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# 2.092/2.

Fall 09

## Lecture 6 - Finite Element Solution Process

Prof. K. J. Bathe MIT OpenCourseWare

In the last lecture, we used the principle of virtual displacements to obtain the following equations: KU = R =
V (m)

(1)

K = K
m

(m)

; K

(m)

## B (m)T C (m) B (m) dV (m)

R = RB + R S RB = RS =
(m) RB m (m) RS m

; ;

(m) RB (m) RS

=
V
(m)

## H (m)T f B(m) dV (m) H Sf

i(m) i(m)

=
i Sf

f Sf

i(m)

dSf

i(m)

u(m) (m)

= =

H (m) U B (m) U

(2) (3)

Note that the dimension of u(m) is in general not the same as the dimension of (m) .

Lecture 6

## Finite Element Solution Process

2.092/2.093, Fall 09

Assume: i. Plane sections remain plane ii. Static analysis no vibrations/no transient response iii. One-dimensional problem; hence, only one degree of freedom per node Elements 1 and 2 are compatible because they use the same U2 . Next, use a linear interpolation function.

u(1) (x) =

x 100

x 100

H (1)

U1 0 U2 U 3 U1 0 U2 U 3

; u(2) (x) =

1 80
H (2)

x 80

U1 U2 U 3

(1) (x) =

1 100

1 B (1)

100

; (2) (x) =

1 80

1 80

B (2)

U1 U2 U 3 0
1 80 1 80

K = E1
0 100

1 100 1 100

1 100
1 100

dx + E
0

80

2 0 x 1 1+ 40 80
1 80

dx

0 1 E 1 100 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 + 13E 0 1 0 3 80 0 0 1 0

1
1
13 3

The equivalent cross-sectional area of element 2 is A = areas of the end faces A = 1 and A = 9. 2

Lecture 6

## Finite Element Solution Process

2.092/2.093, Fall 09

K=

2.4

2.4 15.4 13

E 2.4 240 0

13 13

We note: Diagonal terms must be positive. If the diagonal terms are zero or negative, then the system is unstable physically. A positive diagonal implies that the degree of freedom has stiness at that node. K is symmetric. K is singular if rigid body motions are possible. To be able to solve the problem, all rigid body modes must be removed by adequately constraining the structure. i.e. K is reduced by applying boundary conditions to the nodes. The K used to solve for U is, then, positive denite (det K > 0). This ensures that the elastic strain energy is positive and nonzero for any displacement eld U . In the analysis, each element is in equilibrium under its nodal forces, and each node is in equilibrium when summing element forces and external loads.

Homework Problem 2

xx zz

u x u x

Lecture 6

## Finite Element Solution Process

2.092/2.093, Fall 09

2x E 1
C= 1 2 1
; R = x

f B = 2 R N/cm3

Fall 2009