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2 Pneumatics Theory A fluid power system is one that transmits and control energy through the use of pressurized liquid or gas. In Pneumatics, this power is air. This of course from the atmosphere and is reduced in volume by compression, thus increasing its pressure. Compressed air mainly used to do work by acting on a piston or vane. While this energy can be used in many facets of industry, the field of industrial pneumatics is considered here. The correct use of pneumatic control requires an adequate knowledge of pneumatic components and their function to ensure their integration into an efficient working system. Although electronic control using a programmable sequencer or other logic controller is currently specified, it is still necessary to know the function of the pneumatic components in this type of system. 2.2.1 What Can Pneumatics do? Operation of heavy or hot doors. Unloading of hoppers in building, steel making, mining and chemical industries.

Forming operations of bending, drawing and flattening. Bottling and filling machines. Pneumatic robots. Component and material conveyor transfer. Air separation and vacuum lifting of thin sheets.
Figure 2.1 show the application of pneumatic component at chip bonding process which consists of a vacuum unit.

2.2.2 The Advantages and Limitations of Pneumatic It has several operation modes; can be fully automated, manually operated and semi automated mode. It is clean, suitable for several processes which are very sensitive, especially for hazardous chemicals and electronic components.

The equipments are very cheap compared to other methods. The accuracy of the end results is moderate. Reduce production time and cost mass production. There is no other waste produced from the operating system except air. Compress is relatively insensitive to temperature fluctuation. This ensures reliable operation, even under extreme condition (depend on protection material) However, pneumatic technology also has their own limitations. Listed below are the limitations of pneumatic technology: Only clean air with lowest humidity is allowed to be in pneumatic system. So, compress air need good preparation to filter any kind of dirt and condensate. It is seldom to get uniform and constant piston speed with compressed air. It has the limitation in producing the output force. It is suitable for non-heavy duty purpose. The exhaust air is very noisy. Compressed air is very expensive in terms of conveying the power but the high price is remunerated by the cheap pneumatic equipments, fast and efficient production

2.2.3 The Basic of Pneumatic System Pneumatic cylinders, rotary actuators and air motors provide the force and movement of most pneumatic control systems to hold, move, form and process material. To operate and control these actuators, other pneumatic components are required i.e. air service units to prepare the compressed air and valves to control the pressure, flow and direction of movement of the actuators. A basic pneumatic system, shown in Fig 2.2, consists of two main sections:

Figure 2.2: Basic Pneumatic System

The Air Production and Distribution System (1) Compressor: Air taken in at atmospheric pressure is compressed and delivered at higher pressure to the pneumatic system. It thus transforms mechanical energy into pneumatic energy. (2) Electric Motor: Transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy (3) Pressure Switch: Controls the electric motor by sensing the pressure in the tank. (4) Check valve: Lets the compressed air from the compressor into the tank. It is set to a maximum pressure at which it stops the motor and a minimum pressure at which it restarts it. (5) Tank: Stores the compressed air. (6) Pressure Gauge: Indicates the Tank Pressure. (7) Auto Drain: Drains all the water condensing in the tank without supervision. (8) Safety Valve: Blows compressed air off if the pressure in the tank should rise above the allowed pressure. (9) Refrigerated Air Dryer: Cools the compressed air to a few degrees above freezing point and condenses most of the air humidity. (10) Line Filter: It helps to keep the line free from dust, water and oil.

The Air Consuming System (1) Air Take Off. (2) Auto Drain. (3) Air Service Unit. (4) Directional Valve: Alternatively pressurizes and exhaust the cylinder connections to control the direction of movement. (5) Actuator. (6) Speed Controllers: Allows easy speed adjustment of the actuator movement. 2.2.4 Components and Symbol of Pneumatic System The primary levels in a pneumatic system are: Energy supply/Air generation and distribution. Input elements (sensors). Processing elements (processors). Actuating devices (actuators) The elements in the system are represented by symbols which indicate the function of the element. The symbols can be combined to represent a solution for a particular control task using the circuit diagram. The circuit is drawn with the same structure as the signal flow diagram above. At the actuator level the addition of the control element completes the structure. The control element controls the action of the actuator after receiving signals sent by the processor elements.

Figure 2.3: Pneumatic elements

The directional control valve (DCV) may have a sensing, a processing or an actuating control function. It the DCV is used to control a cylinder motion, then it is a control element for the actuator group. If it is used in the function of processing signals, then it is defined as a processor element. If it is used to sense motions, then it is defined as a sensor. The distinguishing feature between each of these roles is normally the method of operating the valve and where the valve is situated in the circuit diagram. The development of pneumatic systems is assisted by a uniform approach to the representation of the elements and the circuits. The symbols used for the individual elements must display the following characteristics:

Function Actuation and return actuation methods Number of connections (all labeled for identification) Number of switching positions General operating principle Simplified representation of the flow path

A symbol does not represent the following characteristics:

Size or dimensions of the component

Particular manufacturer, methods of construction or costs

Orientation of the ports

Any physical details of the element

Any unions or connections other than junctions The symbols used in pneumatics are detailed in the standard DIN ISO 1219, "Circuit symbols for fluidic equipment and systems. (a) Air generation and distribution The air supply for a particular pneumatic application should be sufficient and of adequate quality. Air is compressed to approximately 1/7th of its volume by the air compressor and delivered to an air distribution system in the factory. To ensure the quality of the air is acceptable, air service equipment is utilized to prepare the air before being applied to the control system. Malfunctions can be considerably reduced in the system if the compressed air Is Correctly prepared. A number of aspects must be considered in the preparation of the service air:

Quantity of air required to meet the demands of the system

Type of compressor to be used to produce the quantity required

Storage required

Requirements for air cleanliness

Acceptable humidity levels to reduce corrosion and sticky operation

Air supply system

Lubrication requirements, if necessary

Low temperature of the air and effects on the system

Pressure requirements

Line sizes and valve sizes to meet demand

Material selection and system requirements for the environment

Drainage points and exhaust outlets in the distribution system

Layout of the distribution system to meet demand. As a rule pneumatic component is designed for a maximum operating pressure of 8- 10 bar (800-7000 kPa) but in practice it is recommended to operate at between 5 and 6 bar (500-600 kPa) for economic use. Due to the pressure losses in the distribution system the compressor should deliver between 6.5 and 7 bar (650-700 kPa) to attain these figures. An air receiver should be fitted to reduce pressure fluctuations. In normal operation the compressor fills the receiver when required and the receiver is available as a reserve at all times. This reduces the switching cycles of the compressor

The symbols for the energy supply system can be represented as individual elements or as combined elements. The choice between using simplified or detailed symbols is dependent upon the purpose of the circuit and its complexity. In general where specific technical details are to be given such as requirements for non-lubricated air or micro-filtering, then the complete detailed symbol should be used. If a standard and common air supply is used for all components, then the simplified symbols can be used.

Due to the high demand at certain stages of the air distribution system, a ring main with crossfeed connections is recommended. In this way the fluctuations are reduced. The ring main should be laid out with a 1-2% gradient to allow drainage points for condensate from the compressor. If there is a relatively high condensate level, then air drying equipment should be fitted specifically to dry the air to the required quality. Condensate is a common cause of failure in pneumatic controls. The air service unit is a combination of the following Compressed air filter, Compressed air regulator and Compressed air lubricator. The correct combination, size and type of these elements are determined by the application and the control system demand. An air service unit is fitted at each control system in the network to ensure the quality of air for each individual task

Figure 2.5: Symbols use in energy conversion and preparation The compressed air filter has the job of removing all contaminants from the compressed air flowing through it as well as water which has already condensed. The compressed air enters the filter bowl through guide slots.

Liquid particles and larger particles of dirt are separated centrifugally collecting in the lower part of the filter bowl. The collected condensate must be drained before the level exceeds the maximum condensate mark, as it will otherwise be re-entrained in the air stream. The purpose of theregula tor is to keep the operating pressure (secondary pressure) virtually constant regardless of fluctuations in the line pressure (primary pressure) and the air consumption. The purpose of thelubricator is to deliver a metered quantity of oil mist into a leg of the air distribution system when necessary for the use by pneumatic control and working components. (b) Input Elements Valves can be divided into a number of groups according to their function in relation to signal type, actuation method and construction. The primary function of the valve is to alter, generate or cancel signals for the purpose of sensing, processing and controlling. Additionally the valve is used as a power valve for the supply of working air to the actuator. Therefore the following categories are relevant: Directional control valves: Signaling elements, Processing elements, Power elements Non-return valves Flow control valves Pressure control valves Combinational valves b.1) Directional control valves The directional control valve controls the passage of air signals by generating, canceling or redirecting signals. In the field of control technology, the size and construction of the valve is of less importance than the signal generation and the actuation method. Directional control valves can be of the poppet or slide type, with the poppet utilized for small flow rates and for the generation of input and process signals. The slide valve is able to carry larger flow rates and hence lends itself to the power and actuator control role. The way valve is described by: Number of ports or openings (ways): 2 way, 3 way, 4 way, 5 way, etc. Number of positions: 2 positions, 3 positions, etc.

Methods of actuation of the valve: Manual, air pilot, solenoid, etc. Methods of return actuation: Spring return, air return, etc. Special features of operation: Manual overrides, etc

The directional control valve is represented by the number of controlled connections, the number of positions and the flow path. In order to avoid faulty connections, all the inputs and outputs of a valve are identified. A numbering system is used to designate directional control valves and is in accordance with ISO 5599 (Draft). Prior to this a lettering system was utilized and both systems of designation are presented here:

The methods of actuation of pneumatic directional control valves are dependent upon the requirements of the task. The symbols for the methods of actuation are detailed in ISO 1219. The types of actuation may vary e.g. manually actuated, mechanically actuated, pneumatically actuated, electrical, combined actuation.