-Shavkh Abd al-Azeez ibn Baaz: lataawaa al-Sivaam`.
Daar al-\atan. pp. 15-16.
www.IsIumIouse.com
35
But i the ailment is minor. such as a cough or headache. then it is
not a alid reason to break one`s ast.
I there is medical proo. i a person knows rom his usual ex-
perience. or he is certain that asting will make his illness worse or
will delav his recoerv. he is permitted to break his ast. Rather. it
is disliked makrooh, or him to ast in such cases. I a person is
seriouslv ill. he is not obligated to hae the intention during the
night to ast the ollowing dav. een i there is a possibilitv that he
mav be well in the morning. because what counts is the present
moment.
52
26, I asting will cause unconsciousness. he should break his
ast and make up or it later.
53
I a person alls unconscious dur-
ing the dav and recoers beore Maghrib or ater it. his ast is still
alid as long as he was asting in the morning. I he is uncon-
scious rom lajr until Maghrib. then according to the majoritv o
scholars his ast is not alid. According to the majoritv o schol-
ars. it is obligatorv or a person who alls unconscious
54
to make
up his asts later on. no matter how long he was unconscious.
55
Some scholars hae issued ataawaa erdicts, to the eect that a
person who alls unconscious. takes sleeping pills. or receies a
52
I a person does not make the intention to ast the ollowing dav due to ill-
ness. but then awakens ater the break o dawn and sees that he has recoered.
he must rerain rom eating and drinking until dusk. but he must make up or
that ast later. or he did not hae the intention to ast beore the dav started.
Lditor- taken rom an oral erdict gien bv Sheikh Abdul-Oadir al-Aroosi,
53
Al-lataawaa. 2521.
54
It seems as i the author intends here to mean those who hae allen uncon-
sciuos beore dawn until ater dusk. no matter how manv davs or vears that
mavbe. Lditor,
55
Al-Mughni ma`a al-Sharh al-Kabeer. 1412. 332: al-Mawsooah al-
liqhivvah al-Kuwaitivvah. 5268.
www.IsIumIouse.com
36
general anesthetic or a genuine reason and becomes unconscious
or three davs or less must make up the asts later on. or he is
regarded as being like one who sleeps. I he is unconscious or
more than three davs. he does not hae to make up the asts be-
cause he is regarded as being like one who is insane.
56
2, I a person eels extreme hunger or thirst. and ears that he
mav die or that some o his aculties mav be irreparablv damaged.
and he has credible grounds or belieing this to be so. he mav
break his ast and make up or it later on. as saing one`s lie is
obligatorv. It is not permissible though. to break one`s ast be-
cause o bearable hardship or because one eels tired or is araid
o some imagined illness. People who work in phvsicallv demand-
ing jobs are not permitted to break their ast. and thev must hae
the intention at night o asting the ollowing dav. I thev cannot
stop working and thev are araid that some harm mav beall them
during the dav. or thev ace some extreme hardship that causes
them to break their ast. then thev should eat onlv what is enough
to help them bear the hardship. then thev should rerain rom
eating until sunset. but thev must make the ast up later. \orkers
in phvsicallv demanding jobs. such as working with urnaces and
smelting metals. should trv to change their hours so that thev
work at night or take their holidavs during Ramadan. 1hev should
do so een i their leae were unpaid. but i this is not possible.
thev should look or another job where thev can combine their
religious and worldlv duties.

56
lrom the lataawaa o Shavkh Abd al-Azeez ibn Baaz. issued erballv.
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3
And whoever fears Allaah and keeps his duty to Him,
He will make a way for him to get out (from every diffi-
culty). And He will provide him from (sources) he could
never imagine. |Surah al-1alaaq 65:2-3|
5
Students` exams are no excuse or breaking one`s ast during
Ramadan. and it is not permissible to obev one`s parents in break-
ing the ast because o haing exams. 1here is no obedience to
anv created being i it inoles disobedience to the (reator.
58
28, A sick person who hopes to recoer should wait until he gets
better. and then make up or the asts he has missed. le is not
allowed just to eed the poor. 1he person who is suering rom a
chronic illness and has no hope o recoerv and elderlv people
who are unable to ast should eed a poor person with hal a
o the staple ood o his countrv or eerv dav that he has missed.
lal a is roughlv equialent to one and a hal kilograms o
rice,. It is permissible or him to do this all at once on one dav at
the end o the month. or he mav eed one poor person eerv dav.
le must do this bv giing actual ood due to the wording o the
aavah - he cannot do it bv giing monev to the poor.
59
le mav
howeer. gie monev to a trustworthv person or charitable or-
ganization to buv ood and distribute it to the poor on his behal.
I a sick person does not ast in Ramadan while waiting to re-
coer in order that he can make the davs up later. and then inds
out that his sickness is chronic. he must eed a poor person or
eerv dav that he did not ast.
60
I a person is waiting to recoer
5
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 10233. 235.
58
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 10241.
59
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 10198.
60
lrom the lataawaa o Shavkh Ibn Uthavmeen.
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38
rom his illness and hopes to get better but then dies. there is no
debt` owed bv him or his heirs. I a person`s sickness is consid-
ered to be chronic and he does not ast but eeds the poor in-
stead. then medical adances result in the discoerv o a remedv
which he is administered and then recoers. he does not hae to
make up the asts he has missed. because he did what he had to
do at that time.
61
29, I a sick person recoers and is able to make up the missed
asts but does not do so beore he dies. monev should be taken
rom his estate to eed a poor person or eerv dav that he
missed. I anv o his relaties want to ast on his behal. then this
is ine. or it was reported in Bukhari and Muslim that the Mes-
senger o Allaah , said:
Whoever dies owing some fasts, let his heir fast on his
behalf.
62
1he Llderly
30, 1he erv elderlv who hae lost their strength and are getting
weaker eerv dav as death approaches do not hae to ast. and
thev are allowed not to ast so long as asting is diicult or them.
Ibn Abbaas , said concerning the aavah:

61
lataawaa al-Lajnah al -Daa`imah. 10195.
62
lrom lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. olume on Da`wah. 806.
www.IsIumIouse.com
39
And as for those who can fast with difficulty (e.g., an
old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to
feed a poor person (for every day). |Surah al-Baqarah
2:184|
1his has not been abrogated. It reers to the old man and the
old woman who cannot ast. so thev should eed a poor person
or eerv dav.`
63
1hose who hae become senile and conused do not hae to ast
or do anvthing else. and their amilv does not hae to do anvthing
on their behal either. Such people are no longer counted as re-
sponsible. I thev are o sound mind sometimes and conused at
other times. thev hae to ast when thev are sound and thev do
not hae to ast when thev are conused.
64
31, As or those who are ighting an enemv or are being besieged
bv them. thev are allowed to break their ast i it might make
them too weak to ight. een i thev are not traeling. I thev need
to break their ast beore ighting. thev mav do so. 1he Prophet
, once said to his (ompanions beore ighting:
In the morning you are going to meet your enemy and
not fasting will make you stronger, so do not fast.
65
1his is also the preerred opinion o Shavkh al-Islam Ibn 1avmi-
vah. 1he scholars o Damascus also issued atwas to the same
eect when their citv was attacked bv the 1atars.
63
Al-Bukhaari. Kitaab al-1aseer. Baab Avvaaman Ma`doodaat.
64
See Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan bv Ibn Uthvameen. p. 28.
65
Reported bv Muslim. 1120. Abd al-Baaqi edition.
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40
32, I a person`s reason or not asting is obious. such as illness.
there is nothing wrong with him eating or drinking openlv. But i
the reason is hidden. such as menstruation. it is better to eat and
drink in secret so as not to attract accusations and the like.
Niyyah (Intention) in Iasting
33, Nivvah intention, is a required condition o the obligatorv
ast |o Ramadan| as well as other obligatorv asts. such as mak-
ing up missed asts or asts done as an act o kaaarah expia-
tion,. because the Prophet , said:
1here is no fast for the person who did not intend to
fast from the night before.
66
1he intention mav be made at anv point during the night. een i
it is just a moment beore lajr. Nivvah means the resolution in
the heart to do something: speaking it aloud is bidah a reprehen-
sible innoation,. and anvone who knows that tomorrow is one
o the davs o Ramadan and wants to ast has |due to that knowl-
edge. alreadv| made the intention. Majmoo` lataawaa Shavkh al-
Islam. 25215, I a person intends to break his ast during the dav
but does not do so. then according to the most correct opinion.
his ast is not aderselv aected: he is like a person who wants to
speak during the praver but does not speak. Some o the scholars
think that he is not asting as soon as he stops intending to ast.
so as a precaution. he should make up that ast later. Apostasv.
66
Reported bv Abu Dawood. no. 2454. A number o the scholars. such as al-
Bukhaari. al-Nasaa`i. al-1irmidhi and others thought it was likelv to be
mawqoo. See 1alkhees al-labeer. 2188.
www.IsIumIouse.com
41
howeer. inalidates the intention: there is no dispute on this
matter.
1he person who is asting Ramadan does not need to repeat the
intention eerv night during Ramadan: it is suicient to hae the
intention at the beginning o the month. I the intention is inter-
rupted bv breaking the ast due to trael or sickness. or example.
he has to renew the intention to ast when the reason or break-
ing the ast is no longer present.
34, Making the intention the night beore is not a condition o
general nail supererogatorv or oluntarv, asts. because o the
hadeeth narrated bv Aa`ishah ,. who said:
1he Messenger of Allaah () entered upon me one day
and said, Do you have anything (food)?' I said, No.' He
said, In that case I am fasting.'
6
But in the case o speciic supererogatorv asts such as Araah
and Aashooraa. it is better to be on the sae side and make the
intention the night beore.
35, I a person embarks on an obligatorv ast. such as making up
or a dav missed in Ramadan. ulilling a ow. or asting as an act
o kaaarah expiation,. he must complete the ast and is not
permitted to break it unless he has a alid excuse or doing so. In
the case o a nail ast:
1he person who is observing a voluntary fast is his own
ameer (leader), if he wishes he may continue his fast,
and if he wishes he may break it.
68
6
Reported bv Muslim. 2809. Abd al-Baaqi.
68
Reported bv Ahmad. 6342.
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42
.een i there is no reason to break it. 1he Prophet , awoke
one morning and asted. and then he ate.
69
But will the person
who breaks his ast or no reason be rewarded or the asting that
he has alreadv done Some o the scholars sav that he will not be
rewarded
0
. so it is better or the person who is obsering a ol-
untarv ast to complete it unless there is a alid. pressing reason
or him to stop asting.
36, I a person does not know that Ramadan has started until
ater dawn. he must stop eating and drinking or the rest o the
dav and make that dav up later on according to the majoritv o
scholars. because the Prophet , said:
1here is no fasting for the one who does not have the
intention to fast from the night before.
1
3, I a prisoner or captie knows that Ramadan has begun bv
sighting the moon himsel or bv being told bv a trustworthv per-
son. he must ast. I he does not know when the month is begin-
ning. he must trv to deduce it himsel ijtihaad, and act according
to what he thinks is most likelv. I at a later point he inds out
that his asting coincided with Ramadan. this is ine according to
the majoritv o scholars. and i his asting came ater Ramadan.
this is ine according to the majoritv o uqahaa. But i his asting
came beore Ramadan. this is not acceptable and he must make
up the ast. I part o his asting coincided with Ramadan and
part o it did not. what coincided with it or came ater it is ine.
69
As reported in Saheeh Muslim. in the storv o the al-hais a tvpe o ood,
that was gien to him as a git when he was in Aa`ishah`s house: no. 1154.
Abd al-Baaqi.
0
Al-Mawsooah al-liqhivvah. 2813.
1
Reported bv Abu Dawood. 2454.
www.IsIumIouse.com
43
but what came beore is not. I the matter neer becomes clear to
him. then his asting is acceptable because he did the best he
could. and Allaah burdens not a person bevond his abilitv.
2
When to Start and Stop Iasting
38, Once the entire disk o the sun has disappeared |below the
horizon|. the asting person should break his ast and not pav anv
attention to the red glow that remains on the horizon. 1he
Prophet , said:
Once night comes from there and the day disappears
from there, and the sun has set, the fasting person
should break his fast.
3
1he Sunnah is to hasten in breaking the ast. 1he Prophet ,
would not prav Maghrib until he had broken his ast. i onlv with
a sip o water.
4
I a asting person cannot ind anvthing with
which to break his ast. he should hae the intention in his heart
to break his ast and should not suck his inger |or the like|. as
some o the common olk do. le should beware o breaking the
ast beore the correct time. Once the Prophet , saw some
people hanging rom their hamstrings with blood pouring rom
the corners o their mouths. \hen he asked about them. he was
told that thev were people who broke their ast beore it was time
2
Al-Mawsoo`ah al-liqhivvah. 2884.
3
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. al-lat`h. no. 1954: the issue is also mentioned in
Majmoo` al-lataawaa. 25216.
4
Reported bv al-laakim. 1432: al-Silsilat al-Saheehah. 2110.
www.IsIumIouse.com
44
to do so.
5
I a person is certain. thinks it most likelv. or is in
equal doubt whether or not he broke the ast beore the proper
time. he should make up the ast later on. or the basic principle
is that the dav has not ended.
6
le should beware o relving on
the word o small children or untrustworthv sources. and he
should also beware o the time dierences between dierent cit-
ies and illages when he hears the adhaan on the radio and so on.
39, \hen dawn appears. which is the white light which spreads
across the horizon in the Last |well beore the actual sunrise|. the
asting person must stop eating and drinking straightawav
whether he hears the adhaan or not. I he knows that the
mu`edhin calls the adhaan at dawn. he has to stop eating and
drinking as soon as he hears his adhaan. but i the mu`edhin calls
the adhaan beore lajr. he does not hae to stop eating and
drinking when he hears it. I he does not know the mu`edhin`s
usual practice. or there are dierences among the mu`edhins and
he is unable to determine the time o dawn or himsel - as is
usuallv the case in cities due to lighting and buildings - he should
take the precaution o reerring to a printed timetable. so long as
he is sure that the calculations on which it is based are not incor-
rect.

1he idea o taking precautionarv measures bv stopping eating and


drinking a certain time beore lajr. such as ten minutes beore. is
bidah. On some timetables vou can see one heading or imsaak`
5
1he hadeeth is in Saheeh Ibn Khuzavmah. no. 1986. and in Saheeh al-
1argheeb. 1420.
6
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 1028.

le should also make sure that the watch he is using is set to the right time.
or this might lead the person to break his ast beore its proper time. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
45
stopping eating and drinking, and another or lajr. 1his is some-
thing that is contrarv to Islam.
40, 1he Muslims liing in cities where there is a distinct alterna-
tion o night and dav in eerv twentv-our hour period are
obliged to ast. no matter how long the dav is. so long as there is
a distinction between night and dav. In those places where there
is no such distinction. Muslims should ast according to the times
in the nearest citv in which there is a distinct alternation o night
and dav.
1hings that Break the Iast
41, Apart rom menstruation and postnatal bleeding. other
things which break the ast are onlv considered to do so i the
ollowing three conditions applv:
1, I a person knows that it breaks the ast and is not igno-
rant:
2, I he is aware o what he is doing and has not orgotten
that he is asting:
3, I he does it o his own ree will and is not orced to do it.
Among the things that break the ast are actions that inole the
expulsion o bodilv luids. such as intercourse. omiting. men-
struation and cupping: and actions that inole ingesting matter.
such as eating and drinking.
8
8
Majmoo` al-lataawaa. 25148.
www.IsIumIouse.com
46
42, Among the things that break the ast are things that are clas-
siied as being like eating or drinking. such as taking medicines
and pills bv mouth. injections o nourishing substances. or blood
transusions.
- Injections that are not gien to replace ood and drink but are
used to administer medications such as penicillin and insulin. ton-
ics. or accinations do not break the ast regardless o whether
thev are intramuscular or intraenous.
9
But as a precaution. all
these injections should be gien during the night.
- Kidnev dialvsis. wherebv the blood is taken out. cleaned. and
put back with some chemicals or nourishing substances such as
sugars and salts added. is considered to break the ast.
80
- According to the most correct iew. suppositories. eve-drops.
ear-drops. haing a tooth extracted and treating wounds do not
break the ast.
81
- Puers used or asthma do not break the ast. because this is
just compressed gas that goes to the lungs - it is not ood. and it
is needed at all times. in Ramadan and others.
- laing a blood sample taken does not break the ast and is
permissible because it is something that is needed.
82
- Medicines used bv gargling do not break the ast so long as thev
are not swallowed. I a person has a tooth illed and eels the
taste o it in his throat. this does not break his ast.
83
9
lataawaa Ibn Ibraaheem. 4189.
80
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 10190.
81
Majmoo` lataawaa Shavkh al-Islam. 25233. 25245.
82
lataawaa al-Da`wah: Ibn Baaz. no. 99.
www.IsIumIouse.com
4
1he ollowing things do NO1 break the ast:
- laing the ears svringed. nose drops and nasal spravs - so long
as one aoids swallowing anvthing that reaches the throat.
- 1ablets that are placed under the tongue to treat angina and
other conditions - so long as one aoids swallowing anvthing that
reaches the throat.
- Anvthing inserted into the agina. such as pessaries. douches.
scopes or ingers or the purpose o a medical examination.
- Insertion o a scope or intra-uterine deice IUD or coil`, and
the like into the uterus.
- Insertion into the urethra - or males or emales - o a catheter.
opaque dve or diagnostic imaging. medication or solutions or
cleansing the bladder.
- Dental illings. tooth extractions. cleaning o the teeth. use o
siwaak or toothbrush - so long as one aoids swallowing anvthing
that reaches the throat.
- Rinsing. gargling or applving topical mouth spravs - so long as
one aoids swallowing anvthing that reaches the throat.
- Subcutaneous. intramuscular or intraenous injections - except
or those used to proide nourishment.
- Oxvgen.
- Anesthetic gases - so long as the patient is not gien nourishing
solutions.
- Medications absorbed through the skin. such as creams and
patches used to administer medicine and chemicals.
83
lrom the lataawaa o Shavkh Abd al-Azeez ibn Baaz. issued erballv.
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48
- Insertion o a catheter into eins or diagnostic imaging or
treatment o blood essels in the heart or other organs.
- Use o a laparoscope instrument inserted through a small inci-
sion in the abdomen, to examine the abdominal caitv or to per-
orm operations.
- 1aking biopsies or samples rom the lier or other organs - so
long as this is not accompanied bv the administration o solu-
tions.
- Gastroscopv - so long as this is not accompanied bv the ad-
ministration o solutions or other substances.
- Introduction o anv instrument or medication to the brain or
spinal column.
43, Anvone who eats and drinks deliberatelv during the dav in
Ramadan with no alid excuse has committed a kabeerah grae
major sin, and has to repent and make up or that ast later on. I
he broke the ast with something haraam. such as drinking alco-
hol. this makes his sin een worse. \hateer the case. he has to
repent sincerelv and do more oluntarv deeds. asting and other
acts o worship so as to aoid haing anv shortall in his record
o obligatorv deeds. and so that Allaah might accept his repen-
tance.
44, If he forgets, and eats and drinks, then let him com-
plete his fast, for Allaah has fed him and given him to
drink.
84
According to another report.
84
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. lat`h. no. 1933.
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49
He does not have to make the fast up later or offer ex-
piation (kaffaarah ).
85
I a person sees someone else who is eating because he has or-
gotten that he is asting. he should remind him. because o the
general meaning o the aavah:

Help one another in righteousness and piety. |Surah al-
Maa`idah 5:2|
.and the hadeeth.
If I forget, remind me.
86
.and that is because o the principle that this is a munkar eil
action, that must be changed.
8
45, 1hose who need to break their ast in order to sae someone
whose lie is in danger mav do so. but thev should make it up
later. 1his applies in cases where someone is drowning. or when
ires need to be put out.
46, I a person is obliged to ast but deliberatelv has intercourse
during the dav in Ramadan o his own ree will. and where the
two circumcised parts` genitals, come together and the head o
the penis penetrates either the ront or back passage. his ast is
broken whether or not he ejaculates. and he must repent. le
85
Reported bv ibn Khuzaimah. ibn libbaan. al-laakim. and Daaraqutni.
lat`h. Lditor,
86
Al-Bukhaari. Lditor,
8
Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan. Ibn Uthavmeen. p.0.
www.IsIumIouse.com
50
should still ast or the rest o the dav. but he must make up the
ast later on and oer expiation kaaarah,. In a hadeeth narrated
bv Abu luravrah:
Whilst we were sitting with the Messenger of Allaah
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), a man
came to him and said: O Messenger of Allaah, I am
doomed!' He said, What is the matter with you?' He
said, I had intercourse with my wife whilst I was fast-
ing.' 1he Messenger of Allaah said, Do you have a slave
whom you could set free?' He said, No.' He said, Can
you fast for two consecutive months?' He said, No.' He
said, Do you have the wherewithal to feed sixty poor
people?' He said, No'.
88
1he same ruling also applies in cases o zinaa adulterv or ornica-
tion,. homosexualitv and bestialitv.
89
I a person has intercourse during the dav on more than one dav
in Ramadan. he must oer expiation or each dav as well as re-
peating the ast or each dav. Not knowing that kaaarah expia-
tion, is obligatorv is no excuse.
90
4, I a man wants to hae intercourse with his wie but he
breaks his ast bv eating irst. his sin is more serious. because he
has iolated the sanctitv o the month on two counts. bv eating
and bv haing intercourse. It is een more certain in this case that
88
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. al-lat`h. 4. no. 1936.
89
1ranslator`s Note: laing Intercourse rom the back passage. adulterv. ho-
mosexualitv. and bestialitv are major sins in Islam and are |een more| magni-
ied i done during the dav o Ramadhan.
90
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 10321.
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51
expiation is obligatorv. and i he tries to get out o it. that onlv
makes matters worse. le must repent sincerelv.
91
48, Kissing. hugging. embracing. touching and repeatedlv look-
ing at one`s wie or concubine. i a man is able to control himsel.
is permissible. because it is reported in Bukhari and Muslim rom
Aa`ishah , that the Prophet , used to kiss and embrace his
wies whilst he was asting. but he was the most in control o his
desire. \ith regard to the hadeeth qudsi.
He keeps away from his wife for My (Allah's) sake.
92
.this is reerring to intercourse. But i a person get aroused
quicklv and is unable to control himsel. then it is not permissible
or him to kiss or embrace his wie. because that will lead to him
breaking his ast. as he cannot be sure that he will be able to
aoid ejaculating or haing intercourse. Allaah savs in a hadeeth
qudsi:
.and he leaves his desire for My (Allah's) sake.
93
1he Islamic guideline is that anvthing that leads to haraam is also
haraam.
49, I a person is engaged in the act o intercourse and dawn ap-
pears. he is obliged to withdraw. lis ast will be alid een i he
ejaculates ater withdrawal. but i he continues haing intercourse
until ater dawn. he has broken his ast and must repent. make
the ast up later. and oer expiation.
91
See Majmoo` al-lataawaa. 25262.
92
Al-Mundhiri. Al -1argheeb w`al-1arheeb`. Al-Albani declared it as Saheeh.
Lditor,
93
Al-Bukhaari. Lditor,
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52
50, I morning comes and a person is in a state o janaabah im-
puritv ollowing sexual intercourse,. this does not aect his ast-
ing. le or she is permitted to delav doing ghusl - whether it is or
janaabah. ollowing menstruation. or post-natal bleeding - until
dawn has appeared though well beore sunrise, but it is better to
hasten to do ghusl so that one can prav.
51, I a person who is asting sleeps and experiences a wet
dream. this does not break his ast according to scholarlv consen-
sus ijmaa`,. 1he person should complete his ast. Delaving doing
ghusl until ater dawn has appeared but well beore sunrise, does
not break the ast. but he should hasten to do ghusl so that he
can prav and so that the angels will draw close to him.
52, I a person ejaculates during the dav in Ramadan because o
something that he could hae rerained rom. such as touching or
repeatedlv looking at a woman. he must repent to Allaah and ast
or the rest o the dav and must make up that ast later. I a per-
son starts to masturbate but then stops and does not ejaculate. he
must repent. but he does not hae to make the ast up later on
because he did not ejaculate. 1he person who is asting must
keep awav rom eervthing that mav prooke his desire. and he
must repel anv bad thoughts that come to him. loweer. accord-
ing to the most correct opinion. i he emits madhiv pre-seminal
luid,. this does not break his ast.
1he emission o wadiv prostatic luid,. a thick stickv substance
that comes out ater urination with no sense o phvsical pleasure.
does not break the ast. 1he person does not hae to do ghusl.
but he does hae to do istinjaa clean his priate parts with wa-
ter, and wudoo.
94
94
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 1029.
www.IsIumIouse.com
53
53, Whoever vomits unintentionally does not have to make
up the fast later on, but whoever vomits on purpose does
have to make up the fast.
95
A person who omits deliberatelv bv inserting his inger into his
throat. applving pressure to his stomach. deliberatelv smelling a
repulsie odor. or looking at something that could make him
omit is obliged to make up the ast later on. I he eels that he is
about to omit but then it subsides bv itsel. this does not break
his ast because it is not something that he can control. I the
omit though. comes into his mouth and he swallows it back
down. this does break the ast. I a person eels sick in his stom-
ach. he does not hae to suppress the urge to omit. because this
could cause him harm.
96
I a person unintentionallv swallows something that is stuck be-
tween his teeth. or i it is so small that he could not tell it was
there or spit it out. this is counted as being part o his salia and it
does not break his ast. But i it is big enough to spit out. he
should do so. I he spits it out. this is ine. but i he swallows it.
this breaks his ast. I it can be diluted in the mouth. in whole or
in part. and it has an added taste or sweetness. it is haraam or
him to chew it. I anv o this substance reaches the throat. this
breaks the ast. I a person spits out water ater rinsing his mouth.
his ast is not aected bv anv moisture or wetness that is let be-
hind. because he cannot help it.
I a person suers rom a nosebleed. his ast is still alid. because
this is something that is bevond his control.
9
95
Saheeh hadeeth narrated bv al-1irmidhi. 389.
96
Majaalis Sharh Ramadaan. Ibn Uthavmeen. 6.
9
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 10264.
www.IsIumIouse.com
54
I he has gum ulcers or his gums bleed ater using the siwaak
tooth stick,. it is not permissible or him to swallow the blood:
he must spit it out. loweer. i some blood enters his throat bv
accident and he did not mean or that to happen. there is no need
to worrv. Similarlv. i omit rises in his throat and then goes back
down to his stomach without him intending or this to happen.
his ast is still alid.
98
\ith regard to mucus originating rom the head nose and si-
nuses, and phlegm originating rom the chest bv coughing and
clearing the throat. i it is swallowed beore it reaches the mouth.
this does not break a person`s ast. because it is a problem which
all people hae: but i it is swallowed ater it reaches the mouth.
this does break the ast. loweer. i it is swallowed unintention-
allv. it does not break the ast.
Inhaling water apor. as mav happen to people working in desali-
nation plants. does not break the ast.
99
It is makrooh disliked, to taste ood unnecessarilv because this
carries the risk that the ast mav be broken. Lxamples o cases
where it is necessarv to taste ood include a mother chewing ood
or an inant when she has no other wav to eed him. tasting ood
to make sure that it is ine. and tasting something when making a
purchase. It was reported that Ibn Abbaas said:
1here is nothing wrong with tasting vinegar or any-
thing that one wishes to buy.
100
98
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 10254.
99
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 1026.
100
(lassed as hasan in Irwaa al-Ghaleel. 486: See al-lat`h. commentarv on
Baab Ightisaal al-Saa`im. Kitaab al-Sivaam.
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55
54, Using siwaak is Sunnah or the one who is asting at all times
o the dav. een i it is resh and moist. I a person who is asting
uses a siwaak and detects some heat or other taste rom it and
swallows it. or i he takes the siwaak out o his mouth and sees
salia on it then puts it back in his mouth and swallows the salia.
this does not break his ast.
101
le should aoid what contains
substances which can be diluted. such as the green siwaak or si-
waak that has anv extra laor added to it. like lemon or mint. le
should spit out anv small pieces that come o the siwaak in his
mouth: he should not swallow them deliberatelv. but i he swal-
lows them accidentallv. there is no harm done.
55, I a asting person is injured or suers a nosebleed. or gets
water or petrol in his mouth bv accident. this does not break his
ast. I he gets dust. smoke or lies in his mouth bv accident. this
does not break his ast either. 1hings that one cannot aoid swal-
lowing. like one`s own salia or dust rom grinding lour. do not
break the ast. I a person gathers a lot o salia in his mouth then
swallows it on purpose. this does not break the ast according to
the most correct opinion.
102
I tears reach one`s throat. i a person applies oil to his hair or
moustache or i a person uses henna and then detects the taste o
it in his throat. this does not break his ast. Using henna. kohl or
oil does not break the ast.
103
1his also applies to creams used to
moisturize and soten the skin.
1here is nothing wrong with smelling pleasant ragrances. using
perume. or applving scented creams and the like. 1here is noth-
101
Al-lataawaa al-Sa`divvah. 245.
102
Al-Mughni bv Ibn Oudaamah. 3106.
103
See Majmoo` al-lataawaa. 25233. 25245.
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56
ing wrong with a asting person using incense as long as he does
not use it as snu.
104
It is better not to use toothpaste during the dav. and to leae it till
night-time. because its characteristics are too strong.
105
56, 1o be on the sae side. it is better or the asting person not
to be treated with cupping hijaamah,. 1here is a strong dier-
ence o opinion on this matter. Ibn 1avmivah suggested that the
one who has cupping done breaks his ast. but the one who does
it does not break his ast.
5, Smoking breaks the ast. and it cannot be used as an excuse
not to ast. low can a sin be taken as an excuse!
58, Immersing onesel in water or wrapping onesel in wet
clothes in order to cool down does not break the ast. 1here is
nothing wrong with pouring water oer one`s head to obtain re-
lie rom heat and thirst. Swimming is disliked because it might
make one break the ast bv swallowing water,. I a person`s work
inoles diing and he can be sure that he will not get water in his
mouth. there is nothing wrong with this.
59, I a person eats. drinks or has intercourse thinking that it is
still night and then realizes that dawn has alreadv broken. there is
no harm done. because the aavah clearlv states that it is permissi-
ble to do these things until one is sure that dawn has come. Abd
al-Razzaaq reported with a saheeh isnaad going back to Ibn Ab-
baas , that he said:
Allaah has permitted you to eat and drink so long as
there is any doubt in your mind.
106
104
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 10314.
105
Al-Majaalis. Ibn Uthavmeen. p. 2.
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5
60, I a person breaks his ast thinking that the sun has alreadv
set when it has not. he must make up the ast later on according
to the majoritv o scholars,. 1his is due to the act that the gen-
eral principle is that it is still dav. and a act that is certain cannot
be rejected in aor o something doubtul.
10
I dawn breaks and a person still has ood or drink in his mouth.
the uqahaa are in agreement that he should spit it out. and his
ast is alid. 1his is like the ruling on one who eats or drinks be-
cause he orgets. then remembers he is asting - i he hastens to
spit out the ood or drink in his mouth. his ast is still alid.
Rulings on Iasting for Women
62, A woman who has reached the age o pubertv but is too shv
to tell anvone and thus does not ast must repent and make up
the davs she has missed. I the ollowing Ramadan comes and she
has not vet made up those davs. she must also eed a poor person
or each dav as an act o expiation or delaving her ast. ler case
is like that o a woman who asts the davs o her period out o
shvness and does not make them up later.
I a woman does not know exactlv how manv davs she has
missed. she should ast until she is airlv certain that she has made
up the davs she had missed and not made up rom preious
Ramadans. and oer the expiation or delaving or each dav. She
106
lath al-Baari. 4135: this is also the opinion o Shavkh al-Islam Ibn 1avmi-
vvah. Majmoo` al-lataawaa. 29263.
10
Shavkh al-Islam Ibn 1avmivah thought that it was not necessarv or a per-
son in this situation to make up the ast.
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58
can do this at the same time as asting or separatelv. depending
on what she is able to do.
63, A woman should not ast - except during Ramadan - i her
husband is present without his permission. but i he is traeling
then it does not matter.
64, \hen a menstruating woman sees the white substance which
is discharged bv the uterus when the period is inished bv which a
woman knows that she has now become taahir pure,. she should
hae the intention to ast rom the night beore and should ast.
I she does not hae a time when she knows she is taahir. she
should insert a piece o cotton or something similar. and i it
comes out clean. she should ast. I she starts to bleed again. she
should stop asting whether the blood is a low or just spotting.
because it breaks the ast as long as it comes at the time o the
period.
108
I the cessation o bleeding continues until Maghrib. and she has
asted with the intention rom the night beore. then her ast is
alid. I a woman eels the moement o menstrual blood inside
her but it does not come out until ater the sun has set. her ast is
alid and she does not hae to make the dav up later.
I a woman`s period or post-natal bleeding ceases during the
night. and she makes the intention to ast. but dawn comes be-
ore she is able to do ghusl. according to all the scholars her ast
is alid.
109
108
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 10154.
109
Al-lat`h. 4148.
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59
65, I a woman knows that her period will come tomorrow. she
should still continue her intention and keep asting: she should
not break her ast until she actuallv sees the blood.
66, It is better or a menstruating woman to remain natural and
accept what Allaah has decreed or her without taking anv medi-
cation to preent her rom bleeding. She should be content with
what Allaah accepts rom her o breaking her ast during her pe-
riod and making those davs up later. 1his is how the Mothers o
the Belieers and the women o the Sala were. lataawaa al-
Lajnah al-Daa` imah. 10151,. Moreoer. there is medical ei-
dence to proe that manv o the things used to preent bleeding
are in act harmul. and manv women hae suered rom irregu-
lar periods as a result o taking them. loweer. i a woman does
that and takes something to stop the bleeding and then asts. this
is acceptable.
6, Istihaadah abnormal aginal bleeding, does not hae anv
eect on the aliditv o the ast.
68, I a pregnant woman has a miscarriage and the etus has
taken shape or has a discernible outline o anv part o the bodv.
such as a head or hand. then her blood is considered niaas
postpartum,. I. howeer. she passes something that looks like a
blood clot alaq, or a chewed piece o meat mudghah, that has
no discernible human eatures. her bleeding is istihaadah alse
menstruation,. I she is able. she must ast. otherwise she can
break her ast and make it up later on.
110
Once she becomes clean
ater haing an operation to clean the womb D&(,. she should
ast. 1he scholars stated that the embrvo is considered to start
taking shape ater 80 davs o pregnancv.
110
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 10224.
www.IsIumIouse.com
60
I a woman becomes clean rom niaas beore ortv davs. she
should ast and do ghusl so that she can prav.
111
I the bleeding
resumes within ortv davs ater the birth. she should stop asting.
because this is still niaas. I the bleeding continues ater the or-
tieth dav. she should make the intention to ast and do ghusl ac-
cording to the majoritv o scholars,. and anv bleeding bevond the
ortieth dav is considered to be istihaadah non-menstrual bleed-
ing, - unless it coincides with the usual time o her period. in
which case it is havd menstrual blood,.
I a breasteeding woman asts during the dav and sees a spot o
blood during the night although she was clean during the dav. her
ast is still alid.
112
69, According to the most correct opinion. a woman who is
pregnant or breasteeding is regarded as being like one who is ill.
so she is permitted not to ast. She is onlv obligated to make up
the davs that she missed. whether she ears or hersel or or her
child. 1he Prophet , said:
Allaah has lifted the obligation of fasting and part of the
prayer from the traveler, and He has lifted the obligation
of fasting from the pregnant and breastfeeding
woman.
113
I a pregnant woman asts and experiences some bleeding. her
ast is still alid and does not aect it at all.
114
111
Al-Mughni ma`a al-Sharh al-Kabeer. 1360.
112
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 10150.
113
Reported bv al-1irmidhi. 385: he said it is a, hasan hadeeth.
114
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 10225.
www.IsIumIouse.com
61
0, In the case o a woman who is obligated to ast. i her hus-
band has intercourse with her during the dav in Ramadan with
her consent. then the ruling that applies to him also applies to
her. I howeer he orces her to do so. she should do her best to
resist him. I she was unsuccessul. she does not hae to oer
expiation. Ibn Aqeel mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said that a
woman whose husband has intercourse with her during the dav in
Ramadan whilst she is sleeping does not hae to oer expiation.
As a precaution. she should make up that ast later on.
115
A woman who knows that her husband cannot control himsel
should keep awav rom him and not adorn hersel during the dav
in Ramadan .
\omen hae to make up the asts that thev miss during Rama-
dan. een i thev do so without their husbands` knowledge. It is
not a condition or an obligatorv ast or a woman to hae the
permission o her husband. I a woman starts to obsere an
obligatorv ast. she is not allowed to break it except or a legiti-
mate reason. ler husband is not permitted to order her to break
her ast when she is making up a dav that she has missed: he is
not allowed to hae intercourse with her when she is making up a
missed ast. and she is not allowed to obev him in that regard.
116
In the case o oluntarv asts. a woman is not permitted to start a
non-obligatorv ast when her husband is present without his
permission. due to the hadeeth narrated bv Abu luravrah ,. in
which the Prophet , said:
115
Shavkh al-Islam Ibn 1avmivah mav Allaah hae mercv on him, was o the
opinion that this did not inalidate her ast at all.
116
lataawaa al-Lajnah al-Daa`imah. 10353.
www.IsIumIouse.com
62
No woman should fast when her husband is present
except with his permission.
11
Conclusion
In conclusion. this is what I was able to write about issues con-
cerning asting. I ask Allaah to help us to remember lim. thank
lim and worship lim properlv. and to conclude our Ramadan
with orgieness. and to sae us rom the lire.
Mav Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad. and his amilv and
companions. and grant them peace.
11
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. 493.
www.IsIumIouse.com
63
1he Night Prayer in Ramadan
(Al-Qiyaam or 1araweeh)
by:
Muhammad Salih al-Munajjid
www.IsIumIouse.com
64
1 - Abu luravrah , said:
1he Messenger of Allaah () used to encourage us to
pray at night in Ramadan without making it obligatory.
1hen he said, Whoever prays at night in Ramadan out
of faith and hope of Allah's reward, all his previous sins
will be forgiven.' When the Messenger of Allaah ()
died, this is how things were (i.e., 1araaweeh was not
prayed in congregation), and this is how they remained
during the khilaafah of Abu Bakr (), until the begin-
ning of the khilaafah of Umar ().
1
Amr ibn Murrah al-Juhani said:
A man from Qudaaah came to the Messenger of Allaah
() and said, O Messenger of Allaah! What do you think
if I testify that there is no god except Allaah, and that
you, Muhammad, are His Messenger, and I pray the five
daily prayers, and fast in the month (of Ramadan), and
pray at night in Ramadan, and pay zakaah?' 1he
Prophet () said: Whoever dies on that will be among
the siddeeqeen (those who tell the truth) and the mar-
tyrs.'
2
Laylat Al-Qadr and its 1iming
2 - 1he best o Ramadan`s nights is Lavlat al-Oadr. because the
Prophet , said:
1
Muslim. Lditor,
2
Ibn Khuzaimah. Declared authentic bv Sheikh al-Albani. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
65
Whoever prays at night during Laylat al-Qadr out of
faith and hope of Allah's reward, all his previous sins will
be forgiven.
3
3 - According to the most correct opinion. it is the twentv-
seenth night o Ramadan. Most o the ahaadeeth state this. such
as the hadeeth o Zurr ibn lubavsh. who said:
I heard Ubayy ibn Ka'b saying and it was said to him
that Abd-Allaah ibn Masood said: Whoever prays the
night prayer the whole year will catch' Laylat al-Qadr!'
Ubayy () said: May Allaah have mercy on him, he
did not want people to take it for granted and only stay
up to pray on one night. By the One besides Whom there
is no other god, it is in Ramadan he was swearing
without a doubt and by Allaah, I do know which night
it is. It is the night in which the Messenger of Allaah ()
commanded us to pray (qiyaam). It is the night the
morning of which is the twenty-seventh, and its sign is
that the sun rises on that morning white and without
rays.'
4
In another report. this was attributed to the Prophet ,.
3
Al-Bukhaari. Lditor,
4
Reported bv Muslim and others.
www.IsIumIouse.com
66
Praying Qiyaam in Congregation
It is allowed to prav qivaam in congregation. Rather it is better
than praving indiiduallv. or this is what the Prophet , did
himsel as well as explaining its irtues. Abu Dharr , said:
We fasted Ramadan with the Messenger of Allaah ()
and he did not lead us in qiyaam at all until there were
only seven days left, when he led us in prayer until a
third of the night had passed. When there were six days
left, he did not lead us in qiyaam. When there were five
days left, he led us in prayer until half the night had
passed. I said, O Messenger of Allaah, I wish that you
had continued until the end of the night.' He said, If a
man prays with the imaam
5
until he finishes, it will be
counted as if he prayed the whole night.' When there
were four nights left, he did not lead us in qiyaam. When
there were three nights left, he brought together his fam-
ily, his wives and the people, and led us in qiyaam until
we were afraid that we would miss al-falaah. I asked,
What is al-falaah?' he said, suhoor'
6
. 1hen he did not
lead us in qiyaam for the rest of the month.'

5
Imaam: Literallv. leader. lere it is reerring to the one who leads other in
praver. Lditor,
6
Suhoor: the pre-dawn meal eaten prior to asting that dav. Lditor,

Saheeh hadeeth reported bv the authors o Sunan.


www.IsIumIouse.com
6
Why did not the Prophet () Continually Lead
the Prayer in Congregation?
5 - 1he Prophet , did not lead them the Sahaabah, in qivaam
or the rest o the month because he eared that it would then
become obligatorv. and thev would not be able to do it. as is
stated in the hadeeth o Aa`ishah reported in al-Saheehavn
8
and
elsewhere. lollowing the death o the Prophet ,. that ear was
no longer a actor. because Allaah had completed the religion.
1he reason or not praving qivaam in congregation during Rama-
dan no longer applied. and the preious ruling. that congrega-
tional praver is something prescribed in Islam. remained in eect.
So Umar , reied the practice. as is recorded in Saheeh al-
Bukhaari and elsewhere.
Women mayPray Qiyaam in Congregation
\omen can attend the pravers. as is stated in the hadeeth o Abu
Dharr reerred to aboe. Rather. it is also permissible to appoint
an imaam just or them apart rom the imaam o the men. It has
been narrated that when Umar , gathered the people to prav
qivaam. he appointed Ubavv ibn Ka`b to lead the men and Su-
lavmaan ibn Abi lathmah to lead the women. Arajah al-1haqai
said:
Ali ibn Abi 1aalib , used to command the people to prav
during the night in Ramadan. and he would appoint an imaam
8
Al-Saheehayn: al-Bukhaari and Muslim. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
68
or the men and an imaam or the women. I was the imaam or
the women.`
1his is ine in mv iew so long as the mosque is big enough in
that thev will not disturb one another.
Number of Rakahs of Qiyaam
- 1he number o rakahs is eleen. and it is preerable in our
opinion not to exceed this number. ollowing the practice o the
Messenger o Allaah ,. because he neer did more than that in
his lie. Aa`ishah , was asked about how he praved in Rama-
dan. She said.
1he Messenger of Allaah () never prayed more than
eleven rakahs (of qiyaam), whether during Ramadan or
any other time. He would pray four, and don't ask me
how beautiful or how long they were. 1hen he would
pray four, and don't ask me how beautiful or how long
they were. 1hen he would pray three.
9
8- A person mav do less than this. een i it is onlv one rakah o
witr. because o the eidence that the Prophet , did this and
spoke about it.
\ith regard to him doing it: Aa`ishah , was asked how manv
rakahs the Messenger o Allaah , used to prav in witr She
said.
9
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. Muslim and others.
www.IsIumIouse.com
69
He used to pray an odd number by performing four
and then three rakahs, or six and three, or ten and
three. He would never pray less than seven or more than
thirteen.
10
\ith regard to him speaking about it. he said:
Witr is true, so whoever wishes can pray five, and who-
ever wishes can pray three, and whoever wishes can pray
one.
11
Reciting Qur`aan in Qiyaam
9 - In regards to reciting rom the Our`aan during qivaam.
whether in Ramadan or at other times. the Prophet , did not
set a limit or state what was too much or too little. lis recitation
used to arv. sometimes it would be long. at other times short.
Sometimes in eerv rakah he would recite the equialent o Yaa
ayyuha'l-muzammil' Surah 3,. which is twentv aavaat: some-
times he would recite the equialent o itv aavaat. le used to
sav.
Whoever prays at night and reads one hundred aayaat
will not be recorded as one of the negligent.
12
According to another hadeeth:
10
Reported bv Abu Dawood. Ahmad and others.
11
Ibn Maajah. Al-Albani declared it is saheeh. Lditor,
12
Abu Dawud. Al-Albaani declared it as Saheeh. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
0
.and reads two hundred aayaat, will be recorded as
one of the obedient and sincere believers.
13
\hen he was sick. the Prophet , recited the seen long surahs
in his night pravers. i.e.. al-Baqarah. Aali Imraan. al-Nisaa. al-
Maa`idah. al-Anaam. al-A`raa and al-1awbah.
In the account o ludhavah ibn al-\amaan praving behind the
Prophet ,. in one rakah he recited al-Baqarah. al-Nisaa and
Aali Imraan. and he recited them in a slow and measured tone. It
is proen with the soundest most saheeh, o isnaads that when
Umar , appointed Ubavv ibn Ka`b to lead the people in prav-
ing eleen rakahs in Ramadan. Ubavv used to recite aavaat bv the
hundreds until the people behind him would lean on sticks due to
the length o the praver. and thev would not inish until just be-
ore lajr.
It is also reported in a saheeh account that Umar gathered the
Our`aan reciters during Ramadan and told the astest o them to
recite thirtv aavaat. the moderate ones to recite twentv-ie aavaat.
and the slowest ones to recite twentv aavaat.
loweer. i a person is praving qivaam bv himsel. he can make it
as long as he wishes: i others agree with the imaam. he mav also
make it as long as he wishes. 1he longer it is. the better. but a
person should not go to extremes and spend the whole night in
qivaam except on rare occasions. ollowing the example o the
Prophet , who said:
1he best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad.
14
13
Al-Mundhiri. Al-Albaani declared it as Saheeh. Lditor,
14
Muslim. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
1
I a person is praving as an imaam. he should make it onlv as long
as is easv or the people behind him. because the Prophet ,
said:
If any of you leads the people in prayer, let him make it
short, because among them are the young and the old,
the weak, and those who have pressing needs. But if he
is praying alone, let him make it as long as he likes.
15
1he 1iming of Qiyaam
10 - 1he time or praving qivaam is rom ater Ishaa until lajr.
because the Prophet , said:
Allaah has added one more prayer for you, which is
witr, so pray it between Salaat al-Ishaa and Salaat al-
Iajr.
16
11 - Praving at the end o the night is better or those who can
manage it. because the Prophet , said:
Whoever is afraid that he will not get up at the end of
the night, let him pray witr at the beginning of the night,
but whoever feels that he will be able to get up at the end
of the night, let him pray witr at the end of the night, for
prayer at the end of the night is witnessed by the an-
gels, and that is better.
1
15
Muslim. Lditor,
16
Narrated bv Ahmed. Al-Albaani declared it as Saheeh in his Silsilah`. p.108.
Lditor,
1
Muslim. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
2
12 - I it is the matter o choosing between praving in jamaaah
congregation, at the beginning o the night and praving alone at
the end o the night. it is preerable to prav with the jamaaah.
because that is counted as i one had praved the whole night
through.
1his is what the Sahaabah did at the time o Umar ,. Abd al-
Rahmaan ibn Abd al-Oaari said:
I went out with Umar ibn al-Khattaab to the mosque one
night during Ramadan and saw the people scattered throughout
the mosque. some praving indiiduallv. and some praving in
small groups. le said. By Allaah, I think that if I gathered
all of them behind one reader it would be better.' So he re-
soled to do that. and he gathered them behind Ubavv ibn Ka`b.
1hen I went with him on another night. and the people were all
praving behind their reader. and Umar said. What a good in-
novation this is. What they sleep and miss meaning the
latter part of the night is better than what they are doing,'
- the people used to prav qivaam at the beginning o the night.`
Zavd ibn \ahb said: Abd-Allaah used to lead us in praver in
Ramadan. and he used to inish at night.`
13 - 1he Prophet , orbade praving witr as three rakahs. and
explained this bv saving:
Do not make it resemble Salaat al- Maghrib.
18
1hereore the person who wants to prav three rakahs or witr
must ind a wav to make it dierent rom Maghrib,. 1here are
two wavs he can do this: either bv giing salaam ater the irst two
rakahs. which is the best wav: or bv not sitting ater the irst two
18
Daraqutni. al-laakim. Declared saheeh bv laidh al-Iraaqi. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
3
rakahs i.e.. praving three rakahs non-stop,. And Allaah knows
best.
Recitation during 1hree Rakahs of Witr
14 - It is Sunnah to recite Sabbih ismi Rabbika al-A'laa
Surah al-A`laa, in the irst rakah. Qul Yaa ayyuha'l-
Kaafiroon Surah al-Kaairoon, in the second rakah. and Qul
Huwa Allaahu Ahad Surah al-Ikhlaas, in the third rakah.
Sometimes Qul aoodhu bi Rabbi'l-Ialaq Surah al-lalaq,
and Qul aoodhu bi Rabbi'l-Naas Surah al-Naas, mav be
added as well.
It was reported in a saheeh report that the Prophet , once re-
cited one hundred aavaat o Surah al-Nisaa in one rakah o witr.
Duaa al- Qunoot
15 - A person mav also humble himsel beore Allaah bv reciting
the duaa which the Prophet , taught to his grandson al-lasan
ibn Ali ,. which is:
:: ..`. . ..`. . . ` ... `. . ` ... . `. ... .. . ` ... `. . ` . .. ..`. ..: . : . ` ... `. . `
: . : `. . . : ` . `. . . `. L `. . . ` . . .. . . `. . . .. : .. . `
v `. .... . _ : ...`. .... ` v .... . _ .... : ...`. v . .... . .... ` . .. ...`.
: . . = . . . : . :. `. v . `. - . . `. v : `.
www.IsIumIouse.com
4
Allaahumma'hdinee fiman hadayta wa aafinee fiman
aafayta wa tawallanee fiman tawallayta wa baarik lee fi-
maa a'tayta wa qinee sharra maa qadayt, fa innaka
taqdee wa laa yuqdaa alayk. Wa innahu laa yadhillu
man waalayta wa laa yaizzu man aadayt. 1abaarakta
Rabbanaa wa taaalayt. Laa manjaa minka illa ilayk.
19
O Allaah, guide me along with those whom You have
guided, pardon me along with those whom You have
pardoned, be an ally to me along with those whom You
are an ally to, and bless for me that which You have be-
stowed. Protect me from the evil You have decreed, for
verily You decree and none can decree over You. Ior
surety, he whom You show allegiance to is never abased
and he whom You take an enemy is never honored and
mighty. O our Lord, Blessed and Lxalted are You. 1here
is no refuge from You except with You.
Sometimes one mav send blessings on the Prophet ,. and there
is nothing wrong with adding other duaas that are known rom
the Sunnah.
16 - 1here is nothing wrong with reciting the Ounoot ater the
rukoo`. or with adding curses against the kuaar. sending bless-
ings on the Prophet , or praving or the Muslims in the second
hal o Ramadan. because it is proen that the imaam used to do
this at the time o Umar ,. At the end o the hadeeth o Abd
al-Rahmaan ibn Ubavd al-Oaari mentioned aboe. it savs:
.1hey used to curse the kuffaar in the middle, saying,
19
Abu Dawud. Declared as Saheeh bv Al-Albani. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
5
:: `. . . :. : = . . : : . . . `. . _ . ` . . `. : `. = `. `. _. ` `. :
v `. `. . `. _. . . `. . - :. `. . `. = : .. . . `. .: . .: .. . `. .: .`. .
: . : `. . `. `- . . . . : . . : - `
Allaahumma qaatil al-kafarata alladheena yasuddoona
an sabeelik, wa yukadhdhiboona rusulak wa laa
yuminoona bi wa'dik. Wa khaalif bayna kalimatihim wa
alqi fi quloobihim al-ru'b wa alqi alayhim rijzaka wa
adhaabak ilaah al-haqq.'
20
O Allaah, destroy the kuffaar who are trying to prevent
people from following Your path, who deny Your Mes-
sengers and who do not believe in Your promise (the
Day of Judgment). Make them disunited, fill their hearts
with terror and send Your wrath and punishment against
them, O God of 1ruth.'
1hen he would send blessings on the Prophet ,. and prav or
good or the Muslims as much as he could. and seek orgieness
or the belieers.
Ater he had inished cursing the kuaar. sending blessings on
the Prophet. seeking orgieness or the belieing men and
women and asking or his own needs. he would sav:
:: ..`. . ... . . `. ..`. `. ..: ..`. . : ` ... `. ` - `. : ..`. ... `. . . `- ... `.
. `. `- `. `- . . . . . . .- `.. .. . . : .- . _ .. . . : .. ` . .. .`.
`. : - `
20
Ibn Khuzaimah. Graded as Saheeh bv Al-Albani. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
6
Allaahumma iyyaaka na'bud wa laka nusalli wa najud,
wa ilayka nas'aa wa nahfud, wa narju rahmataka rabba-
naa wa nakhaafu adhaabak al-jadd. Inna adhaabaka
liman aadayta mulhaq.
21
O Allaah, You do we worship, to You do we pray and
prostrate, for Your sake we strive and toil. We place our
hope in Your Mercy, O our Lord, and we fear Your
mighty punishment, for Your punishment will certainly
overtake the one whom You have taken as an enemy.
1hen he would sav Allaahu akbar` and go down in sujood.
What Should be Said at the Lnd of Witr
1 - It is Sunnah to sav at the end o witr beore or ater the sa-
laam,:
:: `. . `. `. `.. . . . . . ` . - L . `. . .. :. . ` `. . .. . `. `..
. . `. v `- . ` : . .. . : `. `. = . . `: . `. . : . . .
Allaahumma innee aoodhu bi ridaaka min sakhatika
wa bi muaafaatika min uqoobatika, wa aoodhu bika
minka. La uhsee thanaa`an alayka, anta kamaa athnayta
alaa nafsik.
22
O Allaah, I seek refuge in Your good pleasure from
Your wrath, and in Your protection from Your punish-
21
Ibn Khuzaimah. Graded as Saheeh bv Al-Albani. Lditor,
22
Abu Dawud. Graded as Saheeh bv Al-Albani. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com

ment. I seek refuge with You from You. I cannot praise


You enough, and You are as You have praised Yourself.
18 - \hen he gae salaam at the end o witr. he said:
`. `. - _. : . : : . `. `. `. - _. : . : : . `. `. `. - _. : . :
: . `.
Subhaan il-Malik il-Quddoos, subhaan il-Malik il-
Quddoos, subhaan il-Malik il-Quddoos.
Glory be to the Sovereign, the Most Holy, Glory be to
the Sovereign, the Most Holy, Glory be to the Sovereign,
the Most Holy,
.elongating the svllables. and raising his oice the third
time.
23
1wo Rakahs after Witr
19 - A person mav prav two rakahs ater witr i he wishes. be-
cause it is proen that the Prophet , did this. Rather. he |een|
said.
1his traveling is exhausting and difficult, so after any
one of you prays witr, let him pray two rakahs. If he
wakes up, this is fine, otherwise these two rakahs will be
counted for him.
23
Nasaa`i. Graded as Saheeh bv Al-Albani. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
8
20 - It is Sunnah to recite Idhaa zulzilat al-ard Surah al-
Zalzalah, and Qul yaa ayyuha'l-kaafiroon Surah al-
Kaairoon, in these two rakahs.
-lrom Oivaamu Ramadan` bv al-Albaani
www.IsIumIouse.com
9
Selected Verdicts regarding the 1araaweeh
Adapted rom the works o Sheikh Salih al-Munajjid and Sheikh Abdul-Azeez bin Baaz,
1he Number of Rakahs in 1araaweeh
O. O what number o rakahs does the 1araaweeh praver con-
sist Does it hae a speciic number \hat number o rakahs is
best
In the Name o Allah. the Most Beneicent. the Most Merciul.
All Praise is due to Allah. and mav the Peace and Blessings o Al-
lah be upon Allah`s Messenger. and upon his amilv. companions.
and whoeer ollows his guidance.
\hat has authenticallv been reported o the Prophet , suggests
that there is much lexibilitv with respect to the number o
rakahs in the salaat al-lavl the night praver,. and thev are not re-
stricted to a certain number. loweer. it is the Sunnah that the
belieer. male and emale. prav in pairs o two. making tasleem
saving As-Salamu alavkum wa rahmatullah` concluding the
praver, at the end o eerv two |rakahs|.
Amongst these ahaadeeth is one which has been reported bv al-
Bukhari and Muslim. In this hadeeth o ibn Umar ,. the
Prophet , said:
Salaat al-layl is in pairs of two, whosoever amongst you
fears the break of dawn let him pray one rakah, for it
will be a witr for all the rakahs he has previously of-
fered.
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lis , saving. Salaat al-layl is in pairs of two, is a declara-
tie statement but has the implication |in usool al-iqh| o a
command: it is equialent to his , saving. Pray in the night
in pairs of two.
\hat is intended here bv praving in pairs o two is that the
tasleem is to be pronounced ater eerv two rakahs. 1hen. the
praver is to be concluded bv perorming one rakah. which is
known as the witr praver. 1his is how the Prophet , used to
perorm his praver. le , would prav in the night in pairs o
two. and then prav one rakah o witr. as was described in dier-
ent narrations bv Aa`ishah. ibn Abbaas. as well as other Sahaa-
bah. mav Allah be pleased with them all. Aa`ishah , said.
1he Messenger of Allah () would perform ten rakahs
of prayer, pronouncing the tasleem after every two. He
would then perform one rakah of witr.
And she , also said.
1he Prophet () would not increase the number of
rakahs in the night prayer more than eleven, neither in
Ramadan nor in any other month. He would pray four
rakahs, let alone their excellence and their length, then
he would pray an-other four, let alone their excellence
and their length, and then he would pray three... |al-
Bukhari and Muslim|
Some people hae mistakenlv presumed that these our rakahs
are to be perormed with one tasleem. but this is not correct.
\hat is meant here is that the Prophet , would conclude the
praver bv pronouncing the tasleem ater eerv two rakahs. as is
mentioned in the preious hadeeth as well as in his , saving.
1he night prayer is in pairs of two. Another eidence is
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what has been authenticallv reported bv al-Bukhari on the author-
itv o ibn Abbaas. that the Prophet , used to pronounce the
tasleem ater eerv two rakahs.
In Aa`ishah`s , statement. there is an eidence that it is pre-
erred in the night praver. whether it be in Ramadan or in anv
other month. that one perorms eleen rakahs. pronouncing the
tasleem ater eerv two. and then concludes the praver with one
rakah o witr.
It has also been narrated bv Aa`ishah and other Sahaabah that
the Prophet , would also at times prav thirteen rakah.
1his shows that what is preerred and what has been most au-
thenticallv reported o the Prophet , is that one perorms
eleen or thirteen rakah during the 1araaweeh. O the two. per-
orming eleen rakahs is better. but i he was to perorm thir-
teen. including the witr. then this is also rom the Sunnah and is
good. Praving this number is more gentle on people. It is more
conducie to the Imaam`s khushoo` and recitation. its beautv. his
relection upon its erses. as well as the rukoo` and sujood. It
also does not lead him to hasten his praver.
I one were to prav twentv-three rakah. including the witr as did
Umar , and other Sahaabah in arious nights o Ramadan.
then there is no harm in this. or there is much lexibilitv in this
matter. It has been reported in the hadeeth o Aa`ishah , that
Umar , and other Sahaabah praved eleen rakah including the
witr. and in other reports that he praved twentv-three. It has also
been reported that he ordered the Sahaabi (ompanion, whom
he appointed to lead the night praver to prav eleen rakah. as has
been reported that he ordered him to prav twentv-three. 1his
conirms the act that there is much lexibilitv in this matter. as
does his , saving. 1he night prayer is in pairs of two.
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loweer. as we stated beore. it is preerred that one prav eleen
or thirteen rakah. as this is what the Prophet , himsel did.
And as mentioned. praving eleen rakah is best. due to the
statement o Aa`ishah ,. \hat is meant in this statement is
that he would not increase the number o rakahs most o the
time. and that is due to the act that she and other Sahaabah also
reported that he , perormed thirteen rakah. 1his implies that
he would sometimes increase the praver more than eleen rakah.
Aa`ishah , had the most understanding in religious matters
and was the most knowledgeable o the Sunnah o the Messenger
, rom amongst the Sahaabivaat. She would inestigate and
question what the Prophet , did when she was in his , pres-
ence. and would in turn inorm other Sahaabah. She would ask
the other wies o the Prophet , and Sahaabah as well. Because
o her deotion to knowledge and her extensie memorv. she
presered a substantial amount o knowledge and numerous
ahaadeeth o the Messenger o Allah ,.
1hereore. i the Prophet , aried his praver bv perorming
eleen rakah in some nights and thirteen in others. then there is
no harm in that. or it is all considered Sunnah. loweer. what is
not permissible is that one prav our rakahs uninterruptedlv.
Rather. it is obligatorv to prav in pairs o two due to his , sav-
ing. 1he night prayer is in pairs of two, or this is a declara-
tie statement which |in usool al-iqh| has the implication o a
command.
Also. i one were to prav the witr praver bv perorming three or
ie rakahs uninterruptedlv with one sitting. there is no harm in
that either. or the Prophet , also praved in this manner. low-
eer. one is not to prav our. six. or eight rakahs uninterruptedlv.
as this has not been reported o the Prophet ,. It also contra-
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dicts his command. 1he night prayer is in pairs of two. And
i one were to uninterruptedlv perorm seen or nine rakahs.
then there is no harm in that either. But what is preerred is that
one sits or the irst tashahhud ater the sixth or the eighth rakah
and then stands and completes the rest o the praver.
All o this has been related o the Prophet , and there is much
lexibilitv in this matter. But what is best is to pronounce the
tasleem ater eerv two rakahs. and then to oer one rakah o
witr praver. as preiouslv quoted in the hadeeth o ibn Umar.
1his is what is preerred and is easier or the people. as some
people might hae other obligations to ulill and might need to
leae ater two. our. or six rakahs. So what is best and more be-
itting is that the Imaam prav in pairs o two rakahs. and not per-
orm ie or seen continuouslv. loweer. i he were to do that
at times to clariv the Sunnah. there is no harm.
As ar as the shaa and witr are concerned. it is not beitting that
thev be praved similar to the Maghrib praver |bv sitting ater two
rakahs and standing or the third without pronouncing the
tasleem|. and is at the erv least makrooh. 1his is due to the pro-
hibition o the Prophet , in making it resemble the Maghrib
praver. One is to uninterruptedlv prav three rakahs with one
tasleem and one sitting. and 1aweeq is rom Allah.
24
24
(oncerning 1araaweeh` bv Sheikh ibn Baz. Dar-ut-1awheed Publications.
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84
Completing with the Imaam
O. 1he most correct opinion is that the number o rakahs or
1araaweeh is eleen. but I prav in a mosque where thev do
twentv-one rakahs. (an I leae the mosque ater the tenth rakah.
or is it better to complete the twentv one rakahs with them
A. It is better to stav with the imaam until he inishes. een i he
is doing more than eleen rakahs. because it is permissible to
prav the extra rakahs. as the Prophet , said:
Whoever prays qiyaam with the imaam until he fin-
ishes, Allaah will record it as if he prayed the whole
night.
25
.and because the Prophet , said:
Prayer at night should be two by two (rakahs), and
when dawn approaches, pray one for witr.
26
1here is no doubt that adhering to the Sunnah o the Prophet ,
is better and brings more reward. so long as it is done properlv
and without haste. but i it is the matter o a choice between lea-
ing the imaam because o the number o rakahs or going along
with the extra that he does. it is better to go along with him. be-
cause o the ahaadeeth reerred to aboe. At the same time. vou
should adise the imaam to ollow the Sunnah.
2
25
Reported bv al-Nisaa`i and others. Sunan al-Nisaa'i. Baab Oivaam Shahr
Ramadaan.`
26
Reported bv the seen: this ersion reported bv al-Nisaa`i.
2
1he Night Praver in Ramadan` bv Muhammad Salih al-Munajjid.
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85
Reciting the Lntire Qur`aan in 1araaweeh
O. Is it preerred that the Imaam complete the entire Our`aan in
1araaweeh
A. 1here is great lexibilitv in this matter. I do not know o anv
eidence that suggests that it is better. except that some scholars
hae mentioned that it is mustahab or the Imaam to recite the
entire Our`aan or the congregation in order that thev receie the
opportunitv to listen to it in its entiretv. loweer. this is not a
clear eidence. \hat is most important is that the Imaam has
khushoo` in his praver. that he eels at ease. and that the people
beneit rom him. een i he were not to complete except hal o
the Our`aan. It is not important that he completes it. but rather
that the people beneit and ind peace in his praver. his khushoo`.
and his recitation. loweer. i he ound it easv to complete. then
all praise is or Allah. but i he did not. then what he did recite
was suicient. or his concern should be or the people and that
thev eel khushoo` in their praver. 1he beneit o the people is
more important than the mere completion o the Our`aan. but i
he were to inish the Our`aan without causing diicultv or the
people. then this is well and good.
28
1he Imaam Holding a Mushaf
O. Is it permissible or the Imaam to hold the musha written
transcript o the Our`aan, while leading the praver
28
(oncerning 1araaweeh` bv Sheikh ibn Baz. Dar-ut-1awheed Publications.
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86
A. 1he correct opinion is that there is no harm in this. 1hough
there is a dierence amongst the scholars. the correct opinion is
that there is no harm in that he recites rom the musha. whether
it be that he has not memorized the Our`aan. or i his memoriza-
tion is weak. In this case. it is more beneicial to his own sel as
well as the congregation. so there is no harm in it. Imaam al-
Bukhari mentioned in a muallaq hadeeth on the authoritv o
Aa`ishah ,. that her slae Dhakwaan would lead her in praver
in the night while reciting rom a musha. 1he general principle is
that it is allowed. and the hadeeth o Aa`ishah , supports this.
loweer. i it is easv or the Imaam to recite rom his memorv.
then this is more beitting. It is more ocused and less distracting
to the heart. or carrving a musha entails picking it up. placing it
down. searching through its pages. and turning to it when needed.
lence. i one can do without it. then that is better.
29
One of the Iollowers Holding a Mushaf
O. Is it permissible or one or more rom the congregation to
carrv a musha during the 1araaweeh praver
A. I do not know o anv eidence to support this. It is apparent
though. that one should hae khushoo` and eel at peace in his
praver and not carrv a musha. One should put his right hand
oer one`s let hand as is the Sunnah. One should place one`s
right hand on one`s let hand. wrist. and orearm and put them
on one`s chest. 1his is what is preerred and more correct. (arrv-
ing a musha preents one rom doing these acts o Sunnah and
29
(oncerning 1araaweeh` Sheikh ibn Baz. Dar-ut-1awheed publications.
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8
preents one rom concentrating on the Imaam and his recita-
tion. Rather. it keeps one`s heart and eves busv in examining its
pages and erses. So what I beliee is that leaing it is the Sun-
nah. One should listen and concentrate on the recitation rather
than use the musha. I someone rom the congregation comes to
know that the Imaam has made a mistake. then he should correct
him. and i he does not. then someone else should correct him.
loweer. i the Imaam does happen to make a mistake in recita-
tion and he is not corrected. it does not inluence the aliditv o
the praver. A mistake onlv harms the praver i it is made in Surah
al-laatihah. or it is a rukn pillar, o the praver. loweer. i one
were to carrv a musha and correct the Imaam when it necessi-
tates. then there mav be no harm in that. As or eerv person car-
rving a musha. this is contrarv to the Sunnah.
30
Supplicating after the Completion of the Qur`aan
O. \hat is the ruling concerning supplicating ater the comple-
tion o the Our`aan
A. Our pious predecessors did not leae reciting the supplications
made upon the completion o the Our`aan during the praver o
Ramadan. and we do not know o anv dierence in this regard.
\hat is best is that the Imaam should supplicate. but not
lengthen the supplication. le should seek to recite those suppli-
cations that are beneicial and inclusie in meaning. as Aa`ishah
, said.
30
(oncerning 1araaweeh` bv Sheikh ibn Baz. Dar-ut-1awheed Publications.
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88
1he Prophet () was fond of those supplications that
were inclusive in meaning and refrained from other sup-
plications.
So what is better is that the Imaam should seek to supplicate with
those which are inclusie in meaning without lengthening them.
le should recite the supplication. O Allah guide me from
those whom you have guided. in the Ounoot as has been
reported in a hasan hadeeth. Along with this. he should recite
other good and easv supplications. as in the addition o Umar
,. without lengthening them. thus in act causing burden and
inconenience to the people. 1his is how the supplication upon
the completion the Our`aan should be: he should supplicate with
what is easv or him. and that thev should be inclusie in mean-
ing. le should start bv praising Allah and sending peace and
pravers upon the Prophet ,. and then complete the supplica-
tion with what is easv. whether it be in the night praver or in the
witr. le should not lengthen it so as to cause distress or incon-
enience.
1his is what is known rom our pious predecessors. and this ex-
ample was ollowed bv later generations. Our scholars and teach-
ers along with their dedication or the Sunnah ollowed this as
well. the latter emulating the ormer. 1his is considered to be an
obious act bv the scholars o the Da`wah o 1awheed. who are
known to be keen in the Sunnah. 1he act o the matter remains
that there is no harm or blame in this. i Allah wills. but rather
that this is something that is deemed praiseworthv. because bv
doing this one seeks response to one`s supplication ater the
completion o the Book o Allah ,. \hen Anas , would
complete the Our`aan. he would gather his amilv and supplicate
outside o the praver. 1his is just as well whether it is within the
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praver or outside it because supplication has been legislated at
both times. so there can be no objection in this.
And it is well known that upon reciting a erse which describes
the punishment or the mercv o Allah. one should supplicate as
the Prophet , did in the night praver. 1his is similar to the mat-
ter at hand in that it is also legislated to supplicate ater the com-
pletion o the Our`aan. 1he point o contention is onlv whether
one should supplicate within the praver. As or supplicating out-
side o it. then I do not know o anv dierence o opinion other
than that it is deemed praiseworthv. but the dierence lies within
the praver. I do not know anvone rom our pious predecessors
who has objected to supplicating within the praver. and I do not
know anvone who has objected to supplication outside it. So this
is what is used as a basis. that it was something known to our
predecessors. o which the ormer as well as the latter acted
upon. \hosoeer savs that this is wrong should come with some
eidence. or the burden o proo does not lie upon the one who
acts according to what our pious predecessors did. 1he eidence
is to be established bv the one who savs that it is wrong and that
it is an innoation. 1his is what our pious predecessors o the
Ummah chose and tread upon. 1he latter generations took ex-
ample rom the ormer. and amongst them were the scholars. the
irtuous. and the scholars o hadeeth. 1he recitation o arious
supplications in the night praver is something known to be rom
the Sunnah o the Prophet ,. and what is recited upon the
completion o the Our`aan is within this class o supplication.
31
31
(oncerning 1araaweeh` bv Sheikh ibn Baz. Dar-ut-1awheed Publications.
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90
Qunoot in the Witr and Iajr prayers
O. \hat is the ruling regarding the supplication o the Ounoot in
the witr and lajr pravers
A. 1he Sunnah o the Prophet , is to supplicate with the
Ounoot in the witr praver. but i one leaes it at times. then there
is no harm. As or making the Ounoot in the lajr praver consis-
tentlv. there is no legislation or this: rather. it is an innoation. It
has been reported bv Ahmad. at-1irmidhi. an-Nasaa`i. and ibn
Maajah. mav Allah hae mercv on them. on the authoritv o Sa`d
bin 1aariq bin Ashvam al-Ashjai that he said:
O father, verily you have observed prayer behind the
Messenger of Allah (), Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthmaan,
and Ali, may Allah be pleased with them all. Did they
recite the Qunoot in the Iajr prayer? He replied, My
son, this is an innovation.
In this hadeeth. 1aariq clariied that this act is an innoation.
loweer. it has been reported on the authoritv o Anas. Abu
lurairah and others that the Prophet , would make Ounoot at
times o misortune in the lajr praver as well as others. I a trial
has beallen the Muslims rom the enemv. a calamitv occurs
amongst the belieers. or a squadron o belieers is killed or its
likes. it is legislated or the Imaams o the masaajid to make
Ounoot in the last rakah o the lajr praver ater the rukoo`. It is
to be made or as long as the calamitv lasts. whether it be a dav or
a month. and then it is to be discontinued. 1his is the Sunnah:
that it should be done in times o crisis or necessitv without it
being consistent. As or consistentlv reciting it. whether in the
lajr praver or others |other than witr|. it is in opposition to the
Sunnah. As or the ahaadeeth which report that the recitation o
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the Ounoot should be consistent in the lajr praver. thev are all
weak according to the scholars o hadeeth. and 1aweeq is rom
Allah.
32
Raising the Hands in Qunoot
O. \hat is the ruling concerning the raising o the hands in the
Ounoot o witr
A. It has been legislated to raise the hands in the Ounoot o the
witr praver. 1he Ounoot o witr is o the same class o supplica-
tions as the Ounoot recited in times o calamitv. and it has been
related bv al-Bavhaqi with an authentic chain o narration that the
Prophet , raised his hands when he supplicated with the
Ounoot in times o calamitv.
33
Joining 1araaweeh with the Niyyah of Ishaa
O. I a person came to a masjid and ound the congregation prav-
ing 1araaweeh. and he had not vet praved Ishaa. can he join
them in praver with the nivvah o praving Ishaa
A. 1here is no harm in one praving with the nivvah o Ishaa
along with others who are praving 1araaweeh. 1his is the correct
opinion o the two held bv the scholars. Once the Imaam pro-
nounces the tasleem. he should stand and complete the remain-
32
(oncerning 1araaweeh` bv Sheikh ibn Baz. Dar-ut-1awheed Publications.
33
(oncerning 1araaweeh` bv Sheikh ibn Baz. Dar-ut-1awheed Publications.
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92
der o his praver. It has been reported in al-Bukhari and Muslim
on the authoritv o Muaadh bin Jabal ,. that he used to prav
the Ishaa praver with the Prophet ,. and then return to his
people and lead them in theirs. and the Prophet , did not ob-
ject to that. 1his proes the permissibilitv o praving an obliga-
torv praver behind one praving a supererogatorv one. It has been
reported in Saheeh al-Bukhari. that the Prophet , in some tvpes
o the praver o ear praved two rakah leading one group. and
then praved another two with the next. making tasleem at the
end. So the irst two rakahs were considered obligatorv or him.
while the second was considered supererogatorv. but obligatorv
or the congregation.
34
Reading Qur`aan or Praying Nawaafil?
O. \hich is better during the dav in Ramadan - reading Our`aan
or praving oluntarv pravers
A. Praise be to Allaah. 1he Sunnah o the Prophet , was to do
a lot o dierent kinds o worship during Ramadan. Jibreel used
to reiew the Our`aan with him at night. and when Jibreel met
with him. he was more generous in charitv than the blowing
wind. le was the most generous o people. and he was at his
most generous in Ramadan. At this time he used to gie more in
charitv and treat people een more kindlv: he would read more
Our`aan. prav more. recite more dhikr. and spend time in I`tikaa
retreat,. 1his is the guidance o the Prophet , in this aspect o
this holv month.
34
(oncerning 1araaweeh` bv Sheikh ibn Baz. Dar-ut-1awheed Publications.
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93
As to whether it is better to read Our`aan or to prav oluntarv
pravers. this depends on people`s circumstances. and the true
ealuation o this is up to Allaah. because le knows all things.
35
A speciic action mav be better in the case o anv gien indiid-
ual. and another mav be better or another indiidual. according
to the degree to which a particular action brings a person closer
to Allaah. Some people mav be inluenced more bv nail pravers
and mav ocus on them and do them properlv. which will bring
them closer to Allaah than other deeds might. so in their case
those deeds are better. And Allaah knows best.
36
Adding another Rakah to the Imaam's Witr
O. \hen the Imaam pronounces tasleem in the witr. some peo-
ple stand and perorm another rakah in order that thev mav prav
it the witr, in the last part o the night. \hat is the ruling con-
cerning this Is this considered completing the praver with the
Imaam
\e do not know o anv harm in this. as the scholars hae men-
tioned. because a person does this in order that he prav the witr
at a latter time in the last part o the night. It will be counted as i
he stood with the Imaam until he completed the praver. since in
act he did stand with the Imaam until he turned awav. and
merelv added another rakah. le did this in the interest o the
religion. in order that the witr be perormed in the last part o the
35
lrom Al-Jawaab al-Saheeh min Ahkaam Salaat al-Lavl wa`l-1araaweeh`. bv
Shavkh Abd al-Azeez ibn Baaz. p. 45.
36
1he Night Praver in Ramadan` bv Muhammad Salih al-Munajjid.
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94
night. so there is no harm in this. le is not disqualiied rom
gaining the reward o standing with the Imaam. Although he did
not complete it along with him. he did stand with the Imaam un-
til the Imaam completed his praver: rather he merelv delaved it
shortlv.
3
3
(oncerning 1araaweeh` bv Sheikh ibn Baz. Dar-ut-1awheed Publications.
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95
I'tikaaf
by:
Muhammad Salih al-Munajjid
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96
Definition
I`tikaa means staving in the mosque or a speciic purpose. which
is to worship Allaah mav le be gloriied,. It is prescribed in Is-
lam and is mustahab recommended, according to the consensus
o the scholars. Imaam Ahmad said. as was narrated rom him bv
Abu Dawud: I hae not heard rom anv o the scholars that it is
anvthing other than Sunnah.`
Al-Zuhri mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said: low strange the
Muslims are! 1hev hae gien up I`tikaa. despite the act that the
Prophet , neer abandoned this practice rom the time he
came to Madeenah until his death.`
1he Benefits of I'tikaaf
1here are manv hidden beneits in the acts o worship and much
wisdom behind them. 1he basis o all deeds is the heart. as the
Messenger o Allaah , said:
In the body there is an organ which if it is sound, the
entire body will be sound, and if it is corrupt, the entire
body will be corrupt. 1hat organ is the heart.
38
\hat corrupts the heart most is distractions and preoccupations
- such as ood. drink. sex. talking too much. sleeping too much
and socializing too much. and other distractions - which diert
people rom turning to Allaah and cause the heart to be uno-
cused and unable to concentrate on worshipping Allaah. So Al-
38
Narrated bv al-Bukhaari. 52: Muslim. 1599.
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9
laah has prescribed acts o worship. such as asting. to protect the
heart rom the negatie eects o these distractions. lasting de-
pries a person o ood and drink and sex during the dav. and this
denial o excessie enjovments is relected in the heart. which
gains more strength or treading the path to Allaah and rees it
rom the chains o these distractions which distract a person
rom thinking about the lereater bv occupving him with worldlv
concerns.
Just as asting is a shield which protects the heart rom the inlu-
ences o phvsical distractions such as excessie indulgence in
ood. drink and sex. so I`tikaa oers an immense hidden beneit.
which is a protection rom the eects o excessie socializing.
lor people mav take socializing to extremes. until it has a similar
eect on a person to the eects o oer-eating. as the poet said:
.... .... . .. . .. ..-.: . _..=..: .
: .. ..= ..: _.. .. ........ . .. ..: ...L: . _.=.
Your enemy was once your friend
.so donot have too many compa nions,
for indeed you see most diseases
.are a result from food and drink.
I`tikaa also oers protection rom the eil consequences o talk-
ing too much. because a person usuallv does I`tikaa on his own.
turning to Allaah bv praving Oivaam al-Lavl. reading Our`aan.
making Dhikr. reciting duaa . and so on.
It also oers protection rom sleeping too much. because when a
person makes I`tikaa in the mosque. he deotes his time to draw-
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98
ing closer to Allaah bv doing dierent kinds o acts o worship:
he does not stav in the mosque to sleep.
Undoubtedlv a person`s success in reeing himsel rom socializ-
ing. talking and sleeping too much will help him to make his heart
turn towards Allaah and will protect him rom the opposite.
1he Connection between Iasting and I'tikaaf
No doubt when a person has all the means o puriving his heart
bv keeping awav rom all the things that can distract him rom
worship. this will be more eectie in helping him to turn to-
wards Allaah with deotion and humilitv. lence the Sala pious
predecessors, regarded it as mustahab recommended, to com-
bine asting and I`tikaa. Imaam Ibn al-Oavvim mav Allaah hae
mercv on him, said:
It was not reported that the Prophet , eer did I`tikaa
when he was not asting. Indeed. Aa`ishah said:
1here is no I'tikaaf except with fasting.'
39
Allaah did not mention I`tikaa except in conjunction with ast-
ing. and the Messenger o Allaah , did not do I`tikaa except
in conjunction with asting.
1he most correct opinion concerning the eidence which the
majoritv o the Sala agreed upon is: 1hat asting is a condi-
39
Narrated bv Abu Dawood. 243.
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99
tion o I`tikaa. 1his is the iew that was regarded as most cor-
rect bv Shavkh al-Islam Abu`l-Abbaas Ibn 1avmivah.`
40
1he iew that asting is a condition o I`tikaa was narrated rom
Ibn Umar and Ibn Abbaas. It was also the iew o Maalik. al-
Awzaai and Abu laneeah. and dierent opinions were narrated
rom Ahmad and al-Shaaii.
\ith regard to the words o Ibn al-Oavvim mav Allaah hae
mercv on him,. It was not reported that the Prophet , eer
did I`tikaa when he was not asting.` there is some room or de-
bate. It was reported that the Prophet , did I`tikaa in Shaw-
waal narrated bv al-Bukhaari. 1928. and Muslim. 113,. but it
was not proen whether he was asting or not on these davs
when he did I`tikaa.
1he most correct iew is that asting is mustahab recommended,
or the one who does I`tikaa. but it is not a condition o his
I`tikaa being alid.
With the Prophet () in his I'tikaaf
1he Prophet , did I`tikaa during the irst ten davs o Ramadan.
then in the middle ten davs. seeking Lavlat al-Oadr. then it be-
came clear to him that it was in the last ten davs. ater which he
alwavs spent them the last ten davs, in I`tikaa.
Abu Saeed al-Khudri , said:
40
Zaad al-Maaad. 28. 88.
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100
1he Messenger o Allaah , used to do I`tikaa during the
middle ten davs o the month. and when the night o the twenti-
eth had passed and the twentv-irst had begun. he would go
back to his home. and those who were doing I`tikaa with him
also went home. 1hen one month he made I`tikaa on that night
when he used to go home. 1hen he addressed the people. com-
manding them as Allaah willed. and then he said:
I used to spend these ten days in I'tikaaf, but now I
want to spend these last ten days in I'tikaaf, so whoever
used to do I'tikaaf with me, let him stay in his place of
I'tikaaf. I was shown that night (Laylat al-Qadr) then I
was made to forget it, so seek it during the last ten
nights, in the odd-numbered nights. And I saw myself
prostrating in water and mud.' `
Abu Saeed said:
It rained on the night o the twentv-irst. and the roo o the
mosque leaked in the place where the Messenger o Allaah ,
was praving. I looked at him when he had inished praving Subh
lajr,. and his ace was wet with water and mud. so what he ,
had seen came to pass. And this was one o the signs o his
Prophethood.`
1he Prophet , continued to do I`tikaa during the last ten davs
o Ramadan. as it was reported in al-Saheehavn rom Aa`ishah
mav Allaah be pleased with her,. who said that the Prophet ,
used to spend the last ten davs o Ramadan in I`tikaa until he
died. then his wies continued to do I`tikaa ater he died.
41
41
Narrated bv al-Bukhaari. 1921: Muslim. 111.
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101
During the vear in which he , died. he spent twentv davs in
I`tikaa
42
. i.e.. the middle ten davs and the last ten davs. 1his was
or a number o reasons:
1. In that vear. Jibreel reiewed the Our`aan with him twice.
43
It
was appropriate or him to spend twentv davs in I`tikaa. so that
he could reiew the entire Our`aan twice.
2. le , wanted to increase his righteous deeds and do more
acts o worship. because he , elt that his time o death, was
near. as we mav understand rom the words o Allaah:


When there comes the Help of Allaah (to you, O Mu-
hammad against your enemies) and the Conquest (of
Makkah)

And you see that the people enter Allaah's re-


ligion (Islam) in crowds.

So glorify the Praises of your


Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily, He is the One
Who accepts the repentance and Who forgives. |Surah
al-Nasr 110,:1-3|
So Allaah commanded lis Prophet , to increase his 1asbeeh
Subhaan Allaah` - Glorv be to Allaah, and his Istighaar
Astaghir-Allaah` - I seek the orgieness o Allaah, towards
the end o his lie. and this is what he , did. Oten. when he
made Rukoo` and Sujood. he would sav.
42
Al-Bukhaari. 1939.
43
Al-Bukhaari. 412.
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102
`. `. - .. :: `. . . - `. . :: .. . . `. :
Subhaanak Allaahumma wa bi hamdik, Allaahumma
ighfir li.
Glory and praise be to You, O Allaah. O Allaah, forgive
me.
1his was in obedience to the command in the Our`aan.
44
3. le , did that in gratitude to Allaah or the blessings that le
had bestowed upon him o righteous deeds such as jihaad. teach-
ing. asting and qivaam praving at night,. or the blessings o the
reelation o the Our`aan to him. raising high his ame. and other
aors that Allaah had bestowed upon him.
1he Prophet , used to enter his place o I`tikaa beore the sun
set. I he wanted. or example. to spend the middle ten davs o
the month in I`tikaa. he would enter his place o I`tikaa beore
the sun set on the eleenth dav. I he wanted to spend the last ten
davs in I`tikaa. he would enter his place o I`tikaa beore the sun
set on the twentv-irst dav.
(oncerning the report in al-Saheeh that he , praved lajr and
then entered his place o I`tikaa
45
. what is meant here is that he
entered the special place in the mosque ater lajr praver. le used
to do I`tikaa in a place resered especiallv or that. as it was re-
ported in Saheeh Muslim. that he used to do I`tikaa in a 1urkish
tent.
46
44
Narrated bv al-Bukhaari. 48. and Muslim. 484.
45
Narrated bv al-Bukhaari. 1928: Muslim. 113: al-1irmidhi. 91.
46
Narrated bv Muslim. 116.
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103
1he Prophet , used to put his head into Aa`ishah`s house
whilst he was in I`tikaa in the mosque. and she should wash his
hair and comb it. and she was menstruating. as was reported in al-
Saheehavn.
4
In Musnad Ahmad it was reported that he would lean into the
doorwav o her room. then he would put his head in. and she
would comb his hair.
48
1his indicates that i a person in I`tikaa puts part o his bodv -
such as his oot or his head - outside o the place where he is do-
ing I`tikaa. there is nothing wrong with that. and i a woman who
is menstruating puts her hand or oot into the mosque. there is
nothing wrong with it. there is nothing wrong with that because
this is not counted as en tering the mosque.
Another thing that we learn rom this hadeeth is that there is
nothing wrong with the person in I`tikaa keeping clean and per-
uming himsel. and washing and combing his hair. None o
these things aect his I`tikaa.
Another o the things that happened to the Prophet , in his
I`tikaa was narrated bv the two shavkhs al-Bukhaari and Mus-
lim, rom Aa`ishah mav Allaah be pleased with her,. who said:
\hen the Messenger o Allaah , wanted to go into
I`tikaa. he would prav lajr. then go into the place where he
did I`tikaa. le commanded that a tent be put up. and it was
done. Some o the other wies o the Prophet , com-
manded that tents be put up. and this was done. \hen he ,
had praved lajr he looked and saw the tents. and said: Are
4
Al-Bukhaari. 1924. 1926: Muslim. 29.
48
Ahmad. 622.
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104
you seeking to do a righteous deed? 1hen he com-
manded that his tent should be dismantled. and he did not do
I`tikaa in that month. delaving it until the irst ten davs o
Shawwaal.
49
1he phrase. Are you seeking to do a righteous deed?
means. Is vour motie or doing this the desire to do good. or is
it jealousv and the desire to be close to the Messenger o Allaah
,
It is most likelv - and Allaah knows best - that his I`tikaa in
Shawwaal o that vear was ater the Lid. i.e.. the second o Shaw-
waal.
It mav be that it started on the dav o Lid. I this is true. then it is
an indication that asting is not a condition o I`tikaa. because
there is no asting on the dav o Lid.
Something else that happened to the Prophet , in his I`tikaa
and was narrated bv the two shavkhs al-Bukhaari and Muslim,
was that Saivvah the wie o the Prophet , came and isited
him during his I`tikaa in the mosque during the last ten davs o
Ramadan. She spoke with him or a while. then she stood up to
go home. 1he Prophet , stood up with her to take her back.
then when she reached the door o the mosque. bv the door o
Umm Salamah. two men o the Ansaar
50
passed bv and greeted
the Prophet ,. 1he Prophet , said to them.
Wait, this is Safiyyah bint Huyay. 1hev said. Subhaan-
Allaah. O Messenger o Allaah!` 1hev elt distressed |that he
49
Al-Bukhaari. 1928: Muslim. 113.
50
Ansaar: 1he original inhanitants o Madeenah who accepted Islam and re-
ceied the Prophet ,. Lditor,
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105
thought thev might think something bad|. 1he Prophet ,
said: 1he Shaytaan is as close to a man as his blood.
According to another report:
(Shaytaan) flows through the veins of a man like
blood, and. I was afraid that the Shaytaan might cast
something into your hearts, and in another report. cast
some evil into your hearts.
51
le , was keen that the two men o the Ansaar should remain
steadast in their aith. and he was araid that the Shavtaan might
plant some eil thoughts in their hearts. making them doubt the
Messenger o Allaah , which would hae led them to kur. or
that thev might be distracted bv trving to rid themseles o these
insinuations. so he , explained the matter to them so as to re-
moe anv possible doubts or insinuating whispers. So he told
them that it was Saivvah bint luvav mav Allaah be pleased with
her,. and she was his wie.
His Guidance Concerning I'tikaaf
1he guidance o the Prophet , is the most perect o guidance
and teaching and the one o most ease. \hen he wanted to do
I`tikaa. he would hae a bed or mattress put in the mosque or
him. behind the (olumn o Repentance. as reported in the
hadeeth rom Naai` rom Ibn Umar rom the Prophet ,:
51
All these reports are ound in al-Bukhaari. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
106
When he () wanted to do I'tikaaf, he would have his
mattress or his bed placed behind the Column of Repen-
tance.
52
1he Prophet , used to hae a tent put up or him. and he
would stav in it. apart rom the times o praver. so that he could
be trulv secluded. 1his was in the mosque and it is probable that
the tent would be placed oer his bed or mattress. as reported in
the hadeeth o Aa`ishah ,. who said:
1he Prophet () used to do I'tikaaf in the last ten days
of Ramadan, and I used to put up a tent for him. He
would pray Iajr, and then go into the tent.
53
le used to stav in the mosque all the time and not go out except
in the case o human need`. i.e. to pass urine or stool. Aa`ishah
mav Allaah be pleased with her, said:
. he would not enter the house unless he needed to
when he was in I'tikaaf.
54
1he Prophet , used to hae his ood and drink brought to him
when he was in I`tikaa. as Saalim narrated:
His food and drink were brought to him in the place
where he was doing I'tikaaf. p.5,
le , used to keep clean. as he used to put his head out into
Aa`ishah`s room or her to comb his hair. According to a
hadeeth narrated rom Urwah rom Aa`ishah mav Allaah be
pleased with her,. she used to comb the hair o the Prophet ,
52
Narrated bv Ibn Maajah. 1564.
53
Narrated bv al-Bukhaari. 4810. lat`h al-Baari.
54
Narrated bv al-Bukhaari. 4808 lat`h al-Baari.
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10
when he was in I`tikaa and she was menstruating. and he was in
I`tikaa in the mosque. and she was in her room: he would lean
his head towards her.
55
Ibn lajar said:
1he hadeeth indicates that it is permissible to keep clean. applv
perume. wash. shae and adorn onesel. bv analogv with comb-
ing. 1he majoritv agree that there is nothing makrooh disliked,
in I`tikaa except that which is iewed as being makrooh in the
mosque.`
56
1he Prophet , did not isit the sick or attend unerals when he
was in I`tikaa. so that he could ocus and deote all his attention
to worshipping Allaah. According to a hadeeth narrated rom
Aa`ishah:
1he Prophet () would pass by a sick person when he
was in I'tikaaf, and he would not stop and visit him (in
his house) to ask him how he was.
It was also reported rom Urwah that she said:
1he Sunnah for the person who is in I'tikaaf is that he
should not visit the sick or attend funerals, or touch
(with desire) his wife or have intercourse with her, or go
out for any but the most pressing of needs. 1here is no
I'tikaaf except with fasting, and there is no I'tikaaf ex-
cept in a Jaami' Masjid (one in which Jumuah is
prayed).
5
55
Narrated bv al-Bukhaari. 480 lat`h al-Baari.
56
lat`h al-Baari. 480.
5
Narrated bv Abu Dawood. 2333.
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108
1he wies o the Prophet , used to isit him in the place where
he was doing I`tikaa. It so happened that he came out to take
one o them home. and this was or a reason. as it was night time.
1his was reported in the hadeeth o Ali ibn al-lusavn:
Saivvah mav Allaah be pleased with her, came to the
Prophet , when he was in I`tikaa. and when she went back
he walked with her. A man rom among the Ansaar saw him.
and when he |the Prophet ,| saw him. he called him and
said. Come here, this is Safiyyah.' Suvaan |one o the
narrators| mav hae said: 1his is Safiyyah, for the Shay-
taan runs through the veins of the son of Adam like
blood. I |one o the narrators| said to Suvaan. Did she
come to him at night? le said. Could she have come at
any time other than at night?
58
1he Prophet , thought that it was essential or him to go out
with her mav Allaah be pleased with her, because it was night. so
he went out with her rom the place where he was doing I`tikaa
in order to take her home.
In conclusion thereore: the example o the Prophet , was
characterized bv striing. and he spent most o the time in the
mosque. deoting himsel to worshipping Allaah and seeking
Lavlat al-Oadr.
58
Al-Bukhaari. Lditor,
www.IsIumIouse.com
109
1he Aims of I'tikaaf
1. Seeking Lavlat al-Oadr.
2. Secluding onesel in worship o Allaah. mav le be gloriied.
and keeping awav rom people as much as possible so that one
mav be entirelv ocused on Allaah and on remembering lim.
3. Puriving one`s heart. \et. he , did not let himsel become
disheeled at all when he deoted himsel to worshipping Allaah.
4. Deoting onesel completelv to pure worship. praving. making
duaa. remembering Allaah and reading the Our`aan.
5. Protecting one`s ast rom eervthing o one`s selish desires
that could aect it.
6. Reducing one`s inolement in permissible worldlv matters and
ignoring manv o them at the time when one is able to deal with
them.
Different 1ypes of I'tikaaf
Waajib (obligatory): this can onlv be as the result o a ow.
\hoeer ows to do I`tikaa is obliged to do it. 1he Prophet ,
said:
Whoever vows to obey Allaah, let him obey Him, and
whoever vows to disobey Allaah (commit a sin), let him
not do that.
59
59
Al-Bukhaari Lditor,.
www.IsIumIouse.com
110
According to a hadeeth. Ibn Umar , said: Umar asked the
Prophet ,.
I made a vow during jaahiliyyah (before he accepted Is-
lam) to spend one night in I'tikaaf in al-Masjid al-
Haraam.' He said, Iulfillyour vow.'
60
Mandoob (recommended): 1his is what was the habit o the
Prophet , when he did I`tikaa during the last ten davs o
Ramadan. and he persisted in doing this. It is Sunnah
Mu`akkadah
61
which is known rom his lie ,. as was reported
in the ahaadeeth reerred to when we discussed the act that
I`tikaa is prescribed in Islam.
1he Ruling on I'tikaaf
It is Sunnah Mu`akkadah. an action which the Prophet , alwavs
did. and he made up some o it that he missed. Azzaam said
concerning this:
Al-masnoon the Sunnah, is that which the Muslim does ol-
untarilv to draw closer to Allaah. seeking to earn reward rom
lim and ollowing the example o the Messenger o Allaah ,.
It was reported that he did this and persisted in it.` p.114,
60
Al-Bukhaari. 4809.
61
An emphasized Sunnah.
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111
1he Conditions of I'tikaaf
(ertain conditions applv to I`tikaa. as ollows:
1. Islam: I`tikaa on the part o a kaair is not alid. as is also the
case with an apostate who has let the religion.
2. Discernment: it is not alid on the part o a child who has not
vet reached the age o discernment.
3. Purity tahaarah, rom major orms o impuritv janaabah -
sexual impuritv. lavd - menstruation: Niaas - post-partum
bleeding,. I anv o these things happen to a person during his
I`tikaa. he has to leae the mosque. because it is not permissible
or him to stav in the mosque in this state.
4. It should be in the mosque. Allaah savs:

And do not have sexual relations with them (your
wives) while you are in I'tikaaf (i.e. confining oneself in
a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly
activities) in the mosques. |Surah al-Baqarah 2,:18|
It is preerable or I`tikaa to be in a mosque where Jumuah lri-
dav, pravers are held. so that one will not hae to go out o the
mosque in order to attend Jumuah pravers.
Some scholars said that there should not be anv I`tikaa except in
the three mosques: al-Masjid al-laraam |in Makkah|. al-Masjid al-
Aqsaa |in al-OudsJerusalem| and al-Masjid al-Nabawi |in
Madeenah|. 1he correct iew is that I`tikaa is permissible in anv
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112
mosque in which the ie obligatorv pravers are praved. Allaah
savs:

And do not have sexual relations with them (your
wives) while you are in I'tikaaf (i.e. confining oneself in
a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly
activities) in the mosques. |Surah al-Baqarah 2,:18|
1he general phrasing ound in Allah`s saving. in the mosques
implies that it is permissible in eerv mosque. It is recommended
to do I`tikaa in a Jaami` mosque one in which Jumuah pravers
are oered, so that the one who is doing I`tikaa will not need to
go out or Jumuah.
\ith regard to the hadeeth.
1here is no I'tikaaf except in the three mosques.
62
.i we accept it as saheeh. it should be interpreted as meaning
that the best I`tikaa is in these mosques. as the scholars hae ex-
plained.
It mav be that what was meant bv the words. 1here is no
I'tikaaf except in the three mosques, is that there should be
no I`tikaa or which one makes a ow or or the purpose o
which one traels. I`tikaa is alid in all mosques. 1he imaams -
especiallv the our imaams - agreed that I`tikaa is alid in all
Jaami` mosques. Nothing was transmitted to the eect that
I`tikaa is not alid unless it is in one o the three mosques rom
62
Narrated bv al-1ahhaawi in Mushkil al-Athaar`. 420.
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113
anv well known imaam. not the our imaams nor the ten imaams.
or anv others. 1his was reported onlv rom ludhavah , and
one or two o the Sala.
I a person ows to do I`tikaa in al-Masjid al-laraam. he has to
ulill his ow and do I`tikaa in al-Masjid al-laraam. But i he
ows. or example. to do I`tikaa in al-Masjid al-Nabawi. then it is
permissible or him to do I`tikaa in al-Masjid al-Nabawi or in al-
Masjid al-laraam. because al-Masjid al-laraam is better.
I he owed to do I`tikaa in al-Masjid al-Aqsaa. it is permissible
or him to do I`tikaa in al-Masjid al-Aqsaa or in al-Masjid al-
laraam or in al-Masjid al-Nabawi. because thev are better than
al-Masjid al-Aqsaa.
1he Pillars of I'tikaaf
1. Intention (niyyah). Umar ibn al-Khattaab , said: I heard
the Messenger o Allaah , sav:
Actions are but by intentions and every man shall have
but that which he intended. So he whose migration was
for Allaah and His Messenger, his migration was for Al-
laah and His Messenger, and he whose migration was to
achieve some worldly benefit or to take some woman in
marriage, his migration was for that for which he in-
tended.'
63
2. Staying in the mosque. as it savs in the aavah:
63
Al-Bukhaari. 115.
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114


We commanded Ibraaheem and Ismaaeel that they
should purify My House (the Kabah at Makkah) for
those who are circumambulating it, or staying (I'tikaaf),
or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer).
|Surah al-Baqarah 2,:125|
1his conirms that the place o I`tikaa is the mosque. 1his is also
indicated bv the actions o the Prophet , and bv his wies and
companions ater him mav Allaah be pleased with them all,. And
in the hadeeth rom \unus ibn Zavd that Naai` told him rom
Abd-Allaah ibn Umar mav Allaah be pleased with them both,
that the Prophet , used to do I`tikaa in the last ten davs o
Ramadan. Naai said.
Abd-Allaah () showed me the spot where the Mes-
senger of Allaah () used to do I'tikaaf in the mosque.
64
1he Place, 1ime and Starting Point of I'tikaaf
1he place o I`tikaa is the mosque. as indicated in the aavah:

64
Reported bv Muslim. 8308.
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115
And do not have sexual relations with them (your
wives) while you are in I'tikaaf (i.e. confining oneself in
a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly
activities) in the mosques. |Surah al-Baqarah 2,:18|
1he Prophet , and his wies and companions , used to do
I`tikaa in the mosques. and it is not reported that anv o them
did I`tikaa in anv place other than the mosque.
1he timing o I`tikaa is during Ramadan and it is best to be done
during the last ten davs o the month. But it is permissible at anv
time during Ramadan and at other times. It is not restricted to a
speciic time: indeed it is mustahab recommended, at all times.
and it is obligatorv i a person makes a ow committing himsel
to it. Ibn Umar , reported that Umar asked the Prophet ,.
I made a vow during the Jaahiliyyah that I would spend
a night in I'tikaaf in al-Masjid al-Haraam. He said,
Iulfill your vow.
65
1he beginning o I`tikaa is beore sunset. or the person who
wants to spend a dav and night or longer in I`tikaa. Some schol-
ars said that a person should enter his place o I`tikaa at lajr.
1he Aadaab (Ltiquette) of I'tikaaf
1here is a certain etiquette which is mustahab recommended, or
the person in I`tikaa to ollow so that his I`tikaa will be accept-
able. 1he more he adheres to this etiquette. the greater his reward
65
Al-Bukhaari. 4809.
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116
rom the Lord o the \orlds will be. and the less he ollows it.
the less his reward will be.
It is mustahab or the person in I`tikaa to keep himsel busv with
praver. reading Our`aan. remembering Allaah dhikr, and other
kinds o pure worship. le should aoid all kinds o words and
actions which will not help him to do this. le should not talk too
much. because the one who talks too much. is more likelv to sav
wrong things. and because the hadeeth savs.
Part of a person's being a good Muslim is that he leaves
alone that which does not concern him.
66
le should aoid arguing. disputing. swearing and speaking in an
obscene manner. or all o that is makrooh disliked, when he is
not in I`tikaa. so it is een more makrooh when he is in I`tikaa:
he should not inalidate his I`tikaa bv doing anv o these things.
1here is nothing wrong with his speaking when he has to. or
conersing with others. 1he two shavkhs al-Bukhaari and Mus-
lim, narrated that Saivvah. the wie o the Prophet ,. came to
isit him during his I`tikaa in the mosque during the last ten davs
o Ramadan. She spoke with him or a while. and then she got up
to leae. 1he Prophet , stood up to go with her. and when she
reached the door o the mosque. bv the door o Umm Salamah.
two men o the Ansaar passed bv and greeted the Prophet ,.
1he Prophet , said to them.
Wait, this is Safiyyah bint Huyay. 1hev said. Subhaan
Allaah. O Messenger o Allaah!` 1hev elt distressed that he
66
Saheeh al- 1irmidhi. p.1886. Lditor,
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11
thought thev might think something bad,. 1he Prophet ,
said: 1he Shaytaan is as close to a man as his blood.
6
According to another report:
(Shaytaan) flows through the veins of a man like
blood.
I was afraid that the Shaytaan might cast some evil
ideas into your hearts.
68
Al-laaidh said:
\e learn a number o things rom this hadeeth: It is permissi-
ble or the person who is in I`tikaa to do permissible things
such as seeing a isitor out and talking with him. and it is per-
missible or him to be alone and or a woman to isit him.`
Abd al-Razzaaq narrated that Ali said: \hoeer does I`tikaa
should not engage in obscene speech or swear: he should attend
Jumuah and unerals. and mav talk to his amilv i he needs to.
but he should remain standing and not sit with them.`
\ith regard to teaching Our`aan and other Islamic, knowledge.
studving. debating with the uqahaa. sitting with them and writ-
ing down ahaadeeth. there is a dierence o opinion among the
scholars. According to Imaam Ahmad. this is not mustahab
recommended,. because the Prophet , used to do I`tikaa and
it was not reported that he did anvthing except deote himsel to
acts o worship.
Al-Marwazi said:
67
Al-Bukhaari. Lditor,
68
Both these reports were narrated bv Al-Bukhaari.
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118
I said to Abd-Allaah that a man was teaching Our`aan to oth-
ers in the mosque and he wanted to do I`tikaa and perhaps he
would complete the Our`aan each dav. le said: I he does that.
it will be or himsel. but i he sits in the mosque it will be or
himsel and or others: I preer or him to teach others.` `
1he iew o al-Shaaii. as recorded in al-Mughni. was that it is
mustahab recommended, because it is the best kind o worship
and its beneit is not limited to onlv one person.
1he iew o Imaam Ahmad is better. and Allaah knows best.
Notes:
1, Some people see I`tikaa as an opportunitv to be with some o
their riends and spend time chatting with them. 1his is not good.
1here is nothing wrong with a group o people doing I`tikaa in
the mosque. because the wies o the Prophet , did I`tikaa
with him. and one o them een did I`tikaa with him when she
was experiencing Istihaadah non-menstrual bleeding,. but she
was in the mosque with him.
69
So there is nothing wrong with a
person doing I`tikaa with his riend or relatie. but the problem
arises when I`tikaa is regarded as an opportunitv to stav up late
chatting and gossiping. etc. lence Imaam Ibn al-Oavvim. ater
reerring to what some ignorant people do bv treating I`tikaa as
an opportunitv to get together and isit with one another and
chat. said: 1his is one thing. and the I`tikaa o the Prophet ,
was something else altogether.`
0
69
Narrated bv al-Bukhaari. 303. 304.
0
Zaad al-Maaad.
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119
2,: Some people leae their work and neglect their obligations in
order to do I`tikaa. 1his is not the right attitude. because it is not
right or a person to ignore something obligatorv in order to do
something that is Sunnah. 1he one who has let his work in order
to do I`tikaa has to stop his I`tikaa and go back to work so that
his earnings will be halaal. But i he can do I`tikaa during his time
o rom work. or i he can make an arrangement with his boss.
then this is erv good.
1hings which are Iorbidden in I'tikaaf
J. Leaving the mosque. I`tikaa becomes inalid i a person
goes out o the mosque or no reason. because the Messenger ,
did not go out o the mosque except in the case o human need`
i.e.. to eat. i it was not possible to hae ood brought to him.
lood used to be brought to him in the mosque. because Saalim
said: As for his food and drink, it was brought to him where
he was in his place of I'tikaaf.
le also used to go out to puriv himsel rom minor impurities
and to do wudoo`. as Aa`ishah , said:
1he Messenger of Allaah () used to put his head into
my room whilst he was in the mosque, and I would
comb his hair. He would not enter the house except in
the case of need when he was in I'tikaaf.
1
1
lat`h al-Baari. 4808.
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120
2. 1ouching women with desire including intercourse.
1his is something which inalidates I`tikaa. because it is clearlv
stated that this is not permitted in the aavah:

And do not have sexual relations with them (your
wives) while you are in I'tikaaf (i.e. confining oneself in
a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly
activities) in the mosques. |Surah al-Baqarah 2,:18|
3. Menstruation and post-natal bleeding. I a woman who is
in I`tikaa starts to menstruate or experiences post-natal bleeding.
she has to leae the mosque so as to presere the puritv o the
mosque. 1he same applies to anvone who is in a state o junub
impuritv ollowing sexual discharge, - until he does ghusl.
4. 1o complete iddah. I the husband o a woman who is in
I`tikaa dies and she is in the mosque. she has to leae the
mosque so that she can do her iddah in her house.
5. Apostasy or leaving Islam. One o the conditions o I`tikaa
is Islam. so the I`tikaa o an apostate a person who has let Is-
lam, is not alid.
Lducational Aspects of I'tikaaf
J. Implementing the concept of worship in a complete fash-
ion. I`tikaa plants in the soul o the person who does it the con-
cept o true enslaement to Allaah uboodivvah,. and trains him
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in this important matter or which man was created. lor Allaah
, savs:

And I (Allaah) created not the jinn and mankind except
that they should worship Me (Alone). |Surah al-
Dhaarivaat 51,:56|
1he person who is in I`tikaa has deoted his whole sel and his
whole time to worship Allaah. mav le be gloriied.
lis whole purpose is to earn the pleasure o Allaah. mav le be
exalted. so he stries with his bodv. senses and time or this pur-
pose bv praving ard and nail pravers. bv making duaa and dhikr.
bv reading the Our`aan. and doing other kinds o acts o worship.
1hrough this training during the best davs o the month o
Ramadan. the person in I`tikaa trains himsel to applv the con-
cept o uboodivvah or enslaement to Allaah in his public and
priate lie. and he stries to put into practice the words o the
aavah:


Say (O Muhammad): Verily, my Salaat (prayer), my
sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allaah, the
Lord of the Aalameen (mankind, jinn and all that ex-
ists).

He has no partner. And of this I have been com-


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122
manded, and I am the first of the Muslims.' |Surah al-
Anaam 6,:162-163|
Al-Ourtubi said: my living means whateer I do in mv lie:
my dying, means what I adise vou to do ater mv death: for
Allaah, the Lord of the Aalameen means thev are onlv or the
purpose o drawing closer to lim.`
2
2. Seeking Laylat al-Qadr. 1his was the main purpose behind
the I`tikaa o the Prophet ,. At irst his I`tikaa lasted or the
entire month. then he did I`tikaa during the middle ten davs.
seeking Lavlat al-Oadr. \hen he learned that it is in the last ten
davs o the month o Ramadan. he limited his I`tikaa to these
blessed ten davs.
3. Becoming accustomed to staying in the mosque. 1he per-
son in I`tikaa has committed himsel to staving in the mosque
or a speciic time period. luman nature mav not readilv accept
such restrictions at the beginning o the I`tikaa. but usuallv this
attitude quicklv disappears because o the peace o mind that the
Muslim soul deelops rom staving in the louse o Allaah.
1he person in I`tikaa understands the importance o his staving
in the mosque during his I`tikaa rom the ollowing things:
1. 1he person who stavs in the mosque inds that the mosque
becomes dear to him. and he understands the alue o the
houses o Allaah. mav le be exalted. 1his loe has a great alue
with Allaah. because those who loe the houses o Allaah will
be one o the groups whom Allaah will shade on the Dav when
there will be no shade except lis shade.
2
1aseer al-Ourtubi. 69.
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123
2. \hen a person stavs in the mosque. whilst he is waiting or
the praver. he is rewarded as i he is praving. and the angels prav
or orgieness or him. According to the hadeeth narrated bv
Abu luravrah ,. the Messenger o Allaah , said:
1he angels will continue to pray for blessings for any
one of you as long as he stays in his place of prayer
and as long as nothing happens to break his wudoo
(ablution). 1hey say: O Allaah, forgive him, O Al-
laah have mercy on him,' as long as any one of you
stays in his place of prayer, as long as what is keeping
him there is the fact that he is waiting for the prayer,
and nothing is keeping him from going back to his
family apart from his prayer.
3
4. Keeping away from physical luxuries. In I`tikaa a person
reduces a lot o these things and becomes like a stranger in this
world. so give good news to the stranger. lor the sake o
earning the pleasure o Allaah. he is content to stav in a corner o
the mosque with usuallv no more than a pillow on which to lav
his head and a blanket with which to coer himsel. or he has let
his comortable bed and his usual habits or the sake o earning
Allaah`s pleasure.
As or his ood. this is a dierent storv. i it is not what he usuallv
eats. I he has ood brought rom his house. usuallv it will not be
as much as he would eat at home. and he does not eat it at a table
with his wie and children. as he would usuallv do. On the con-
trarv. he eats like a stranger. like a poor slae who is need o his
Lord. I he goes out to the market-place to get ood. he tries hard
to take what is aailable and he is not too ussv about what kind
3
Al-Bukhaari. 2360 lat`h al-Baari.
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124
o ood he gets. because he has to go back to his place o I`tikaa
and not take too long to do these things. 1hus he learns that he
can get bv with a little. or which his Lord will be pleased with
him. just as he can lie with much. or which his Lord will not be
pleased with him - and the dierence between the two is im-
mense.
5. Giving up many harmful habits. In the light o the act that
the concept o Islamic education is lacking in manv Muslim socie-
ties and in manv homes in those Muslim societies. manv habits
hae become widespread which go against the teachings o this
pure religion. 1hese eil habits hae become so widespread that
thev hae become almost acceptable and are not seen as haing
anv harmul impact either on the religion or the indiidual. 1hese
habits include smoking. listening to music and watching scenes
and eents broadcast bv satellite channels which go against the
aqeedah belie, o the Muslim and his sense o modestv and
chastitv. and other habits which aect the religion and the indi-
idual.
1he time o I`tikaa gies the indiidual the opportunitv to see the
alsehood o these habits and the utilitv o the belie which manv
Muslims hae. that thev do not hae the abilitv to rid themseles
o these habits. because thev hae gained control oer them.
During the period o I`tikaa. when he is alone with his (reator.
the Muslim comes to understand the concept o worship in the
most comprehensie sense and that he has to be enslaed to Al-
laah eerv hour o the dav. in both his public and his priate lie.
\hen he takes the pleasure and loe o Allaah as the vardstick
against which he measures all his actions. he will ind that the
habits we hae reerred to aboe and manv others do not agree
with that loe o Allaah. and indeed thev are the opposite. So he
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125
discoers that habits such as these take him out o the circle o
sincere uboodivvah towards Allaah. I this is the case. then he is
obliged to rid himsel o these habits as quicklv as possible.
During the period o I`tikaa. the Muslim is not allowed to go out
except in the case o deinite needs which sere to acilitate his
staving in the mosque or I`tikaa. Apart rom that. he should not
go out. een i it is or a permissible purpose. So - or example -
he cannot go out and walk around in the market-place. een or a
short time. to buv things that hae nothing to do with his I`tikaa.
I he goes out to buv siwaak. this will not aect his I`tikaa be-
cause it is something that is recommended beore praving during
his I`tikaa. But i he went out to buv a git or his wie or or one
o his children. that would inalidate his I`tikaa. because the
Messenger , did not go out except in the case o human
need`. as mentioned aboe. So how about i the person in I`tikaa
goes out to do something haraam such as smoking cigarettes or
example. or to watch a satellite 1V show that he usuallv watches
Undoubtedlv this would inalidate his I`tikaa.
So i he goes out to drink wine or to smoke. this inalidates his
I`tikaa. In general. anv going out or anv inalid reason inali-
dates one`s I`tikaa. and more so i the purpose o going out is to
commit a sin. Len when he goes out or a legitimate purpose. it
is not permissible or him to light a cigarette on the wav.
I`tikaa is an annual opportunitv in which a person can get rid o
these bad habits bv repenting and turning to Allaah. and bv wean-
ing himsel rom these sins during the period o I`tikaa. not gi-
ing in to his desires. and getting used to this.
1his continual worship o Allaah requires continual patience on
the part o the person in I`tikaa. which is a kind o training or a
person`s will and a kind o sel-discipline or the soul which usu-
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126
allv tries to escape this worship to turn towards other matters
which it desires.
1here is also the kind o patience which is required or dealing
with the absence o things which a person mav be used to. such
as dierent kinds o ood that he eats at home but which are not
aailable in the mosque. So he puts up with haing little or the
sake o earning the pleasure o Allaah. mav le be exalted and
gloriied.
And there is the kind o patience which is required or putting up
with the place where he is sleeping. or he will not hae a bed put
in the mosque or him. or a comortable mattress on which he
can sleep. le sleeps on a erv modest mattress or een on the
carpets in the mosque.
And there is the kind o patience which is required or putting up
with the conditions in the mosque. the crowds o people around
him. the lack o peace and quiet such as he enjovs at home when
he wants to sleep.
And there is the kind o patience which is required or suppress-
ing his desire or his wie. with whom he is not allowed to hae
sexual relations i he goes home or anv purpose: he cannot een
kiss her or hug her. een though she is ordinarilv halaal permis-
sible, or him. 1hus the alue o patience. strong will power and
sel-control is maniested. 1hrough these practices and others. a
person can train himsel to delav manv o the things he desires
or the sake o things which are more important. so he puts o
these psvchological and material needs or the sake o earning the
pleasure o Allaah. mav le be gloriied and exalted.
6. Peace of mind.
7. Reading the Qur`aan and completing it.
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12
8. Sincere repentance.
9. Qiyaam al-Layl (praying at night) and becoming accus-
tomed to doing so.
J0. Making good use of one's time.
JJ. Purifying one's soul.
J2. Reforming one's heart and focusing on Allaah.
\e ask Allaah to help us to remember lim. thank lim and wor-
ship lim properlv. And Allaah knows best. Mav Allaah bless our
Prophet Muhammad ,.
References
1. Al-I`tikaa Nadrah 1arbawivvah. Dr. Abd al-Latee ibn Mu-
hammad Baaltoo.
2. Al-It`haa i Bavaan Masaa`il al-I`tikaa. Abu Umar laav al-
laav.
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128
Zakaat al-Iitr
by:
Muhammad Salih al-Munajjid
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129
Definition
Zakaat al-litr is a kind o charitv sadaqah, that is obligatorv at
the conclusion o the ast o Ramadan. 1he word zakaat is con-
nected bv idaaah genitie structure in Arabic grammar, to itr
1
because the occasion o concluding the ast is the reason whv this
zakaat becomes obligatorv.
Why Zakaat al-Iitr has been Legislated
Ibn Abbaas said:
1he Messenger of Allaah () made Zakaat al-Iitr
obligatory as a means of purifying the fasting person
from idle talk and foul language, and to feed the poor.
Whoever pays it before the prayer, it is an accepted za-
kaat, and whoever pays it after the prayer, it is just a kind
of charity (sadaqah).
2
Purifying means puriving the soul o the one who has asted
Ramadan. \ith regard to the word foul language. Ibn al-
Atheer said:
Ioul language' reers to obscene speech. Ieeding the
poor' reers to ood that is edible. Whoever pays it before
1
Iitr is deried rom the three letter root: -t-r. which literallv means to break
one`s ast. whether it be the ast o Ramadan. or the meal breakast: note the
two original words in Lnglish are also break and ast, which one eats in the
morning ater haing not eaten while sleeping. Lditor,
2
Reported bv Abu Dawood. 131. Al-Nawawi said: Abu Dawood reported it
rom Ibn Abbaas with a hasan isnaad`.
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130
the prayer' means beore Salaat al-Lid. It is an accepted za-
kaat' - here zakaat means sadaqat al-itr. Just a kind of char-
ity' means a kind o charitv that could be gien at anv time.`
3
It was said that this is what was meant bv the aavah in Surah al-
A`laa:

But those will prosper who purify themselves, and glo-
rify the name of their Guardian-Lord, and (lift their
hearts) in Prayer. |Surah al-A`laa 8,:14-15|
It was reported that Umar ibn Abd al-Azeez and Abu`l-Aalivah
said:
He the Prophet () paid Zakaat al-Iitr then he went
out for the prayer i.e., Salaat al-Lid.
4
\akee` ibn al-Jarraah said:
Zakaat al-litr at the end o the month o Ramadan is like two
sajdahs o sahw orgetulness, or the praver. It makes up or
anv shortcomings in the ast as the prostrations make up or anv
shortcomings in the praver.`
5
3
Awn al-Ma`bood Sharh Abi Dawood.
4
Al-Jassaas. Ahkaam al-Our`aan. part 3. Soorat al-A`laa ilaaha ill-Allah.
5
Al-Nawawi. al-Majmoo`. part 6.
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131
Ruling on Zakaat al-Iitr
1he correct iew is that it is ard obligatorv,. because Ibn Umar
said: 1he Messenger of Allaah () made Zakaat al-Iitr
obligatory, and because o the consensus o the scholars
ijmaa`, that it is ard.
6
When it must be Given
It becomes obligatorv when the sun sets on the last dav o Rama-
dan. Anvone who gets married. has a babv born to him or be-
comes Muslim beore the sun sets on that dav. has to gie Zakaat
al-litr |on behal o himsel andor his new wie or new babv|.
but i that happens ater sunset. he does not hae to gie it.
\hoeer dies ater sunset on the night o itr. sadaqat al-itr must
be gien on his behal. 1his is what Ahmad stated.`

Who must pay it


1. Zakaat al-litr is obligatorv on eerv Muslim. Ibn Umar ,
said:
6
Al-Mughni. part 2. Baab Sadaqat al-litr.

Al-Mughni. part 2. lasl \aqt \ujoob Zakaat al-litr.


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132
1he Messenger of Allaah () made Zakaat al-Iitr, one
saa' of dates or one saa' of barley, obligatory on the Mus-
lims, slave and free, male and female, young and old.
8
2. Al-Shaaii mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said:
1he hadeeth o Naai` indicates that the Messenger o Allaah
, made it obligatorv onlv on the Muslims. which is in accor-
dance with the Book o Allaah. mav le be gloriied. because le
has made zakaat as a puriication or the Muslims. and puriica-
tion can onlv be or the Muslims.`
9
3. It is obligatorv on those who are able to pav it. Al-Shaaii said:
Lervone who. at the beginning o Shawwaal. has enough ood
or himsel and those whom he is supporting or that dav and
has enough to gie Zakaat al-litr on behal o them and himsel
should gie it on behal o them and himsel. I he onlv has
enough to gie on behal o some o them. then he should gie
on behal o some o them. I he onlv has enough or himsel
and those whom he is supporting. then he is not obliged to gie
Zakaat al-litr on his own behal or on behal o those whom he
is supporting.`
10
4. Al-Nawawi mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said:
1he one who is in inancial diicultv is not obliged to gie
|Zakaat al-litr|: there is no dierence among the scholars in this
regard. 1he obligation is determined bv whether or not a per-
son can aord it. \hoeer has one saa` more than he needs or
himsel and those whom he is obliged to support on the night
8
Al-Bukhaari. 140.
9
Al-Umm. part 2. Baab Zakaat al-litr.
10
Al-Umm. part 2. Baab Zakaat al-litr.
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133
and dav o Lid has enough |is not in inancial diicultv|. \ho-
eer does not hae anvthing more than he needs is in inancial
diicultv. so he is not obliged to pav anvthing in this case.
11
5. 1he Muslim should gie on his own behal and on behal o
those on whom he spends. such as wies and relaties. i thev
cannot gie it on their own behal. I thev are able to. it is better
or them to gie it themseles. because the command is ad-
dressed to them in the irst place. Ibn Umar , said: 1he
Messenger of Allaah () made Zakaat al-Iitr, one saa' of
dates or one saa' of barley, obligatory on the Muslims, slave
and free, male and female, young and old, and commanded
that it should be given before the people went out to pray.
Al-Shaaii mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said:
1he guardian o the insane and the minor should gie Zakaat
al-litr on their behal and on behal o those or whom thev
|the insane and minor| mav be responsible. just as the sane per-
son should gie on his own behal. I there is a kaair among
those whom he is supporting. he does not hae to gie Zakaat
al-litr on his behal. because he cannot be puriied bv zakaah.`
12
1he author o al-Muhadhdhab said:
1he author mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said: I someone
has to pav Zakaat al-litr on his own behal and on behal o
those whom he is supporting. i thev are Muslim and i has more
than he needs to spend on them that he can gie. then the
mother and ather. and grandparents and great-grandparents.
etc.. mav hae to pav Zakaat al-litr on behal o their children
11
Al-Majmoo`. part 6. Shuroot \ujoob Sadaqat al-litr.
12
Al-Umm. part 2. Baab Zakaat al-litr.
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134
and grandchildren and great-grandchildren. etc.. and the children
mav hae to pav Zakaat al-litr on behal o their parents and
grandparents and great-grandparents. etc.. - i thev are obliged
to spend on their maintenance.` `
13
A man has to pav on behal o himsel and his wie - een i she
has monev o her own - and his children and parents i thev are
poor. and his daughter i she is married but the marriage has not
vet been consummated. I his son is rich. he does not hae to
gie Zakaat al-litr on his behal. A husband has to gie Zakaat al -
litr on behal o a diorced wie whose diorce talaaq, is not vet
inal i.e.. she is still in the iddah o a irst or second talaaq,. but
not in the case o a rebellious wie or one whose diorce is inal.
A son does not hae to gie Zakaat al-litr on behal o a poor
ather`s wie because he is not obliged to spend on her.
|\hen giing Zakaat al-litr|. one should start with the closest
people irst. so he gies it on behal o himsel. then his wie.
then his children. then the rest o his relaties in order o close-
ness. ollowing the pattern laid out in the rules goerning inheri-
tance.
Al-Shaai`i. mav Allaah hae mercv on him. said:
\ho I sav is obliged to gie Zakaat al-litr. i a child is born to
him. or he takes possession o a slae. or someone becomes one
o his dependents at anv time during the last dav o Ramadan.
then the suns sets on the night o the crescent o Shawwaal. he
has to gie Zakaat al-litr on that person`s behal.`
14
13
Al-Majmoo`. part 6.
14
Al-Umm. Baab Zakaat al-litr al-1haani.
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135
It is not obligatorv to gie Zakaat al-litr on behal o a etus that
is still in the mother`s womb. but i this is done oluntarilv. there
is nothing wrong with it.
I someone who is obliged to gie Zakaat al-litr dies beore gi-
ing it. it must be gien rom his inheritance. een i the person
who was supporting him also dies. the obligation still stands.
15
I a serant has set wages that are paid to him dailv or monthlv.
the emplover does not hae to gie Zakaat al-litr on his behal.
because he is a hired worker. and one is not obliged to spend on a
hired worker.
16
(oncerning giing Zakaat al-litr on behal o an orphan. Imaam
Maalik mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said: 1he guardian
should gie Zakaat al-litr on behal o the orphans some o
whose wealth is under his control. een i thev are minors.`
1
Amount of Zakaat al-Iitr
1he amount to be gien is one saa` o ood. according to the
measure o saa` used bv the Prophet ,. because o the ollowing
hadeeth.
15
Al-Mughni. part 2.
16
Al-Mawsooah. 23339.
1
Al-Mudawwanah. part 1.
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136
Abu Saeed al-Khudri () said: At the time of the
Prophet () we used to give it in the form of a saa' of
food.
18
1he weight o the saa` |which is a measure o olume| aries ac-
cording to the tvpe o ood concerned. so when giing Zakaat al-
litr bv weight. one must make sure that what is gien is equia-
lent to a saa` o that tvpe o ood. A saa` is approximatelv equia-
lent to three kilograms o rice.
1ypes of 1hings that may be Given
\hat should be gien is ood or human consumption. such as
dates. wheat. rice or other kinds o ood that humans eat. It is
reported in al-Saheehavn rom Ibn Umar , that the Messenger
o Allaah , made Zakaat al-litr. one saa` o dates or one saa` o
barlev. obligatorv on the Muslims. slae and ree. male and e-
male. At that time. barlev was one o the oods thev ate,.
19
Abu
Saeed al-Khudri , said:
At the time of the Messenger of Allaah (), we used to
give a saa' of food on the day of Iitr. Abu Saeed said:
And our food was barley, raisins, aqit (dried yoghurt)
and dates.
20
It should be gien in the orm o the staple ood that is used lo-
callv. whether it is wheat. rice. dates or lentils.
18
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. 1412.
19
Al-Bukhaari. 1408.
20
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. 1408.
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13
Al-Shaaii mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said:
I the staple ood o a people is corn. pearl millet dukhn,. thin-
husked barlev sult,. rice or anv grain on which zakaat is obliga-
torv. then thev mav gie it as Zakaat al-litr.`
21
Al-Nawawi mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said:
Our companions ellow scholars o the Shaaii madh-hab,
said: It is a condition o giing something as Zakaat al-litr that
it should be one o the oodstus on which zakaat is paid at the
rate o one-tenth i.e.. zakaah o grains and ruits,. Nothing else
is acceptable except aqit dried voghurt,. cheese and milk.` `
Al-Maawardi said:
1his is the case een though some o the people who lie on
islands and others hae ish or eggs as their staple ood: these
are not acceptable as Zakaat al-litr, and there is no dierence
among the scholars concerning this,. As regards meat. the cor-
rect iew is that stated bv al-Shaaii and conirmed bv al-
Musanna and the companions in all that was narrated rom
them: that it is not acceptable as Zakaat al-litr,. and this is the
unanimous iew o the scholars,. Our companions said: 1his
is the case een i their staple ood is ruits on which thev do
not hae to gie one-tenth as zakaat. such as igs etc. 1hese are
not acceptable as Zakaat al-litr, at all.`
22
Ibn al-Oavvim mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said:
I it was said. \ou must gie a saa` o dates eervwhere.
whether it is the staple ood or not.` this is a disputed matter
21
Al-Shaaii. al-Umm. part 2. Baab al-Rajul \akhtaliu Oootuhu.
22
Al-Majmoo`. part 6: al-\aajib i Zakaat al-litr.
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138
which is subject to ijtihaad. 1here are some people who sav that
it is obligatorv. and others who sav that in each countrv it is
obligatorv to gie a saa` o whateer is the staple ood there. as
the Prophet , speciied ie tvpes o ood or Zakaat al-litr.
so in each countrv thev can gie the equialent o a saa` o their
staple ood. 1his is more correct. and is closer to the principles
o shareeah. or how can vou make it obligatorv or people
whose staple ood is ish. or example. or rice or pearl millet. to
gie dates . And Allaah is the Source o strength.
23
It is permissible to gie pasta macaroni`, that is made rom
wheat. but one must make certain that the weight is equialent to
the weight o a saa` o wheat.
As or giing Zakaat al-litr in the orm o monev. this is not
permissible at all. because the Prophet , said that it must be
gien in the orm o ood. not monev. le clearlv stated that it is
to be gien in the orm o ood. so it is not permissible to gie it
in anv other orm and Islam wants it to be gien openlv. not se-
cretlv. 1he Sahaabah gae Zakaat al-litr in the orm o ood. and
we should ollow. not innoate. 1he giing o Zakaat al-litr in
the orm o ood is regulated bv the measure o saa`. and i it
were to be gien in the orm o monev. it could not be regulated
in this manner: according to the price o what would it be worked
out and gien 1here are obious beneits to giing it in the orm
o staple oods. such as at times when businessmen are hoarding
certain goods. prices hae gone up. or at times o war and inla-
tion. I someone were to sav. But monev is more useul or the
poor. because then thev can buv what thev want. and thev might
need something other than ood. so the poor person might sell
23
I`laam al-Muwaqqaeen. part 2. al-Oivaas.
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139
the ood and lose monev.` 1he response to this is that there are
other sources or meeting the needs o the poor with regard to
shelter. clothing and so on. which are proided or rom the za-
kaat paid on people`s wealth zakaat al-maal,. general charitv and
other kinds o donations. Let us put things into the proper Is-
lamic perspectie and adhere to what was set out bv the Prophet
,. who told us that giing a saa` o ood to eed the poor is
obligatorv. I we gie ood to a poor person. he will eat it and will
beneit rom it sooner or later. because it is the kind o ood he
uses anvwav.
On this basis. it is not permissible or the purposes o Zakaat al-
litr to gie monev or a person to pav o his debts or to coer
the cost o surgerv or a sick person or to pav or tuition or a
needv student and so on. 1here are other sources or this kind o
help. as stated aboe.
1he 1ime for giving Zakaat al -Iitr
It should be gien beore the Lid praver. as is stated in the
hadeeth that the Prophet ,.
.commanded that it should be given before the people
went out to pray.
24
1here is a time when it is mustahab recommended, to gie it and
a time when it is permissible to gie it.
1he time when it is mustahab to gie it is on the dav o Lid. be-
cause o the hadeeth quoted aboe. lor this reason it is Sunnah
24
Al-Bukhaari. 140.
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140
to delav the Lid praver on Lid al-litr so as to allow enough time
or those who hae to gie Zakaat al-litr to do so. and to hae
breakast beore coming out. On the other hand. it is Sunnah to
hasten the Lid pravers on Lid al-Ad`haa so that the people can go
and oer their sacriices and eat rom them.
1he time when it is permissible to gie Zakaat al-litr is one or
two davs beore Lid. In Saheeh al-Bukhaari it is reported that
Naai` said:
Ibn Umar used to give on behalf of the young and the
old, and he even used to give on behalf of my sons. He
would give to those who took it, and it would be given a
day or two before (Lid) al-Iitr.
1hose who took it` reers to those who were appointed bv the
imaam to collect the sadaqat al-itr,.
Naai` said:
Ibn Umar used to send Zakaat al-Iitr to the one who
was collecting it two or three days before (Lid) al-
Iitr.
25
It is disliked makrooh, to delav giing it until ater Salaat al-Lid:
some scholars said that this is haraam and is counted as qadaa
making up a dutv that has not been perormed on time,. on the
basis o the hadeeth.
Whoever pays it before the prayer, it is an accepted za-
kaat, and whoever pays it after the prayer, it is just a kind
of charity.
26
25
Al-Mudawwanah. part 1. Baab 1a`jeel al-Zakaah qabla huloolihaa.
26
Reported bv Abu Dawood. 131.
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141
It savs in Awn al-Ma`bood Sharh Abi Dawud:
Obiouslv. the one who gies Zakaat al-litr ater the praver is
like one who did not gie it. because thev hae in common the
act that thev did not gie this obligatorv charitv. Most o the
scholars think that giing it beore Salaat al-Lid is onlv
mustahab. and thev conirmed that it is acceptable to gie it at
anv time until the end o the dav o litr. but this opinion is re-
uted bv the hadeeth. \ith regard to delaving it until ater the
dav o Lid. Ibn Raslaan said: 1his is haraam bv consensus. be-
cause it is zakaah. so the one who delavs it must be committing
a sin. as is the case when one delavs a praver.`
So it is haraam to delav giing it or no good reason. because this
deeats the purpose. which is to sae the poor rom haing to ask
on the dav o jov. I a person delavs giing it with no excuse. he
has committed a sin but he still has to make it up.
Zakaat al-litr has to be handed oer to someone who is entitled
to it or someone who has been appointed to collect it. at the right
time beore the Lid praver. I a man wants to gie it to a particu-
lar person but cannot ind him or a trustee who can accept it on
his behal and he is araid that time is running out. he has to gie
it to another entitled person and not delav giing it. I a person
wants to gie his Zakaat al-litr to a speciic needv person and is
araid that he mav not see him at the appropriate time. he should
tell him to appoint someone to accept it on his behal or to ap-
point him the gier, to take it rom himsel on his behal. 1hen
when the time comes. he can take it to him in a bag or whateer
or keep it or him as a trust until he sees him.
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142
I the one who wants to gie zakaat appoints someone else to
gie it on his behal. he is still responsible or it until he is certain
that his deputv has carried out his instructions.
2
1o Whom it may be Given
Zakaat al-litr mav be gien to the eight categories o people to
whom zakaat al-maal zakaat o wealth,mav be gien. 1his is the
opinion o the majoritv. According to the Maalikis. one o the
opinions o Ahmad and the opinion o Ibn 1avmivvah. it should
be gien exclusielv to the poor and needv.
1. Al-Shaaii said:
Zakaat al-litr should be diided among those among whom
zakaat al-maal is diided. and it should not be spent anvwhere
else. It should be shared out among the poor and needv.
slaes who hae made a contract to purchase their reedom
rom their masters. debtors. those who are ighting in the wav o
Allaah. and wavarers.
28
2. Al-Nawawi mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said. ater quoting
the hadeeth o Ibn Abbaas , that the Prophet , said to
Mu`aadh ,:
1ell them that they have to give sadaqah (charity) that
is to be taken from their wealth and given to the poor.
2
Majaalis Shahr Ramadaan: Ahkaam Zakaat al-litr. bv Shavkh Ibn Uthav-
meen.
28
Al-Umm: Baab Davah Zakaat al-litr qabla Oasmihaa.
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143
It is not permissible to gie anv part o zakaah to a kaair.
whether it is Zakaat al-litr or zakaat al-maal. Maalik. al-Lavth.
Ahmad and Abu 1hawr said: 1hev i.e.. kaairs, should not be
gien it.``
Zakaah should be gien to the poor. those who hae oerwhelm-
ing debts. and those whose salaries are not enough to last until
the end o the month. in accordance with the leel o their needs.
It is not permissible or the one who gies Zakaat al-litr to buv it
back rom the one to whom he has gien it.
29
Payment and Distribution
1. It is preerable or the person who is giing to share it out him-
sel. Al-Shaaii said,: I preer to share out Zakaat al-litr mvsel
rather than gie it to the one who is collecting it.`
2. Al-Nawawi mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said: Al-Shaaii
said in al-Mukhtasar:
Zakaat al-litr is to be shared out among those to whom zakaat
al-maal is shared out. I preer that it should be gien to relaties
on whom it is not obligatorv to spend at all.` le said: I he pre-
ers to gie it to the one who is collecting it. this should be ine.
in shaa Allaah. but it is better or him to share it out himsel.
I he gies it to the Muslim leader or the collector or the one
who is collecting the people`s Zakaat al-litr. and he is gien
29
lataawaa al-Shavkh Ibn Uthavmeen.
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144
permission to gie it. this is ine. but sharing it out himsel is
better than all o this.` `
30
3. It is permissible to appoint a trustworthv person to hand it
oer to those who are entitled to it. but i he is not trustworthv.
then it is not allowed. Abd-Allaah ibn al-Muammal said:
I heard Ibn Abi Mulavkah when a man was saving to him. so-
and-so told me to leae mv Zakaat al-litr in the mosque.` Ibn
Abi Mulavkah said. le does not know what he is talking about.
\ou go and share it out voursel,. otherwise Ibn lishaam the
goernor who was collecting it in the mosque, will gie it to his
guards and whoeer he wants` i.e.. he would gie it to people
who were not entitled to it,.`
31
Imaam Ahmad mav Allaah hae mercv on him, stated that it is
permissible to share out one saa` among a group o people. or to
gie manv saa`s to one person.
Maalik said: 1here is nothing wrong with a man giing sadaqat
al-itr on behal o himsel and his amilv to one needv person.`
32
I one is giing less than a saa` to a poor person. this must be
pointed out. because he might use it to pav his own Zakaat al-
litr.
It is permissible or a poor person. i he receies Zakaat al-litrah
rom someone and he has more than he needs. to gie it on his
own behal or on behal o one o those who are dependent on
him i he is sure that the ood is acceptablei.e.. it is the right tvpe
o ood and the quantitv is suicient,.
30
Al-Majmoo`. part 6.
31
Al-Umm: Baab dav`at Zakaat al-litr qabla Oasmihaa.
32
Al-Mudawwanah. part 1. Baab i Oasm Zakaat al-litr.
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145
Where to give Zakaat al-Iitr
Ibn Oudaamah mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said: As or
Zakaat al-litr. it should be shared out in the countrv in which it
became obligatorv. whether a person has wealth there or not. be-
cause it is the reason whv the zakaat became obligatorv.`
33
It was reported in al-Mudawwanah liqh al-Imaam Ahmad mav
Allaah hae mercv on him,:
I said: \hat is the opinion o Maalik on someone who comes
rom Ireeqivah Arica`, and is in Lgvpt on the dav o litr -
where should he gie his Zakaat al-litr Malik said: |le should
gie it| where he is. Maalik said: I his amilv in Ireeqivah gie it
on his behal. that is ine. \hat was meant bv Ireeqi-
vahArica` in those davs is dierent rom what it means
now,.`
34
\e ask Allaah to accept the worship o all o us and to join us
with the righteous. Mav Allaah bless our Prophet Muhammad
and all his amilv and companions.
33
Al-Mughni. part 2. lasl idhaa kaana al-muzakki i balad wa maaluhu i balad.
34
Part 1. Baab i Ikhraaj al-Musaair Zakaat al-litr.
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146
Lid
Ltiquette and Rulings
by:
Muhammad Salih al-Munajjid
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14
Praise be to Allaah. Lord o the \orlds. and peace and blessings
be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his amilv and
companions.
Lid` is an Arabic word reerring to something habitual that re-
turns and is repeated. Lids or estials are svmbols to be ound in
eerv nation. including those that are based on reealed scriptures
and those that are idolatrous. as well as others. because celebrat-
ing estials is something that is an instinctie part o human na-
ture. All people like to hae special occasions to celebrate. where
thev can come together and express their jov and happiness.
1he estials o the kaair non-Muslim, nations mav be con-
nected to worldlv matters. such as the beginning o the vear. the
start o an agricultural season. the changing o the weather. the
establishment o a state. the accession o a ruler. and so on. 1hev
mav also be connected to religious occasions. like manv o the
estials belonging exclusielv to the Jews and (hristians. such as
the 1hursdav on which thev claim the table was sent down to Je-
sus. (hristmas. New \ear`s. 1hanksgiing. and holidavs on which
gits are exchanged. 1hese are celebrated in all Luropean and
North American countries nowadavs. and in other countries
where (hristian inluence is prealent. een i the countrv is not
originallv (hristian. Some so-called Muslims mav also join in
these holidavs. out o ignorance or hvpocrisv.
1he Magians Zoroastrians, also hae their own estials. such as
Mahrajaan. Nowruz and so on.
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148
1he Baatinis
1
hae their own estials too. such as Lid al-
Ghadeer`. when thev claim that the Prophet , gae the
khilaaah to Ali , and to the twele imaams ater him.
Muslims are Distinguished by their Iestivals
1he Prophet`s words.
Lvery nation has its festival, and this is your festival.
2
.indicate that these two Lids are exclusielv or the Muslims.
and that it is not permissible or Muslims to imitate the kuaar
and mushrikeen in anvthing that is a distinctie part o their cele-
brations. whether it be ood. dress. bonires or acts o worship.
Muslim children should not be allowed to join in on these kaair
estials. to put up decorations. or to join in with the kuaar on
these occasions. All kaair or innoated estials are haraam. such
as Independence Dav celebrations. anniersaries o reolutions.
holidavs celebrating trees or accessions to the throne. birthdavs.
Labor Dav. the Nile estial. Shimm al-Naseem Lgvptian spring
holidav,. teachers` dav. and al-Mawlood al-Nabawi Prophet`s
Birthdav,.
1he Muslims hae no estials apart rom Lid al-litr and Lid al-
Ad`haa. because o the hadeeth narrated rom Anas , who said:
1
Baatini: A general term or anv group whose aith is based upon the the
belie that the Our`aan has an inner` meaning onlv understandable bv a select
ew.lere it seems the author is reerring to the Shiahs. Lditor,
2
Al-Bukhaari and Muslim.
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149
1he Messenger of Allaah () came to Madeenah and
the people had two days when they would play and have
fun. He said, What are these two days?' 1hey said, We
used to play and have fun on these days during the Jaa-
hiliyyah. 1he Messenger of Allaah () said, Allaah has
given you something better than them, the day of Ad'haa
and the day of Iitr.'
3
1hese two Lids are among the signs or svmbols o Allaah which
we must celebrate and understand the aims and meanings behind
them.
Below we ind a discussion o some o the rulings and manners
o the two Lids according to Islamic shareeah
3
Sunan Abi Dawood. 1134.
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150
J Ahkaam al-Lid (Rulings on Lid)
Iasting
It is haraam to ast on the davs o Lid because o the hadeeth o
Abu Saeed al-Khudri ,. who said that the Messenger o Allaah
, orbade asting on the dav o litr and the dav o Sacriice
Ad`haa,.
4
Ruling on the Lid Prayers
Some o the scholars sav that Lid pravers are waajib obligatorv,
- this is the iew o the lanai scholars and o Shavkh al-Islam
Ibn 1avmivah mav Allaah hae mercv on him,. 1hev sav that the
Prophet , alwavs praved the Lid praver and neer omitted to
do it. not een once. 1hev take as eidence the aavah.

1herefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice (to
Him only). |Surah al-Kawthar 108:2|
.i.e. the Lid praver and the sacriice ater it. which is an instruc-
tion. the act that the Prophet , ordered that the women
should be brought out to attend the Lid pravers. and that a
4
Reported bv Muslim. 82.
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151
woman who did not hae a jilbaab should borrow one rom her
sister. Some scholars sav that Lid praver is ard kiaavah
5
. 1his is
the iew o the lanbalis. A third group sav that Lid praver is
Sunnah mu`akkadah. 1his is the iew o the Maalikis and
Shaaiis. 1hev take as eidence the hadeeth o the Bedouin which
savs that Allaah has not imposed anv pravers on lis slaes other
than the ie dailv pravers. So the Muslim should be keen to at-
tend Lid pravers. especiallv since the opinion that it is waajib is
based on strong eidence. 1he goodness. blessings and great re-
ward one gets rom attending Lid pravers. and the act that one is
ollowing the example o the Prophet , bv doing so. should be
suicient motiation.
Lssentials and 1iming of Lid Prayer
Some scholars the lanais and lanbalis, sav that the conditions
o Lid praver are that the iqaamah should be recited and the
praver should be oered in jamaaah congregation,. Some o
them said that the conditions o Lid praver are the same as the
conditions or lridav praver. with the exception o the khutbah.
attendance at which is not obligatorv. 1he majoritv o scholars
sav that the time or the Lid praver starts when the sun has risen
aboe the height o a spear. as seen bv the naked eve. and contin-
ues until the sun is approaching its zenith.
5
Iard kifaayah: (ommunal Obligation. Onlv i a suicient number o indi-
iduals perorm the task are others absoled rom the sin o leaing it. Lditor,
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152
Description of the Lid Prayer
Umar , said:
1he prayer of Lid and al-Ad'haa consists of two com-
plete rakahs, not shortened. 1his is according to the
words of your Prophet, and the liar is doomed.
6
Abu Saeed said:
1he Messenger of Allaah () used to come out to the
prayer-place on the day of Iitr and al-Ad'haa, and the
first thing he would do was the prayer.

1he 1akbeer is repeated seen times in the irst rakah and ie


times in the second. the Our`aan is to be recited ater each.
It was reported rom Aa`ishah that the 1akbeer o al-litr and al-
Ad`haa is seen in the irst rakah and ie in the second. apart
rom the takbeer o rukoo`.
8
I a person joining the praver catches up with the imaam during
these extra takbeeraat. he should sav Allaahu akbar` with the
imaam. and he does not hae to make up anv takbeeraat he mav
hae missed. because thev are Sunnah. not waajib. \ith regard to
what should be said between the takbeeraat. lammaad ibn
Salamah reported rom Ibraaheem that \aleed ibn Uqbah en-
tered the mosque when Ibn Masood. ludhavah and Abu Musa
were there. and said. Lid is here. what should I do` Ibn
Masood said:
6
Irwaa al-Ghaleel. declared authentic bv al-Albani. Lditor,
7
Al-Bukhaari. Lditor,
8
Reported bv Abu Dawood: saheeh bv the sum o its isnaads.
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153
Say Allaahu akbar', praise and thank Allaah, send
blessings on the Prophet () and make duaa, then say
Allaahu akbar', praise and thank Allaah, send blessings
on the Prophet ().etc.
9
Recitation of Qur`aan in Lid Prayers
It is recommended mustahab, that in the Lid pravers the imaam
should recite Qaaf |Surah 50| and Iqtarabat al-saaah |al-
Oamar. Surah 54|. as it is reported in Saheeh Muslim that Umar
ibn al-Khattaab asked Abu \aaqid al-Lavthi.
What would the Messenger of Allaah () recite at Lid
al-Ad'haa and al-Iitr? He said, He used to recite
Qaaf. Wa'l-Qur`aan al-majeed' Surah Qaaf (50) and
Iqtarabat al-saaah wanshaqq al-qamar' Surah al-
Qamar (54).
Most o the reports indicate that the Prophet , used to recite
Surah al-A`laa |8| and Surah al-Ghaashivah |88|. as he used to
recite them in the lridav praver. Al-Nu`maan ibn Basheer said:
1he Messenger of Allaah () used to recite on the two
Lids and on Iridays, Sabbih isma rabbika'l-a'laa' Surah
al-A'laa (87) and Hal ataaka hadeeth ul-ghaashiyah'
Surah al - Ghaashiyah (88).
10
Samurah , said:
9
Reported bv al-1abaraani. It is a saheeh hadeeth that is quoted in al-Irwaa
and elsewhere.
10
Saheeh Muslim. 88.
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154
1he Prophet () used to recite on the two Lids, Sabbih
isma rabbika'l-a'laa' Surah al-A'laa (87) and Hal ata-
aka hadeeth ul-ghaashiyah' Surah al-Ghaashiyah
(88).
11
1he Prayer comes before the Khutbah
One o the rulings o Lid is that the praver should come beore
the khutbah. as is reported in Musnad Ahmad rom the hadeeth
o Ibn Abbaas. who testiied that the Messenger o Allaah ,
praved beore the khutbah on Lid. then he gae the khutbah.
12
Another indication that the khutbah should be ater the praver is
the hadeeth o Abu Saeed ,:
1he Prophet () used to go out to the prayer-place on
the day of al-Iitr and al-Ad'haa, and the first thing he
would do was to pray. He would then stand up facing
the people whilst they were still sitting in their rows, and
would advise and instruct them. If he wanted to send out
a military expedition, he would decide about the matter
then, or if he wanted to issue a command, he would do it
then. Abu Saeed said: 1his is what the people contin-
ued to do until I came out to the Lid prayers with
Marwaan when he was the governor of Madeenah on ei-
ther Ad'haa or Iitr. When we reached the prayer-place,
we saw the minbar which had been built by Katheer ibn
11
Reported bv Ahmad and others: it is saheeh. Al-Irwaa. 3116.
12
Musnad Ahmad. 1905. 1he hadeeth is also in al-Saheehavn.
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155
al-Salt. Marwaan wanted to get on the minbar before the
prayer. I pulled on his cloak, and he pulled on mine in
return, then he got on the minbar and gave the khutbah
before the prayer. I said, You have changed it, by Al-
laah!' He said, O Abu Saeed, what you know is gone.' I
said, What I know, by Allaah, is better than what I do
not know.' He said, 1he people will not remain sitting
after the prayer, so we made it the khutbah before the
prayer.'
13
Anvone who wants to leae during the khutbah is allowed to do
so.
14
Abd-Allaah ibn al-Saa`ib said:
I attended Lid with the Prophet (), and when he fin-
ished the prayer, he said: We will give the khutbah, so
whoever wants to sit (and listen to) the khutbah, let him
sit, and whoever wants to leave, let him go.'
15
Not Delaying the Prayer
Abd-Allaah ibn Bishr. the companion o the Prophet ,. went
out with the people on the dav o litr or al-Ad`haa and objected
to the act that the imaam came erv late. le said.
13
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. 956.
14
Indeed what we see these davs is a great eil. in that people leae during the
khutbah whilst speaking and hugging each other on the wav. Manv een linger
about chatting with others while the Imaam is deliering the khutbah. 1hose
who choose to leae during the khutbah must do so in a calm and quiet man-
ner. so not as to disturb those listening. Lditor,
15
Irwaa al-Ghaleel. 396.
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156
At the time of the Prophet () we would have finished by
now,
.and that was at the time o al-1asbeeh.
16
Nafil Prayers in the Prayer-Place
1here are no nail pravers to be done either beore or ater the
Lid praver. as Ibn Abbaas reported that the Prophet , used to
come out on the dav o Lid and prav two rakahs. with nothing
beore or ater them.
1his is the case i the praver is oered in a praver place or public
place. I. howeer. the people prav the Lid praver in a mosque.
then thev should prav two rakahs or 1ahivat al-Masjid greeting
the mosque`, beore sitting down.
Not Knowing about Lid until the Next Day
Abu Umavr ibn Anas reported rom his paternal uncles among
the Ansaar who said:
It was cloudy and we could not see the new moon of
Shawwaal, so we started the day fasting, then a caravan
cameat the end of the day and told the Messenger of A l-
laah () that they had seen the new moon of Shawwaal
the day before, so he told the people to stop fasting, and
they went out to pray the Lid prayer the next day.
1
16
Reported bv al-Bukhaari in a muallaq majzoom` hadeeth.
1
Reported bv the ie. It is saheeh: al-Irwaa. 3102.
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15
I someone misses the Lid praver. the most correct iew is that
he mav make it up bv praving two rakahs.
Women's Attendance at Lid Prayers
lasah said:
We used to prevent prepubescent girls from attending
Lid prayers. 1hen a woman came and stayed at the fort
of Banu Khalaf and told us about her sister. Her sister's
husband had taken part in twelve campaigns with the
Prophet () and she said, My sister was with him on
six of them.' She said, We used to treat the wounded
and take care of the sick. My sister asked the Prophet
() whether there was anything wrong with her not go-
ing out on Lid if she did not have a jilbaab. He said,
Let her friend give her one of her jilbaabs so that she
may witness the blessings of Lid and see the Muslims
gathering.' When Umm Atiyah came, I asked her, Did
you hear the Prophet () say this?' She said, May my
father be sacrificed for him'
18
and she never mentioned
him without saying may my father be sacrificed for him'
I heard him saying that we should bring out the young
girls and those who were secluded, or the young girls
who were secluded, and the menstruating women so that
they could witness the blessings of Lid and see the gath-
18
1his statement is not meant in the literal sense. but rather that the Messen-
ger o Allah , was more precious to her than een her ather. Lditor,
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158
ering of the believers, but those who were menstruating
were to keep away from the prayer-place itself.
19
1he voung girls` awaatiq. sing. aatiq, are girls who hae reached
adolescence or are close to it. or hae reached the age o marriage
or are erv precious to their amilies. or who are spared rom
haing to do humiliating work. It appears that thev used to pre-
ent these voung girls rom going out because o the corruption
that arose ater the irst generation o Islam: but the Sahaabah did
not approe o that and thev thought that the ruling should re-
main in their time as it had been during the time o the Prophet
,.
\here it savs My sister was with him, it seems that there is
something omitted. probablv. .the woman said. |1his is re-
lected in the translation aboe. 1ranslator|
Her jilbaabs, - she should lend her some o her clothes that
she does not need.
Secluded, - thev would hae a curtain in the corner o the
house behind which irgins would stav.
Menstruating women, - huvvad. sing. haa`id - this mav reer
either to girls who hae reached the age o pubertv. or women
who are haing their period and are not taahir pure,.
Menstruating women should avoid the prayer-place itself,
- Ibn al-Munavvir said: 1he reason whv thev should aoid the
praver-place is that i thev stand with the women who are praving
een though thev are not praving. it mav appear that thev hae no
respect or the praver or are careless. so it better or them to
aoid that.`
19
Saheeh al- Bukhaari. 324.
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159
It was said that the reason whv menstruating women should
aoid the praver-place is as a precaution. so that women will not
come near men or no reason i thev are not praving. or so that
thev will not oend others with their blood or their odor.
1he hadeeth urges eervone to attend Lid praver. and to co-
operate with one another in righteousness and pietv. 1he men-
struating woman should not orsake the remembrance o Allaah
or places o goodness such as gatherings or the purpose o seek-
ing knowledge and remembering Allaah - apart rom mosques.
1he hadeeth also indicates that women should not go out without
a jilbaab.
1his hadeeth tells us that it is not proper or voung women and
women in seclusion to go out except or a alid reason. It states
that it a woman should prepare a jilbaab. and that it is permissible
to lend and borrow clothes. It also indicates that Lid praver is
obligatorv waajib,.
Ibn Abi Shavbah also narrated that Ibn Umar used to take who-
eer he could o his household out to the Lid pravers.
1he hadeeth o Umm Ativah also states the reason or the ruling.
which is so that women mav witness the blessings o Lid. see the
gathering o the Muslims. and share the blessings and puriication
o this dav.
Al-1irmidhi mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said in his Sunan.
ater quoting the hadeeth o Umm Ativah:
Some o the scholars reerred to this hadeeth and allowed
women to go out to the Lid pravers. and some o them disliked
this. It was reported that Abd-Allaah ibn al-Mubaarak said: I
do not like for women to go out to Lid prayers nowadays.
If a woman insists on going out, her husband should allow
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160
her, but if only she goes out wearing her shabbiest clothes
and not adorning herself. If she insists on adorning herself,
then she should not go out. In this case the husband has
the right to stop her from going out.' It was reported that
Aa`ishah , said: If the Prophet () had seen what has
happened to women, he would have stopped them from
going to the mosques, just as the women of Bani Israa`eel
(the Children of Israel- the Jews) were stopped.' It was re-
ported that Suvaan al-1hawri did not like women to go to the
Lid pravers in his dav.`
20
Umm Ativah gae her atwaa in the hadeeth mentioned aboe a
while ater the Prophet , had died. and it is not reported that
anv o the Sahaabah disagreed with this. 1he words o Aa`ishah.
If the Prophet () had seen what has happened to women,
he would have stopped them from going to the mosques,
do not contradict this proided that women are meeting the Is-
lamic conditions attached to their going out,. It is better i per-
mission is gien onlv to those women who are not going to look
at men or be looked at. whose attendance will not lead to anv-
thing undesirable and who are not going to rub shoulders with
men on the street or in the mosque. i.e.. women whose going out
will not cause itnah or temptation to her or to men,.
Men should check on their womenolk when thev go out or the
praver to make sure that their hijaab is complete. because men are
the shepherds` who are responsible or their lock`. \omen
should go out unadorned. without wearing perume and being
properlv coered. Menstruating women should not enter the
20
Al-1irmidhi. 495.
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161
mosque or praver-place: thev can wait in the car. or example.
where thev can hear the khutbah.
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162
2-Aadaab al-Lid (Ltiquettes of Lid)
Ghusl (1aking a Bath)
One o the etiquettes o Lid is to take a bath beore going out to
the praver. It is reported in a saheeh report in al-Muwatta and
elsewhere that Abd-Allaah ibn Umar used to take a bath on the
dav o al-litr beore coming to the praver-place.
21
It was reported that Saeed ibn Jubavr said:
1hree things are Sunnah on Lid: to walk (to the prayer-
place), to take a bath and to eat before coming out.
1his is what Saeed ibn Jubavr said. and he mav hae learned this
rom some o the Sahaabah.
Al-Nawawi mav Allaah hae mercv on him, mentioned that the
scholars were agreed that it is mustahab to take a bath beore the
Lid praver.
1he reason whv it is mustahab to take a bath beore lridav praver
and other public gatherings also applies in the case o Lid. rather
een more so.
21
Al-Muwatta 428.
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163
Lating before Coming Out
One should not come out to the praver-place on Lid al-litr be-
ore eating some dates. because o the hadeeth narrated bv al-
Bukhaari rom Anas ibn Maalik who said:
1he Messenger of Allaah () would not go out on the
morning of Lid al-Iitr until he had eaten some dates.
and he would eat an odd number.
22
It is mustahab to eat beore coming out because this conirms
that we are not allowed to ast on this dav. and demonstrates that
the ast is now oer. Ibn lajar mav Allaah hae mercv on him,
explained that this is to preent people rom extending the ast
and it also a means o obeving the commandment o Allaah.
23
I a
person does not hae anv dates. he can eat anvthing permissible
or breakast. On Lid al-Ad`haa. on the other hand. it is
mustahab not to eat until ater the praver. when one should eat
rom the animal one sacriiced.
1akbeer on the Day of Lid
1his is one o the greatest Sunnah o this dav. because o the
words o Allaah:
22
Al-Bukhaari. 953.
23
Al-lat`h. 2446.
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164


. (He Allaah wants that you) must complete the
same number (of days), and that you must magnify Al-
laah (say 1akbeer Allaahu akbar') for having guided
you so that you may be grateful to Him. |Surah al-
Baqarah 2,:185|
Al-\aleed ibn Muslim said. I asked al-Awzaai and Maalik ibn
Anas about saving 1akbeer aloud on Lid. 1hev said. \es. Abd-
Allaah ibn Umar used to sav it aloud on the dav o litr until the
imaam came out.` `
Abu Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sulami said: On Lid al-litr thev would
sav it louder than on Lid al-Ad`haa.` \akee` said. i.e.. the tak-
beer.`
24
Al-Daaraqutni and others reported that when Ibn Umar came
out on Lid al-litr and Lid al-Ad`haa. he would strie hard in
making 1akbeer until he reached the praver-place. then he would
continue making 1akbeer until the imaam came.
Ibn Abi Shavbah reported with a saheeh isnaad that al-Zuhri said:
1he people used to make 1akbeer on Lid when thev came out
o their houses until thev reached the praver-place and until the
imaam came out. \hen the imaam came out. thev ell silent. un-
til the imaam said 1akbeer. then thev said 1akbeer.`
25
24
Irwaa. 3122.
25
Irwaa. 2121.
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165
1he practice o making 1akbeer rom home to the praver-place
and until the imaam comes in was well-known among the sala
and was reported bv a number o authors such as Ibn Abi Shav-
bah. Abd al-Razzaaq and al-lirvaabi in his book Ahkaam al-
Lidavn rom a group o the sala. An example o this is the re-
port that Naai` ibn Jubavr used to make 1akbeer and wondered
whv people did not do so. le would sav to people. \hv do vou
not make 1akbeer` Ibn Shihaab al-Zuhri said. 1he people used
to make 1akbeer rom the time thev let their homes until the
imaam came in.`
1he time or making 1akbeer on Lid al-litr starts rom the night
o Lid until the time when the imaam comes in to lead the praver.
1he Wording of the 1akbeer
Ibn Abi Shavbah reported in al-Musanna that Ibn Masood ,
used to sav 1akbeer on the davs o 1ashreeq as ollows:
`..= . `..= . . v .: v `..= . `..= .
`.`.-: .
Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, wa
Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar wa Lillaahi'l-hamd.
Allaah is Most Great. there is no god but Allaah, Al-
laah is Most Great, and to Allaah be praise).
Ibn Abi Shavbah reported it elsewhere with the same isnaad. but
with the phrase Allaahu akbar` repeated three times.
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166
Al-Muhaamili also reported that Ibn Mas`ood used to sav:
. = . `. = ,. . = . `. = ,. . = . `. - .
= . `. . . `. `.
Allaahu akbaru kabeeran, Allaahu akbaru kabeeran, Al-
laahu akbar wa ajall, Allaahu akbar wa Lillaahi'l-hamd.
Allaah is Most Great of All, Allaah is Most Great of all, Al-
laah is most Great and Most Glorious, and to Allaah be
praise.
26
Congratulating One Another
People mav exchange congratulations and good greetings on Lid.
no matter what orm the words take. lor example thev mav sav
to one another. 1aqabbal Allaahu minnaa wa minkum.
(May Allaah accept the fast and worship from us and from
you), Lid mubaarak (may it be a Blessed Lid), or other
similar permissible greetings.
Jubavr ibn Nuavr said:
At the time of the Prophet () when people met one
another on the day of Lid, they would say:
: . . . . . . . `. = `.
1aqabbal Allaahu minnaa wa minkum.
26
Irwaa. 3126.
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16
May Allaah accept the fast and worship from us and
from you.
2
1he practice o exchanging greetings was well-known at the time
o the Sahaabah. and scholars such as Imaam Ahmad and others
allowed it. 1here are reports which indicate that it is permissible
to congratulate people on special occasions. 1he Sahaabah used
to congratulate one another when something good happened.
such as when |the Prophet , inormed one o them that| Allaah
accepted a person`s repentance and so on.
1here is no doubt that congratulating others in this wav is one o
the noblest kinds o good manners and one o the highest social
qualities among Muslims.
At the erv least. one can return Lid greetings when thev are
gien to vou and remain silent i nothing is said. as Imaam
Ahmad mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said: I someone con-
gratulates me. I return the greeting. but I do not initiate it.`
Looking One's Best for Lid
Abd-Allaah ibn Umar , said:
Umar picked up a jubbah (long outer garment) made
of silk that was for sale in the market, brought it to the
Messenger of Allaah () and said, O Messenger of Al-
laah, buy this and wear it for Lid and when the delega-
tions come.' 1he Messenger of Allaah () said, 1his is
2
Ibn lajar. Its isnaad is hasan. lath. 2446.
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168
the clothing of the one who has no share of the Hereaf-
ter.'
28
1he Prophet , approed o Umar`s idea o looking one`s best.
but he rejected and denounced the idea o buving this jubbah be-
cause it was made o silk.
Jaabir , said:
1he Prophet () had a jubbah that he would wear on
Lid and on Iridays.
29
Al-Bavhaqi reported that Ibn Umar used to wear his best clothes
on Lid. so men should wear the best clothes thev hae when thev
go out or Lid.
\omen. on the other hand. should aoid adornment when thev
go out or Lid. because thev are prohibited rom showing their
adornment in ront o non-mahram
30
men. A woman who wants
to go out is orbidden to wear perume or to show o in a tempt-
ing wav in ront o men. because she is onlv going out or the
purpose o worship. Do vou think that it is proper or a belieing
woman to disobev the One \hom she is going out to worship
and oppose lis commands bv wearing attention-grabbing tight
and brightlv colored clothes or bv putting on perume and so on
28
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. 948.
29
Saheeh Ibn Khuzavmah. 165.
30
A mahramunmaritable relation, is one whom a person is o rbidden to
marrv at anv time. due to the closeness o their relation. Lditor,
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169
Ruling on Listening to the Lid Khutbah
Ibn Oudaamah mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said in his book
al-Kaai p. 234,:
\hen the imaam has said the salaam at the end o the praver,.
he should gie a khutbah in two parts like the two lridav khut-
bahs. because the Prophet , did this. 1he Lid khutbah, di-
ers rom the lridav khutbahs in our wavs . the ourth o
which is that it is Sunnah and it is not obligatorv to listen to. or
it was reported that Abd-Allaah ibn al-Saa`ib said: I attended
Lid with the Messenger o Allaah ,. and when he had inished
the praver. he said:
We are going to give a khutbah, so whoever wishes to sit
(and listen) to the khutbah, let him sit down, and who-
ever wants to leave, let him go.'
31
`
Al-Nawawi mav Allaah hae mercv on him, said in his book al-
Majmoo` Sharh al-Muhadhdhab. p. 23:
It is mustahab or people to listen to the khutbah. although the
khutbah and listening to it are not essential conditions o the
Lid praver. But al-Shaaii said: I do not like it that someone
does not listen to the khutbah o Lid. at the time o an eclipse.
when pravers or rain are oered. or during lajj. or he speaks
during one o these khutbahs or leaes. but he does not hae to
repeat the praver.`
In al-Sharh al-Mumti` alaa Zaad al-Mustaqni` bv Ibn Uthavmeen.
5192. it savs:
31
Irwaa al-Ghaleel. 396.
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10
|Ibn Oudaamah`s| words. like the two lridav khutbahs means
that he should gie two khutbahs. een though there is a dispute
in this matter. as we hae reerred to aboe. 1he Lid khutbah is
subject to the same rulings as the lridav khutbah. een to the
point that speaking during it is haraam. but it is not obligatorv to
attend. whereas attendance at the lridav khutbah is obligatorv.
because Allaah savs:


O you who believe! When the call for prayer on the day
of Jumuah (Iriday) is given, come to the remembrance
of Allaah Jumuahkhutbah and prayer, and leave off
business. |Surah al-Jumuah 62,:9|
Attendance at the Lid khutbahs is not obligatorv. and a person is
allowed to leae. but i he stavs he must not talk to anvone. 1his
is what the author is reered to when he said like the two lridav
khutbahs`.`
One o the scholars said: It is not obligatorv to listen to the Lid
khutbahs. because i it was obligatorv to attend and listen to them
it would be haraam to leae. But as it is permissible to leae. it is
not obligatorv to listen.`
Neertheless. i talking disturbs those who are listening. it is
haraam to talk because o this disturbance. not because o not
listening. On this basis. i a person has a book with him during
the imam`s Lid khutbah. it is permissible or him to read it. be-
cause this does not disturb anvone. But according to the madh-
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11
hab ollowed bv this author. it is obligatorv to listen to the khut-
bah i one is present.
Choosing Different Routes
Jaabir ibn Abd-Allaah , reported that the Prophet , used to
arv his routes on the dav o Lid.
32
It was also reported that the Prophet , used to go out walking.
and he praved without anv adhaan or iqaamah. then he would
come back walking bv a dierent route. It was said that this was
so that the two dierent routes would testiv in his aor on the
Dav o Resurrection. because on that Dav the earth will speak
about eervthing that was done on it. good and eil. It was also
said that this was done in order to demonstrate the svmbols and
rituals o Islam along both routes: to pronounce the remem-
brance o Allaah: to annov the hvpocrites and Jews and to instill
ear in them bv the number o people who were with him: to
meet the people`s needs bv giing atwas. teaching them and set-
ting an example or them to ollow: to gie charitv to those in
need: or to isit his relaties and uphold the ties o kinship.
32
Reported bv al-Bukhaari. 986.
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12
A Caution against Wrongdoing
Some people think that Islam tells us to stav up and prav on the
night o Lid. quoting an unsound hadeeth which savs that.
\hoeer stavs up and pravs on the night o Lid. his heart will
not die on the dav when hearts die.` 1his hadeeth was reported
with two isnaads. one o which is daee` weak,. and the other is
erv daee`. Islam does not tell us to single out the night o Lid
or staving up and praving: i. howeer. a person habituallv stavs
up and pravs at night qivaam,. there is nothing wrong with him
doing so on the night o Lid as well.
Mixing o men and women in some praver-places. streets. etc. It
is a pitv that this happens not onlv in mosques but een in the
most sacred o places. al-Masjid al-laraam |in Makkah|. Manv
women - mav Allaah guide them - go out uncoered. wearing
make-up and perume. launting their adornment. when there is
such serious oercrowding in the mosques - the dangers o this
situation are quite obious. So those who are in charge must or-
ganize the Lid pravers properlv. bv allocating separate doors and
routes or women and delaving the men`s departure until the
women hae let.
Some people get together on Lid or the purpose o singing and
other orms o idle entertainment. and this is not permitted.
Some people celebrate on Lid because Ramadan is oer and thev
no longer hae to ast. 1his is a mistake. the belieers celebrate at
Lid because Allaah has helped them to complete the month o
asting. not because the asting. which some people regard as a
heav burden. is oer.
www.IsIumIouse.com
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\e ask Allaah to accept our worship and our repentance. Mav
Allaah send lis Peace and Blessings on our Prophet Muhammad.
his amilv and his companions.
, Note: All erses in this book are interpretations o the Mean-
ings.