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Android Development Tutorial - Gingerbread

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Android Development Tutorial - Gingerbread


Lars Vogel
Version 7.8 Copyright 2009 - 2011 Lars Vogel 11.07.2011
Revision History
Revision 0.1 Created Revision 0.2 - 7.8 bug fixing and enhancements 07.07.2009 - 11.07.2011 Lars Vogel 04.07.2009 Lars Vogel

Development with Android Gingerbread and Eclipse This tutorial describes how to create Android applications with Eclipse. It is based on Eclipse 3.7 (Indigo), Java 1.6 and Android 2.3.3 (Gingerbread). Table of Contents 1. Android Development 1.1. Android Operation System 1.2. Important Android components 1.3. Security and permissions 1.4. AndroidManifest.xml 1.5. R.java, Resources and Assets 1.6. Activities and Layouts 1.7. Activities and Lifecyle 1.8. Context 2. Installation 2.1. Android SDK 2.2. Eclipse 2.3. Configuration 2.4. Android Source Code 3. Create an Android Emulator Device 4. Error handling 5. Your first Android project 5.1. Create Project 5.2. Two faces of things

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5.3. Create attributes 5.4. Add UI Elements 5.5. Edit UI properties 5.6. Code your application 5.7. Start Project 5.8. Using the home menu 6. Menus 6.1. Menus 6.2. Project 6.3. Add a menu XML resource 7. Preferences and Intents 7.1. Overview 7.2. Using preferences 7.3. Run 8. Dialogs via the AlertDialog 9. TableLayout 9.1. Overview 9.2. Example 10. ContentProvider 10.1. Overview 10.2. Create contacts on your emulator 10.3. Using the Contact Content Provider 11. ScrollView 12. DDMS perspective and important views 12.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server 12.2. LogCat View 12.3. File explorer 13. Shell 13.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell 13.2. Uninstall an application via adb 13.3. Emulator Console via telnet 14. Deploy your application on a real device 15. Thank you 16. Questions and Discussion 17. Links and Literature 17.1. Source Code 17.2. Android Resources 17.3. vogella Resources

1. Android Development

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1.1. Android Operation System


Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. It provides tools, e.g. a compiler, debugger and a device emulator as well as its own Java Virtual machine (Dalvik Virtual Machine - DVM). Android is created by the Open Handset Alliance which is lead by Google. Android uses a special virtual machine, e.g. the Dalvik Virtual Machine. Dalvik uses special bytecode. Therefore you cannot run standard Java bytecode on Android. Android provides a tool "dx" which allows to convert Java Class files into "dex" (Dalvik Executable) files. Android applications are packed into an .apk (Android Package) file by the program "aapt" (Android Asset Packaging Tool) To simplify development Google provides the Android Development Tools (ADT) for Eclipse . The ADT performs automatically the conversion from class to dex files and creates the apk during deployment. Android supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries and supports data storage in a SQLite database. Every Android applications runs in its own process and under its own userid which is generated automatically by the Android system during deployment. Therefore the application is isolated from other running applications and a misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications.

1.2. Important Android components


An Android application consists out of the following parts: Activity - Represents the presentation layer of an Android application, e.g. a screen which the user sees. An Android application can have several activities and it can be switched between them during runtime of the application. Views - The User interface of an Activities is build with widgets classes which inherent from "android.view.View". The layout of the views is managed by "android.view.ViewGroups". Services - perform background tasks without providing an UI. They can notify the user via the notification framework in Android. Content Provider - provides data to applications, via a content provider your application can share data with other applications. Android contains a SQLite DB which can serve as data provider Intents are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other services or activities. An application can call directly a service or activity (explicit intent) or ask the Android system for registered services and applications for an intent (implicit intents). For example the application could ask via an intent for a contact application. Application register themself to an intent via an IntentFilter. Intents are a powerful concept as they allow to create loosely coupled applications. Broadcast Receiver - receives system messages and implicit intents, can be used to react to changed conditions in the system. An application can register as a broadcast receiver for certain events and can be started if such an event occurs. Other Android parts are Android widgets or Live Folders and Live Wallpapers . Live Folders display any source of data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

1.3. Security and permissions


Android defines certain permissions for certain tasks. For example if the application want to access the Internet it must define in its configuration file that it would like to use the related permission. During the installation of an Android application the user get a screen in which he needs to confirm the required permissions of the application.

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1.4. AndroidManifest.xml
An Android application is described the file "AndroidManifest.xml". This file must declare all activities, services, broadcast receivers and content provider of the application. It must also contain the required permissions for the application. For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here. "AndroidManifest.xml" can be thought as the deployment descriptor for an Android application.

The "package" attribute defines the base package for the following Java elements. It also must be unique as the Android Marketplace only allows application for a specfic package once. Therefore a good habit is to use your reverse domain name as a package to avoid collisions with other developers. "android:versionName" and "android:versionCode" specify the version of your application. "versionName" is what the user sees and can be any string. "versionCode" must be an integer and the Android Market uses this to determine if you provided a newer version to trigger the update on devices which have your application installed. You typically start with "1" and increase this value by one if you roll-out a new version of your application. "activity" defines an activity in this example pointing to the class "de.vogella.android.temperature.Convert". For this class an intent filter is registered which defines that this activity is started once the application starts (action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN"). The category definition (category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" ) defines that this application is added to the application directory on the Android device. The @ values refer to resource files which contain the actual values. This makes it easy to provide different resources, e.g. strings, colors, icons, for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications. The "uses-sdk" part of the "AndroidManifest.xml" defines the minimal SDK version your application is valid for. This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions.

1.5. R.java, Resources and Assets


The directory "gen" in an Android project contains generated values. "R.java" is a generated class which contains references to resources of the "res" folder in the project. These resources are defined in the "res" directory and can be values, menus, layouts, icons or pictures or animations. For example a resource can be an image or an XML files which defines strings. If you create a new resources, the corresponding reference is automatically created in "R.java". The references are static int values, the Android system provides methods to

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access the corresponding resource. For example to access a String with the reference id "R.string.yourString" use the method getString(R.string.yourString)); Please do not try to modify "R.java" manually. While the directory"res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets().

1.6. Activities and Layouts


The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts. Layouts are at runtime instances of "android.view.ViewGroups". The layout defines the UI elements, their properties and their arragement. UI elements are based on the class "android.view.View". ViewGroup is a subclass of View A and a layout can contain UI components (Views) or other layouts (ViewGroups). You should not nestle ViewGroups to deeply as this has a negativ impact on performance. A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML. You typically uses Java code to generate the layout if you don't know the content until runtime; for example if your layout depends on content which you read from the internet. XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the folder "/res/layout". This file specifies the view groups, views, their relationship and their attributes for a specific layout. If a UI element needs to be accessed via Java code you have to give the UI element an unique id via the "android:id" attribute. To assign a new id to an UI element use "@+id/yourvalue". By conversion this will create and assign a new id "yourvalue" to the corresponding UI element. In your Java code you can later access these UI elements via the method findViewById(R.id.yourvalue). Defining layouts via XML is usually the preferred way as this separates the programming logic from the layout definition. It also allows to define different layouts for different devices. You can also mix both approaches.

1.7. Activities and Lifecyle


The operating system controls the life cycle of your application. At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application, e.g. because of an incoming call. The Android system defines a life cycle for an activities via pre-defined methods. The most important methods are: onSaveInstanceState() - called if the activity is stopped. Used to save data so that the activity can restore its states if re-started onPause() - always called if the Activity ends, can be used to release ressource or save data onResume() - called if the Activity is re-started, can be used to initiaze fields The activity will also be restarted if a so called "configuration change" happens. A configuration change for examples happens if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertical or horizontal). The activity is in this case restarted to enable the Android platform to load different resources for these configuration, e.g. layouts for vertical or horizontal mode. In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11. You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your activity definition in your AndroidManifest.xml. The following activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible).

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1.8. Context
The class android.content.Context provides the connections to the Android system. It is the interface to global information about the application environment. Context also provides the method getSystemService() which allows to receive Android services, e.g. the Location Service . As Activities and Services extend the class "Context" you can directly access the context via "this".

2. Installation
The following assume that you have already Eclipse installed. For details please see Eclipse Tutorial .

2.1. Android SDK


Download the Android SDK from the Android homepage under Android SDK download . The download contains a zip file which you can extract to any place in your file system, e.g. I placed it under "c:\android-sdk-windows" .

2.2. Eclipse
Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available plugins for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl.google.com/android/eclipse/ .

2.3. Configuration
In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via Windows -> Preferences. Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK.

Select Window -> Android SDK and AVD Manager from the menu.

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Select available packages and select the Android 2.3.3 (API10) version of the SDK.

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Press "Install selected" and confirm the license for all package. After the installation restart Eclipse.

2.4. Android Source Code


The following step is optional.

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During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available as Android uses a lot of defaults. Haris Peco maintains plugins which provides access to the Android Source code code. Use the Eclipse update manager to install two of his plugins. Update site: "http://adtaddons.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/source/com.android.ide.eclipse.source.update" and "http://adt-addons.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/binedit /com.android.ide.eclipse.binedit.update". More details can be found on the project website .

3. Create an Android Emulator Device


The Android tools include an emulator. This emulator behaves like a real Android device in most cases and allow you to test your application without having a real device. You can emulate one or several devices with different configurations. Each configuration is defined via an "Android Virtual Device" (AVD). To define an AVD press the device manager button, press "New" and enter the following.

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We will select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots. This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster.

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At the end press the button "Create AVD".This will create the device and display it under the "Virtual devices". To test if your setup is correct, select your device and press "Start". After (a long time) your device should be started.

4. Error handling

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Things are not always working as they should be. Several users report that get the following errors: 1. Project ... is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2. The project could not be built until build path errors are resolved. 3. Unable to open class file R.java. To solve this error select from the menu Project -> Clean. If you having problems with your own code you can use the LogCat viewer as described in LogCat Viewer .

5. Your first Android project


5.1. Create Project

This app is also available on the Android Marketplace. Search for "vogella" for find this example. Select File -> New -> Other -> Android -> Android Project and create the Android project "de.vogella.android.temperature". Enter the following.

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Press "Finish". This should create the following directory structure.

While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets().

5.2. Two faces of things

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The Android SDK allows to define certain artifacts, e.g. strings and UI's, in two ways, via a rich editor and directly via XML. The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation lists also the XML. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen. For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main.xml".

5.3. Create attributes


Android allows you to create attributes for resources, e.g. for strings and / or colors. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code. Select the file "res/values/string.xml" and press "Add". Select "Color" and enter "myColor" as the name and "#3399CC" as the value.

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Add also the following "String" attributes. String attributes allow to translate the application at a later point. Table 1. String Attributes Name celsius fahrenheit calc Value to Celsius to Fahrenheit Calculate

myClickHandler myClickHandler

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Switch to the XML representation and validate the values.

5.4. Add UI Elements


Select "res/layout/main.xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click. This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code. You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor. For changing the postion and grouping elements you can use the outline view. The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout. Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different.

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Right-click on the text object Hello World, Hello! in the layout. Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object. Then, from the Palette view, select Text Fields and locate Plain Text. Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field. All object types in the section "Text Fields derive from the class "EditText", they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used. Now select the Palette section Form Widgets and drag a RadioGroup object onto the layout. The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Eclipse. Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group. From the Palette section Form Widgets, drag a Button object onto the layout. The result should look like the following and the corresponding XML is listed below. Make sure that your code is the same as listed below.

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Switch to "main.xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following.

5.5. Edit UI properties


If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view. Most of the properties can also be changed via the right mouse menu. Select the EditText field, right mouse click on it, select Properties-> Text and delete the content. This means no text will be initially shown in the text field.

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Assign the "celsius" string attribute to your "text" property of the first radio button and "fahrenheit" to the second.

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From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements. Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton. Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property. Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText. Right-click on the view in Graphical Layout mode, then select Properties/Background... from the popup menu. Select Color and then myColor in the list.

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Switch to the "main.xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained.

5.6. Code your application


Change your code in "Convert.java" to the following. Note that the "myClickHandler" will be called based on the "On Click" property of your button.

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5.7. Start Project


To start the Android Application, select your project, right click on it, Run-As-> Android Application Be patient, the emulator starts up very slow. You should get the following result.

Type in a number, select your conversion and press the button. The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected.

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5.8. Using the home menu


If you press the Home button you can also select your application.

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6. Menus

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6.1. Menus
To use menus Android provides two ways. First is the option menu which can be opened via the menu button. The option menu of your activity is filled in the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your activity. You can register here a menu via your code or use a XML menu resources which you inflate via a "MenuInflator". You get a MenuInflator via your activity with the method getMenuInflator(). onCreateContextMenu() is only called once. If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the method onPrepareOptionsMenu(). The second option to display a menu is to use the context menu for a UI widget (view). A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view. A context menu for a view is registered via the method registerForContextMenu(view). The method onCreateContextMenu() is called every time a context menu is activated as the context menu is discarded after its usage. The Android platform may also add options to your view, e.g. "EditText" provides context options to select text, etc.

6.2. Project
This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu, how to define preferences and how to navigate between activities via an intent . Create a project "de.vogella.android.preferences" with the activity "HelloPreferences". Change the UI in the file "/res/layout/main.xml" to the following:

6.3. Add a menu XML resource


Menus can be defined via XML files. Select your project, right click on it and select New -> Other -> Android -> "Android XML File". Select the option "Menu", enter as File "menu.xml" and press the button "Finish".

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Press Add and select "Item". Maintain the following value. This defines the entries in your menu. We will have only one entry.

Change your class "HelloPreferences" to the following. The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the menu. The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings. In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called.

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Run your application and press "Menu" on the emulator. Your menu should be displayed. If you select the menu entry you should see a small info message.

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The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active. We will use them in the next chapter.

7. Preferences and Intents


7.1. Overview
Preferences allow you to save data for your application. Preferences are stored as key values. Intents allow you to start Activities from other Activities.

7.2. Using preferences


We will continue using the example project "de.vogella.android.preferences" from the last chapter.

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Preference values can also be stored as a XML resource. Create another Android XML File "preferences.xml" this time of type "Preference".

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Press Add, add a category and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password".

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To allow the user to enter the preference value you can define a Activity with extends PreferenceActivity. This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method addPreferencesFromResource(). Create the class "Preferences" which will load the "preference.xml".

To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest.xml" file. Select "AndroidManifest.xml" and the tab "Application". Add the activity "Preferences".

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The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change

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the preferences via code.

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We will update the method onOptionsItemSelected() to open the activity "Preferences" once you select the option menu. Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries. To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class "PreferenceManager" to get the sharedPreferences.

7.3. Run
Run your application. Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences". You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity. The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button. If you press the second button the username should be reversed.

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8. Dialogs via the AlertDialog


We have already used a "Toast" which is a small message window which does not take the focus. In this chapter we will use the class "AlertDialog". AlertDialog is used to open a dialog from our activity. This modal dialog gets the focus until the user closes it. An instance of this class can be created by the builder pattern, e.g. you can chain your method calls. You should always open a dialog from the class onCreateDialog(int) as the Android system manages the dialog in this case for you. This method is automatically called by Android if you call showDialog(int). Create a new Android project "de.vogella.android.alertdialog" with the activity "ShowMyDialog". Maintain the following layout for "main.xml".

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Change the code of your activity to the following.

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If you run your application and click your button you should see your dialog.

More on dialogs can be found on Android Dialogs standard documentation.

9. TableLayout

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9.1. Overview
In earlier chapter we have used the LinearLayout which allows you to stack widgets vertical or horizontal. LinearLayout can be nested to achieve nice effects. This chapter will demonstrate the usage of "TableLayout". This layout allows you to organize a view into a table format. You specify via the view group "TableRow" rows for your table. Afterwards you put widgets into the individual rows. On the "TableLayout" you can define which column should take additional space via the "android:stretchColumns" attribute. If several columns should take the available space you can specify them as a comma-separated list. Similar you can use the attribute "android:shrinkColumn", which will try to word-wrap the content of the specified widgets and the attribute "android:collapseColums" to define initially hidden columns. Via Java you can display / hide these columns via the method setColumnVisible(). Columns will be automatically created based on the maximum number of widgets in one row. Per default each widgets creates a new column in the row. You can specific via "android:layout_column" the column a widget should go and via "android:layout_span" how many columns a widget should take. You can also put non TableRows in a table. This way you can for example add dividers between your columns.

9.2. Example
Create the project "de.vogella.android.layout.table" with the activity "DemoTableLayout". Change "main.xml" to the following.

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Change the activity "DemoTableLayout" to the following to use the button to hide the second column in the table.

10. ContentProvider
10.1. Overview
ContentProvider are used to provide data from an application to another. ContentProvider do not store the data but provide the interface for other applications to access the data. The following example will use an existing context provider from "Contacts".

10.2. Create contacts on your emulator


For this example we need a few maintained contacts. Select the home menu and then the menu entry "Contacts" to create contacts.

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Press Menu and select "New Contact".

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As a result you should have a few new contacts.

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10.3. Using the Contact Content Provider


Create a new Android project "de.vogella.android.contentprovider" with the activity "ContactsView". Rename the id of the existing TextView from the example wizard to "contactview". Delete the default text. Also change the layout_height to "fill_parent". The resulting main.xml should look like the following.

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Access to the contact content provider require a certain permission as not all applications should have access to the contact information. Open the AndroidManifest.xml, and select the Permissions tab. On that tab click the "Add" button, and select "Uses Permission". From the drop-down list select the entry "android.permission.READ_CONTACTS". Change the coding of the activity.

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Typically you would display such data in a ListView . Please see the ListView Tutorial for details.

11. ScrollView
ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen. If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context. Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements. Create an android project "de.vogella.android.scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView". Create the following layout and class.

The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended.

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12. DDMS perspective and important views


12.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server
Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your device and program. Open it to see the possible options. This perspective includes the following views which can also be used independently and allows to place calls and send SMS to the device. It also allow to set the current geo position and to perform a performance trace of your application.

12.2. LogCat View


You can see the log (including System.out.print() statements) via the LogCat view.

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12.3. File explorer


The file explorer allows to see the files on the android simulator.

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13. Shell
13.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell
You can access your Android emulator also via the console. Open a shell, switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools". Start the shell via the following command "adb shell".

You can also copy file from and to your device via the following commands.

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This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system, e.g. ls, rm, mkdir, etc. The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app". If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individuel device.

13.2. Uninstall an application via adb


You can uninstall an android application via the shell. Switch the the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application.

13.3. Emulator Console via telnet


Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device. This allows you to simulate certain things, e.g. incoming call, change the network "stability", set your current geocodes, etc. Use "telnet localhost 5554" to conntect to your simulated device. To exit the console session, use the command "quit" or "exit". For example to change the power settings of your phone, to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following.

For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual

14. Deploy your application on a real device


Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings. Select in the settings Applications > Development, then enable USB debugging. You also need to install the driver for

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your mobile phone. For details please see Developing on a Device . Please note that the Android version you are developing for must be the installed version on your phone. To select your phone, select the "Run Configurations", select "Manual" selection and select your device.

15. Thank you


Please help me to support this article:

16. Questions and Discussion

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Before posting questions, please see the vogella FAQ . If you have questions or find an error in this article please use the www.vogella.de Google Group . I have created a short list how to create good questions which might also help you.

17. Links and Literature


Treinamento Android em SP Aprenda a criar aplicativos Android na Dextra. Nova turma em setembro! Promoo: Cadastre-se Cadastre-se em 5 Seg e Receba Todo Dia Ofertas de no Mnimo 50% OFF! Curso de Java Programmer Certificaes Java Programmer. Treinamentos em J2SE, J2EE e J2ME
www.dextra.com.br PeixeUrbano.com.br/Cadastre-se

www.impacta.com.br

17.1. Source Code


Source Code of Examples

17.2. Android Resources


Android 2 (German Book) Android ListView and ListActivity Android Location API and Google Maps Android Intents Android and Networking Android Homepage Android Developer Homepage Android Issues / Bugs Android Google Groups Android Assets Studio

17.3. vogella Resources


Eclipse RCP Training Join my Eclipse RCP Training to become an RCP Expert in 5 days (Training in German) Android Tutorial Introduction to Android Programming GWT Tutorial Program in Java and compile to JavaScript and HTML

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Eclipse RCP Tutorial Create native applications in Java JUnit Tutorial Test your application Git Tutorial Put everything you have under distributed version control system

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