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Alternative Centres of power 1 mark What are the pillars of ASEAN? There are three pillars of ASEAN.

ASEAN Security Community ASEAN Economic Community ASEAN Socio-Culture Community Which two members of EU hold permanent seats in UN council? Britain and France hold permanent seats in UN council. Which region was taken over by China in 1950? Tibet was taken over by China in 1950. Name the emerging alternative centres of power that limit the dominance of America in world politics? The European Union (EU) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations are the two emerging alternative centers of power that limit the dominance of America in world politics. Which organisation was established under the Marshall plan? The Organisation for European Economic Cooperation was established under the Marshall Plan in 1948. In which economic institution, India and China have adopted similar policies? India and china have adopted similar policies of the World Trade Organisation. When did ASEAN come into existence? ASEAN which stands for Association of Southeast Asian Nations came into existence on August 8, 1967. Which agreement was signed on January 28, 1992? The ASEAN free trade agreement was signed on January 28, 1992. It accounts for over 96 percent of all ASEAN trade. The first six signatories of the Common Effective Preferential Tariff scheme for the ASEAN Free Trade Area have reduced their tariffs on intra-regional trade to no more than five percent for almost all products in the inclusion list or removed them altogether. Who proposed Four Modernizations in 1973 in china? Premier Zhou Enlai proposed four modernizations in 1973 in china. What do you mean by four modernizations? Four Modernizations are agriculture, industry, science and technology. Which slogan was popular before the conflict of 1962 between India and China? The slogan Hindi- Chini Bhai Bhai was popular before the conflict of 1962. What is OEEC? Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) was established to canalize US aid to Europe under the Marshall plan. OEEC converted in forum where European countries started to cooperate on trade and economic issues.

What are the aims of EU? The EU was founded for a common foreign and security policy, cooperation on justice and home affairs and creation of a single currency. When was ASEAN founded and who were its founders. ASEAN was founded in 1967 in Bangkok. Five countries of South East Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippine and Singapore were the founders of ASEAN. What are Zhou Enlai four modernizations? Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai proposed four modernizations to boost Chinese economy. Agriculture Industry Science Technology Name the founder countries of ASEAN? ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) was established by five countriesIndonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. What is FTA? The ASEAN Free Trade Area (FTA) is an agreement signed by member nations of ASEAN which is concerned with local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries. What are the aims of ASEAN? The aims of ASEAN include the acceleration of economic growth, social progress, cultural development among its member countries and the promotion of regional peace. What was the reason of armed clash in 1962 between India and China? The territorial claims in Arunachal Pradesh and in the aksai-chin region of Ladakh both by India and China was the reason of armed clash in 1962. Define European Union. European Union is an international association formed by European nations in 1992 to foster economic & defence cooperation. Define SEZs. Special Economic Zones created by countries to attract foreign investment by removing trade barriers. Define ASEAN. Association of South East Asian Nations formed in 1967 to accelerate economic growth & social & cultural progress. It is based on sovereign equality of all nation. 2 marks What are the imbalances in Chinese society despite high growing economy? While Chinese economy has improved dramatically, not everyone in China has received the benefits of reforms. Unemployment is at its peak in China, with nearly 100 million people are looking for job. Female employment and conditions of work are as bad as in Europe as in eighteen and nineteen centuries. Environmental

degradation and corruption have increased besides a rise in economic inequality between rural and costal and inland provinces. Write the note on rise of China as centre of alternative power. Contemporary China came into existence in 1949 after the communist revolution. In the beginning China adopted Soviet model. In 1978 after Mao China adopted market economy system with its communist political system. Through this policy China invited foreign companies and investment in China and maintain its relation with US and Europe. This policy gave boost to Chinese economy and China became second largest economy in 2007 after US. What is Bandung conference? After WWII there was a wide awareness of independence in the newly independent countries. During cold war world had been divided in two blocs and these countries did not wanted to be a part of any blocs. Therefore 29 countries from Asia and Africa gathered in Bandung in Indonesia in 1955 to set the agenda for new world system after WWII. In this conference participant countries focus on economic and cultural cooperation and oppose of colonialism. Describe the economical influence of EU. EU is the worlds biggest economy with a GDP of more than $12trillion in 2005 which is larger than that of US.EU currency euro is emerging as most powerful currency in the world and challenging the dominant position of US dollar. EU share of world trade is three times larger than US. This huge share allowing EU to be more assertive in trade dispute with the US and China. EU has also plays its important role in international economic organization as World Bank, IMF and WTO. Write a note on political and diplomatic power of EU. EU has great political and diplomatic influence in world politics. Two members of EU are the permanent members of most powerful and arbitrator body on UN, UNSC. Many EU members are also non permanent members of UNSC. This influence enables the EU to influence some of US policies such as the current US position on nuclear issue of Iran. EU also play important role in human right and environment issues. What is super national organization? In history many time different groups of countries tried to maintain unity on the basis of common culture or interest. These organizations take the decision for the welfare of all people of the region or organization. In the supranational organizations decisions are not base on any particular nation, race, colour and language. EU and ASEAN are the best example of this type of organization. Write a note on EU military influence. Militarily, the EU combined armed forces are the second largest in the world. Its total spending on defence is second to the US. Even the two important members of EU i.e. Britain and France have nuclear arsenals of approx. 550 nuclear warheads. It is the second most important source of space and communication technology. Define European Union. After the WWII European countries decided to unite economically, socially, culturally and politically. In the beginning six countries Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and Netherlands founded EU. In 1957 European Economic Community

came in existence after treaty of Rome. After many treaties officially EU was founded in 1993 after Maastricht Treaty. Till 2007 there were 27 members of EU. Write a note on EEC. European Economic Community is an alliance of six European nations (Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) set up to begin creation. Established under the Treaty of Rome in 1957, one of the goals of the EEC was to create a common market permitting the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital. The Rome treaty also established the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community. What are the components of the ASEAN Vision 2020? As ASEAN is rapidly growing into a very important regional organisation so its Vision 2020 has defined an outward looking role for ASEAN in the international community. The Vision 2020 builds on the existing ASEAN policy to encourage negotiation over conflicts in the region. It had played the mediatory role to end the Cambodian conflict, the East Timor crisis and meets annually to discuss East Asian cooperation. Name the communities which are pillars of ASEAN community? The pillars of ASEAN community are: ASEAN security community ASEAN economic community ASEAN socio-cultural community Which model was adopted by the People's Republic Of China in the economic sector? Peoples Republic of china adopted Soviet model in the economic sector, because the economic model of the former USSR ensured that everybody got their basic needs equally, especially the working class people. What are the objectives of ASEAN Economic Community? The objectives of ASEAN Economic Community are: To create a common market and production base within ASEAN states. To aid social and economic development in the ASEAN region. What do you understand by ASEAN way? The ASEAN way is a form of interaction which believes in non-interference, informality, minimal institutionalisation, consultation and consensus, non- use of force and non-confrontation among member countries. Write a note on India China conflict in 1962 and its results. In 1950 China occupied Tibet. Since then China and India were at logger heads due to the border conflict. This conflict finally ended in a war between two countries in 1962. Due to this war, the relationship between China and India were not good till 1976. However, India is now on good terms with China due to the change in political leadership of China from the mid to late 1970s. What do you understand by ARF? The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), established in 1994 is an organisation that carries out coordination of security and foreign policy.

How and when did China end its political and economic isolation? With the establishment of relations with the US in 1972, China ended its political and economic isolation. At present China has entered into the process of globalisation. 4 marks What are the challenges before the economy of China though it has grown as an emerging centre of power? Though economic reforms introduced in 1978 have boosted the economic growth of China and now China has grown as a great centre of power at international level yet, there are still challenges before the economy of China. Everyone in China has not received the benefits of the reforms. Unemployment has risen in China with nearly 100 million people looking for job. The status of female employment and work conditions are bad. Environmental degradation and corruption have increased. Residents of rural and urban region and costal and inland provinces face a situation due to economic inequality. What is the economic influence of EU in the world? The EU (European Union) is the worlds largest economy and political community in the world with an estimated nominal GDP of 11.6 Euro (US $) trillion in 2006. It is a union of twenty-seven independent states based on European Communities and founded to enhance political, economic and social co-operation. It is the largest exporter and second largest importer in the world. It also functions as an important bloc in international organisation such as World Trade Organization (WTO). What is ASEAN vision 2020? It is a vision for ASEAN on the basis of today's realities and prospects in the decades leading to the Year 2020. The components of this vision are of ASEAN as a concert of Southeast Asian nations, outward looking, and living in peace, stability and prosperity, bonded together in partnership in dynamic development and in a community of caring societies. The vision tries to make the entire Southeast Asia to be, by 2020, an ASEAN community conscious of its ties of history, aware of its cultural heritage and bound by a common regional identity. Name the pillars and objectives of ASEAN community? The pillars of ASEAN community are: a) ASEAN security community b) ASEAN Economic Community and c) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community. The ASEAN Security Community is based on the conviction that outstanding territorial disputes should not escalate into armed confrontation. The objectives of the ASEAN Economic Community are to create a common market and production base within ASEAN states and to aid social and economic development in the region. The Economic Community would also like to improve the existing ASEAN Dispute Settlement Mechanism to resolve economic disputes. The ASEAN Socio-Cultural community represents ASEANS aspirants to lift the quality of life of its people, substantially use of natural resources and strengthen its cultural identity towards a people centered ASEAN. Describe ASEAN regional forum. The ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) was established in 1994. There are 27 members of ARF, the 10 ASEAN member states (Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), the 10 ASEAN dialogue partners (Australia, Canada, China, the EU, India, Japan, New Zealand, ROK, Russia and the United States), one ASEAN observer (PNG), as well as non dialogue partner countries also as DPRK, Mongolia, Pakistan, East Timor, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The ARF is also the primary forum for security dialogue in Asia, complementing the

different bilateral alliances and dialogues. It offer a setting in which members can discuss there current regional security issues and develop cooperative measures to enhance peace and security in the region. The objectives of the ASEAN Regional Forum are as follows: To foster constructive dialogue and consultation on political and security issues of common interest and concern; and To make significant contributions to efforts towards confidence-building and preventive diplomacy in the Asia-Pacific region. What advantages China gain from Soviet model? Since its beginning China stated to practices Soviet model under the leadership of Mao. Through Soviet model economically backward China chose to serve its links with the capitalist world. It had little choice but to fall back on its own resources and for brief period on soviet economical aid and advice. According to this model China was to create a state owned heavy industries sector from the capital accumulated from the agriculture. China also decided to substitute import by domestic goods. This model allowed China to use its resources to establish the foundation of an industrial economy. Employment and social welfare was ensuring for all citizen. China became a leading developing country in educating its citizen and ensuring batter health to them. The economy growth rate was also 5-6 percent. 6 marks What is position of China in international system, Describe? China always considered as important country in world political system. China is recognized as a nuclear power country and permanent member of UNSC. After the dissolution of USSR in 1989 world became unipolar and there was not any visible challenge and alternative of US domination. China emerged slowly as an alternative centre of power. China stared economic reforms in 1972 under the leader ship of Zhou Enlai in 1972 with 4 modernizations and Deng gave remarkable speed to reforms with open door policy. Through open door policy China emerged as an economical super power after US. China focused on its military power and modernizes her forces. China increased its defence budget and developed atomic bomb and modern missile system. China developed its space technology very fast. China is also increasing its political influence and participating actively in international institutes and affairs. China played very important role in founding SCO (Shanghai cooperation organization) which plays an important role to push out USA from central Asia in 2006. Describe Indo-China relations? China is immediate neighbour of India and share 2000 km border. In the beginning Indo- China relations were very good with the slogan of Hindi Chini bhai bhai. There were some tensions to take border dispute. China always claims some part of the Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh and Askai Chin. China's invasion of Tibet also adversely affected the relations of India and China. China attacked India in 1962 to capture Arunachal Pradesh. In this war India experienced military reverses. India cut diplomatic relation because of this war. Again diplomatic relations was established in 1976 and to improve situation both countries initiated talk to resolve border disputes. In post cold war environment, relations improve fast. To boost the ties between India and China, Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi visited China in 1988 and signed different bilateral agreement specially related to

cultural exchange and science and technology. A trade relation between China and India has increased from $338 million in 1992 to more than $18 billion in 2006. Write a note on NAM (Non Aligned Movement). The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is an international organization of states considering themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. It was founded in April 1955; as of 2007, it has 118 members. The purpose of the organization as stated in the Havana Declaration of 1979 is to ensure "the national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their struggle against imperialism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, Zionism, and all forms of foreign aggression, occupation, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics. They represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations members and comprise 55 percent of the world population, particularly countries considered to be developing or part of the third world. The main principles of NAM are: Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty Mutual non-aggression Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs Equality and mutual benefit Peaceful co-existence What were the major policy decisions taken by the Chinese leadership which gave rise to its economy? In 1970s some major policy decisions taken by the Chinese leadership helped china to become a great power. With the establishment of relations with the United States in 1972, China ended its political and economic isolation. In 1973, four modernisationsagriculture, industry, science and technology- were proposed by the then Premier Zhou Enlai. But the announcement of Open Door Policy and economic reforms in 1978 by the then leader Deng Xiaoping gave a boost to the development of China. The Government of China has reformed its economy based on Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market oriented economy. The new economic policies have helped the Chinese economy to break from stagnation. Privatisation of agriculture and industry, new trading policies and creation of Special Economic Zones has led to a remarkable rise in the Chinese economy. Chinas accession to the WTO in 2001 has also opened its door to the outside world. Now china has become the most important destination for most of the countries. How did the visit of Rajiv Gandhi to China improve the relationship between India and China? Rajiv Gandhis visit to China in December 1988 gave an opportunity to both the countries to improve their relationship. Since then both governments have taken all efforts to maintain peace and tranquillity on the border issue. They have signed agreements on cultural exchange and sharing science and technology and opened four border posts for trade activities. The trade activities between two countries have increased to 30 per cent per year since 1999 as a more positive development. Bilateral trade relationships have increased between India and China from $338 million in 1992 to more than $18 billion in 2006. At global level India and China have adopted similar foreign policies.