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Transformation media for linear liquid surface waves

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January 2009
EPL, 85 (2009) 24004 doi: 10.1209/0295-5075/85/24004 www.epljournal.org

Transformation media for linear liquid surface waves

Huanyang Chen1(a) , Jiong Yang2 , Jian Zi2 and C. T. Chan1 Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology - Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China 2 Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Lab), Fudan University - Shanghai 200433, PRC received 6 November 2008; accepted in nal form 23 December 2008 published online 30 January 2009

47.35.-i Hydrodynamic waves 04.30.Nk Wave propagation and interactions 92.05.Jn Ocean energy extraction

Abstract We extend the transformation media concept to the linear liquid surface waves. A mapping is introduced to generate an anisotropic depth parameter that corresponds to the anisotropic permittivity tensor in electromagnetic waves. A device that can rotate the liquid wave front is introduced, which is an analog of the metamaterial electromagnetic wave eld rotator. The structure is based on a layered design. Simulation results are compared with experimental measurements.
Copyright c EPLA, 2009

The studies on transformation optics and electromagnetic (EM) cloaking [1,2] have drawn great interest recently. The initial EM cloak idea is proposed based on the singular push-forward mapping [3,4] and has been realized in a microwave experiment [5] in a reduced form. The analogy with the concept has been given in acoustic wave [69] and matter wave [2,10]. Very recently, a cloak for linear surface waves in a uid was proposed [11] in a dierent way from the transformation media concept. The corresponding experiments were also designed and performed to demonstrate the cloaking eect. In this letter, we want to propose the analogy with the transformation media concept to the linear liquid surface waves. Although the corresponding transformation media cloak (which is from the push-forward mapping) is very dicult to design and realize as was also pointed out in [11], we will give the design of an invisible wave rotator [12,13] in linear liquid surface waves and the rotation eect will be studied in experiment as well. Let us start from the shallow-water wave equation (rigorous when kh 1) [14],

described in above equation has a linear dispersion the given by = ghk. Now, let us consider the following z-invariant twodimensional Maxwell equations for transverse magnetic (TM) polarization with an anisotropic permittivity tensor and non-magnetic responding:

(Hz z ) 0 0 2 Hz z = 0.


We can write it in another form:

det( )


+ 0 0 2 Hz = 0.


If the permittivity is isotropic, eq. (3) becomes, 1 Hz + 0 0 2 Hz = 0. (4)

For some specic transformation media, such as the reectionless wave shifter and wave rotator in ref. [13], z = 1 and det( ) = 1. The anisotropy can be realized using an oblique-layered systems. Since we can do a one2 = 0, (1) to-one mapping from eq. (4) to eq. (1), a similar concept (h) + g of the specic EM transformation media can be applied where is the vertical displacement of the water surface, to the liquid surface waves. To be more specic, we design is the angular frequency, g is the gravitational acceleration, a wave rotator of the liquid surface waves with the inner and h is the depth of the water. The surface water wave and outer radii a = 2.5 cm and b = 5.0 cm (see g. 1(a)). The depth of the water outside or inside the rotator (a) E-mail: kenyon@ust.hk is h0 = 2.0 mm. The alternating depths in the rotation 24004-p1

Huanyang Chen et al.



Fig. 1: (Color online) (a) To demonstrate the depth distribution near the wave rotator of the liquid surface waves. Inside and outside the rotator, the depth of the water is h0 = 2.0 mm, while in the rotation cloaking range, the alternating depths are h1 = 0.5 mm and h2 = 8.0 mm, so that h1 h2 = h2 to produce the perfect rotation cloaking eect. In our design, we set the 0 layered system to have 72 layers. However, to show the demonstration more clearly here, we plot the layered system with 18 layers. (b) The scattering pattern near the rotator for the incident surface wave with its frequency 6 Hz.

cloaking range are h1 = 0.5 mm and h2 = 8.0 mm. Then the condition [h1 h2 = h2 ] will result in the perfect rotation 0 cloaking eect. We suppose that the layered system has 72 layers [13]. Then a surface wave incident from left to right with a frequency of 6 Hz interacts with the designed layered wave rotator, whose scattering pattern was simulated and plotted in g. 1(b) as described by eq. (1). The rotation angle is 30.65 degree from the transformation media theory [12,13], which is consistent with the numerical simulation results in g. 1(b). We note that this wave rotator can work for incident surface wave with any frequency as long as eq. (1) holds at that frequency. We note that eq. (1) is an approximation that is not always correct especially when the liquid is not water. For a better description, we should consider the following nonlinear dispersion [15]: 2 = gk(1 + k 2 d2 ) tanh(kh), c (5)

where dc is the liquid capillarity length. For a given and h, we can obtain the value of the wave vector k by solving the above implicit eq. (5) numerically. We note that eq. (5) is also an approximation but with the higher-order terms considered so that the model is of higher accuracy. With the above non-linear dispersion being taken into account, the equation of the liquid surface waves becomes: (h) + k 2 h = 0, where the eective depth h =
tanh(kh) 2kh (1 + sinh(2kh) ) 2k


(see calculated can ref. [16]). This equation with the k and h be solved numerically using nite-element methods.

Our experimental setup is basically similar to that used in the observations of superlensing [17], selfcollimation [18], and complete band gap [19] in liquid surface waves. The experiment is carried out in a vessel that consists of a rectangular glass bottom attached to a steel frame with four 10 degree slope wave-absorbing sides in order to eliminate reections from the vessel edges. A at methacrylate plate (24 cm 24 cm) with the wave rotator in the middle is put on the bottom of the vessel (see g. 2). The wave rotator consists of 72 layers. The thickness of the plate (green parts in g. 1(a)) and the layer (orange parts in g. 1(a)) is 6 mm and 7.5 mm separately. The blue region in g. 1(a) is removed to the bottom. The inner and outer radii of the wave rotator are 2.5 cm and 5 cm. The plate is then covered with a special liquid of a depth h = 8.0 mm from the vessel bottom. This liquid has a very low capillary length which can minimize the capillary eects (dc = 1.09 mm). In such a case h0 = 2.0 mm, h1 = 0.5 mm and h2 = 8.0 mm. The top of the vessel is covered by a glass lid in order to prevent liquid evaporation. A plane-wave generator is placed close to the plate. The driven amplitude of the generator is kept rather small in order to avoid nonlinear eects. A halogen lamp is hung above the vessel (about 1 m). Projected images of liquid surface wave patterns can be visualized on the screen with the help of the mirror placed below the vessel. The detailed description of the experimental setup can be found elsewhere [17]. Figure 3(a) shows the observed scattering pattern of the liquid surface waves near the wave rotator. We nd that the rotation angle is not the same as that predicted by eq. (1) as shown in g. 1(b). This is due to the


Transformation media for linear liquid surface waves

(a) (b)

Fig. 2: (Color online) (a) Sample wave rotator from side view. (b) Sample wave rotator from top view.







Fig. 3: (a) The observed snapshot images of outgoing liquid surface waves from the wave rotator. The frequency is 6 Hz. See also in fig3a for f=6.MOV recorded by the camera during the measurements. (b) The simulation results when the dispersion relationship (eq. (5)) is considered. (c) The experiment results for the frequency 5 Hz. See also in fig3c for f=5.MOV. (d) The simulation results for the frequency 5 Hz. (e) The experiment results for the frequency 7 Hz. See also in fig3e for f=7.MOV. (f) The simulation results for the frequency 7 Hz.

nonlinear dispersion of the liquid surface waves. The simulation1 with the dispersion relationship included implicitly (eq. (5)) is shown in g. 3(b). Comparing gs. 3(a) and (b), we nd that the rotation angles agree with each other reasonably well. In addition, both results show little backward scattering. However, the experiment result show a
1 Notice that all the simulation results in g. 1(b) and g. 3(b), (d) and (f) were performed using the COMSOL Multiphysics niteelementbased electromagnetics solver.

large shadow behind the wave rotator, which is attributed to the absorption of the liquid surface waves [11]. The rotator can in principle has fairly broad-band functionality as the transformation mapping is not singular. This is illustrated in gs. 3(c) and (d) for the frequency 5 Hz and gs. 3(e) and (f) for 7 Hz. Due to the nonlinear dispersion, the rotation angles change, but the device does function as a wave front rotator. The comparisons of gs. 3(c) and (d) (and gs. 3(e) and (f)) show the reasonably good


Huanyang Chen et al. agreements of the experiment and simulation results as shown from gs. 3(a) and (b). In summary, we generalize the concept of the transformation media to the linear liquid surface waves. An oblique-layered system arranged in a spiral pattern gives eectively, the anisotropic depth that correspond to a oneto-one mapping to the anisotropic permittivity tensor. A wave rotator for the liquid surface waves is then designed, fabricated and measured. The rotation angle is dierent from the one of the original object perfect wave rotator. The simulation is performed to conrm that the dierence comes from the nonlinear dispersion of the liquid surface waves. HC would like to thank Dr Xinhua Hu for many helpful discussions. This work is supported by Hong Kong RGC through 600305 and the National Basic Research Program of China under grant Nos. 2007CB613200 and 2006CB921700, and the National Science Foundation of China under grant No. 10734010. The computation resources were supported by the Shun Hing Education and Charity Fund.
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