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UNIT Describing Jobs

Objective: To help students to identify what roles different jobs and careers have and what is required to perform those jobs and careers. A large computer company can employ hundreds of staff, all with a specific responsibility, function, and purpose. Each employee has a specific role to play in meeting the needs of the guests or clients. The specific functions of particular employees are usually described under job descriptions or duties. Although the role of most computer company staff may be obvious, there may be times when a guest or client may ask about an employees job or his duties. Certainly these kinds of questions may be asked on job interviews. Here are the dialogues describing jobs in Information and Communication Technology (ICT).. Dialogue 1 Client : What do you do? Staff : Im a computer software engineer for a computer company? Client: What exactly does a computer software engineer do? Staff: Well, we analyze user needs to formulate software specifications, and then design, develop, test and evaluate programs to meet these requirements. We try to ensure that every thing runs smoothly and efficiently during testing and evaluating programs and solve problems that may come up. Client: That sounds interesting. Staff: It has its moments. Dialogue 2 Client: Whats your job? Staff: Im a programmer. Client: Are you a senior programmer? Staff: Well, Im the head of IT department. Client: Sounds sweet. Where do you work?

Staff: At Intelligent Software . Dialogue 3 Client : What do you do for a living? Staff : Im employed at a leading financial magazine as a graphic designer. Client : So you design graphic and page layout that magazine. Staff : Yes that. Client : Just out of curiosity- where did you work before you applied in this company? Staff : I was a graphic designer for PromoPrint, a company specializing in publishing catalogues and promotional material, and have used Adobe InDesign and other DTP software. Task 1 Conversation Activity Practice using the above expressions by having a dialogue similar to the ones above with a partner, one partner taking the role of the client and the other the role of the staff. For additional practice, switch roles. Practice the dialogue several times, trying to use all of the expressions noted above. Language Expressions There are a couple of standard expressions that can be used when asking about a persons occupation. Look at the example below : What do you do? Whats your job? Whats your occupation? What do you do for a living? What type of work do you do? Where do you work? I'm a salesman. (job-general) I'm in sales. (general) I'm in the computer business. (industry) I'm a programmer at Digitum-UK.(specific) I'm a consultant for IBM.

What company do you work for? I work for eJupiter.co.uk. (company name) I work at eJupiter.co.uk. (general) I'm with eJupiter.co.uk. (industry) What do you do there? What do you do at eJupiter.co.uk? I'm a software engineer. I work in the sales department. I'm in customer service. I work as a webmaster. I design and develop IT devices. I use page layout software to prepare electronic files for publication. (job title) (place in company) (general area) (specific job)

Once a person knows what your job title is, they may want to know a little bit about your specific job duties. Sometimes it is hard to tell exactly what a person does just from the job title. Look at the expressions below that can be used to inquire about job duties. What are your job duties? What exactly do you do in your job? What does your job entail? what does your job involve? Here are the responses to answer if someone asks about job duties. to talk about main responsibilities Im in charge of (= responsible for) designing and maintaining websites I have to deal with any complaints from the clients I run the small computer company in my hometown. Im responsible for managing websites. to talk about daily duties/routines I have to go to/ attend s lot of meetings.

I see/ meet/ visit clients I design programs in C for use in large retail chains. I make sure the web server runs properly, monitor the traffic through the site, and design and update the web pages. Language work: the simple present tense The simple present tense is used to discuss customs and habitual actions (activities), things which are general true (general truth) and factual statements, permanent situations, the frequency of events, and to ask for and give instructions or to discuss a series of actions. To have I have he has she has it has you have we have they have Statements + I work. He works. She works. It works. You work. We work. They work. Short form I've he's she's it's you've we've they've Statements I don't work. He doesn't work. She doesn't work. It doesn't work. You don't work. We don't work. They don't work. I work He works She works It works you work we work they work Short answer + Do I work? Yes, I do. Does he work? Yes, he does. Does she work? Yes, she does. Does it work? Yes, it does. Do you work? Yes you do. Do we work? Yes we do. Do they work? Yes they do. Questions Short answer No, I don't. No, he doesn't. No, she doesn't. No, it doesn't. No, you don't. No, we don't. No, they don't. Other Verbs (to work)

Customs and habitual actions (activities) you design and create either a graphic or 3D animations for software programs, games, movies, web pages, etc.

Things which are general true (general truth) and factual statements metals expand when heated. The coffee bean grows well in warm, damp climates.

Regular or permanent situations When something happens regularly or is a permanent situation we usually use the simple present tense. When using the simple present the verb (with the exception of the auxiliary verbs) remains in the dictionary form (verb + s with he/she/it).

Simple Present Timeline

For example: Q) "Where do you work?" A) "I work in the IT department of a large multinational company." Q) "Where does he work?" A) "He works in National Computer Research." Q) "What do you do?" A) "I'm a web designer." Q) "What does he do?" A) "He's a senior programmer." Frequency The simple present tense is also used to show how often something happens with adverbs of frequency - always, usually, often, sometimes, occasionally, seldom, rarely, never, etc.... And when discussing daily, weekly, monthly etc. routines. For example: "I always get up at 6.00."

"I never drink coffee before 12.00." "I work on my website every day." "Every Monday and Thursday I go to the Internet caf to access the Internet." We also use the simple present to ask for and give instructions or to discuss a series of actions. For example: Q) How to Get Dial-Up How to Get Dial-Up Internet Access? A) Well, first buy a computer that has a modem or add a modem to your existing computer. Most Internet service providers require at least an Intel 386 processor (or a Macintosh of any vintage) and a 14.4-Kbps modem. Most new computers will easily satisfy these requirements. Then, make sure your modem is properly installed, and connect it to the near-est phone jack using a phone cord.

Task. Put the verbs in brackets into Present Simple Example: She (not eat) _____ meat. She is a vegetarian. (key = does not eat) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Wait until I (be) ready. The meeting will start when everybody (arrive) . Let's phone Mandy now before it (be) too late. It (rain) before we get home. If you (go) to Thailand next year, I will go with you. If she (come) this evening, I will show her my new clothes. If the train (not come) soon, I'll be late. If the pain (get) too bad, take another painkiller. If she (be) late, we will go without her. If I (see) her, I will give her a lift.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

If I (not hear) from you tomorrow, I will expect you on Monday. If he (wash) my car, I will give him some money. If he (ring), I will let you know. I will give you the money back after I (get back) from holiday. I will tell you my secret when I (see) you next time. I (not speak) to him until he says sorry. I will give you a ring as soon as I get back. I (believe) it when I see it. I (become) a teacher when I finish studying English. Can you feed the dog while we (be) on holiday?

Task Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple (do) or Present Continuous (is doing). Example: She is a smoker but she (smoke not) _____ much. (key = does not smoke)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

(you need) a ticket to see your mother play at the theatre? 'What (your parents do) ?' 'They are teachers.' Ann (look for) a new job. Are you thirsty? (you want) something to drink? Can you cook? No but I (learn) . Can you hear those girls? What (they talk) about? Do not put the scissors away I (use) them. How is your father? Is he still ill? No, he (get better) . I (learn) Spanish. My friend is teaching me.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Let's go jogging. It (not rain) at the moment. Lucy is not in London at the moment. She (stay) in Paris. My brother usually (go) to work by train. My sister Sonia (live) in London. Normally I get up at 8, but this week I (get up) at 7. Paul (not like) maths. She (prefer) tea to coffee. She told me her address, but I (not remember) it. The earth (go) round the sun. We usually go skiing every year, but this year we (not go) anywhere. Why (you look) at me like that?

Task 2 Read the following descriptions about jobs are available in the computer industry and then do some tasks. What types of jobs are available in the computer industry? Below is short listing of different types of computer related jobs in the industry. In the below list we have described each of the jobs, the type of requirements, and recommendations what to do if you're interpreted in the job. 3D Animation / Graphic design Description: A position where you design and create either a graphic or 3D animations for software programs, games, movies, web pages, etc. Position may also require that you work on existing graphics, animations, movies, etc. done by other people.

Requirements: An individual applying for this job would need to be talented in design and creating visuals, for most people this is not something that you could train for. In addition to being talented in design and art you must have a good understanding of the software programs being used to create the visual designs or 3D animations. Recommendations: If you wish to get into graphic design / arts, learn major graphics programs such as Adobe Photoshop. In addition to this program, there are numerous other programs used to create your own pictures or edit photos. Difficulty: (MEDIUM - HIGH) Many of the programs used to create a graphic, edit a photo, or create a 3D render are complex programs and often require a lot of learning and experience; and in some cases, training or schooling. Customer service Description: Helping customers with general questions relating to the company, ordering, status on orders, account information or status, etc. Requirements: Good communication skills and a general understanding of the company and its products. Recommendations: Great starting position for anyone who is looking to get their foot in the door at the company and/or who are not yet that familiar with computers. Difficulty: (LOW) customer service will require that the employee be familiar with computers and be able to navigate through the companies system. However, will seldom require the employee to be skilled with computer. Data Entry Description: A job that commonly requires the employee to take information from a hard copy or other source and enter it into an electronic format. Position may also be taking electronic data and entering it into a database for easy sorting and locating. Requirements: Generally requires someone capable of typing 40-50 or more WPM, familiarity with computer, and usually requires familiarity with a word processors. Recommendations: Practice your typing and take typing tests to determine your overall speed. Difficulty: (LOW) Most data entry jobs are beginner level jobs and don't require much or any prior experience or formal education. Database Description: A job that requires creating, testing, and/or maintaining one or more database.

Requirements: Commonly requires that the user is familiar with and/or has an extensive knowledge with the database at the place of employment. For example: Access, FoxPro, MySQL, SQL, Sybase, etc. Recommendations: Become familiar with the database being used at the business. If the job is for developing or continuing the development of a database, you will need to have a great understanding of the database as well as how to program it. Often this knowledge requires past experience or formal education. Difficulty: (MEDIUM - HIGH) Developing or maintaining a database can be a difficult and sometimes very complex job. As mentioned above you will need to have past experience or formal education with maintaining or developing a database before most companies will even consider you. Engineer Description: An engineer is someone who is at the top of their class and almost always someone who has or is working on a college degree or several certifications. Although used broadly in this document, the type of engineer is usually specified in the job requirement. For example, a software development engineer may be a highly skilled computer programmer. Requirements: The requirements for this type of job change depending on the type of engineer you plan on being. However, as mentioned above, any engineer job will require an extensive understanding of the job. Usually, this understanding is obtained from a school, certifications, training, and/or years of past experience. Recommendations: Get training and/or education in the subject of interest from a school or other location. Learn as much about the subject as possible from books, the Internet, and other sources. Often before you can qualify for many engineer positions you will need past experience; therefore, it's a good idea to get an entry-level job in the same field. For example, if you want to be an engineer in software development, get a job in programming and/or create your own software programs. If you want to become a network engineer, get a job that requires you to setup, maintain, or otherwise work with networks and setup your own home network. Difficulty: (HIGH) This is a job / position that requires a lot of work to obtain and is not likely something you will be able to get as your first job. Hardware Description: A position as a hardware designer, circuit design, embedded systems, firmware, etc. is a job that requires you to design and create a complete hardware package or portions of a hardware device.

Requirements: Jobs that design and/or create hardware devices often require that the person has a good understanding of electronics, circuits, firmware, and/or design. For this type of position the person will often need to have several years of prior experience and/or a degree in the field. Recommendations: If you're interested in this type of field we suggest you get a degree in the field. Difficulty: (HIGH) Hardware design is a difficult position to learn and understand unless you get training or a degree. Networking Description: Computer networking jobs involve designing, setting up, and/or maintaining a network. Requirements: Although most users today have their own home networks, setting up, troubleshooting, and maintaining a corporate network can be a much more complicated task. Often, networking jobs also require a good understanding of how a network works, and in some cases how all the underlying protocols and structure of how networks work. Recommendations: There are numerous types of network and network related certifications available today, such as the CCNA, MCSE, etc. Often depending on the level of certification and the job you're applying for, the certifications will be more than enough to quality you for most network jobs. Some of the higher networking positions, especially in the development of network hardware or programming side, may also require past experience in networking and/or a degree. Difficulty: (MEDIUM - HIGH) Depending upon the job specifications and the complexity of the network usually determines the difficulty of this job. Programmer / Software developer Description: A job that requires the development and/or continued development and maintenance of a software program. Requirements: A basic to extensive understanding of a programming language. Because most job positions will require a person to develop sections of a program or the whole program, they often require several years of past experience and/or a degree before even considering you. Recommendations: Learn one or more programming languages. Depending on what type of programs or scripts you wish to create may change the type of language you wish to learn. If you need experience, creating your own software programs is a great way to learn a language and demonstrate your abilities at a job interview.

Difficulty: (HIGH) Learning a programming language can be as difficult as learning a second language and takes a lot of experience and practice to become a skilled programmer. Quality Assurance (QA) / System analyst / Tester Description: This job requires that the employee test out all features of a product for any problems or usability issues. Requirements: Requires that the person have a good understanding of computer software, hardware, and the product being tested. Recommendations: Become familiar with computers, software, hardware, and/or the products the company makes. Difficulty: (LOW - MEDIUM) Depending on what is being tested and how much needs to be tested usually determines the difficulty of this job. However, for users familiar with the product or similar products, you should not have much difficulty locating and reporting issues. Sales Description: Selling a product or service to another person or company. Requirements: Good communication skills and a general understanding of computers and/or the product that is being sold. Recommendations: If you're selling computers, computer hardware, or computer software, become familiar with all aspects of the product. Difficulty: (LOW) Sales for computer software, hardware, electronics, or related products is a good first job and can be a good way to learn more about computers. Technical Support (Technician / Help Desk) Description: Helping an end-user or company employee with their computers, software program, and/or hardware device. A technical support position is a great first step for people interested in working in the computer industry. Requirements: A basic understanding of computers, computer's software, and/or hardware. Recommendations: Become as familiar as possible with computers, computer software, and/or computer hardware, depending on what you will be supporting. Almost all technical support centers that help end-users with their computers, computer software, or

computer hardware products have training that all employees go through before you actually start work but will still often require that the user be familiar with computers. Help desks for corporations do not usually have any type of training; these positions require that the person being hired already have a very good understanding of computers and troubleshooting computer problems. Difficulty: (LOW - MEDIUM) The difficulty of this job is really depending on the type of training you get. However, someone who is familiar with computers or works with computers often will generally have an easy time with these positions after a few days working at them. Technical Writing Description: This position often involves creating or editing technical papers or manuals. Requirements: This position often requires that the individual has a basic understanding about the subject being written about and have good writing skills. Recommendations: Many of these positions will require that the person have a degree and will often test a user before hiring them. In addition to having good writing skills, you should also be familiar with a major word processor. Difficulty: (LOW - MEDIUM) For someone who has good writing skills and familiarity with the subject, this job can be an easy job. Security expert Description: Test and find vulnerabilities in a system, hardware device, or software program. Requirements: This position is for someone who has a strong familiarity with how software, hardware, and/or networks work and how to exploit them. Often, you will need to have a good understanding of how the overall system works as well as good programming skills. Recommendations: Keep up-to-date with all security news, advisories, and other related news. The majority of security vulnerabilities are through software, and in order to understand these vulnerabilities or find new security vulnerabilities, you'll need to understand how to program and have a good understand of how software works and interacts with computers. Difficulty: (MEDIUM - HIGH) The difficulty of this job really depends on what you're testing or trying to find any vulnerabilities in. WebMaster / Web Designer

Description: A job where a person creates, maintains, or completely designs a web page. Requirements: For basic web designing positions you should have a good understanding of HTML, the Internet, and web servers. More advanced positions where you will be working with more advanced web pages and not just static web pages may also require that you be familiar with such things as CGI, CSS, Flash, FTP, Linux, Perl, PHP, RSS, SSI, Unix, and/or XHTML. In addition to having a good understanding of the technologies and code used to create a web page, you're also often required to know the software programs they are created in. Recommendations: One of the best learning experiences for people who are interested in this type of job is to create your own web page. Keeping in mind that simply designing and posting a web page using Microsoft FrontPage without understanding HTML or the code of how it works may not be sufficient enough for most jobs. Difficulty: (MEDIUM - HIGH) The complexity of this job is really dependent on how difficult of a project you're working on, simply creating and posting a simple web site with no interaction is not that hard. However, creating an interactive site with forms, databases, and overall more interaction with the user and the server can increase the difficulty of the job significantly.

Task 3 Complete these definitions with jobs from the box. software engineer help desk technician network administrator computer security specialist DTP operator webmaster blog administrator hardware engineer

1. A .. designs and develops IT devices. 2. A .. writes computer programs. 3. A .. edits and deletes posts made by contributors to a blog. 4. A .. uses page layout software to prepare electronic files for publication. 5. A .. manages the hardware and software that comprise a network. 6. A .. designs and maintains websites. 7. A .. works with companies to build secure computer systems. 8. A .. helps end-users with their computer problems in person, by email or over the phone.

Task 4 Conversation Activity Materials: Papers with jobs and careers written on them Activity: Prior to this activity, write different jobs and careers available in the computer industry onto pieces of paper Hold up the job and career cards, one by one. Allow students to volunteer different information about each job and career, such as: *What duties are involved with that job or career? *What type of education is required for that job or career? *Would any students enjoy that type of job or career? *What would they enjoy doing in that specific job or career?* What kind of difficulties that you meet if you have that job or career. Task 5. Complete the following text about jobs available in the computer industry and then answer the questions. solve messages connecting coded needs Internet software programming languages implement clients technical posses skills requirements tailoring

Computer specialists develop and maintain the computer equipment and software programs that form the basis of the (1) . .They make up the majority of professional and related occupations, and account for about 34 percent of the industry as a whole. Computer programmers write, test, and customize the detailed instructions, called programs or (2) . . , that computers follow to perform various functions such as (3) . . to the Internet or displaying a Web page. Using (4) . .such as C++ or Java, they break down tasks into a logical series of simple commands for the computer to (5) . .. Computer software engineers analyze user (6) . . to formulate software specifications, and then design, develop, test, and evaluate programs to meet these requirements. While computer software engineers must (7) . . strong programming (8) . ., they generally focus on developing programs, which are then (9) . . by computer programmers. Computer systems analysts develop customized computer systems and networks for (10) . .. They work with organizations to solve problems by designing or (11) . . systems to meet unique (12) . . and then implementing these systems. By customizing systems to specific tasks, they help their clients maximize the benefit from investment in hardware, software, and other resources. Computer support specialists provide (13) . .assistance to users who experience computer problems. They may provide support either to customers or to other

employees within their own organization. Using automated diagnostic programs and their own technical knowledge, they analyze and (14) . . problems with hardware, software, and systems. In this industry, they connect with users primarily through telephone calls and e-mail (15) . .. 1. What is the difference between computer specialists and computer programmers? 2. What skills must computer software engineers have? 3. With whom do computer system analysts work with if they want to solve problems in computer systems and networks for clients? 4. What is a program? 5. Could you mention 5 programming languages that you have ever known?