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CICIND Metallic Materials Manual - E

CICIND
METALLIC MATERIALS MANUAL March 2003

CICIND documents are presented to the best of the knowledge of its members as guides only. CICIND is not, nor are any of its members, to be held responsible for any failure alleged or proved to be due to adherence to recommendations, or acceptance of information, published by the association in a Model Code or other publication or in any other way.

Copyright CICIND 2002 ISBN 1-902998-16-2


Office of the Secretary, 14 The Chestnuts, Beechwood Park, Hemel Hempstead, Herts. HP3 0DZ, UK Tel: +44 (0)1442 211204 Fax: +44 (0)1442 256155 e-mail: secretary@cicind.org

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CICIND Metallic Materials Manual - E

CICIND Metallic Materials Manual - E

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CICIND METALLIC MATERIALS MANUAL

NOTE

THE DATA IN TABLES, DIAGRAMS AND DATA SHEETS ARE INTENDED AS GENERAL INFORMATION ONLY. FOR DESIGN PURPOSES IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT REFERENCE BE MADE TO APPROPRIATE MATERIALS STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS; ALSO TO MATERIALS PRODUCERS AND APPROPRIATE NATIONAL DIRECTIVES

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

BACKGROUND .......................................................................................................................11
General ................................................................................................................................................................11 Acknowledgements .............................................................................................................................................11 Layout of Manual ...............................................................................................................................................11 Units conversion..................................................................................................................................................11 Commonly Used Chemical Elements ................................................................................................................12

2.

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................21
2.1 Acid Dewpoint Corrosion...................................................................................................................................21 2.1.1 Dewpoint.......................................................................................................................................................21 2.2 Metallic Chimneys and Flues.............................................................................................................................22 2.2.1 Material Groups ...........................................................................................................................................23 2.2.2 Metallic Materials for Chimneys and Flues...............................................................................................23

3.

GUIDE TO MATERIAL SELECTION .................................................................................31


3.1 Criteria ................................................................................................................................................................31 3.1.1 Temperature .................................................................................................................................................31 3.1.2 Chemical Loadings ......................................................................................................................................31 3.1.3 Corrosion Allowance ...................................................................................................................................31

4.

METALLIC MATERIALS STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS.........................................41


4.1 Structural Steels..................................................................................................................................................41 4.2 Weathering Steels ...............................................................................................................................................41 4.3 Stainless Steels, Nickel Base Alloys and Titanium ...........................................................................................42 4.3.1 Stainless Steels .............................................................................................................................................42 4.3.2 Nickel Alloys and Titanium .........................................................................................................................42 4.4 Chemical effects ..................................................................................................................................................43 4.5 Allowance for Corrosion ....................................................................................................................................43

5.

STAINLESS STEELS ............................................................................................................51


5.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................51 5.2 Guidelines for Selection......................................................................................................................................51 5.3 Basic Grades of Stainless Steels .........................................................................................................................51 5.3.1 Austenitic Stainless Steels............................................................................................................................51 5.3.2 Ferritic Stainless Steels................................................................................................................................51 5.3.3 Duplex Stainless Steels ................................................................................................................................52 5.4 Material Selection ...............................................................................................................................................52 5.5 Corrosion Resistance ..........................................................................................................................................52 5.6 High-Temperature Corrosion Resistance.........................................................................................................54 5.7 High Performance Grades .................................................................................................................................54 5.7.1 Austenitic High Performance Stainless Steels............................................................................................55 5.7.2 Duplex High Performance Stainless Steels.................................................................................................55 5.7.3 Mechanical Properties .................................................................................................................................56
5.7.3.1. 5.7.3.2. Austenitic Stainless Steels. .........................................................................................................................................56 Duplex Stainless Steels...............................................................................................................................................56

5.7.4 5.7.5
5.7.5.1. 5.7.5.2. 5.7.5.3. 5.7.5.4. 5.7.5.5.

Physical Properties.......................................................................................................................................56 Corrosion Resistance of High Performance Stainless Steels in Flue Gas Environments.........................56
Resistance to Inorganic Acids.....................................................................................................................................56 Sulphurous Acid. ........................................................................................................................................................57 Chloride - and Other Halide Ion-Containing Aqueous Environments. .......................................................................57 Ranking of Individual Grades.....................................................................................................................................57 Acidic Environments Containing Halides - Flue Gas Condensates. ...........................................................................57

5.8 5.9

Corrosion Acceptance Tests...............................................................................................................................58 Potential substitution of super-austenitic stainless steel for nickel base alloys..............................................59

6.
6.1 6.2

NICKEL ALLOYS ..................................................................................................................61


Effects of Alloying in Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys .................................................................................61 Selection and Performance of Materials...........................................................................................................61

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7.
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10

TITANIUM ...............................................................................................................................71
Titanium Linings ................................................................................................................................................ 71 Definition of the Operating Environment ........................................................................................................ 71 Resistance of Titanium to hot concentrated reducing acids ........................................................................... 71 Resistance of Titanium to fluoride species ....................................................................................................... 71 Selection............................................................................................................................................................... 71 Design Stresses.................................................................................................................................................... 72 Physical Properties ............................................................................................................................................. 72 Product Form...................................................................................................................................................... 72 Installation .......................................................................................................................................................... 72 References ........................................................................................................................................................... 72

8.

ELEVATED TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES....................................................................81


8.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 81 8.2 Elevated Temperature Properties..................................................................................................................... 81 8.3 High Temperature Design Factors.................................................................................................................... 81 8.3.1 Service Life .................................................................................................................................................. 81 8.3.2 Allowable Deformation................................................................................................................................ 81 8.3.3 Environment ................................................................................................................................................ 81 8.3.4 Cost............................................................................................................................................................... 82 8.4 Criteria for Selection.......................................................................................................................................... 82 8.4.1 Short-Time Tensile Properties .................................................................................................................... 82 8.4.2 Creep ............................................................................................................................................................ 82 8.4.3 Creep-Rupture ............................................................................................................................................. 82 8.4.4 Thermal Stability ......................................................................................................................................... 83 8.4.5 Physical Properties ...................................................................................................................................... 83 8.4.6 Modulus of Elasticity................................................................................................................................... 83 8.5 Effect of Atmosphere.......................................................................................................................................... 83

9.

LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES..............................................................................91

10. .......................................................................................................................................................101 11. .......................................................................................................................................................111 12.


12.1

USEFUL INFORMATION....................................................................................................121
Material Data Sheets ........................................................................................................................................ 121

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1 Commonly Used Elements...................................................................................................................................12 Table 3-1 Corrosion allowance for the sheet steel thickness for general structural steels and for creep-resistant steels .32 Table 3-2 Addition to sheet steel thickness when using rust-resistant steels subject to aggressive condensates .................32 Table 3-3 Steel yield strength values (fy,k) at temperature from prEN13084-7:2001 ..........................................................33 Table 4-1 Limits of exposure to acidic condensation ..........................................................................................................43 Table 4-2 External corrosion allowance (CE).....................................................................................................................44 Table 4-3 Internal corrosion allowance (CI).......................................................................................................................45 Table 4-4 Minimum strengths inN/mm2 ...............................................................................................................................46 Table 4-5 Impact values for nominal thickness 10-150mm ..................................................................................................46 Table 4-6 Indication of maximum temperatures commonly used for structural steels ........................................................46 Table 4-7 Suggested maximum service temperatures in air for stainless steels ..................................................................46 Table 4-8 Summary of data on corrosion resistance of carbon steel and A242 Type 1 HSLA steel in natural gas combustion products............................................................................47 Table 5-1 Austenitic Stainless Steels .................................................................................................................................510 Table 5-2 Guideline to relative corrosion resistance of basic stainless steels ..................................................................510 Table 5-3 Type 316 S31600 Steel Properties.....................................................................................................................511 Table 5-4 Type 316 S31600 Steel Properties....................................................................................................................512 Table 5-5 Type 317 Stainless Steel (S31700) Properties...................................................................................................513 Table 5-6 Type 410 Stainless Steel (S41000) Properties...................................................................................................514 Table 5-7 Type 410 Stainless Steel (S41000) Properties ..................................................................................................515 Table 5-8 Modulus of elasticity at various temperatures...................................................................................................516 Table 5-9 Modulus of rigidity at various temperatures .....................................................................................................516 Table 5-10 Poissons Ratio at various temperatures..........................................................................................................516 Table 5-11 Suggested suitability of linings for steel stacks to withstand chemical and temperature environments of flue gas........................................................................................................517 Table 5-12 Chemical Composition1 of wrought high-performance austenitic stainless steels (wt. pct)2............................518 Table 5-13 Chemical Composition1 of wrought high-performance duplex stainless steels (wt. pct)2 ................................519 Table 5-14 Minimum mechanical properties in basic ASTM specifications for high performance austenitic stainless steels ..................................................................................................................................519 Table 5-15 High performance austenitic stainless steels ASME allowable design stress values (ksi) ...............................520 Table 5-16 Minimum mechanical properties in basic ASTM specifications for high performance duplex stainless steels .......................................................................................................................................520 Table 5-17 High performance duplex stainless steels ASME allowable design stress values (ksi) ....................................521 Table 5-18 Ambient temperature physical properties of high performance austenitic stainless steels ..............................521 Table 5-19 Ambient temperature physical properties of high perfromance duplex stainless steels ...................................522 Table 6-1 Selection of nickel alloys in ascending order of PRENW....................................................................................62 Table 6-2 PRENW values for increasing alloy content .......................................................................................................62 Table 6-3 Limiting chemical composition for C276 ............................................................................................................62 Table 6-4 Physical properties of C276 at high temperatures ..............................................................................................63 Table 6-5 Physical properties for C276 ..............................................................................................................................63 Table 6-6 Typical room temperature tensile properties of annealed C276 material...........................................................64 Table 6-7 Guidelines for the selection of stainless steel and nickel alloy for FGD equipment ...........................................64 Table 6-8 Guidelines for material selection for FGD equipment - Temperature 50-65C* ................................................64 Table 7-1 Composition of commonly used titanium alloys ..................................................................................................73 Table 7-2 Suitability of titanium alloys for different operating conditions..........................................................................73 Table 7-3 Titanium Alloy Design Stresses ...........................................................................................................................74 Table 7-4 Titanium Alloy Physical Properties.....................................................................................................................74 Table 8-1 Steel yield strength values (fy,k) at temperature from prEN13084-7:2001 ..........................................................85 Table 8-2 Short term tensile properties ...............................................................................................................................86 Table 8-3 Suggested maximum service temperatures in air .................................................................................................86 Table 8-4 Physical properties of Type 309 (S30900) ...........................................................................................................86 Table 8-5 Physical properties of Type 309 (S30900) ...........................................................................................................87 Table 8-6 Physical properties of Type 310 (S31000) ...........................................................................................................88 Table 8-7 Physical properties of Type 310 ...........................................................................................................................89 Table 8-8 Elevated temperature physical properties of high-performance austenitic stainless steels ...............................810 Table 8-9 Elevated temperature physical properties of high-performance duplex stainless steels ....................................811

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 4-4 Comparison of corrosion rates under exposure to fuel-oil combustion-product gas ........................................48 Figure 5-1 Operating zones in a generic FGD system as defined in ASTM STP 837 ..........................................................58 Figure 5-2 Commonly used grades of stainless steel.........................................................................................................523 Figure 5-3 Corrosion rates for stainless steels in various gases.......................................................................................524 Figure 5-4 Solid solution strengthening effects by alloying in austenitic stainless steels ..................................................524 Figure 5-5 Effect of nitrogen on the strength and ductility of Type 304 stainless steel.....................................................525 Figure 5-6 Strengthening effect of nitrogen in high performance austenitic stainless steels as manifested in ASTM A240 minimum strength requirements.....................................................................525 Figure 5-7 High temperature strength of austenitic stainless steels...................................................................................526 Figure 5-8 High temperature strength of duplex high performance stainless steels ..........................................................526 Figure 5-9 Young's Modulus for a selection of standard and high performance stainless steels using four different techniques ............................................................................................................527 Figure 5-10 Thermal conductivity of high performance stainless steel structure types compared with Type 316 stainless steel ........................................................................................................527 Figure 5-11 Mean coefficient of thermal expansivity for different high performance stainless steel structure types compared with Type 316 stainless steel (from 20C to T) ...................................................528 Figure 5-12 Corrosion in non-aerated sulphuric acid-chloride solutions - 0.1mm/yr (4mpy) isocorrosion curves ........528 Figure 5-13 Critical crevice and pitting corrosion temperatures for stainless steels and nickel alloys ...........................529 Figure 5-14 Critical pitting and crevice corrosion temperatures for austenitic stainless steel related to PRE number....529 Figure 5-15 Effect of pH and Cl ions on the localised attack of Type 316L stainless steel in SO2 scrubber environments......................................................................................................................530 Figure 5-16 Effect of pH and Cl ions on the localised attack of Type 317L stainless steel in SO2 scrubber environments ......................................................................................................................531 Figure 5-17 Approximate service limits for stainless steels and nickel-base alloys in flue gas condensates and acid brines at moderate temperatures [60-80C](140-176F) ..............................................................532 Figure 6-1 Adiabatic saturation curve showing H2SO4 concentration for various temperatures and operating conditions in FGD plant. ................................................................................................................65 Figure 6-2 Tensile properties of annealed plate C276 ........................................................................................................65 Figure 8-1 Schematic tensile rupture strength in 1000 hours ...........................................................................................812 Figure 8-2 Schematic Creep Curve ....................................................................................................................................812 Figure 8-3 Short time tensile strengths...............................................................................................................................813 Figure 8-4 Stress-rupture curves for several annealed stainless steels - 10,000hrs ..........................................................814 Figure 8-5 Stress rupture curves for several stainless steels - 100,000hrs .......................................................................814 Figure 8-6 Creep-rate curves for several stainless steels - 1% in 10,000hrs.....................................................................815 Figure 8-7 Creep-rate curves for several stainless steels - 1% in 100,000hrs ...................................................................815 Figure 8-8 Stress vs rupture-time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 304 stainless steel........................................816 Figure 8-9 Stress vs rupture time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 309 stainless steel........................................816 Figure 8-10 Stress vs rupture time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 310 stainless steel......................................817 Figure 8-11 Stress vs rupture time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 316 stainless steel......................................817 Figure 8-12 Stress vs rupture time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 321 stainless steel.....................................818 Figure 8-13 Stress vs rupture time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 347 stainless steel......................................818 Figure 8-14 Stress vs rupture time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 410 stainless steel......................................819 Figure 8-15 Linear thermal expansion of stainless steels ..................................................................................................819 Figure 8-16 Thermal conductivity of stainless steels..........................................................................................................820 Figure 8-17 Tensile modulus for ferritic steels (alloy and stainless) .................................................................................820 Figure 8-18 Tensile modulus for austenitic stainless steels................................................................................................821 Figure 8-19 Comparative scaling behaviour of various steels during 1000-hr exposures in air at temperatures from 1100 to 1700F (595 tp 925C) ..................................................................................821 Figure 8-20 Corrosion rates for stainless steel in various gases .......................................................................................822 Figure 8-21 Effect of nickel on scaling resistance..............................................................................................................822

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1.
1.1

BACKGROUND

General

The Manual has been developed by the CICIND Metallic Materials Committee in order to meet a perceived need for ready reference to the properties and characteristics of metallic materials for use in all aspects of chimney design. Information is well documented but found in diverse locations. In order to facilitate access to information, material data sheets are included in Section 12. Where relevant, sources are referenced in the text, together with a bibliography for further reading. Material specifications are listed with full international designations where applicable, as well as national equivalents wherever possible. Great care was exercised in reproducing the information provided in this Manual to minimise errors. However, it is inevitable that occasional slips may occur and the user is cautioned to exercise care and judgement to interpret the data correctly. Please notify CICIND immediately if you become aware of any errors or omissions so that they may be corrected promptly. Also, we would be pleased to hear of additional sources of information or of additional subjects that may be usefully included in future revisions to the Manual.

1.2

Acknowledgements

The assistance of the Metallic Materials Producers in providing data and directly supporting the work of the Committee and of the Committee members with the encouragement of the CICIND Governing Body is gratefully acknowledged. The Committee Chairman particularly wishes to acknowledge the support of the Nickel Development Institute (NiDI) for whom he acts as a consultant. The Committee comprised: Chairman: W. Plant Members: M. Atkins, M. Beaumont, G. Berger, A. Bhomik, J. Bouten, J. DeMartino, F. Henseler, J. Lettner, W. Mathay, D. Peacock, G. Di Poi, S. Reid, D.T. Smith, J. Sowizal, J. Turner, H. van Koten, R. Warren, T. Warren In preparing this document, great reliance has been placed on published information from a number of sources. The organisations involved include CICIND members, material producers and trade organisations. All such contributions are gratefully acknowledged below.

1.3

Layout of Manual

This Metallic Materials Manual has been prepared in loose format because it is expected that it will be a live document and will be updated as more information becomes available. Sections may be individually updated, or new sections, added without having to reprint the entire document. The sections are largely self-contained and, wherever possible, all the information necessary to understand the particular subject is contained within the sections. Figures and Tables for each section are generally included at the end of the section, although occasionally one is included in the main body of the section to facilitate understanding. All Figures and Tables are number sequentially and are listed in the Tables of Content, Tables and Figures at the front of the Manual. Additional supporting data are available in Section 12 from material provided by a selection of manufacturers. These additional data were current at the time of assembly but will, over time, become less up-to-date. Users of this manual are strongly encouraged to seek the most recent data from manufacturers before making final decisions as to material choice.

1.4

Units conversion

To be added

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1.5

Commonly Used Chemical Elements

The elements most commonly encountered in connection with metallic materials, their application and fabrication are given in Table 1-1 below. Name Aluminium Argon Barium Boron Bromine Cadmium Calcium Carbon Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Fluorine Helium Hydrogen Iron Lead Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Niobium [Columbium] Nitrogen Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Potassium Ruthenium Silicon Sodium Sulphur Tin Titanium Tungsten Vanadium Zinc Symbol Al A Ba B Br Cd Ca C Cl Cr Co Cu F He H Fe Pb Mg Mn Mo Ni Nb [Cb] N O Pd P K Ru Si Na S Sn Ti W V Zn

Table 1-1 Commonly Used Elements

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2.

INTRODUCTION

Many gaseous products of combustion combined with water vapour form corrosive acids when condensed. Avoidance of condensation, permitting the use of inexpensive materials for containment of flue gases in ducts, flues or chimneys, may be achieved by maintaining high temperatures at the expense of low efficiency of fuel utilisation. Internal surface corrosion problems are magnified when system efficiencies demand lower gas discharge temperatures or flue gas treatment is required such as Flue Gas Desulphurisation or other wet scrubbing process. The external environment may also play a part in causing condensation to the exterior of a chimney. The use, therefore, of the lowest cost metallic material may not be the correct choice. Resisting corrosion is of increasing concern to the chimney designer.

2.1

Acid Dewpoint Corrosion

Dewpoint corrosion can occur when a gas is cooled below the saturation temperature associated with the concentration of condensable corrosive compounds it contains and the formation of acid with water vapour. The recommendation to avoid condensation in a system is to ensure the gas temperature is higher than that of the determined dewpoint temperature by a minimum of about 20C. This is not always possible, so selection of a material to resist dewpoint corrosion must be considered. The use of corrosion resisting alloys (CRAs) may increase the first cost of the chimney. However, the overall cost of ownership will be significantly reduced by the longer chimney life, reduced maintenance and improved reliability and safety. Methods to establish a chimneys life cycle cost are available.

2.1.1 Dewpoint
Typical atmospheric water vapour levels are between 0.5% and 1%, resulting in a water dewpoint temperature of 0 - 10C. In comparison, the water dewpoint in a combustion atmosphere containing about 10% moisture is approximately 40C. Flue gases discharged by wet scrubbers are saturated. The dewpoint temperature is influenced by the presence of other condensable constituents such as sulphur trioxide, hydrogen chloride, traces of hydrogen fluoride, etc., the acidic condensate forming at higher temperatures than water vapour alone. As a flue gas generated by the combustion of a sulphurcontaining fossil fuel is cooled, the first temperature at which sulphuric acid occurs will depend primarily on the partial pressures of sulphur trioxide and water vapour, generally in the range 120-150 C. At a lower temperature, however, higher than water dewpoint, hydrochloric acid will condense, together with other acid forming compounds with varying acid dewpoint. In the present context acid dewpoint refers to the sulphuric acid dewpoint temperature as this is the highest at which acid condensation commences. From Figure 2-1i at a dewpoint of 150C., the sulphuric acid formed from combination of SO3 + H2O may have a concentration as high as 80%. Sulphuric acid is hygroscopic so that as the temperature falls water is absorbed, diluting the acid concentration. Chimney materials subject to acid dewpoint corrosion must be resistant to a wide range of acid concentrations at temperature.

Figure 2-1 Variation of condensed sulphuric acid concentration with temperature; water vapour content of gases approximately 8%

Dewpoint Corrosion: Mechanisms and Solution, Meadowcroft D.B. & Cox W.M., Dewpoint corrosion, 1985, Inst of Corr. Sci & Tech.

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2.1.2 Corrosion Most corrosion data published concerning the resistance of materials to sulphuric acid solutions were determined by immersion in bulk acid solutions. These do not relate quantitatively to corrosion resistance in thin film acid environments found on the inner surface of metallic chimneys or liners. In some solutions, such as sulphuric or hydrochloric acid at pH<4, metal dissolution rate is limited by hydrogen evolution, which may prevent access by oxygen (present in most combustion gases where fuels are combusted with excess air). With carbon steels, the iron oxide is dissolved and sulphate or chloride formed which are soluble, so that direct attack by acid occurs. Amongst other factors, temperature is most important as increases cause rapidly increasing corrosion rates, even with established corrosion-resistant materials where increasing acid concentration has little effect. The presence of molybdenum and tungsten which form insoluble molybdates and tungstates is significant. For example, with the recommended specification of alloy C276 (together with other proprietary nickel alloys) optimum resistance to acid dewpoint corrosion is accomplished.

equivalent to 0.0254 mils/year

Figure 2-2 The resistance of Alloy C276 to sulphuric acid solutions Cabot Corp. 1980

2.2

Metallic Chimneys and Flues

The majority of industrial chimneys (stacks) and flues are fabricated with plain carbon (mild) steels, which may be upgraded by direct substitution with corrosion resisting materials such as stainless steels, nickel alloys and titanium corrosion resisting alloys. The corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) may offer higher mechanical properties than the carbon steel structural material which may enable section thickness reduction to be calculated which, together with avoidance of need for corrosion allowance in many instances, can offset the higher costs of the alloyed material. However, it should be noted that not all current standards permit this approach and they are not currently allowed by existing CICIND codes. See the recommendations of Section 6.3. With intrinsically more expensive higher alloyed CRAs, use of solid material may only be justified in certain circumstances; for example, with corrosion aggression from both sides at the top of a flue or a chimney. The cost of use of higher alloyed CRAs may be reduced by use of a thin CRA layer, achieved in the case of clad plate by metallurgically bonding materials onto a structural steel backing. This form of cladding is proving of considerable importance in resisting earthquake shock conditions. Lower costs may also be attained by wallpapering or sheet-lining of carbon steel flues and shells, with stainless steels and nickel alloys securely attached by appropriate quality controlled weldingii. Similarly, titanium alloys may be utilised

ii

National Association of Corrosion Engineers, Recommended Practice RP0292-98

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employing composite carbon steel backing systemsiii (Ref: Section 6, Titanium). Cost-effectiveness can be achieved with the pre-fabrication of flue sections on site or in a workshop (Ref: Section 9, Installation & Cost Effectiveness). Fabrication employing welding is well establishediv with development of electronic control of welding processes permitting production of high weld quality consistent with good productivity, both in the field and workshop, when linked to automated systems. Pre-fabrication can permit rapid site erection of flues within windshields, whether top hung or base supported.

2.2.1 Material Groups


Metallic materials that may be utilised for construction of metallic chimneys and liners are described. Reference to these is made in appropriate sections of the Metallic Materials Manual to ensure that their properties and characteristics are fully understood. Often, where elements of structures are subject to tension resulting from external or three-dimensional stresses, ductility of a material is of significance. To assist appropriate selection, data concerning yield strength, tensile strength, ductility, creep and weldability are provided to enable the requirements of CICIND Model Codes to be satisfactorily met. For convenience, individual sections of the Manual refer to the following forms of metallic material. Within each group the commonly utilised grade or grades are indicated to facilitate consideration by chimney designers. Carbon Structural Steels ASTM A36, EN 10025-S275, A516-70 (higher temperatures) also used as a basis for composite materials such as nickel alloy clad plate. Weathering Structural Steels ASTM A242/A588 Standard Stainless Steels Austenitic Type 304L, Type 316L, Type 317L Ferritic Type 409, Type 410, Cromweld 3CR12 Duplex Type 2205 High-Performance Stainless Steels Austenitic Type 317LM, 317LMN 6% Mo super austenitic stainless steels Nickel Alloys Alloy C276 Proprietary Alloys C22, 59, 686, C2000. Titanium ASTM B265 Grades 2, 7, 16 & 26

2.2.2 Metallic Materials for Chimneys and Flues


Consideration of the best material for construction may be based upon data provided in this Manual and by discussion with a corrosion specialist and/or materials supplier. Examples of material supplier data sheets are included in Section 12.

iii iv

Resista-Clad, Showa-Entetsu, Japan; Electro-Clad,jung Won Engineering, Korea NACE Recommended Practices RP0292-98 and RP0199-99

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3.

GUIDE TO MATERIAL SELECTION

In order to facilitate decision making, the following guide to users of the Metallic Materials Manual is included, to demonstrate how to determine the parameters which lead to the selection of a suitable material solution. This section is still under development but the information below may be helpful.

3.1

Criteria
1. Flue gas temperature 2. Operating conditions 3. Flue gas conditions 4. Water content 5. Dust content 6. Acid content (HCl / SO2 / SO3 /HF) 7. Water and acid dewpoints 8. Design life 9. Cost factors 10. Human factor 11. Indigenous factors (fabrication, etc.) 12. Design considerations (earthquake, wind, etc.) 13. Transport 14. Erection

In general, the criteria which determine the material selection for a stack or liner include:

When specifying the use of a metallic structure in variance to brick, glass reinforced plastic (GRP), either as an independent self-supporting flue or chimney or as a lining of other material such as a structural steel, a range of metallic material options are available to meet the criteria established above. These metallic materials include:1. Carbon structural steels 2. Weathering steels (eg. Cor-Ten) 3. Heat resistant structural steels 4. Stainless steels 5. Nickel alloys 6. Titanium As high alloyed corrosion resisting materials in the form of nickel alloys and titanium are intrinsically expensive, use of solid material may only be justified in certain circumstances. Therefore, in order to achieve the benefit of the corrosion resistance of the materials, alternatives in the form of clad plate or wallpapering can be used. These use a thin layer of the more expensive material which is applied to a structural steel backing. Based upon the German example incorporated in DIN-Standard 4133 Steel Stacks, the following guidance is provided:-

3.1.1 Temperature
The selection of a steel, for example, is dependent on the permissible temperature range for the material (Table 3.3). This table does not, however, consider the chemical loadings. In addition to the above, for ease of reference the following tables indicate the chemical loadings for rust-resistant steels, which may facilitate the material selection, together with information provided in material producer data sheets (Section 12) and for nickel alloys and titanium (Section 6 and Section 7).

3.1.2 Chemical Loadings


The information obtained from examination of the flue gas data and design criteria, etc. determines the chemical loading which must be considered in the design life of the installation. Structural and stainless steels are not totally resistant to chemical loadings. Therefore, a corrosion allowance must be added to the calculated wall thickness for the structure when considering the chemical loading and design life.

3.1.3 Corrosion Allowance


Structural and stainless steels are not totally resistant to chemical loadings. Therefore, a corrosion allowance must be added to the calculated wall thickness for the structure when considering the chemical loading and design life.

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For structural steels structural, weathering and heat resistant steels the corrosion allowance is given in Table 3-1 and for stainless steels in Table 3-2.

Anticipated Corrosion Attack Moderate Average Strong

Corrosion allowance in mm for a design service life of 10 years 2 3 4 20 years 3 5 -

Table 3-1 Corrosion allowance for the sheet steel thickness for general structural steels and for creep-resistant steels

Design Service Life <= 20 years > 20 years

Additional corrosion allowance 0.5mm 1.0mm

Table 3-2 Addition to sheet steel thickness when using rust-resistant steels subject to aggressive condensates (Refer to CICIND Code)

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Table 3-3 Steel yield strength values (fy,k) at temperature from prEN13084-7:2001

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4.

METALLIC MATERIALS STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS

4.1

Structural Steels

Structural steels used for the construction of steel chimneys (CICIND Model Code for Steel Chimneys) and for flues within concrete or steel chimneys (CICIND Model Code for Concrete Chimneys Part C - Steel Linersv) are specified in accordance with appropriate national standards, defining mechanical properties and composition.
375

0.50 - 0.60% C 0.50 - 0.80% MN


350

0.20 - 0.30% C 1.30 - 1.70% MN

The most commonly used grades of steel are to EN 25-72 Grades Fe 360, Fe 430 and Fe 510. Grade Fe 360 has similar properties to ASTM A36. Properties of these steels are detailed in Appendix 4.1 Figure 4-1, to the left, shows schematically the effect of increasing amounts of carbon and manganese on typical yield stress values. The yield stress values (0.2% proof stress) of structural steels can be influenced by adjustment of the levels of inexpensive alloying elements, such as carbon and manganese. It may be seen from the diagram that in order to achieve increased properties in a structural steel utilising carbon content increase alone, high levels are required which can result in problems with welding, perhaps demanding pre-heat or post-weld heat treatment of welds to prevent embrittlement. A more satisfactory method to increase mechanical properties is to introduce both carbon and manganese. Manganese permits the achievement of high strength levels with lower carbon content, minimising the potential embrittlement of welds. However, care must be exercised in certain circumstances so that expert help should be sought.

325

0.15 - 0.25% C 1.30 - 1.70% MN

300

0.35 - 0.45% C 0.60 - 1.00% MN


MPa 275

250

0.25 - 0.35% C 0.60 - 1.00% MN

225

200

0.15 - 0.25% C 0.40 - 0.90% MN


175

Figure 4-1 Effect of Carbon and Manganese on typical yield stress values

4.2

Weathering Steels

Weathering and other modified structural steels have good resistance to atmospheric corrosion, except in a marine environment or where chlorides are present. These steels also show some corrosion improvement over carbon steel when in contact with flue gases where condensation of sulphurous or sulphuric acids (but not hydrochloric acid condensation) is infrequent, e.g. during shutdowns of a stack in intermittent service with metal temperature normally above acid dew point. When the metal temperature is below acid dew point for prolonged periods, the performance of weathering steels in contact with flue gases is similar to that of carbon steel (Appendix 4.2). Structural steels require protection where chemical loading is anticipated (Ref. CICIND Model Code for Concrete Chimneys, Part C, Steel Liners) and usefully provide a substrate to cost-effectively support appropriate corrosion resisting metallic materials. The corrosion resisting material may form a simple protective layer, for example with a lining applied by the wallpapering techniquevi or can contribute to structural strength with metallurgically bonded material, explosively or roll-cladvii, (Section Error! Reference source not found.).

Liner refers to the gas conduit within the chimney windshield. The lining is a metallic layer or non-metallic coating applied as a protective barrier on steel structures vi NACE Recommended Practice, Installation of stainless chromium nickel steel and nickel alloy roll-bonded and explosion-bonded clad plate in air pollution control equipment, RP0199-99 vii NACE Recommended Practice, Installation of thin metallic wallpaper lining in air pollution control and other process equipment, RP0292-98

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4.3

Stainless Steels, Nickel Base Alloys and Titanium

Corrosion and heat resistance may be provided by the use of stainless steels, nickel base alloys and titanium. These materials are considerably more costly than the structural steels described in Section 4.1 and 4.2 which require careful consideration and selection in order to provide an appropriate degree of corrosion and heat resistance to meet operating and environmental conditions. Cost-effective use of the materials may be achieved by the use of well established and proven methods of application and fabrication. It is considered most important that specialist advice should be sought in order to optimise selection and ensure satisfactory fabrication methods are specified to maximise the performance of these materials. The materials producer should be consulted, together with advisory bodiesviii.

4.3.1 Stainless Steels


The term stainless steel applies to an extensive range of materials with differing metallurgical characteristics, corrosion and heat resistance, dependent primarily upon careful combination of amount of alloying elements to cost-effectively modify and enhance performance (Section 5). Conventionalix stainless steels (including the higher molybdenum stainless steel grade Type 316L) have poor corrosion resistance in the presence of condensing sulphuric or other acids in the range of concentrations and temperatures normally found within chimneys. These materials are, therefore, not recommended in chimneys handling gaseous combustion products from fuels or wastes containing elements such as sulphur resulting in conditions of medium or high chemical load (see 4.4). Conventional stainless steels are not suitable for use in contact with flue gases containing alkalis. The most widely utilised types of stainless steel for chimney applications are the austenitic grades, where the metallurgical structure is a single phase, austenite, in which various alloying elements are in solution, providing required corrosion and heat resisting characteristics to a steel. The choice of alloy combination and content to meet the conditions to which chimney structures are exposed requires care. In general, when metal temperatures exceed 400C, consideration should be given to the use of high temperature structural steel grades or appropriate grades of stainless steel, nickel alloys or titanium, which provide heat as well as corrosion resistance. Particular care must be exercised concerning anticipated operating conditions, for example the effects of oxidation when the material is close to its temperature limit. This is especially so with gas turbine exhausts, where levels of excess air can be greater than those normally experienced. This problem may not be solved solely by an increase in corrosion allowance as the environment may be polluted by the corrosion product, particularly if the unit experiences marine atmospheres and is involved with stand-by operations. When metal temperatures are expected to be less than 65C and the concentration of sulphuric acid less than 5%, the corrosion rates with the higher (nominally 2%) molybdenum conventional stainless steels, such as ASTM type 316L, may be acceptable. The conditions downstream of a flue gas scrubber or the presence of chlorides in the condensate will radically increase the corrosion rate; possibly rendering these stainless steels unsuitable for these applications (refer to Section 5, Figure 5-3). Expert advice should be sought on the choice of suitable material.

4.3.2 Nickel Alloys and Titanium


In cases where it is not possible to avoid high chemical load on the internal face of the structural shell the use of a nonmetallic protective coating may be considered. However, a metallic liner (flue), possibly of high nickel alloy or titanium, or a carbon steel liner (flue), in turn protected by the application of high nickel alloy or titanium by well established wallpapering or sheet lining methods (see Section 9) may be used. Where stainless steel, nickel alloy or titanium components are joined to carbon steel, bolted connections are preferred. To avoid accelerated corrosion due to galvanic action connections should include insulating gaskets. Welded connections are permitted, provided special metallurgical control is exercised with regard to weld procedures, electrode selection, etc. For example, Nickel Development Institute (NiDI), Titanium Information Group, International Molybdenum Association, National and International Stainless Steel Development Associations ix Conventional in this context refers to the stainless steel grades widely employed for architectural purposes eg for cutlery, cookware, etc.
viii

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Care should be taken to use the correct coefficient of expansion for the temperature range and grade of material involved.

4.4

Chemical effects

Limited exposure to acidic condensation corrosion conditions can be permitted with due consideration to provision of an adequate corrosion allowance in chimneys which, with normal operating conditions, are safe from chemical attack. Providing the flue gas does not contain significant concentrations of halogens, (see Table 4-2, notes 4 & 5 below), the degree of chemical load is defined in the notes to Table 4-1.

Operating hours per year when the temperature of the surface in contact with Degree of exposure flue gases is below the estimated dewpoint + 10C low medium high < 25 25 - 100 > 100

Table 4-1 Limits of exposure to acidic condensation Notes to Table 4-1: 1) The operating hours in Table 4-1 are valid for an SO3 content of 15 ppm. For different values of SO3 content, the hours stated vary inversely with SO3 content. When the SO3 content is not known, chimney design should be based upon a minimum SO3 content equivalent to 2% of the SO2 content in the flue gas. 2) In assessing the number of hours during which a chimney is subject to chemical load, account should be taken of start-up and shut-down periods when the flue gas temperature is below its acid dew point. 3) While a steel chimney may generally be at a temperature above acid dew point, care should be taken to prevent small areas being subject to local cooling and therefore being at risk to localised acid corrosion. Local cooling may be due to: air leaks cold spots developed by flanges, spoilers or other attachments such as cladding supports cooling through support points downdraft effects at the top of the chimney 4) The presence of chlorides or fluorides in the flue gas condensate can radically increase corrosion rates. Estimation of the corrosion rate in these circumstances depends upon a number of complex factors and would require the advice of a corrosion expert in each individual case. However, in the absence of such advice, provided the concentrations of HCl < 30mg/m3 or HF < 5mg/m3 and if the operating time below acid dew point does not exceed 25 hours per year, the degree of chemical load may be regarded as low. See Figure 4-2. 5) Regardless of temperatures, chemical load shall be considered high if halogen concentrations exceed the following limits: Hydrogen fluoride: Elementary chlorine: Hydrogen chloride: 0.025% by weight (1300mg/m3 at 20 C and 1 bar pressure). 0.1% by weight (1300 mg/m3 at 20 C and 1 bar pressure). 0.1% by weight (1300 mg/m3 at 20 C and 1 bar pressure).

6) Saturated or condensing flue gas conditions downstream of a flue gas desulphurisation system shall always be considered as causing high chemical load.

4.5

Allowance for Corrosion

The allowances listed in Table 4-2 and Table 4-3 are for a 20 year lifetime of the chimney. For longer planned lifetimes, the corrosion allowances should be increased proportionally. For temporary chimneys, expected to be in service for less

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than one year, values of CE and CI = 0x are permissible, except in conditions of high chemical load, when a corrosion allowance of 3mm is required. For a free-standing chimney with steel liner(s), the internal corrosion allowance only applies to the internal face of the liner(s). The internal face of the outer shell requires no corrosion allowance, provided a weather-tight cover is fitted over the airspace(s) between the liner(s) and the outer shell.

(0.51 mm per yr)

Figure 4-2 Sulphuric acid saturation curve

Painted carbon steel Painted carbon steel under insulation/cladding Unprotected carbon steel Unprotected stainless steel Table 4-2 External corrosion allowance (CE)

0mm 1mm 3mm 0mm

Note: The external corrosion allowances quoted in Table 4-2 are suitable for a normal environment. When a chimney is sited in an aggressive environment, caused by industrial pollution, nearby chimneys or close proximity to the sea, consideration should be given to increasing these allowances.

CE = external corrosion allowance, CI = internal corrosion allowance

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Usual temperature of metal in contact with flue gas < 65C

Chemical load per Table 3.1 low medium high

Internal Corrosion Allowance N/A - chemical load always high N/A - chemical load always high Corrosion allowance inappropriate, use other material 1mm 4mm Corrosion allowance inappropriate, use other material 1mm 2mm Corrosion allowance inappropriate, use other material

65C - 345C

low medium high

> 345C

low medium high

Table 4-3 Internal corrosion allowance (CI) See notes below Notes to Table 4-3: 1) Provided acid concentration in the condensate is less than 5% and chloride concentration does not exceed 30mg/m3, high molybdenum stainless steel (such as ASTM Type 316L) is suitable within this temperature limit, using a corrosion allowance of 3mm for a 20 year life. These conditions are, however, unlikely to be met in a chimney downstream of a flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) system, generating condensing gases. In these circumstances great care is required in the protection of the gas face of the chimney or its liner, eg. by cladding with a suitable high nickel alloy or titanium or by the application of a suitable organic coating. For further guidance, see the CICIND Chimney Coatings Manual. In conditions of low chemical load, Cor-TenTM steel shows some improvement of corrosion resistance over carbon steel, especially when in contact with condensing acids (SO2/SO3) is intermittent or of short duration (eg. during repeated shut-downs). In these circumstances, ordinary stainless steels (including high molybdenum stainless steel) have little better corrosion resistance than carbon steel and are, therefore, not recommended. If carbon steel is used in chimneys subject to high chemical load, it will require protection by an appropriate coating. For further guidance, see the CICIND Chimney Coatings Manual.

2)

3)

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APPENDIX 4.1
STRUCTURAL STEELS GUIDANCE ON PROPERTIES FOR FLAT AND LONG PRODUCTS

0.2% proof stress, N/mm2 Nominal thickness, mm Designation S235 xi S275 xii S335 < 16 235 275 355 16-40 225 265 345 40-63 215 255 335 63-80 215 245 325 80-100 215 235 315

Tensile strength, N/mm2 <3 360-510 430-580 510-680 3-100 340-470 410-560 490-630

Table 4-4 Minimum strengths inN/mm2

Temp. (C) 20 0 -20

Minimum Energy (J) 27 27 27

Table 4-5 Impact values for nominal thickness 10-150mm

Plain carbon structural steels Cromweld 3CR12

400C 500C

Table 4-6 Indication of maximum temperatures commonly used for structural steels

AISI Type 304 309 310 316 317 321 347 410

Intermittent Service Deg C Deg F 870 1600 980 1800 1035 1900 870 1600 870 1600 870 1600 870 1600 815 1500

Continuous Service Deg C Deg F 925 1700 1095 2000 1150 2100 925 1700 925 1700 925 1700 925 1700 705 1300

Table 4-7 Suggested maximum service temperatures in air for stainless steels For further information refer to Section 5 Stainless Steels and Section 8 Elevated Temperatures

xi xii

There may be limited availability Similar to ASTM A36

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APPENDIX 4.2
WEATHERING STEELS The weathering steels or enhanced corrosion resistant structural steels utilise elements such as copper (Cu) which imparts up to 4 times the atmospheric corrosion resistance of carbon steel with copper contents of 0.2% or more, plus phosphorus (P), silicon (Si), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr). Increased yield strength is a further benefit derived from low levels of additions of these and other elements. For example, ASTM A242 Type 1 (Cor-TenTM) contains Cr, Si, Ni and P to between 2% and 3%. Weathering steels have found wide application in a number of structures such as bridges, buildings, etc., where cost advantages range from 10% - 20% over painted conventional structural steels. This is a cost-effective choice wherever the environment is appropriate for it. With chimney applications this consideration will be appropriate to the external surfaces of the structure, provided they are not washed by condensate formed by contact with the gas plume on discharge from the chimney, when acidic components are present in the flue gas. The limitation imposed on the use of weathering steels concerns what is considered to be an acceptable rate of corrosion of the inner surface of the flue or chimney associated with condensation of acids. Sulphuric Acid In the combustion process and because of catalytic activity of refractory and iron oxides, 1% (or more) of the sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the exhaust gas is oxidised to sulphur trioxide (SO3). The presence of SO3 and water vapour produces sulphuric acid, which increases the dew point of the gas to 150 F (66 C) or more, depending on SO3 concentration. Further, it is found that carbon deposits in exhaust systems typically promote the onset of acid condensation at temperatures about 50 F (33C) higher than theoretical dew point curves such as that in Figure 4-2 predict. As shown in the figure, the corrosion rate of carbon steel is drastically increased with the onset of the condensation of sulphuric acid. Although the high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) and low-alloy steels are no more resistant to general corrosion than carbon steel when immersed in CO2-, H2S-, or SO2 -containing solutions, under certain conditions A242 Type 1 HSLA steel can be more corrosion-resistant than carbon steel to acid condensates formed by SO2 and/or SO3 and water vapour. The degree of increased resistance ranges from very slight under continuous acid-condensing conditions to rather substantial under conditions of alternate wetting with the condensate and drying, as shown in Table 4-8 below. Average Corrosion Rate mpy* Carbon Steel Continuous condensation at 80F xiv Cyclic between 80F and 400F
viii

Exposure environment xiii

A242 type 1 HSLA Steel 26 21 20 32

30 38 50 50

Cyclic between 80F and 600F viii Cyclic between 80F and 400F
xv

Table 4-8 Summary of data on corrosion resistance of carbon steel and A242 Type 1 HSLA steel in natural gas combustion products * Conversion Factor 1 mpy = 1 mil per year = 25.4 m per year.

This difference has been exploited for a number of years in rotary air preheaters where A242 Type 1 HSLA steel is used for heat transfer elements and is one application where HSLA steel has better corrosion resistance than certain stainless steels. When halogen gases (Cl2, F2, HCl, HF) are dissolved in water or contain small quantities of moisture, the resulting environment is highly corrosive to carbon steel because acids are formed. There are, therefore, significant limitations for the use of weathering steels for applications handling flue gas, for example from incinerators, where temperatures approach dewpoint. Flue gas composition (volume by percent on dry basis): 8.5 CO2, 5.1 O2, 86.4 N2, 0.0 CO. Noted sulphur (as SO2) metered to burner. Total exposure time for all tests was 500 - 600 hours. Cyclic exposure time was 26mins at 80F. xiv Sulphur content- 25 grains per 100 standard cubic feet of gas xv Sulphur content 50 grains per 100 standard cubic feet of gas
xiii

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Figure 4-3 High temperature oxidation tests in air

Figure 4-4 Comparison of corrosion rates under exposure to fuel-oil combustion-product gas Dew point of gas is 270F (132C)

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5.
5.1

STAINLESS STEELS

Introduction

Stainless steels are iron-base alloys containing 10.5% or more of chromium, used extensively for industrial applications. Currently, there are numerous grades recognised internationally as standard steels (designated as Types by the American Iron and Steel Institute), together with commercially available proprietary stainless steels with special characteristics. This section of the Manual provides a readily accessible source of information on the characteristics of these useful materials to meet the needs of chimney designers.

5.2

Guidelines for Selection

Stainless steels are engineering materials with good corrosion resistance, strength and fabrication characteristics, which can meet a wide range of design requirements for mechanical load, service life and low maintenance. The following form the basis for general consideration: Carbon Structural Steels ASTM A36, EN 10025-S275, A516-70 (higher temperatures) also used as a basis for composite materials such as nickel alloy clad plate. Weathering Structural Steels ASTM A242/A588 Standard Stainless Steels Austenitic Type 304L, Type 316L, Type 317L Ferritic Type 409, Type 410, Cromweld 3CR12 Duplex Type 2205 High-Performance Stainless Steels Austenitic Type 317LM, 317LMN 6% Mo super austenitic stainless steels

5.3

Basic Grades of Stainless Steels

5.3.1 Austenitic Stainless Steels


The basic grades of austenitic stainless steels with about 18% chromium and 8% nickel contents are familiar for many domestic applications and use in locations with heavy pedestrian traffic such as escalators and street furniture. More highly alloyed grades are developed, Figure 5-2 and Table 5-1, by increasing alloying elements such as molybdenum, chromium, nickel and nitrogen. Type 304L xvi serves a wide range of applications. It withstands ordinary rusting in architecture, resists nitric acid well and sulphuric acids at moderate temperature and concentrations. Type 316Lxvi contains slightly more nickel than Type 304L, and 2 - 3% molybdenum, giving it better resistance to corrosion than Type 304L, especially in chloride environments that tend to cause pitting (see Section 5.5), for example marine atmospheres. Type 317L xvi contains 3-4% molybdenum and more chromium than Type 316L for even better resistance to pitting.

5.3.2 Ferritic Stainless Steels


With a minimum chromium content of about 10.5%, ferritic stainless steels exhibit a useful combination of mechanical properties with adequate corrosion resistance for many applications where improved life is demanded from conventional structural steels without undue cost increase.

xvi

L denotes low carbon grade. Generally 0.03% C. Regular grades may contain 0.08% C.

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The steels, therefore, lie between the enhanced corrosion resisting (weathering) structural steel such as COR-TEN, and the basic standard grade of austenitic stainless steel Type 304L. Grades are available corresponding to the European designation 1.4003 or Type 409/410, however, with proprietary designations such as REMANIT 1.4002 (Krupp-Thyssen Nirosta) and 3CR12 (Columbus Stainless). Because of balanced chemical composition and titanium stabilisation, these ferritic steels are characterised by good weldability with resistance to embrittlement and heat resistance at temperatures up to 700 C. Data is provided for Type 410 and for 3CR12 in the material data sheets of Section 12. The ferritic grades have the lowest alloy content of the general-purpose stainless steels, for example Type 410 is selected for highly stressed parts needing the combination of strength and corrosion resistance, such as fasteners. Type 410 resists corrosion in mild atmospheres, steam and many mild chemical environments.

5.3.3 Duplex Stainless Steels


Table 5-2 lists the relative corrosion resistance of the AISI basic stainless steels in five broad categories of corrosive environments. Mechanical properties of representative steels Type 316 (Table 5-3, Table 5-4), Type 317 (Table 5-5) and Type 410 (Table 5-6, Table 5-7), and physical properties of a range of steels are detailed (Table 5-8, Table 5-9, Table 5-10).

5.4

Material Selection

Many variables influence the corrosive environment:- concentration of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, temperature, time, etc., making it difficult to select the most cost-effective steel to use without knowledge of specific conditions. In order of importance, the criteria to be considered when selecting appropriate grades of stainless steel are: Corrosion or Heat Resistance - Knowledge of the environment and degree of corrosion and/or heat resistance required. (Ref. Sections 5.5 and 5.6). Mechanical Properties - Strength required at service temperatures. Generally, combination of corrosion resistance and strength is the basis for selection. (Ref. Sections 5.6 and 5.7). Fabrication - Welding considerations. (Ref. Section Error! Reference source not found.). Total Cost - Value analysis should consider not only material and fabrication costs but also maintenance-free benefits for long service life. Often the stainless steels retain value at the end of their service life. (Ref. Section Error! Reference source not found.). General guidance is provided in Table 5-11.

5.5

Corrosion Resistance

Chromium is the alloying element that imparts to stainless steels their corrosion-resistance by combining with oxygen to form a thin, transparent chromium-oxide protective film on the surface. Because the passive film is such an important factor, there are precautions which must be observed in designing stainless steel equipment, in fabrication and use of the equipment, to avoid destroying or disturbing the film. In the event that the protective (passive) film is disturbed or even destroyed, in the presence of oxygen in the environment it will be renewed and will continue to give maximum protection. The film is stable and protective in normal atmospheric or mild aqueous environments, but can be improved by increasing chromium, nickel, molybdenum and other alloying elements. Additional chromium improves film stability, molybdenum and chromium increase resistance to chloride penetration and nickel improves film resistance in strong acid environments (Section 5.6)xvii. Stainless steels resist corrosion in a broad range of conditions, but they are not immune to every environment. For example, stainless steels perform poorly in reducing environments such as 50% sulphuric and hydrochloric acids at elevated temperatures. The corrosive attack experienced is the result of a breakdown of the protective film over the entire metal surface.

xvii

High performance stainless steels, NiDI Reference Book 11021

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The types of attack which are more likely to be of concern are pitting, crevice attack, stress-corrosion cracking and intergranular corrosion. Pitting occurs when the protective film breaks down in small isolated spots, such as when halide salts contact the surface. Once started, the attack may accelerate because of differences in electrical potential between the large area of passive surface and the active pit. Pitting is avoided in many environments by using Types 316L and 317L which contain molybdenum. Candidate materials for more severe pitting conditions are the high performance stainless steels and nickel alloys. (Ref. Section 5.5)xvii. Crevice Corrosion results from local differences in oxygen concentration associated with solid deposits on the metal surface, gaskets, lap joints or crevices under bolt heads where small amounts of liquid can collect, become stagnant so the chromium oxide protective film is not renewed. The material responsible for the formation of a crevice need not be metallic. Wood, plastics, rubber, concrete, and living organisms have all been reported to cause crevice corrosion. Once attack begins within the crevice, its progress is very rapid, frequently more intense in chloride environments. The high performance stainless steels and nickel alloys containing molybdenum are used to minimise the problem. The best solution to crevice corrosion, however, is a design that eliminates crevices. Stress-Corrosion is caused by the combined effects of tensile stress and corrosion. Many alloy systems have been known to experience stress-corrosion cracking, for example, brass in ammonia. Stainless steels can be susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking in chloride environments. Austenitic steels resist a wide range of chloride environments and remain completely free from this form of corrosion. Failure in stainless steels is mainly confined to transgranular cracking in highly stressed components and takes place because of a unique set of metallurgical and chemical circumstances; temperature, concentration, pH, stress level, etc. Type 317LM has good resistance and has been shown to perform well in the flue gas desulphurisation environment. Several proprietary super austenitic stainless steels also resist stress cracking in hot chloride environments. Intergranular Corrosion. The results of early research work and improved steelmaking practices in the last decade have ensured that this form of corrosion does not occur except when the grade of steel is incorrectly selected. This classical and specific form of corrosion, although rare today, occurs usually with the austenitic stainless steels. It is caused by production of grain boundary sensitised regions by incorrect heat treatment, prolonged welding times or service in the temperature range 450-850 C when a compositional change may occur. If a sensitised material is then subjected to a corrosive environment, some intergranular attack may be experienced. Sensitisation may result from slow cooling from annealing temperatures, stress-relieving in the sensitisation range, or welding. The short time at temperature characteristic of welding can result in sensitisation of a band, usually 3mm to 6mm wide, adjacent to, but slightly removed from, the weld. This region is known as the heat-affected-zone or HAZ. Prevention is achieved by: 1. Use of stainless steel in the annealed condition. 2. Selection of the low-carbon (0.030% maximum) stainless steels for weld fabrication. Low-carbon grades are Types 304L, 316L and 317L. The less carbon available to combine with the chromium, the less likely is carbide precipitation to occur. 3. Selection of a stabilised grade such as Type 321 (titanium stabilised) or Type 347 (niobium stabilised) for service in the 800-1650 F (427-899 C) range. The protection obtained with these grades is based upon the greater affinity of titanium and niobium for carbon. 4. Avoiding use of oxy-fuel gas cutting methods.

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5.6

High-Temperature Corrosion Resistance

Stainless steels have been widely used for elevated-temperature service, so fundamental and practical data concerning their resistance to corrosion are provided. When stainless steels are exposed at elevated temperatures, changes can occur to the surface film. For example, at mildly elevated temperatures in an oxidising gas, a protective oxide film is formed. In an environment containing sulphur-bearing gases, the film will be in the form of sulphides which may also be protective. In more aggressive environments, such as gas turbine ducts and stacks, with temperatures above 1600F (871C), the surface film may break down with sudden increase in scaling. Depending on alloy content and environment, the film may be self-healing for a period of time, followed by another breakdown. Under extreme conditions of high temperature and corrosion, the surface film may not be protective at all. Therefore, information provided should serve only as a starting point for material selection, not as a substitute for service tests. (Table 5-11). Oxidation In non-fluctuating-temperature service the oxidation resistance (or scaling resistance) of stainless steels depends primarily on the chromium content. Steels with less than 18% chromium (ferritic grades primarily) are limited to temperatures below 1500 F (816 C). Those containing 18-20% chromium are useful to temperatures of 1800 F (982 C), while adequate resistance to scaling at temperatures up to 2000F (1093C) requires a chromium content of about 25%, with selection of steels such as Types 309 and 310. Effect of Atmosphere Developments with power generation associated with gas turbines and incineration stimulates interest in oxidation in carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water vapour environments. Exposure to mild conditions in these environments leads to the formation of the protective oxide film described earlier, but when conditions become too severe film breakdown can occur. The onset of this transition is unpredictable, influenced by alloy composition. Sulphidation Sulphur in various forms and even in relatively small quantities accelerates corrosion in many environments. Sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and sulphur vapour are among the most corrosive forms. Sulphur vapour and hydrogen sulphide are considerably more aggressive than sulphur dioxide. Sulphur attack, although closely related to oxidation, is more severe. Metal sulphides melt at lower temperatures than comparable oxides, and they may fuse to metal surfaces. Also, sulphides are less likely to form tenacious, continuous, protective films. Fusion and lack of adherence result in accelerated corrosion. The resistance of stainless steels to sulphidation depends on chromium content. Flue Gas The corrosivity of flue gas containing sulphur dioxide or hydrogen sulphide is similar to that of most sulphur-bearing gases. Accordingly, the corrosion resistance of stainless steels in flue gas environments is improved by increased chromium content, as shown in Table 5-12. Figure 5-3 indicates the effect of chromium content on corrosion in flue gases produced by various fuels. [Note: Corrosion rates of 1 to 2mm per year have been reported for Types 304 and 316 in the temperature range 12001400 F (649-760 C).] For reducing flue-gas environments, satisfactory material selection requires service tests. Details of elevated temperature properties are to be found in Section 8 of this Manual.

5.7

High Performance Grades

Increase of alloy content or addition of further alloying elements to the basic grades provides stainless steels with characteristics and properties enhanced for specific requirements or fitness for purpose. Optimisation of selection for cost-effectiveness should be discussed with materials specialists or producers.

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The high performance stainless steelsxviii have superior corrosion resistance in a wide variety of aggressive environments when compared with the basic stainless steel grades such as Type 316L. Their superiority in chloride-containing environments results from increasing levels of chromium, nickel, molybdenum and nitrogen for corrosion resistance, and very low carbon contents. There are three grades of high performance stainless steels - austenitic, ferritic and duplex (austenitic-ferritic). The higher nickel austenitic grades are generally preferred for severe acid service and for resistance to chloride pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking in flue gas cleaning equipment ducts and chimneys handling acid condensates. Duplex grades can be selected where higher strength is an advantage and where stress-corrosion cracking could be a problem. Where site fabrication is an important consideration, the austenitic grades are favoured because of their relative ease of welding. The high performance stainless steels with improved corrosion resistance are more technically demanding than Type 316L with regard to fabrication requirements.

5.7.1 Austenitic High Performance Stainless Steels


A list of wrought austenitic stainless steels is given in Table 5-12, identified by grade and UNSxix number. The grades in Table 5-12 are arranged in the order of increasing molybdenum, chromium and nitrogen content, or increasing PRExx number. Type 317LMN, for example in sub-group A-2 (Table 5-12), provides improved localised corrosion resistance to Types 316L and 317L, with higher molybdenum and nitrogen contents. Nitrogen, while improving corrosion resistance, also stabilises the austenite so the nickel can be limited for optimum economy. Type 317LMN has been widely used in flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) equipment operating under moderately aggressive pitting conditions. The 6% Mo grades, frequently called the super stainless steels, include AL-6XN, 1925hMo, 25-6MO and 254 SMO in sub-group A-4, were designed originally to resist localised corrosion in seawater at near-ambient temperatures by the use of relatively high levels of nitrogen, chromium and molybdenum to give a PRE number in the range of 40 to 44. They have been widely used in a variety of power plant applications. Higher strength is obtained with high nitrogen alloys such as 4565S. The highest level of performance combining high strength with outstanding localised corrosion resistance, good chloride stress corrosion cracking and acid resistance are provided in sub-group A-6. Significantly, they approach the nickel base alloys with respect to localised corrosion resistance, while providing much higher strength. These newer grades have an excellent potential for solving crevice corrosion problems in gasketed joints.

5.7.2 Duplex High Performance Stainless Steels


Duplex stainless steels, detailed despite limited application in FGD systems, ducts and chimneys, have a microstructure of approximately equal portions of austenite and ferrite with properties that take advantage of the better attributes of each of the two phases. These grades offer very high strength along with useful ductility and toughness. However, duplex stainless steels require careful fabrication to maintain the optimum structure, so are more demanding than the austenitic stainless steels, the probable reason why they find less application in FGD and chimneys. Table 5-13 lists wrought high performance duplex stainless steels. It should be borne in mind that duplex stainless steels can be subject to 885F (474C) embrittlement. The 25Cr duplex grades, sub-group D-3, such as Ferralium 255, use higher levels of chromium to produce better localised corrosion resistance. The chromium provides very good resistance to oxidising acids. They require higher nickel to balance the higher chromium, which improves resistance to reducing acids as well.

xviii xix

For completeness, a wide range of materials are referenced in order to facilitate choice and availability Metals and alloys in the Unified Numbering System. Society of Automobile Engineers, USA. xx The PRE was developed from Pitting Index value obtained from ambient temperature seawater tests. If the Pitting Index based on chromium and molybdenum contents gave a value greater than 32, the alloy was resistant to pitting. If the value was greater than 36 the alloy was resistant to crevice corrosion in seawater. The inclusion of nitrogen in the calculation led to PRE and its use for FGD material selection. The PRE number (pitting resistance equivalent) is determined from PRE = %CR + 3.3 x %Mo + 16 x %N. A higher PRE number indicates a greater resistance to localised corrosion in chloride-containing environments.

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Sub-group D-4 is the most highly alloyed sub-group of the duplex family. The high chromium, molybdenum, nickel and nitrogen content produces the best corrosion resistance of any of the duplex grades and higher strength than is obtainable in any high performance stainless steel. For this reason, these alloys are sometimes called super duplex stainless steels.

5.7.3 Mechanical Properties


The nitrogen-containing austenitic grades, together with duplex steels, have properties well above standard grades, permitting use of thinner sections to offset the increased cost of higher alloy contents.

5.7.3.1. Austenitic Stainless Steels.


The austenitic grades provide an excellent combination of strength, ductility and toughness over a broad temperature range. Most of the alloying elements used to improve corrosion resistance strengthen the steel, Figure 5-4. The effect of nitrogen on strength is shown in Figure 5-5, where a near 50% yield strength increase over Type 304 stainless steel is indicated for a nitrogen content of 0.20%. The minimum ambient temperature mechanical property requirements for these grades as defined by the ASTM Standard Specification for plate, sheet and strip (A240) are provided in Table 5-14. Mechanical properties also improve with increased alloy and nitrogen contents, illustrated in Figure 5-6, where grades with increasing alloy content are compared with values for Type 316L. The ASME Code allowable design stress values given in Table 5-15 confirm this with values for some high performance grades more than twice those of Type 316L. The high performance austenitic grades also retain their advantage over the standard grades at elevated temperatures. Typical short-term elevated temperature data compared with Type 316L are given in Figure 5-7. These grades can provide useful performance at considerably higher temperatures than the ferritic and duplex grades.

5.7.3.2. Duplex Stainless Steels.


Strength of the duplex grades increases and ductility decreases as the level of alloying increases, especially nitrogen content. Minimum yield strengths for sheet and plate are as high as 550 MPa (80 ksi). Table 5-16. The elevated temperature properties, Figure 5-8, and ASME Code design stresses are given in Table 5-17.

5.7.4 Physical Properties


Ambient temperature physical properties for austenitic and duplex steels are given in Table 5-18 & Table 5-19. Elevated temperature values are detailed in Section 8, Table 8-8 & Table 8-9. Data are included for one or more standard grades to provide a basis for comparison, based primarily upon manufacturers data. Youngs Modulus for the ferritic grades is about 200 GPa (29.0 x 103 ksi), and about 185 GPa (27.0 x 103 ksi), for the highnickel austenitic grades. Figure 5-9. Among the austenitic grades, increased nickel contents lower thermal conductivity and expansivity. Thermal conductivity and coefficients of thermal expansion are shown as a function of temperature in Figure 5-10 & Figure 5-11.

5.7.5 Corrosion Resistance of High Performance Stainless Steels in Flue Gas Environments.
The outstanding corrosion resistance of the high performance stainless steels is due not only to their high alloy content, but also to the interaction of high chromium levels with other alloying elements. For example, molybdenum becomes more effective for chloride pitting resistance as chromium content increases.

5.7.5.1. Resistance to Inorganic Acids.


The presence of chlorides or other halides can lead to pitting when a stainless steel would otherwise be expected to display stable passive behaviour, for example when considering performance in sulphuric acid solutions. Higher molybdenum austenitic grades can give better resistance. This is illustrated in Figure 5-12, which shows corrosion data for acid solutions containing 200 and 2,000 ppm chloride ion. The performance of the grades in sub-groups A-4 to A6 under these conditions makes them candidates for handling combustion product acid condensates, which often contain chloride, at moderate temperatures.

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5.7.5.2. Sulphurous Acid.


Sulphurous acid is a relatively weak acid that is normally encountered as condensate in flue gases containing sulphur dioxide. It will cause pitting in Type 304, but can usually be handled with Type 316 provided it is not accompanied by sulphuric acid and chloride or fluoride ions. However, many flue gases can be very acidic and contain halide ions. In these instances, the high performance stainless steels and nickel alloys will offer substantially better corrosion resistance than Type 316L.

5.7.5.3. Chloride - and Other Halide Ion-Containing Aqueous Environments.


The pitting and crevice corrosion of stainless steels are similar, but differ in their initiation, occurring by a local breakdown of the passive chromium oxide film. There is then the localised development of an anodic corrosion site surrounded by a cathodic area that remains passive. Crevice corrosion occurs in the presence of a solid deposit, gasket, or some other crevice former to initiate corrosion. Otherwise, the two forms of corrosion are essentially identical, with resistance to crevice corrosion usually less than to pitting. Because most structures will contain crevices, crevice corrosion is more important from an engineering standpoint. Precautions that should be followed during fabrication are well documented. Post-weld removal of surface oxide (heat-tint)xxi is an essential requirement for obtaining satisfactory stainless steel weld corrosion performance in high chloride-containing acid environments. The general environmental effects which promote crevice corrosion in stainless steels include high chloride concentrations, high acidity (low pH), high temperature, high dissolved oxygen content, and any environmental constituent which raises the corrosion potential such as oxidising metallic ions and dissolved chlorine gas. All these factors must be considered in relation to whether any grade of stainless steel will be suitable for a given situation or whether a nickel base alloy should be considered. Again, it is emphasised that materials producers should be consulted.

5.7.5.4. Ranking of Individual Grades


The evaluation of any grade of stainless steel for its localised corrosion resistance is often difficult because of the many variables involved. A comparative test to ASTM Standard Test Method G 48 uses ferric chloride to produce results that define a critical pitting temperature or a critical crevice corrosion temperature. Care must be taken when interpreting data as the ferric chloride test environment is very aggressive and does not provide results that translate directly to practical environments. Data for representative grades evaluated in 10% ferric chloride are given in Figure 5-13. It shows that some critical temperatures are much lower than the temperatures to which standard stainless steels are often exposed in service, illustrating the severity of the test. For this reason it cannot be used as a basis for establishing service temperature limits, but has found use as a quality control methodxxii. The high performance austenitic stainless steels far out-perform the standard Type 316L grade in this test as Figure 5-13 shows, approaching that of nickel base alloys. Performance of the different grades varies with chromium, molybdenum, and nitrogen alloying contents. Various formulae have been developed to relate composition to critical corrosion temperatures. The most commonly used expression gives a pitting resistance equivalent (PRE) number, for example, PRE = %Cr + 3.3%Mo + 16%N. Some typical correlations of the PRE number with several critical temperature indices, Figure 5-14, show the strong alloying effect of nitrogen, molybdenum and chromium, in that order.

5.7.5.5. Acidic Environments Containing Halides - Flue Gas Condensates.


Mildly acid aqueous environments containing halides (but not strong oxidants) can be handled by many of the high performance stainless steels, provided the temperature and halide concentrations remain relatively low. The likelihood of pitting and crevice corrosion increases with acidity, temperature, halide content and, especially, with reducing conditions which could lead to general corrosion, conditions frequently found in flue gas cleaning equipment, ducts and chimneys. Fuels that contain sulphur or chlorine produce the most corrosive combustion products, the most common examples being high sulphur coals, fuel oils and municipal waste. Condensate (and scrubbing liquor) will become acidic with the SO2 and reducing with the SO3 and HCl in flue gases. The design and method of operation of the gas-handling system will also contribute greatly to the severity of corrosive conditions that may develop. In general, raw gas condensate and gas recycling together will produce the most corrosive NiDI Publication reference 10068 Quality control systems for the installation of a Hastelloy chimney lining using the wallpapering technique, Stella,F., CICIND Report Vol 10, No 2, 1994
xxii xxi

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conditions. The generic FGD system illustrated in Figure 5-1 below defines various locations within the Flue Gas Desulphurisation system in terms of relative potential for corrosion. Zones having different degrees of corrosivity are indicated A - H. Each zone is defined in terms of both qualitative and quantitative severity in Figure 5-1. From the standpoint of metallic corrosion, the most severe zones all involve ductwork and stacks or wet/dry conditions where the pH can be <0.1 and temperatures can be as high as 182 C (360 F). Locations that are washed or that handle absorbent are mild or moderately corrosive.

Code A B C D E F G H

Qualitative description of scrubber operating zones Mechanical Chemistry Temperature Environment Mild corrosive (vapour) Mild Mild Moderate (immersion) Mild Mild Moderate Moderate Mild Moderate Severe Mild Severe Mild Moderate Severe Mild Severe Severe Severe Severe Moderate Severe Moderate

Figure 5-1 Operating zones in a generic FGD system as defined in ASTM STP 837 The generic FGD system does not account for chloride and fluoride levels, or any operating variables such as deposit buildup, so further information is needed to assist materials selection. Stainless steels Type 316L and 317L exposed in a large number of commercial SO2 scrubbing environments, Figure 5-15 & Figure 5-16 indicated the detrimental effect of high cloride and acidity, increasing the tendency for localised pitting or crevice corrosion. However, experience has shown that the more highly alloyed stainless steels are needed with even moderate increase of chloride plus fluoride levels and that nickel base alloys are necessary for locations handling raw gas condensate at high temperature. The approximate behaviour of representative grades is shown in Figure 5-17 indicating that a wide range in performance and cost-effectiveness is available. The localised corrosion predictions as a function of chloride and pH in Figure 5-15 and Figure 5-16 should not be used to estimate performance for the very severe condition of raw acid condensate that may occur in ducting and stacks. When the pH begins to fall below about 1.0, the corrosion mode for most stainless steels, including the high performance grades, begins to shift toward general attack. Corrosion data for acid solutions are more applicable for these conditions. General experience has indicated that only the most highly alloyed nickel base alloys will be useful in ducting or stacks where raw acid condensate is likely to form. An exception may be the newest sub-group A-6, the austenitic high performance stainless steels which have outstanding resistance to strong acids containing chloride. The disadvantage of titanium in strong fluoride-containing acids was also confirmed by these tests.

5.8

Corrosion Acceptance Tests

The concept of using corrosion tests to verify a given particular property of a stainless steel is well established as a useful tool for the evaluation of mill products and for evaluating equipment after fabrication. In most cases, the test demonstrates the absence of a particular problem such as grain boundary carbides or intermetallic phases.

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ASTM G48, which measures pitting and crevice corrosion resistance, differs from these tests because it describes only the laboratory procedures without defining the acceptance criteria. Fortunately, G48, in its focus on chloride-induced localised corrosion, is directed toward the corrosion quality criterion of most importance to the high performance stainless steels. The test method is also extremely sensitive to the effects of intermetallic phases and is applicable to all alloy types austenitic, ferritic and duplex. Therefore, producers and users often use it as a corrosion acceptance test for these alloys when localised corrosion is a consideration. It is important to recognise that G48 does not define acceptance criteria for given alloys because any criterion will depend on factors such as the application, method of fabrication, etc., and mutual agreement among parties involvedxxii, for example, as the basis for routine quality assurance test which is rapid and simple.

5.9

Potential substitution of super-austenitic stainless steel for nickel base alloys

The super-austenitic stainless steels are well known and widely utilized, being described in Section 5.7. Essentially, they are represented by numerous proprietary grades of differing alloy content and corrosion resistance based upon the notional 6% Molybdenum, 20% Chromium, 18-25% Nickel, 0.15-0.25% Nitrogen and 0.75-1.0% Copper compositions. The higher mechanical properties of these super-austenitic stainless steels may permit lighter structures in design to be considered in comparison with, for example, Type 316L. There are no simple solutions for dew-point corrosion problems, so that careful attention must be given to actual operating conditions which influence the corrosion environment to achieve economic materials selection. Of significance is the potential use for chimney linings of the recently developed super-austenitic stainless steels of higher alloy content claimed to offer improved corrosion resistance comparable to nickel base alloys, such as Alloys 625 and C276, with potential cost benefits. Reference: The cost effective use of nickel alloys and stainless steels for chimneys (stacks) in air pollution control systems, Stainless Steel World, October 2000, pp47-58. The above paper is reproduced in Appendix 6.1 by kind permission of KCI Publishing B.V., publishers of Stainless Steel World.

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Type 304L 309 310 316L 317L 321 347

Chemical composition % (max unless otherwise noted) C 0.03 0.20 0.25 0.03 0.03 0.08 0.08 Mn 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 P 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 0.045 S 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 Si 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Cr 18.0/20.0 22.0/24.0 24.0/26.0 16.0/18.0 18.0/20.0 17.0/19.0 17.0/19.0 Ni 8.0/12.0 12.0/15.0 19.0/22.0 10.0/14.0 11.0/15.0 9.0/12.0 9.0/13.0 2.0/3.0 3.0/4.0 5xC Ti (min) 10xC Nb-Ti (min) Mo Other

Table 5-1 Austenitic Stainless Steels Atmospheric Industrial 304L 309 310 316L 317L 321 347 410 S30403 S30900 S31000 S31603 S31703 S32100 S34700 S41000 X X X X X X X Marine X X X X X X X Mild X X X X X X X X Chemical environment Oxidising X X X X X X X X Reducing

Type Number UNS Number

Table 5-2 Guideline to relative corrosion resistance of basic stainless steels Notes: The X notations indicate that a specific stainless steel type may be considered as resistant to the corrosive environment. This list is suggested as a guideline only and does not suggest or imply a warranty on the part of the American Iron and Steel Institute. When selecting a stainless steel for any corrosive environment, it is always best to consult with a corrosion engineer and, if possible, conduct tests in the environment involved under actual operating conditions.

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Type 316
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum unless noted otherwise) C Mn P S Si Cr Ni N Mo Ti Al Cb + Ta 0.08 2.00 0.045 0.030 1.00 16.00/ 10.00/ 2.00/ 18.00 14.00 3.00 REPRESENTATIVE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (annealed sheet unless noted otherwise) Yield strength Elongation Reduction of Hardness Test Temperature Tensile strength 0.2% offset in 2 (50.8mm) Area Rockwell F C ksi MPa ksi MPa % % B 80 27 42 290 84 579 50 79 300 149 29.2 201 75 517 53 77 500 260 25 172 73 503 49 75 700 371 23 159 72.5 500 47 69 900 482 21.5 148 70.2 484 47 69 1100 593 20.3 140 65.5 452 44 63 1300 704 19 131 50 345 43 58 1500 816 16 110 27 186 42 55 1700 927 11.6 80 67 60 1900 1038 5.6 39 60 47 2000 1093 4 28 75 55 REPRESENTATIVE CREEP AND RUPTURE PROPERTIES Stress for a Creep rate of Stress for a rupture in Test temperature 0.0001% per hour 0.00001% per hour 1,000 hours 10,000 hours (1% in 10,000 hrs) (1% in 100,000 hrs) F C ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa 1000 538 35.5 245 20.1 139 50 345 43 296 1100 593 22.5 155 12.4 85 34 234 26.5 183 1200 649 14.2 98 7.9 54 23 159 16.2 112 1300 704 8.9 61 4.8 33 15.4 106 9.9 68 1400 760 5.6 39 3 21 10.3 71 6 41 1500 816 3.6 25 1.9 13 6.7 46 3.7 26 EFFECT OF PROLONGEDEXPOSURE AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Representative mechanical properties at room temperature 10,000 hours (without stress) Yield strength Elongation in Reduction Tensile strength Exposure temp. 0.2% offset 2 (50.8mm) of area F C ksi MPa ksi MPa % % 900 482 45 310 91.9 634 60 73 1050 566 41.8 288 97.2 670 49 65 1200 649 50.5 348 113 779 31 49 Table 5-3 Type 316 S31600 Steel Properties

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Type 316
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Thermal conductivity 212F (100C) 932F (500C) Btu/hr/sq ft/ft/F 9.4 12.4 W/m.K 0.113 0.149

Mean coefficient of thermal expansion per F (C) (x106) 32 to 212F (0 to 100C) 8.9 (15.9) 32 to 600F (0 to 315C) 9.0 (16.2) 32 to 1000F (0 to 538C) 9.7 (17.5) 32 to 1200F (0 to 649C) 10.3 (18.6) 32 to 1500F (0 to 815C) 11.1 (20.0) Modulus of elasticity Temperature Modulus 80 27 Tension 200 93 Tension Shear 300 149 Tension Shear 400 204 Tension Shear 500 260 Tension Shear 600 316 Tension Shear 700 371 Tension Shear 800 427 Tension Shear 900 482 Tension Shear 1000 538 Tension Shear 1100 593 Tension Shear 1200 649 Tension Shear 1300 704 Tension Shear 1400 760 Tension Shear 1500 816 Tension Shear

psi (x106) 28.0 28.1 11.0 27.5 10.6 26.9 10.3 26.3 10.0 25.6 9.7 24.9 9.4 24.2 9.1 23.5 8.8 22.8 8.5 22.2 8.3 21.5 8.1 20.8 7.9 20.0 7.7 19.1 7.5

GPa 193 194 76 190 73 185 71 181 69 177 67 172 65 167 63 162 61 157 59 153 57 148 56 143 54 138 53 132 52

Table 5-4 Type 316 S31600 Steel Properties

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Type 317
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum unless noted otherwise) C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Mo Fe 0.061 2.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 19.18 14.19 3.57 BAL REPRESENTATIVE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (annealed sheet unless noted otherwise) Yield strength Tensile strength Test Temperature 0.2% offset F C ksi MPa ksi MPa 80 27 36.4 251 81 558 300 149 32 221 71.5 493 500 260 30 207 69 475 700 371 26 179 69 475 900 482 21 145 68 469 1100 593 20 138 58 400 1300 704 12.4 85 40 276 1500 816 10.4 72 25 172 REPRESENTATIVE CREEP AND RUPTURE PROPERTIESxxiii Stress for a Creep rate of Stress for a rupture in Test temperature 0.0001% per hour 0.00001% per hour 1,000 hours 10,000 hours (1% in 10,000 hrs) (1% in 100,000 hrs) F C ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa 1000 538 24 165 16 110 1100 593 17.3 119 14.7 101 34 234 28 193 1200 649 12.7 88 8.7 60 24 165 13.3 92 1300 704 7.3 50 4.7 32 16.7 115 10.7 74 1400 760 4.3 30 2.3 16 10.3 71 6.7 46 1500 816 2.7 19 2.0 14 6.7 46 3.3 23 Table 5-5 Type 317 Stainless Steel (S31700) Properties Fy = 30 ksi at room temperature ASTM E = 28 x 106 psi at room temperature decreasing linearly to 20 x 106 psi at 1300F

xxiii

based on product data from Allegheny Ludlum - 1987

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Type 410
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum unless noted otherwise) C Mn P S Si Cr Ni N Mo Ti Al Cb + Ta 0.15 1.00 0.04 0.03 1.00 11.50/ 13.50 REPRESENTATIVE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (annealed sheet unless noted otherwise) Yield strength Elongation Reduction of Hardness Test Temperature Tensile strength 0.2% offset in 2 (50.8mm) Area Rockwell F C ksi MPa ksi MPa % % B 80 27 45 310 70 483 25 80 300 149 36 248 74 510 36 79 400 204 135* 931 150* 1034 500 260 33 228 70.5 486 33 79 600 316 125* 862 145* 1000 700 371 30 207 62.5 431 33 77 800 427 115* 793 130* 896 900 482 26.7 184 52.5 362 41 83 1000 538 95* 655 100* 689 1100 593 23 159 33 228 57 95 1200 649 40* 276 45* 310 1300 704 9.5 66 15.2 105 73 98 1400 760 14* 97 18* 124 1500 816 9 62 80 97 1600 871 10* 69 15* 103 * = heat treated REPRESENTATIVE CREEP AND RUPTURE PROPERTIES Stress for a Creep rate of Stress for a rupture in Test temperature 0.0001% per hour 0.00001% per hour 1,000 hours 10,000 hours (1% in 10,000 hrs) (1% in 100,000 hrs) F C ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa 900 482 24 165 13.6 94 34 234 22 152 1000 538 9 62 7.4 51 19.4 134 13 90 1100 593 4.2 29 3.6 25 10 69 6.8 47 1200 649 2 14 1.7 12 4.8 33 2.8 19 1300 704 0.8 6 0.6 4 2.5 17 1.2 8 1400 760 1.2 8 0.6 4 EFFECT OF PROLONGEDEXPOSURE AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Representative mechanical properties at room temperature 10,000 hours (without stress) Yield strength Elongation in Reduction Tensile strength Exposure temp. 0.2% offset 2 (50.8mm) of area F C ksi MPa ksi MPa % % 900 482 42.0 290 78.4 541 30 66 1050 566 40.1 276 74.5 514 33 68 1200 649 37.8 261 69.4 478 35 69 Table 5-6 Type 410 Stainless Steel (S41000) Properties

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Type 410
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Thermal conductivity 212F (100C) 932F (500C) Btu/hr/sq ft/ft/F 14.4 16.6 W/m.K 0.174 0.201

Mean coefficient of thermal expansion per F (C) (x106) 32 to 212F (0 to 100C) 5.5 (9.9) 32 to 600F (0 to 315C) 6.3 (11.4) 32 to 1000F (0 to 538C) 6.4 (11.6) 32 to 1200F (0 to 649C) 6.5 (11.7) Modulus of elasticity Temperature 80F

27C

Modulus Tension

psi (x106) 29.0

GPa 200

Table 5-7 Type 410 Stainless Steel (S41000) Properties

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Temp F C 75 24 200 90 300 150 400 200 500 260 600 320 700 370 800 430 900 480 1000 540 1100 590 1200 650 1300 700 1400 760 1500 820 1600 870

Type 302 29.0 20.3 27.9 19.6 27.3 19.2 26.7 18.8 26.0 18.3 35.4 17.9 24.8 17.4 24.2 17.0 23.6 16.6 23.0 16.2 22.3 15.7 21.8 15.3 21.2 14.9 20.6 14.5 20.0 14.1

Modulus of Elasticity (Tension), 104 psi ; 103 kg/mm2 Type 304 Type 309 Type 310 Type 316 Type 321 28.3 19.9 28.1 19.8 29.0 20.3 28.3 19.9 28.9 20.3 27.9 19.6 28.2 19.8 28.1 19.8 28.0 19.7 27.1 19.1 27.5 19.3 27.5 19.3 27.3 19.2 26.6 18.7 26.8 18.8 26.9 18.9 26.5 18.6 26.0 18.3 26.2 18.4 26.3 18.5 25.8 18.1 25.6 18.0 25.5 17.9 25.6 18.0 25.3 17.8 24.7 17.4 24.9 17.5 24.9 17.5 24.5 17.2 24.1 16.9 23.1 16.2 24.2 17.0 24.2 17.0 23.8 16.7 23.2 16.3 23.6 16.6 23.5 16.5 23.2 16.3 22.5 15.8 22.6 15.8 23.0 16.2 22.8 16.0 22.5 15.8 21.8 15.3 22.4 15.8 22.2 15.6 21.9 15.4 21.1 14.8 21.8 15.3 21.8 15.3 21.5 15.1 21.2 14.9 20.4 14.3 21.2 14.9 21.2 14.9 20.8 14.6 20.4 14.3 19.4 13.6 20.5 14.4 20.0 14.0 19.7 13.9 18.1 12.7 19.8 13.9 19.0 13.4 19.1 13.4 19.1 13.4 19.2 13.5 19.2 13.5 Table 5-8 Modulus of elasticity at various temperatures

Type 347 28.9 20.3 28.2 19.8 27.5 19.3 26.8 18.8 26.1 18.4 25.4 17.9 24.8 17.4 24.1 16.9 23.4 16.5 22.8 16.0 22.0 15.5 21.4 15.0 20.7 14.6 20.0 14.1 19.4 13.6 18.7 13.2

Temp F C 75 24 200 90 300 150 400 200 500 260 600 320 700 370 800 430 900 480 1000 540 1100 590 1200 650 1300 700 1400 760 1500 820 1600 870

Type 302 11.2 7.9 10.8 7.6 10.4 7.3 10.1 7.1 9.8 6.9 9.5 6.7 9.3 6.5 9.0 6.3 8.8 6.2 8.6 6.0 8.4 5.9 8.2 5.8 7.9 5.6 7.7 5.4 7.5 5.3

Modulus of Rigidity (Shear), 104 psi ; 103 kg/mm2 Type 304 Type 310 Type 316 Type 321 11.4 8.0 11.2 7.9 11.3 7.9 11.2 7.9 11.1 7.8 10.9 7.7 11.0 7.7 10.8 7.6 10.8 7.6 10.6 7.5 10.6 7.5 10.6 7.5 10.5 7.4 10.3 7.2 10.3 7.2 10.3 7.2 10.2 7.2 10.0 7.0 10.0 7.0 9.9 7.0 9.9 7.0 9.7 6.8 9.7 6.8 9.7 6.8 9.7 6.8 9.4 6.6 9.4 6.6 9.4 6.6 9.5 6.7 9.1 6.4 9.1 6.4 9.1 6.4 9.2 6.5 8.8 6.2 8.8 6.2 8.8 6.2 8.9 6.3 8.5 6.0 8.5 6.0 8.5 6.0 8.6 6.0 8.2 5.8 8.3 5.8 8.2 5.8 8.3 5.8 7.9 5.6 8.1 5.7 7.9 5.6 8.0 5.6 7.6 5.3 7.9 5.6 7.7 5.4 7.7 5.4 7.2 5.0 7.7 5.4 7.4 5.2 7.4 5.2 6.9 4.9 7.5 5.3 7.1 5.0 6.6 4.6 Table 5-9 Modulus of rigidity at various temperatures

Type 347 11.4 8.0 11.0 7.7 10.7 7.5 10.4 7.3 10.1 7.1 9.8 6.9 9.5 6.7 9.2 6.5 8.9 6.3 8.6 6.0 8.3 5.8 8.1 5.7 7.8 5.5 7.5 5.3 7.2 5.0 6.9 4.9

Temp F C 300 150 500 260 700 370 900 480 1100 590 1300 700 1500 820

Type 304 0.28 0.30 0.32 0.28 0.29 0.28 0.25

Modulus of Rigidity (Shear), 104 psi ; 103 kg/mm2 Type 309 Type 310 Type 316 Type 321 0.28 0.32 0.26 0.23 0.30 0.31 0.29 0.25 0.30 0.31 0.34 0.27 0.29 0.32 0.30 0.30 0.27 0.34 0.32 0.29 0.32 0.34 0.31 0.27 0.25 0.29 0.24 Table 5-10 Poissons Ratio at various temperatures

Type 347 0.30 0.31 0.29 0.33 0.31 0.35 0.28

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Lining Classification UNS No. (ASTM) UNS 409 (A240) UNS 41000 (A240) UNS 30403 (A204) UNS S31603 (A240) UNS S31703 (A240) UNS S31725 (A240) UNS S31726 (A240) UNS S31803 (A240) UNS S32550 (A240) 6%Mo (A240, B688) UNS N06625 (B443) UNS N10276 (B575) UNS N06022 (B575) UNS N06059 (B575) UNS N06686 (B575) UNS R50250 (B265)

Type Stainless steel8 Stainless steel8 Stainless steel9 Stainless steel8 Stainless steel8 Stainless steel9 Stainless steel9 Stainless steel9 Stainless steel9 Stainless steel9 Ni-based alloy9 Ni-based alloy9 Ni-based alloy9 Ni-based alloy9 Ni-based alloy9 Titanium9

Chemical Environment Mild X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X XX XX XX XX XX XX Moderate Severe

Thermal Environment Mild X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Moderate X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Severe X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Table 5-11 Suggested suitability of linings for steel stacks to withstand chemical and temperature environments of flue gas (XX is indicates greater resistance than X)

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Name Type 316L4 Type 317L Alloy 20 Alloy 825 317LN 260 317LM 317LMN NAS 204X 310MoLN 700 904L 904LN 20Mo-4 20 Mod Alloy 28 20Mo-6 25-6Mo 1925hMo 254N3 25-6Mo 1925hMo SB8 254 SMO AL-6XN YUS 170 2419MoN 4565S B66 3127 hMo 654 SMO
1 2

UNS Number S31603 S31703 N08020

Sub Group

C 0.03 0.03 0.07

N 0.10 0.10 0.1-0.22 0.16-0.24 0.1 0.1-0.2 0.1-0.16 0.04-0.15 0.1-0.16 0.1-0.2 0.2 0.15-0.25 0.17-0.25 0.18-0.22 0.18-0.25 0.25-0.4 0.3-0.5 0.4-0.6 0.35-0.6 0.15-0.25 0.45-0.55

Cr 16.0-18.0 18.0-20.0 19.0-21.0 19.5-23.5 18.0-20.0 18.5-21.5 18.0-20.0 17.0-20.0 25.0 24.0-26.0 19.0-23.0 19.0-23.0 19.9-21.0 22.5-25.0 21.0-23.0 26.0-28.0 22.0-26.0 19.0-21.0 23.0 19.0-21.0 24.0-26.0 19.5-20.5 20.0-22.0 23.0-26.0 23.0-25.0 23.0-25.0 23.0-25.0 26.0-28.0 24.0-26.0

Ni 10.0-14.0 11.0-15.0 32.0-38.0 38.0-46.0 11.0-15.0 13.5-16.5 13.2-17.5 13.5-17.5 25.0 21.0-23.0 24.0-26.0 23.0-28.0 24.0-26.0 35.0-40.0 25.0-27.0 29.5-32.5 33.0-37.0 24.0-26.0 25.0 24.0-26.0 24.0-26.0 17.5-18.5 23.5-25.5 12.0-16.0 16.0-18.0 16.0-18.0 21.0-24.0 30.0-32.0 21.0-23.0

Mo 2.0-3.0 3.0-4.0 2.0-3.0 2.5-3.5 3.0-4.0 2.5-3.5 4.0-5.0 4.0-5.0 2.75 2.0-3.0 4.3-5.0 4.0-5.0 4.0-5.0 3.5-5.0 4.0-6.0 3.0-4.0 5.0-6.7 6.0-7.5 5.5 6.0-7.0 4.7-5.7 6.0-6.5 6.0-7.0 0.5-1.2 3.5-4.5 3.5-5.0 5.0-7.0 6.0-7.0 7.0-8.0

Cu 3.0-4.0 1.5-3.5 1.0-2.0 1.0-2.0 1.0-2.0 0.5-1.5 0.6-1.4 2.0-4.0 0.8-1.5 0.5-1.5 1.0-2.0 0.5-1.0 0.75 0.3-1.0 0.5-3.0 1.0-1.4 0.3-0.6

Other (Cb+Ta): 8xC-1.0 Al: 0.2 max, Ti: 0.6-1.2 Nb: 10xC Si: 0.5 max Nb: 8xC-0.4 Ti: 4xC min Mn: 5.5-6.5 Nb: 0.1-0.3 Mn: 3.5-6.5 W: 1.0-3.0 Mn: 2.0-4.0 Mn: 2.0-4.0 Cu: 0.3-0.6

PRE Num 23 28 26 28 30 29 31 32 34 32 33 32 34 34 34 36 40 41 41 42 42 43 29 39 41 45 48

A-1 N08825 S31753 A-2 S31725 S31726 S31050 N08700 N08904 A-3 N08024 N08320 N08028 N08026 N08925 A-4 N08926 N08932 S31254 N08367 A-5 0.03 S34565 S31266 A-6 N05031 S32654 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.03 0.03

- taken from ASTM specifications for plate, sheet and strip when available or from company data sheets - maxium, unless range or minimum is indicated 3 - nominal chemistry 4 standard grade Type 316L shown for comparison Table 5-12 Chemical Composition1 of wrought high-performance austenitic stainless steels (wt. pct)2

NOTE:

There are grades in this table with high PRE numbers which are claimed to offer comparable performance to nickel alloys in chimney condensate conditions. Material producers should be consulted.

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Name

Type 329
3RE60 2304 45M3 44LN 2205 2205 7-Mo PLUS DP3 UR47N 643 255 DP3W 100 2507 52N+
1 2

UNS Number S32900 S31500 S32304 S31200 S31803 S32205 S32950 S31260

Sub Group

C 0.08 0.03

N 0.05-0.10 0.05-0.20 0.15 0.14-0.20 0.08-0.20 0.14-0.20 0.15-0.35 0.10-0.30 0.14-0.20 0.14 0.10-0.25 0.24-0.32 0.20-0.30 0.24-0.32 0.20-0.35

Cr 23.0-28.0 18.0-19.0 21.5-24.5 24.3 24.0-26.0 21.0-23.0 22.0-23.0 26.0-29.0 24.0-26.0 24.0-26.0 25.0 24.0-27.0 24.0-26.0 24.0-26.0 24.0-26.0 24.0-26.0

Ni 2.5-5.0 4.25-5.25 3.0-5.5 5.0 5.5-6.5 4.5-6.5 4.5-6.5 3.5-5.2 5.5-7.5 5.5-7.5 6.40 4.5-6.5 6.0-8.0 6.0-8.0 6.0-8.0 5.5-8.0

Mo 1.0-2.0 2.5-3.0 0.05-0.6 1.5 1.2-2.0 2.5-3.5 3.0-3.5 1.0-2.5 2.5-3.5 2.5-3.5 3.5 2.9-3.9 2.5-3.5 3.0-4.0 3.0-5.0 3.0-5.0

Cu 1.0 0.2-0.8 1.5-2.5 0.2-0.8 0.5-1.0 0.5 0.5-3.0

Other Si: 1.4-2.0, Mn: 1.2-2.0 W: 0.1-0.5 W: 1.5-2.5 W: 0.5-1.0 -

PRE Num 26 27 22 32 30 31 34 32 34 34 39 35 36 37 38 37

D-1

D-2

D-3 S32550 S39274 S32760 S32750 S32520

D-4

0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

- taken from ASTM specifications for plate, sheet and strip when available or from company data sheets - maxium, unless range or minimum is indicated 3 - nominal chemistry Table 5-13 Chemical Composition1 of wrought high-performance duplex stainless steels (wt. pct)2 Name Type 316L Type 317L Alloy 20 Alloy 825 317LN 260 317LM 317LMN 204X 310MoLN 700 904L 20Mo-4 20Mod Alloy 28 20Mo-6 25-6Mo 1925 hMo 254N SB8 254 SMO AL-6XN YUS 170 2419 MoN 4565S 3127 hMo 654 SMO UNS Number S31603 S31703 N08020 N08825 S31753 S31725 S31726 S31050 N08700 N08904 N08024 N08320 N08028 N08026 N08925 N08926 S31254 N08367 S34565 N08031 S32654 ASTM Specification A240 A240 B463 B424 A240 A240 A240 A240 B599 B625 B C70463 B620 B709 B463 B625 A240 B688 B625 A240 Tensile strength (minimum) ksi MPa 70 485 75 515 80 551 85 586 80 550 80 550 75 515 80 550 73 500 80 550 80 550 71 490 80 551 75 517 73 500 80 551 94 94 79 94 100 100 120 115 94 109 650 650 550 650 690 690 820 800 650 740 Yield strength (minimum) ksi MPa 25 170 30 205 35 241 35 241 35 240 40 275 30 205 35 240 30 210 35 240 35 240 31 220 35 241 28 193 31 214 35 251 43 43 37 44 45 43 67 61 40 62 295 300 250 300 310 300 460 420 276 425 Elong. (minimum) % 40 40 30 30 40 35 40 40 35 30 30 35 30 35 40 30 35 35 35 35 30 35 30 35 40 35 Hardness (maximum) Brinell HRB 217 96 217 96 217 96 217 96 217 217 96 223 97 187 90 217 96 90 217 96 95 217 96 217 223 240 217 250 96 97 97 -

Table 5-14 Minimum mechanical properties in basic ASTM specifications for high performance austenitic stainless steels

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UNS ASME 38C Number Spec. (100F) Type 316L S31603 SA-240 16.7 Type 317L S31703 SA-240 20.0 Alloy 20 N08020 SB-463 22.9 Alloy 825 N08825 SB-424 23.3 317LM S31725 SA-240 20.0 317LMN S31726 A240 20.5 310MoLN S31050 SA-240 22.9 700 N08700 SB-599 22.9 904L N08904 SB-625 20.3 20Mo-4 N08024 SB-463 22.9 20 Mod N08320 SB-620 18.7 Alloy 28 N08028 SB-709 20.7 20Mo-6 N08026 SB-463 22.9 25-6MO N08925 SB-625 24.9 1925 hMo N08925 SB-625 24.9 254 SMO S31254 SA-240 23.9 AL-6XN N08367 SB-688 27.1 654 SMO S32654 SA-240 31.1 3127 hMo N08031 B625 23.5 Standard grade Type 316L for comparison

Name

93C (200F) 14.2 17.0 20.6 21.4 16.9 18.9 19.9 21.0 16.7 20.6 17.3 18.9 20.7 23.2 23.5 23.5 26.2 31.1 22.0

149C (300F) 12.7 15.2 19.7 20.3 15.2 16.7 18.1 19.0 15.1 19.2 16.3 17.7 19.0 21.3 21.3 21.4 23.8 30.3 19.7

204C (400F) 11.7 14.0 18.9 19.4 14.0 15.6 16.8 17.7 13.8 18.1 15.4 16.5 17.5 19.8 19.8 19.8 21.9 28.5 18.3

260C (500F) 10.9 13.1 18.2 18.5 15.1 15.9 17.1 12.7 17.0 14.5 15.4 16.3 18.3 18.3 18.6 20.5 27.3 17.2

316C (600F) 10.4 12.5 17.7 17.8 15.1 16.5 11.9 16.0 13.8 14.4 15.3 17.3 17.3 17.9 19.4 26.6 16.4

371C (700F) 10.0 12.0 17.4 17.3 11.4 15.2 13.2 13.6 14.5 16.9 16.9 17.4 18.6 26.3 15.7

427C (800F) 9.6 11.5 16.8 17.0 14.6 12.7 12.8 13.9 16.9 16.9 18.0 25.9 15.2

Table 5-15 High performance austenitic stainless steels ASME allowable design stress values (ksi) Boiler Pressure Vessel Code. Section VIII. Division I. 1999 Addenda (lowest values for sheet, plate or tube)

Name

UNS Number

Type 329 S32900 3RE60 S31500 2304 S32304 45M 44LN S31200 2205 S31803 7-Mo PLUS S32950 DP3 S31260 UR 47N 64 255 S32550 DP3W S39274 100 S32760 2507 S32750 Grade 2304 for comparison

Tensile strength (minimum) ksi MPa 90 620 92 630 87 600 85 588 100 690 90 620 100 690 100 690 100 690 90 620 110 760 116 800 108 750 116 795

Yield strength (minimum) ksi MPa 70 485 64 440 58 400 57 392 65 450 65 450 70 485 70 485 72 500 65 450 80 550 80 550 80 550 80 550

Elong. (minimum) % 15 30 25 40 25 25 15 20 25 18 15 25 25 15

Hardness (maximum) Brinell HRB 269 28 290 30.5 290 32 277 29 293 293 31 293 32 290 302 32 302 32 32 270 310 32

Table 5-16 Minimum mechanical properties in basic ASTM specifications for high performance duplex stainless steels

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ASME 38C Spec. (100F) Type 329 SA-240 25.7 SA-789 19.6 3RE60 S31500 SA-790 2304 S32304 SA-240 24.9 44LN S31200 SA-240 28.6 2205 S31803 SA-240 25.7 7-Mo PLUS S32950 SA-240 28.6 DP3 S31260 SA-240 28.6 255 S32550 SA-240 31.4 SA-789 DP3W S39274 33.1 SA-790 100 S32760 SA-240 33.1 SA-789 33.1 2507 S32750 SA-790 Standard grade Type 2304 for comparison Name

UNS Number S32900

93C (200F) 25.7 18.9 24.0 28.6 25.7 28.5 28.5 31.3 33.1 31.0 33.0

149C (300F) 24.8 18.1 22.5 27.1 24.8 27.0 27.1 29.5 31.6 29.4 31.2

204C (400F) 24.3 18.0 21.7 26.3 23.9 26.4 26.4 28.6 31.4 29.0 30.1

260C (500F) 24.3 18.0 21.3 26.1 23.3 26.4 26.3 28.2 31.4 29.0 29.6

316C (600F) 18.0 21.0 26.1 23.1 26.4 26.3 31.4 29.0 29.4

343C (650F) 18.0 26.3 -

Table 5-17 High performance duplex stainless steels ASME allowable design stress values (ksi) Boiler Pressure Vessel Code. Section VIII. Division I. 1999 Addenda (lowest values for sheet, plate or tube)

Name

UNS Number

Density g/cm3 lb/in3 0.287 0.287 0.292 0.294 0.294 0.290 0.290 0.287 0.293 0.290 0.287 0.294 0.291 0.288 0.290 0.290 0.290

Specific Heat J/kgK 469 502 461 502 461 456 448 498 461 461 510 440 510 Btu/lb/F 0.112 0.120 0.110 0.112 0.110 0.109 0.107 0.119 0.110 0.110 0.122 0.105 0.122

Electrical resistivity -m 0.74 0.79 1.08 1.12 1.08 0.85 0.95 1.06 0.99 0.88 0.86 0.92 1.00 0.78 -in 445 475 651 678 651 512 572 635 468 528 518 554 602 470

Type 316L S31603 7.95 Type 317L S31703 7.95 Alloy 20 N08020 8.08 Alloy 825 N08825 8.14 20Mo-6 N08026 8.13 317LMN S31726 8.02 310MoLN S31050 700 N08700 8.03 904L N08904 7.95 20Mo-4 N08024 8.11 20 Mod N08320 Alloy 28 N08028 8.03 SB8 N08932 254 SMO S31254 7.95 25-6MO N08925 8.15 1925 hMo N08926 AL-6XN N08367 8.06 YUS 170 7.98 4565S S34565 8.00 3127 hMo N08031 8.03 654 SMO S32654 8.00 Type 316L for comparison

Magnetic Permeability Oerst (mu 200H) 1.004 1.002 1.005 1.006 <1.02 1.003 <1.01 1.003 -

Youngs Modulus ksi GPa x1000 200 29.0 193 28.0 28.3 186 27.0 200 29.0 190 28.0 186 27.0 200 29.0 200 29.0 192 195 192 190 195 188 27.8 28.2 27.8 28.0 28.3 27.6

Table 5-18 Ambient temperature physical properties of high performance austenitic stainless steels

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Name

UNS Number

Density g/cm3 lb/in3 0.280 0.280 0.280 0.285 0.280 0.281 0.285 0.282 0.281 0.280

Specific Heat J/kgK 460 482 482 482 477 502 480 488 485 Btu/lb/F 0.110 0.115 0.115 0.115 0.114 0.120 0.114 0.116 0.115

Electrical resistivity -m 0.80 0.78 0.80 0.84 0.85 -in 481 466 481 505 510 -

Type 329 S32900 7.70 3RE60 S31500 7.75 2304 S32304 7.75 2205 S31803 7.85 7-Mo Plus S32950 7.74 DP3 S31260 7.80 UR 47N 7.85 255 S32550 7.81 100 S32760 7.84 2507 S32750 7.79 Grade 2304 for comparison

Youngs Modulus ksi GPa x1000 200 29.0 200 29.0 200 29.0 200 29.0 200 29.0 200 29.0 205 29.7 210 30.5 190 27.6 200 29.0

Table 5-19 Ambient temperature physical properties of high perfromance duplex stainless steels

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304L lower C, better corrosion resistance when welded

321 Ti added to prevent carbide precipitation

316L Mo added to increase corrosion resistance

309 Cr & Ni increased for high temperature resistance

347 Nb added to prevent carbide precipitation

317L Cr & Mo added to increase corrosion resistance

310 Further increase of Ni for increased H.T. resistance

Duplex and super duplex steels

Super austenitic steels increased Mo, etc. High corrosion resistance

Figure 5-2 Commonly used grades of stainless steel

Notes: C Cr Mo Nb Ni Ti = Carbon = Chromium = Molybdenum = Niobium (Columbium Cb) = Nickel = Titanium

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Figure 5-3 Corrosion rates for stainless steels in various gases

Figure 5-4 Solid solution strengthening effects by alloying in austenitic stainless steels

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Figure 5-5 Effect of nitrogen on the strength and ductility of Type 304 stainless steel

Figure 5-6 Strengthening effect of nitrogen in high performance austenitic stainless steels as manifested in ASTM A240 minimum strength requirements

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Figure 5-7 High temperature strength of austenitic stainless steels

Figure 5-8 High temperature strength of duplex high performance stainless steels

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Figure 5-9 Young's Modulus for a selection of standard and high performance stainless steels using four different techniques

Figure 5-10 Thermal conductivity of high performance stainless steel structure types compared with Type 316 stainless steel

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Figure 5-11 Mean coefficient of thermal expansivity for different high performance stainless steel structure types compared with Type 316 stainless steel (from 20C to T)

Figure 5-12 Corrosion in non-aerated sulphuric acid-chloride solutions - 0.1mm/yr (4mpy) isocorrosion curves (laboratory tests using reagent grade sulphuric acid)

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Figure 5-13 Critical crevice and pitting corrosion temperatures for stainless steels and nickel alloys Evaluated in 10% ferric chloride per ASTM G48

Figure 5-14 Critical pitting and crevice corrosion temperatures for austenitic stainless steel related to PRE number Critical temperatures evaluated in 6% ferric chloride per ASTM G48

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Figure 5-15 Effect of pH and Cl ions on the localised attack of Type 316L stainless steel in SO2 scrubber environments

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Figure 5-16 Effect of pH and Cl ions on the localised attack of Type 317L stainless steel in SO2 scrubber environments

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Figure 5-17 Approximate service limits for stainless steels and nickel-base alloys in flue gas condensates and acid brines at moderate temperatures [60-80C](140-176F)

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6.
6.1

NICKEL ALLOYS

Effects of Alloying in Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys

In order to achieve the critical service demands made of metallic materials in most aggressive conditions experienced with pollution control systems and chimneys, excellent corrosion resistance is required. Molybdenum is very effective in stabilising the passive metal oxide film characteristic of the stainless steels and nickel base alloys provided by chromium, together with nickel and nitrogen to impart structural stability and facilitate fabrication. Even the high alloy-content super austenitic stainless steels may have inadequate performance in the very severe corrosion conditions encountered in environmental protection equipment, ducts and chimneys, so the use of higher molybdenum-content nickel base alloys is necessary. A most significant factor is that the nickel base alloys can accommodate larger amounts of alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum and tungsten in solid solution than the iron base austenitic stainless steels. chromium plays an important part in imparting improved resistance to oxidising media, whilst higher molybdenum content substantially improves resistance to non-oxidising acids and also improves the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of the nickel base alloys. These readily available alloys are most important in modern industry because of their ability to withstand a wide range of most severe operating conditions. With care, they are readily formed and welded, enabling them to be used easily and cost-effectively. The enhanced performance of the high molybdenum-containing nickel base alloys which exhibit very high resistance to pitting in oxidising chloride media is important in pollution control equipment and chimneys.

6.2

Selection and Performance of Materials

Corrosive environments are frequently very complex. For example, the combustion products from the incineration of wastes containing plastic materials may generate aggressive acid mixtures contaminated with fluorides and chlorides. Generally, the higher the molybdenum and chromium content, the better the performance of the alloys in such acid mixtures. A practical comparison of potential performance of molybdenum-containing stainless steels and nickel base alloys is possible by using, as an indication, an index known as the Pitting Resistance Equivalent calculated in accordance with accepted formulae (See Appendix 6.1). Commonly adopted are: PREN = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo + 16 x %N or when tungsten is also present in nickel base alloys: PRENW = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo + 1.65 x %W + 16 x %N A list of materials (Table 6-1) which may be utilised for pollution control and process equipment, is shown in ascending order of PRENW. From Table 6-2, increase in PRENW values with increasing alloy content is clearly demonstrated. In the case of the nickel base alloys, significant increase in value is obtained in comparison with the super austenitic stainless steels. High concentrations of contaminated sulphuric acid may be condensed on flue surfaces (Figure 6-1) at elevated temperatures requiring the specification of nickel base alloys to achieve adequate resistance to attack with long service life. For cost-effectiveness, protecting carbon steel structures with thin molybdenum-containing nickel alloy by wallpapering (typically 1.6mm or 1/16th inch thick) or utilising clad plate (where nickel/molybdenum/chromium alloys are explosive or roll bonded to carbon steel substrate) are options considered for ducts and flues and other critical areas to minimise the cost of construction. The nickel/molybdenum-containing steels and alloys are noteworthy for their ready fabrication and welding with conventional procedures (Section Error! Reference source not found.). The generic nickel base alloy C276, produced and used on a world-wide basis, has been employed extensively in solid, clad plate or wallpapered form in many chimney applications. The properties and characteristics of the alloy are provided in (Table 6-3 to Table 6-6 and Figure 6-2). This alloy is produced by a number of alloy manufacturers world-wide and proprietary alloys have been developed with enhanced properties. Corrosion data and mechanical properties may vary, reference data are provided as an example of the generic material. Contact should be established with the materials producers to supplement information provided in the Appendices. Guidelines for material selection in different operating environments are presented in Table 6-7 and Table 6-8.

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UNS Number (Material Designation*1) 6%Mo stainless steels S31266 (Alloy B66*2) S32654 (Alloy 654SMO*3) N06625 N10276 N06022 (Alloy 625) (Alloy C276) (Alloy C22*4) (Alloy 622*5) (Alloy 59*6) (Alloy C2000*4) (Alloy 686*5)

Cr 20 24.5 24 21.5 16 22 23 23 20.5

Ni 18-25 22 22 61 57 59 59 57 57

Mo 6 5.6 7.3 9 16 13 16 16 16.3

Fe BAL BAL BAL 4 5 3 1 3 1

W 2

Cr 0.75-1.0 1.5 0.5

C 0.02 0.02 0.015 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.005

Other 0.15-0.25N 0.45N 0.50N 3.65Cb + Ta

3.8 3.0

N06059 N60200 N06686

1.6 4.0

Table 6-1 Selection of nickel alloys in ascending order of PRENW *1 *2 *3 *4 *5 *6 From Metals and Alloys in the Unified Numbering System, Society of Automobile Engineers, Warrendale, PA, USA Alloy B66 is a trademark of Creusot-Loire Industrie Alloy 654SMO is a trademark of Avesta-Sheffield Alloy C22 and Alloy C2000 are trademarks of Haynes International Alloy 622 and Alloy 686 are trademarks of Inco Alloys International Alloy 59 is a trademark of Krupp-VDM UNS Number (Material Designation*1) 6%Mo stainless steels N06625 (Alloy 625) S31266 (Alloy B66*2) S32654 (Alloy 654SMO*3) N06022 N10276 N06059 N06686 (Alloy C22*4, 622*5) (Alloy C276) (Alloy 59*6) (Alloy 686*5)

PRENW=%Cr +3.3x%Mo + 1.65x%W + 16x%N 44 51 54 56 70 75 76 81

Table 6-2 PRENW values for increasing alloy content *1 From Metals and Alloys in the Unified Numbering System, Society of Automobile Engineers, Warrendale, PA, USA

C276
Nickel Molybdenum Chromium Iron Tungsten Cobalt Remainder 15.0 17.0 14.5 16.5 4.0 7.0 3.0 4.5 2.5 max Manganese Carbon Vanadium Phosphorus Sulphur Silicon 1.0 max 0.01 max 0.35 max 0.04 max 0.03 max 0.08 max

Table 6-3 Limiting chemical composition for C276

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C276
Temperature F 77 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 C 25 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Coefficient of expansion 10-6 in / in.F 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.7 8.1 8.5 m / m.C 12.2 12.4 12.9 13.2 13.5 13.6 14.1 14.8 Electrical resistivity . cmil / ft 739.2 743.8 749.3 757.7 760.3 772.5 781.5 773.9 768.3 766.2 757.7 . cm / ft 122.9 123.7 124.5 125.7 126.0 127.7 129.9 129.7 128.2 127.4 127.1 Youngs Modulus 106 psi 29.8 29.5 28.6 27.8 26.7 25.7 24.8 23.5 22.0 20.6 19.1 GPa 205 203 198 192 186 180 178 167 159 150 141

Table 6-4 Physical properties of C276 at high temperatures

C276
Density Youngs Modulus Shear modulus Poissons ratio Permeability at 200 oersteds (15.9 kA/m) Melting range Thermal conductivity Specific heat F C BTU.in/ft .h.F W/m.C BTU/lb.F J/kg.C Table 6-5 Physical properties for C276
2

lb/in3 g/cm
3

0.321 8.89 29.8 205 11.4 79 0.307 1.0002 2415 2500 1325 1370 67.9 9.8 0.102 427

106 psi GPa 106 psi GPa

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C276
Product Form Tubing Plate Bar Sheet Tensile Strength 1000 psi MPa 105.4 727 107.4 741 110.0 758 115.5 796 Yield Strength 1000 psi MPa 45.4 313 50.3 347 52.6 363 54.6 376 Elongation % 70 67 62 60

Table 6-6 Typical room temperature tensile properties of annealed C276 material

Chloride ppm MILD pH 6.5

MILD 100 500

MODERATE 1,000 5,000

SEVERE 10,000 30,000

VERY SEVERE 50,000 100,000 Nickel alloy 625 etc 200,000

Type 316L Stainless Steel MODERATE pH 4.5 Type 317LM Stainless Steel Type 317LMN Stainless Steel

Type 317LMN Stainless Steel Duplex Stainless Steel

Super Duplex Stainless Steel

Super Austenitic Stainless Steel 6/7Mo

Nickel alloy C276 etc

SEVERE VERY SEVERE

pH 2.0

pH 1.0

Super Austenitic Stainless Steel 6/7Mo

Nickel alloy 625 etc

Table 6-7 Guidelines for the selection of stainless steel and nickel alloy for FGD equipment*

Chloride and Fluoride Concentration ppm Chloride Fluoride 6 <1,000 <400 Type 316L <1,000 <5,000 <400 <1,000 <10,000 <400 <1,000 <50,000 <400 <1,000 <100,000 <400 <1,000 <200,000 <400 <1,000

Type 317LMN or Duplex

Type 317LMN or Super Duplex Super Duplex

Super Austenitic

4 pH 2

Type 317LMN or Duplex Super Aust or Super Duplex Super Aust

Nickel Alloy C276, etc Super Austenitic Nickel Alloy C276, etc

Table 6-8 Guidelines for material selection for FGD equipment - Temperature 50-65C*

With care, guidelines are applicable to ducts, flues and chimneys (stacks) following consultation with material producers.

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(0.51 mm per year)

Figure 6-1 Adiabatic saturation curve showing H2SO4 concentration for various temperatures and operating conditions in FGD plant.

Figure 6-2 Tensile properties of annealed plate C276

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Appendix 6.1
Copy of a paper entitled The cost effective use of nickel alloys and stainless steels for chimneys (stacks) in air pollution control systems by W.H.D. Plant (consultant to the Nickel Development Institute) reproduced by kind permission of KCI Publishing BV

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7.

TITANIUM

GUIDELINES FOR SELECTION OF TITANIUM GRADES FOR USE IN FGD PLANT, INCLUDING DUCTS AND CHIMNEY FLUES, AT VARIOUS CONDITIONS OF pH, TEMPERATURE AND CHLORIDE CONCENTRATION

7.1

Titanium Linings

Titanium linings have been installed in various zones of FGD plants and have withstood the normal environments without evidence of damage. Operating experience has been gained with major titanium lining installations, over extended periods under conditions which vary from the handling of raw flue gas to mixed raw/clean gas and wholly unscrubbed gas.

7.2

Definition of the Operating Environment

Operational experience has shown that highly corrosive conditions develop, often in an apparently haphazard manner and in unpredictable locations. The inlet and outlet ductwork and flues are at greatest risk from attack. The aggressive conditions experienced include wet/dry interfaces; hot oxidising acidic condensates; and flyash-laden deposits enriched in chloride and fluoride species.

7.3

Resistance of Titanium to hot concentrated reducing acids

Titanium is susceptible to sulphuric acid dewpoint corrosion, but will regain its normal passivity in the overall oxidising environment of the duct once the attack by condensed concentrated acid ceases. Above 90 C, the resistance of commercially pure titanium to corrosion in acidic chloride environments is progressively reduced, and there is rapidly diminishing benefit from iron and other oxidising ions which, at lower temperatures, contribute to maintaining passivity. Under deposit and crevice corrosion of titanium in acid environments is a possibility at temperatures down to 70 C, but in these cases there is usually a sufficient supply of iron and aluminium to provide protection. In areas which alternately see hot/dry to cold/wet conditions, occasional transient light underdeposit or general corrosion may occur on Grade 2 titanium. However, the titanium oxide film immediately reheals with no further attack taking place once the conditions change. Such minor and limited scattered damage normally poses no threat to the integrity of liners. Where regular or long term attack is indicated, titanium alloy ASTM Grade 16 must be specified.

7.4

Resistance of Titanium to fluoride species

Fluorides are normally present, the level of concentration varying according to the fuel burnt and the operating system and characteristics of any particular plant. titanium must not be used for plant lining where conditions permit active, uncomplexed fluorides to persist in flue gas or condensates. Tests in situ have shown clearly that fluorides, present in some cases at levels of about 1%, in deposits covering titanium linings and test plates have failed to generate any significant attack on the titanium. The resistance of titanium to acidic fluoride-bearing environments results from the abundant presence of metal ions, particularly aluminium and iron in condensates, liquors and sludges. These ions chemically complex the active fluorides and thus render them inert to titanium. The role of aluminium in particular as an inhibitor is effective even at very low levels of pH. The release of active fluorides from other parts of, for example, the FGD system to act alone or synergistically with other reducing acids may cause corrosion of titanium in certain circumstances. Selection and evaluation of cementaceous or polymeric materials must establish their long term stability. It is also important that during application or curing there should be no release of acid fluorides which may attack and compromise the life of adjacent titanium linings.

7.5

Selection

The standard specification for flue linings is ASTM Grade 2 (Table 7-1). Where corrosive conditions are more severe and include the possibility of under deposit attack, alloys with suitably enhanced corrosion resistance, such as Grades 16 or 26, should be chosen. Thus, these alloys which contain palladium and ruthenium respectively have enhanced resistance to reducing acid environments at elevated temperatures. Guidelines for the selection of alloy grade for a range of operating conditions are provided in Table 7-2. Consideration is given to parameters of pH and chloride ion concentration, together with ranges of metal temperature.

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7.6

Design Stresses

Data of the specified strength is provided and this may be used in conjunction with the ASME based design intensity factors which compensate for increasing temperature (Table 7-3).

7.7 7.8

Physical Properties Product Form

Data is provided for information only in Table 7-4.

Titanium product forms are widely available. Strip, sheet and plate are specified in ASTM B265 to the Grades indicated.

7.9

Installation

For detailed discussion of installation methods, reference should be made to Installation & Operation of Titanium Linings in F.G.D. Ductwork and Stacks - D.K.Peacock and J.S.Grauman. As titanium cannot be directly welded to steel, mechanical fastening or welding of carbon steel-backed titanium (such as proprietary systems Resista-Clad or ElectroClad) are appropriate methods of attachment. Reference should be made to NACE Recommended Practice Standard RP0292-98.

7.10 References
Installation and Operation of Titanium Lining in Flue Gas Desulphurisation J.S. Grauman. CICIND Report, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1996. Drax Retrospect and Current Review. D. Peacock. CICIND 1999. Application of Titanium Linings in FGD Systems. Titanium, Cannes, France. June 1988. R.W.Schutz and M.X.Cerney.6th International Conference on Ductwork and Stacks. D.Peacock and

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Nominal chemical composition ASTM Grade 1 2 7 11 16 17 26 27 UNS Desig. R50250 R50400 R52400 R52250 R52402 R52252 R52404 R52254 N Max 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 C Max 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 H Max 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015 0.015 Fe Max 0.02 0.30 0.30 0.20 0.30 0.20 0.30 0.20 0.18 0.25 0.25 0.18 0.25 0.18 0.25 0.18 0.08-0.14 0.08-0.14 0.12-0.25 0.12-0.25 0.04-0.08 0.04-0.08 O Ru Pd

Table 7-1 Composition of commonly used titanium alloys Chlorine concentration ppm <5,000 Temp C pH 3.0 pH 2.5 pH 2.0 pH 1.5 pH 1.0 pH 0.5 pH 0.0 A A A A A A A <80 80 120 A A A A A A B 120 160 A A A A A A B A A A A A A B <80 <10,000 80 120 A A A A A B B 120 160 A A A A A B B A A A A A B B <80 <50,000 80 120 A A A A B B B 120 160 A A A A B B B A A A A B B B <80 <100,000 80 120 A A A B B B C 120 160 A A A B B B C A A A B B B C <80 <200,000 80 120 A A B B B C C 120 160 A A B B C C C

Table 7-2 Suitability of titanium alloys for different operating conditions A = Commercially pure titanium Grade 2 or Grade 1 B = Titanium 0.05% Palladium Alloys ASTM Grade 16 or 17 0.1% Ruthenium Alloys ASTM Grade 26 or 27 C = Titanium 0.15% Palladium Alloy ASTM Grade 7 or 11 Note 1. ASTM Grade 2 represents the optimum combination of strength and fabricability and availability for the major ductwork and chimney flues applications. Grade 1 may be used as an alternative and/or where greater fabricability is required at the expense of strength. The mechanical properties of Grades 16, 26 and 7 are comparable to those of Grade 2, and the mechanical properties of Grades 17, 27 and 11 are comparable to those of Grade 1. Fluorides frequently up to high concentrations are present in the flue gas and ash, but there is no record of significant or sustained attack on titanium by hydrofluoric acid or acidic fluorides from these sources. Early in the FGD process cycle fluoride species, potentially corrosive to titanium if active, are spontaneously complexed by aluminium, iron, silicon and calcium - all normally present in the FGD environment. Despite this entirely satisfactory record, the titanium industry continues to insist on a review of all existing and proposed installations and will not recommend the use of titanium where it can be shown that operating conditions will permit sustained exposure to active uncomplexed acidic fluorides in flue gas or condensates

Note 2.

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ASTM Grade 2, 7, 16, 26 1, 11, 17, 27

Minimum 0.2% Proof Stress ksi 40 25 MPa 275 170

Minimum Tensile Stress ksi 50 35 MPa 345 240

Minimum elongation % 20 24

Metal temp. C Design Intensity Factor Typical proof stress MPa Grade 2

Room Temp 1

100 0.88

150 0.73

200 0.61

300 0.45

400

350

290

240

180

Table 7-3 Titanium Alloy Design Stresses

Grades 1, 2, 7, 11, 16, 17, 26, 27 Hardness Tensile Modulus Density Thermal Expansion Thermal Conductivity Specific Heat HV Gpa kg/l 10/C Kcal/m.hr J/kg/C (Rb) (Msi) (lb/in) (10/F) BTU.in/ft.hr (BTU/lbF) 160 - 200 103 4.51 8.9 18.6 515 (84 - 94) (14.9) (0.163) (4.9) 150 (0.123)

Table 7-4 Titanium Alloy Physical Properties

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8.
8.1

ELEVATED TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES

Introduction

Developments in pollution control, coal gasification, gas turbines and in industrial processes involving high-temperatures are causing designers to examine more closely the elevated temperature properties of materials utilised for chimneys. Stainless steels and nickel alloys are generally selected, firstly, on the basis of their resistance to corrosion and, secondly, on the basis of their mechanical properties. As the temperatures of operating environments increase, however, elevated temperature properties become the primary concern. The characteristics that make some of the stainless steels particularly useful in high temperature environments are described, and typical engineering data are presented. The data presented is intended as general information; for design purposes, it is recommended that reference be made to appropriate standards and specifications.

8.2

Elevated Temperature Properties

As the temperatures of operating environments increase, elevated temperature material properties may be of primary concern. Appropriate grades of heat resisting carbon steels, stainless steels and nickel alloys are able to meet demanding requirements of high temperature service. [It is of interest to note that Alloy 625, developed initially as a heat resistant alloy, has become established also as a wet corrosion resistant alloy in chloride environments.]

8.3

High Temperature Design Factors


1. 2. 3. 4. Service life Allowable deformation Environment Cost

8.3.1 Service Life


For a given type of steel at a specific thickness, the expected service life depends on the maximum temperature to which it is exposed plus the maximum stresses to which it is subjected, also whether service is at a constant temperature or at an intermittently high temperature. For a prolonged service life, such as 20 years, plain carbon steels are usually limited to a maximum operating temperature of 750 F (399 C), and the stainless steels to considerably higher temperatures, depending upon the type specified (Table 8-1). It is important to recognise that for high temperature service, strength is related to time at temperature.

8.3.2 Allowable Deformation


Another factor to consider in designing for high temperature service is the amount of deformation that can be permitted during the total service life. This factor determines which of two high temperature strength properties should be given priority; creep or creep-rupture (sometimes called stress rupture). If the component is large and capable of accommodating deformation, the creep rupture strength is the usual basis for selection. It is useful to know whether or not service at elevated temperature is cyclic or continuous. Cyclic operation may lead to failure by fatigue or loss of metal due to flaking of the oxide scale. This may be of concern in connection with ducting and flues for gas turbine generating units.

8.3.3 Environment
Elevated temperatures tend to increase corrosive action, thermal cycling can increase metal wastage through spalling of protective scale on the metal surface, and metal temperature probably will not be the same as the flue gas to which it is exposed. Generally, if oxidation or other forms of scaling are expected to be severe, increased thickness of section is specified. However, generally it is cost-effective to upgrade the material.

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8.3.4 Cost
The consideration of cost in selecting materials for high temperature service must reflect not only the initial cost of the equipment but the cost of replacement and downtime as well. Designers should not rule out the more highly alloyed, more costly materials if a premature failure could result in shutting down the entire plant with loss of valuable production.

8.4

Criteria for Selection

For service at elevated temperatures, the first factor to be considered is hot strength, as this is decisive in determining the deformation over the expected life. Thermal stability is second, since this may set limits to a particular type from the standpoint of softening or embrittlement. Physical properties may also be significant in certain cases.

8.4.1 Short-Time Tensile Properties


Up to a temperature of about 900 F (482 C), the short-time tensile properties are most important. These are values that can be used where parts are not exposed to high service temperatures for extended periods of time. The data do not reflect any effect of long-time exposure to high temperatures which requires design information obtained from creep and creeprupture tests. Figure 8-1 illustrates a broad concept of the strength ranges being considered. As shown, the stainless steels have a higher hot strength than low carbon unalloyed steel, with the austenitic (300 Series) grades displaying considerably higher strengths than the ferritic (400 Series) grades. Short-time tensile properties are provided for yield and tensile strength (Figure 8-3).

8.4.2 Creep
Over about 900 F (482 C), deformation under stress is plastic rather than elastic, so the yield point as determined by the short-time tensile test is higher than the creep or stress-rupture strength. Therefore, in structures operating at temperatures above 900 F (482 C), time becomes a major factor in determining safe loading stresses, since the stress which will cause failure or a maximum permissible elongation decreases directly as the time during which the stress is applied. The function of the creep test is to determine the creep rate and amount of deformation as a function of applied stress, time and temperature. When the change of length taking place in a specimen over a period of time is plotted against the elapsed time, a creep curve is obtained, such as illustrated in Figure 8-2. When the load is first applied, an initial elongation (A) occurs. Then the specimen strains gradually, at a decreasing creep rate during the primary stage of creep (B). The creep rate then becomes essentially constant for a period of time during the secondary or steady-state stage of creep (C). The slope of the creep curve in this second stage (which is also referred to as minimum creep rate) is the rate commonly used for design purposes. Finally, if the time is long enough, the creep rate will increase (D), eventually leading to fracture of the specimen. At the end of the test period, if fracture has not occurred, the load is removed and elastic contraction (E) occurs, corresponding approximately to the elastic extension at the start of the test. Thus, it is apparent that metals creeping under stress at high temperature can and do show both plastic and elastic properties. The amount of permanent deformation is represented by (F).

8.4.3 Creep-Rupture
The creep-rupture test (sometimes called the stress-rupture test) is identical to the creep test, except generally the stresses, and consequently the creep rates, are higher and the test is carried to failure of the material. Rupture values are usually reported as the stress for rupture in 10,000 and 100,000 hours. The 100,000 hour rupture strength is one of the basic properties used in the establishment of design stresses. It should be noted that creep and creep-rupture tests are seldom carried out to the times corresponding to the intended service life. The stress, therefore, for a minimum creep rate of 1% in 100,000 hours is generally based on extrapolation of shorter time tests to long time. Properties for a number of austenitic stainless steels are provided as stress-rupture (Figure 8-4 and Figure 8-5) and creep rate curves (Figure 8-6 and Figure 8-7). Interpolation to other rupture times, creep rates and stresses can be made (Figure 8-8 to Figure 8-14) for stainless steels at various temperatures.

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8.4.4 Thermal Stability


With time at temperature, changes in metallurgical structure can be expected for almost any steel or alloy. In stainless steels, the changes can be softening, carbide precipitation, or embrittlement. The latter are minimised by utilising the low carbon grades of stainless steels designated as Type L, where corrosion resistance at temperature is more important than strength and stabilised grades of stainless steel to which Titanium (Type 321) or Niobium/Columbium (Type 347) are added. See Table 5-1, Table 5-2, Table 5-8, Table 5-9, Table 5-10 and Figure 5-2.

8.4.5 Physical Properties


Physical properties, such as linear expansion and thermal conductivity, are important. Figure 8-15 shows austenitic stainless steels to have greater thermal expansion than the ferritic types (and plain carbon steels), which should be considered in designing equipment for high temperature service and when joining dissimilar typesxxv. Thermal conductivity also differs (Figure 8-16), a factor to be taken into consideration when welding austenitic materials. (Section Error! Reference source not found.). Fluctuating temperatures can lead to thermal fatigue. As a result of their low thermal conductivity and high thermal expansion, the austenitic stainless steels are more sensitive to thermal fatigue than the ferritic types. Accordingly, complicated fabricated structures subject to alternate heating and cooling require design techniques incorporating the following: minimisation of temperature differentials, use of expansion joints and other means of permitting movement without distortion and avoidance of notches.

8.4.6 Modulus of Elasticity


The tensile modulus of elasticity of the ferritic steels (alloy and stainless) is illustrated in Figure 8-17. The modulus of elasticity for the austenitic stainless steels is illustrated in Figure 8-18. Caution should be used in employing elastic moduli for design at elevated temperatures where creep (plastic deformation) may occur.

8.5

Effect of Atmosphere

Much attention is given to the compatibility of stainless steels with air or oxygen. In non-fluctuating-temperature service the oxidation resistance (or scaling resistance) of stainless steels depends on chromium content, as indicated in Figure 8-19. Steels with less than 18% chromium (ferritic grades primarily) are limited to temperatures below 1500 F (816 C). Those containing 18-20% chromium are useful to temperatures of 1800 F (982 C), while adequate resistance to scaling at temperatures up to 2000 F (1093 C) requires a chromium content of about 25%, with selection of steels such as Types 309 and 310. The maximum service temperature based on a rate of oxidation of 10 mg. per sq.cm. in 1000 hours is given for several stainless steels in Table 8-3 for non-fluctuating-temperature. The corrosion resistance of several stainless steels in steam and oxidising flue gases, compared with their corrosion resistance in air, is shown in Figure 8-20. In many processes constant temperature conditions are not maintained and process temperatures vary. The temperature limits with variable conditions are shown in Table 8-3 in the column Intermittent Service. Expansion and contraction differences between the base metal and the protective film (or scale) during heating and cooling cause cracking and spalling of the protective scale. This allows the oxidising media to attack the exposed metal surface. The spalling resistance of the austenitic stainless steels is greatly improved at higher nickel levels, as illustrated in Figure 8-21. Nickel reduces the thermal expansion differential between alloy and oxide film, thereby reducing stresses at the alloy-oxide interface during cooling. However, trends in the design of steam and other forms of power generation have resulted in a growing interest in oxidation in such environments as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water vapour. Exposure to mild conditions in these environments leads to the formation of the protective oxide film described earlier, but when conditions become too severe, film breakdown can occur. The onset of this transition is unpredictable and sensitive to alloy composition. Although the reaction mechanisms are probably similar in air, water vapour and carbon dioxide, reaction rates may vary considerably.
xxv

Ref: ASTM Special Technical Publication No. 124, The Elevated Temperature Properties of Stainless Steels, and in a supplement, ASTM Data Series Publication DS5-S1 and DS5-S2

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An increase in corrosion rates can be expected in the presence of water vapour. The high chromium austenitic stainless steels with increased nickel contents, Type 309 and Type 310, are recognised heat resisting steels widely employed in heat treatment equipment. Ducting and flue designs, such as those for gas turbine exhausts, may benefit from consideration of the properties and characteristics of the steel Types 309 and 310 (Table 8-4 to Table 8-7). Elevated temperature physical properties of high performance austenitic and duplex stainless steels are detailed in Table 8-8 and Table 8-9.

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Table 8-1 Steel yield strength values (fy,k) at temperature from prEN13084-7:2001

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ASTM Design A203 ? T304 T316

%Ni 2 3 See data See data

Temperature Range F C -90 to +75 -68 to +24 -150 to +75 -101 to +24

Table 8-2 Short term tensile properties Intermittent Service C 870 980 1035 870 870 870 870 815 F 1600 1800 1900 1600 1600 1600 1600 1500 Continuous Service C 925 1095 1150 925 925 925 925 705 F 1700 2000 2100 1700 1700 1700 1700 1300

AISI Type 304 309 310 316 317 321 347 410

Table 8-3 Suggested maximum service temperatures in air

Type 309
Thermal Conductivity BTU/hr/sq ft/ft/F 212F (100C) 932F (500C) 9.0 10.8 W/m.K 0.108 0.130

Mean coefficient of thermal expansion per F (C) (x 106) 32 to 212 F (0 to 100C) 32 to 600 F (0 to 315C) 32 to 1000 F (0 to 538C) 32 to 1200 F (0 to 649C) 32 to 1800 F (0 to 981C) Modulus of elasticity Temperature F 80 800 1000 1200 1300 1500 1600 C 27 427 538 649 704 816 871 Tension Tension Tension Tension Tension Tension Tension psi (x10 ) 29.0 23.1 22.6 21.8 21.2 19.8 19.2
6-

8.3 9.3 9.6

(15.0) (16.6) (17.2)

10.0 (18.0) 11.5 (20.6)

Modulus GPa 200 159 156 150 146 137 132

Table 8-4 Physical properties of Type 309 (S30900)

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Type 309
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum unless noted otherwise) C Mn P S Si Cr Ni N Mo Ti Al Cb + Ta 0.20 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.00 22.0/ 12.0/ 24.0 15.0 REPRESENTATIVE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (annealed sheet unless noted otherwise) Yield strength Elongation Reduction of Hardness Test Temperature Tensile strength 0.2% offset in 2 (50.8mm) Area Rockwell F C ksi MPa ksi MPa % % B 80 27 45 310 90 621 45 85 300 149 35.2 243 80.3 554 48 70 500 260 33.2 229 77 531 45 67 700 371 30.8 212 74 510 42 64 900 482 27.8 192 69 476 39 57 1100 593 24.8 171 60 414 37 43 1300 704 21.6 149 43 296 36 49 1500 816 18.2 125 27 186 38 42 1700 927 16 110 45 43 1900 1038 8.5 59 58 61 2000 1093 4 28 71 73 REPRESENTATIVE CREEP AND RUPTURE PROPERTIES Stress for a Creep rate of Stress for a rupture in Test temperature 0.0001% per hour 0.00001% per hour 1,000 hours 10,000 hours (1% in 10,000 hrs) (1% in 100,000 hrs) F C ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa 800 427 36.5 252 25.5 176 900 482 23 159 16.1 111 60 414 55 379 1000 538 16 110 10.4 72 42 290 36.6 252 1100 593 11 76 7 48 29.2 201 24.5 169 1200 649 7 48 4.2 29 19.2 132 14.3 99 1300 704 4 28 2 14 11 76 7.7 53 1400 760 2 14 1 7 6.8 47 4.3 30 1500 816 1 7 0.4 3 4.1 28 2.3 17 EFFECT OF PROLONGEDEXPOSURE AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Representative mechanical properties at room temperature Elongation in Reduction 10,000 hours (without stress) Yield strength Tensile strength 2 (50.8mm) of area Exposure temp. 0.2% offset F C ksi MPa ksi MPa % % 900 482 34.4 237 83.3 574 62 78 1050 566 36.1 249 86.9 599 57 66 1200 649 34.5 238 87.4 603 53 60 Table 8-5 Physical properties of Type 309 (S30900)

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Type 310
Thermal Conductivity BTU/hr/sq ft/ft/F 8.2 10.8 W/m.K 0.099 0.130 212F (100C) 932F (500C)

Mean coefficient of thermal expansion per F (C) (x 106) 32 to 212 F (0 to 100C) 8.8 (15.9) 32 to 600 F (0 to 315C) 9.0 (16.2) 32 to 1000 F (0 to 538C) 9.4 (17.0) 32 to 1200 F (0 to 649C) 9.7 (17.5) 32 to 1800 F (0 to 981C) 10.6 (19.1) Modulus of elasticity Temperature F 80 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 Modulus C 27 93 149 204 260 316 371 427 482 538 593 649 704 760 816 871 Tension Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear Tension Shear psi (x10 ) 29.0 28.2 10.9 27.5 10.6 26.8 10.3 26.2 10.0 25.5 9.7 24.9 9.4 24.2 9.1 23.6 8.8 23.0 8.5 22.4 8.2 21.8 7.9 21.2 7.6 20.5 7.2 19.0 6.9 19.2 6.6
6-

GPa 200 194 75 190 73 185 71 181 69 176 67 172 65 167 63 163 61 159 59 154 57 150 54 146 52 141 50 131 48 132 46

Table 8-6 Physical properties of Type 310 (S31000)

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Type 310
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, % (maximum unless noted otherwise) C Mn P S Si Cr Ni N Mo Ti Al Cb + Ta 0.25 2.00 0.045 0.03 1.50 24.0/ 19.0/ 26.0 22.0 REPRESENTATIVE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES (annealed sheet unless noted otherwise) Yield strength Elongation Reduction of Hardness Test Temperature Tensile strength 0.2% offset in 2 (50.8mm) Area Rockwell F C ksi MPa ksi MPa % % B 80 27 45 310 95 655 45 85 300 149 34.9 241 82.1 566 38 69 500 260 32.5 224 77.6 535 35 63 700 371 29.6 204 75.5 521 35 57 900 482 26.3 181 69.5 479 35 53 1100 593 22.7 157 61.5 424 38 47 1300 704 19.0 131 45.5 314 31 42 1500 816 15 103 29.5 203 30 38 1700 927 17 117 49 48 1900 1038 11 76 56 46 2000 1093 7 48 57 48 REPRESENTATIVE CREEP AND RUPTURE PROPERTIES Stress for a Creep rate of Stress for a rupture in Test temperature 0.0001% per hour 0.00001% per hour 1,000 hours 10,000 hours (1% in 10,000 hrs) (1% in 100,000 hrs) F C ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa 900 482 22.8 157 15 103 1000 538 17.6 121 11.8 81 37.6 259 32.4 223 1100 593 12.8 88 8.8 61 23.6 163 20 138 1200 649 8.4 58 6 41 13.4 92 11 76 1300 704 5 34 3.7 25 8.7 60 6.9 48 1400 760 2.4 17 2 14 6 41 4.5 31 1500 816 1 7 0.8 6 4.5 31 3.3 23 EFFECT OF PROLONGEDEXPOSURE AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Representative mechanical properties at room temperature 10,000 hours (without stress) Yield strength Elongation in Reduction Tensile strength Exposure temp. 0.2% offset 2 (50.8mm) of area F C ksi MPa ksi MPa % % 900 482 37.2 256 90.2 622 54 69 1050 566 42.3 292 93.5 645 46 54 1200 649 58.1 401 117.9 813 4 4 Table 8-7 Physical properties of Type 310

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Name Type 316L Alloy 825 317LMN Alloy 28 1925 hMo 4565S Type 316L Alloy 20 Alloy 825 20Mo-6 317LMN 904L 20Mo-4 Alloy 28 254SMO 25-6MO 1925 hMo AL-6XN 4565S 3127 hMo Type 316L Alloy 20 Alloy 825 20Mo-6 317LMN 904L 20Mo-4 Alloy 28 254SMO 25-6MO 1925 hMo AL-6XN 4565S 3127 hMo 654SMO

UNS Number S31603 N08825 S31726 N08028 N08926 S34565 S31603 N08020 N08825 N08026 S31726 N08904 N08024 N08028 S31254 N08926 N08926 N08367 S34565 N08031 S31603 N08020 N08825 N08026 S31726 N08904 N08024 N08028 S31254 N08926 N08926 N08367 S34565 N08031 S32654

200C 300C 400C 500C (392F) (572F) (754F) (932F) Elastic modulus in tension GPa (103 ksi) 200 (29.0) 194 (28.1) 185 (26.9) 177 (25.9) 169 (24.5) 160 (23.2) 193 (28.0) 190 (27.6) 185 (26.8_ 179 (25.9) 173 (25.1) 167 (24.2) 200 (29.0) 194 (28.1) 186 (27.0) 179 (26.0) 171 (24.8) 163 (23.6) 200 (29.0) 195 (28.5) 190 (27.5) 180 (26.0) 170 (24.5) 158 (23.0) 193 (28.0) 186 (27.0) 179 (26.0) 173 (25.1) 168 (24.4) 162 (23.6) 193 (28.0) 187 (27.1) 180 (26.1) 173 (25.1) 165 (24.0) 157 (22.9) Mean coefficient of thermal expansion from 20C (68F) to T 10-6 cm/cm/C 10-6 in/in/F 15.7 (8.72) 16.5 (9.16) 16.9 (9.38) 17.3 (9.61) 17.6 (9.78) 18.0 (10.0) 14.7 (8.16) 14.9 (8.27) 15.2 (8.44) 15.5 (8.61) 15.9 (8.83) 16.1 (8.94) 13.1 (7.30) 14.2 (7.88) 14.9 (8.30) 15.3 (8.48) 15.6 (8.64) 15.8 (8.80) 14.7 (8.16) 14.8 (8.22) 14.9 (8.29) 15.3 (8.52) 15.7 (8.73) 16.0 (8.89) 16.1 (8.94) 16.6 (9.22) 17.2 (9.55) 17.8 (9.89) 18.5 (10.3) 15.0 (8.33) 15.3 (8.50) 15.7 (8.72) 16.1 (8.94) 16.5 (9.17) 16.9 (9.39) 14.0 (7.78) 14.4 (8.00) 14.9 (8.29) 15.6 (8.66) 16.1 (8.96) 16.5 (9.17) 14.6 (8.11) 15.0 (8.33) 15.5 (8.50) 16.0 (9.00) 16.5 (9.50) 17.0 (9.44) 16.9 (9.40) 15.1 (8.40) 14.4 (8.00) 15.0 (8.33) 15.7 (8.72) 16.1 (8.94) 16.4 (9.11) 16.7 (9.28) 15.3 (8.50) 16.0 (8.90) 13.7 (7.61) 14.5 (8.00) 15.5 (8.60) 16.3 (9.00) 16.8 (9.30) 17.2 (9.50) 14.0 (7.78) 14.3 (7.94) 14.7 (8.17) 15.1 (8.39) 15.5 (8.61) 15.9 (8.33) Thermal conductivity W/m C (BTU in/hr ft2 F) 14.0 (97) 14.9 (103) 16.0 (111) 17.3 (120) 18.6 (129) 19.9 (138) 11.6 (81) 13.1 (91) 15.0 (104) 16.6 (115) 18.2 (126) 19.6 (136) 11.1 (77) 12.4 (86) 14.1 (96) 15.6 (108) 16.5 (115) 18.2 (126) 11.6 (81) 13.1 (91) 15.0 (104) 16.6 (115) 18.2 (126) 19.6 (136) 14.0 (97) 11.5 (80) 13.1 (91) 15.1 (105) 11.5 (80) 13.1 (91) 14.9 (103) 16.7 (116) 18.3 (127) 19.7 (137) 11.4 (79) 12.9 (89) 14.3 (99) 15.6 (108) 16.7 (116) 17.7 (123) 14.0 (97) 16.7 (116) 13.7 (95) 12.0 (83) 12.9 (89) 14.4 (100) 16.5 (114) 18.5 (128) 20.1 (139) 14.5 (101) 14.5 (101) 12.0 (83) 8.6 (59) 9.8 (68) 11.3 (78) 12.6 (87) 14.5 (100)

20C (68F)

100C (212F)

Table 8-8 Elevated temperature physical properties of high-performance austenitic stainless steels

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Name Type 329 3RE60 2304 2205 UR 47N 255 2507 Type 329 3RE60 2304 2205 7-Mo Plus UR 47N 255 2507 Type 329 3RE60 2304 2205 7-Mo Plus UR 47N 255 2507

UNS Number S32900 S31500 S32304 S31803 S32550 S32750 S32900 S31500 S32304 S31803 S32950 S32550 S32750 S32900 S31500 S32304 S31803 S32950 S32550 S32750

200C 300C 400C 500C (392F) (572F) (754F) (932F) Elastic modulus in tension GPa (103 ksi) 200 (29.0) 195 (28.0) 185 (27.0) 200 (29.0) 190 (27.6) 180 (26.1) 170 (24.7) 160 (23.2) 150 (21.8) 200 (29.0) 190 (27.6) 180 (26.1) 170 (24.7) 160 (23.2) 150 (21.8) 200 (29.0) 190 (27.6) 180 (26.1) 170 (24.7) 160 (23.2) 150 (21.8) 205 (29.7) 194 (28.1) 181 (26.2) 170 (24.7) 210 (30.5) 200 (29.0) 198 (28.7) 192 (27.8) 182 (26.4) 170 (24.7) 200 (29.0) 190 (27.6) 180 (26.1) 170 (24.7) 160 (23.2) 150 (21.8) Mean coefficient of thermal expansion from 20C (68F) to T 10-6 cm/cm/C 10-6 in/in/F 10.9 (6.10) 11.0 (6.30) 11.6 (6.40) 12.1 (6.70) 12.3 (6.80) 12.6 (7.00) 13.0 (7.22) 13.5 (7.50) 14.0 (7.78) 14.5 (8.06) 15.0 (8.33) 12.6 (7.00) 13.0 (7.22) 13.5 (7.50) 14.0 (7.78) 14.5 (8.06) 15.0 (8.33) 12.6 (7.00) 13.0 (7.22) 13.5 (7.50) 14.0 (7.78) 14.5 (8.06) 15.0 (8.33) 9.5 (5.27) 10.5 (5.83) 11.5 (6.39) 12.4 (6.89) 13.3 (7.39) 13.9 (7.72) 12.0 (6.67) 12.5 (6.94) 13.0 (7.22) 13.5 (7.50) 11.7 (6.5) 12.1 (6.72) 12.6 (7.00) 13.0 (7.22) 13.3 (7.39) 13.6 (7.56) 12.6 (7.00) 13.0 (7.22) 13.5 (7.50) 14.0 (7.78) 14.5 (8.06) 15.0 (8.33) Thermal conductivity W/m C (BTU in/hr ft2 F) 16.0 (110) 16.0 (110) 16.0 (110) 14.1 (97) 17.0 (118) 13.5 (94) 16.0 (110) 17.0 (118) 17.0 (118) 17.0 (118) 16.4 (114) 18.0 (124) 15.1 (105) 17.0 (118) 19.0 (132) 19.0 (132) 19.0 (132) 19.0 (132) 19.0 (132) 17.2 (119) 19.0 (132) 20.0 (138) 20.0 (138) 20.0 (138) 21.5 (149) 20.0 (138) 19.1 (133) 20.0 (138) 21.0 (147) 21.0 (147) 21.0 (147) 22.0 (153) 22.0 (153) 22.0 (153)

20C (68F)

100C (212F)

20.9 (145) 21.0 (147)

22.5 (156) 22.0 (153)

Table 8-9 Elevated temperature physical properties of high-performance duplex stainless steels

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Figure 8-1 Schematic tensile rupture strength in 1000 hours

Figure 8-2 Schematic Creep Curve

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Figure 8-3 Short time tensile strengths

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Figure 8-4 Stress-rupture curves for several annealed stainless steels - 10,000hrs

Figure 8-5 Stress rupture curves for several stainless steels - 100,000hrs

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Figure 8-6 Creep-rate curves for several stainless steels - 1% in 10,000hrs

Figure 8-7 Creep-rate curves for several stainless steels - 1% in 100,000hrs

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Figure 8-8 Stress vs rupture-time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 304 stainless steel (averaged data)

Figure 8-9 Stress vs rupture time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 309 stainless steel (averaged data)

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Figure 8-10 Stress vs rupture time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 310 stainless steel (averaged data)

Figure 8-11 Stress vs rupture time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 316 stainless steel (averaged data)

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Figure 8-12 Stress vs rupture time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 321 stainless steel (averaged data)

Figure 8-13 Stress vs rupture time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 347 stainless steel (averaged data)

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Figure 8-14 Stress vs rupture time and creep-rate curves for annealed Type 410 stainless steel (averaged data)

Figure 8-15 Linear thermal expansion of stainless steels

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Figure 8-16 Thermal conductivity of stainless steels

Figure 8-17 Tensile modulus for ferritic steels (alloy and stainless)

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Figure 8-18 Tensile modulus for austenitic stainless steels

Figure 8-19 Comparative scaling behaviour of various steels during 1000-hr exposures in air at temperatures from 1100 to 1700F (595 tp 925C)

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Figure 8-20 Corrosion rates for stainless steel in various gases

Figure 8-21 Effect of nickel on scaling resistance Scaling resistance of some iron-chromium-nickel alloys in cycling temperature conditions at 1800F (982C). Cycle consisted of 15min in the furnace in air. Sheet specimens 0.031 (0.787mm) thick were exposed on both sides.

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9.

LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES


This section will be included

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10.

This section is being held for possible future inclusion

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11.
This section is being held for possible future inclusion

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12.
12.1 Material Data Sheets

USEFUL INFORMATION

This section contains material data sheets kindly provided by manufacturers. The list of materials covered is not exhaustive and inclusion does not in any way represent a recommendation by CICIND of those materials. They provided as a source of additional material data for designers to identify the properties of different types of material of certain chemical composition. The data sheets that follow are: 1) Voestalpine-Division Stahl - Rolled Clad Plates One Step Ahead, Voestalpine Groblech GmbH 2) Special Metals - Inconel alloy 686 3) Wallpapering sheet lining with nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloys Guidelines NiDi Reference: Book Series No 11020 4) Stainless Steel Allegheny Ludlum AL-6XN Alloy Technical Data Blue Sheet 5) Special Metals - Inconel alloy C-276 6) Krupp VDM - Cronifer 1925 hMo-alloy 926 Material Data sheet No 5002, September 1999 edition 7) Haynes International Corrosion Resistant Hastelloy, Alloy at a Glance, June 1997 Hastelloy C-2000 alloy 8) Haynes International Hastelloy C-22 alloy. A quick reference to the ultimate in corrosion protection 9) Haynes International Fabrication guidelines for thin-sheet metallic lining of flue gas desulfurization systems. General guidelines for weldings, pattern layout and structural attachments 1992 10) 3CR12 from Cromwell. Adding advantage to stainless steel. Product information 11) Krupp Thyssen Nirosta Nirosta 4565S 12) SPF Corporation of America (article by Mark Philipps) Resistance welded clad plate for ductwork, chimney liners and absorbers in FGD units 13) Usinor Industeel - URANUSB66 a high strength super-austenitic stainless steel with PRENW54 14) ThyseenKrup VDM Nicrofer 3127 hMo alloy 31 15) ThyssenKrup VDM Nicrofer 5923 hMo alloy 59