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P

art II of this bandpass filter tutorial fea-


tures several examples that illustrate the
general design procedure for bandpass
filters using resonators and coupling methods
of different types.
BAN DPASS FI LTER DESI GN
The general bandpass filter design proce-
dure utilizes the normalized, low pass ele-
ments of the prototype
filter to determine the
r equir ed r esonat or
coupling and coupling
to the external circuit,
that is, the source and
load. In each case, the
ext er nal sour ce and
load are assumed to be
50 , although the fil-
ter could be matched
t o ot her real imped-
ances.
The general design procedure is listed in
Table 1. To illustrate the general bandpass fil-
ter design procedure, several examples are of-
fered. It should be mentioned that the cou-
pling parameters, that is, the capacitor matrix,
or even and odd mode impedances, for several
types of distributed resonators, may be deter-
mined with the aid of an electromagnetic
(EM) simulator. This is an extremely valuable
design tool because it eliminates the fabrica-
tion of models in order to determine the cou-
pling of symmetrical, distributed resonators.
The illustrated examples include a lumped
element, Chebishev, bandpass filter using -
type resonators, a coaxial cavity bandpass filter
using /8 resonators with capacitive tuning
(comb-line), a coaxial cavity bandpass filter
using /4 resonators (interdigital) and a half
wavelength via-hole direct-coupled filter. Also
described are a dielectric resonator, a band-
pass filter using disk-shaped resonators, an in-
ductively coupled filter in coplanar waveguide
and a stripline or microstrip, Chebishev, band-
pass filter using /2, side-coupled resonators.
Lumped El ement Bandpass Fi l t er
The lumped element, -type resonator is
used in a five-section, 0.01 dB ripple, Chebi-
shev filter. The low pass prototype elements
(g-values) may be calculated using the equa-
A GENERAL DESIGN
PROCEDURE FOR BANDPASS
FILTERS DERIVED FROM
LOW PASS PROTOTYPE
ELEMENTS: PART II
TUTORI AL
K.V. PUGLIA
M/A-COM Inc.
Lowell, MA
severa l exa mpl es t ha t
i l l ust ra t e t he genera l desi gn
procedure f or ba ndpa ss f i l t ers
usi ng resona t ors a nd coupl i ng
met hods of di f f erent t ypes.
Reprinted with permission of M I CRO WAVE JO U RN AL

from the January 2001 issue.

2001 Horizon House Publications, Inc.


and the susceptance slope parameter
is calculated as
= 1(2f
0
)C = 0.063662 mhos
The resonator coupling elements are
determined using
and the input and output coupling
are calculated as
and
The input and output coupling meth-
ods need not be the same as the res-
onator coupling. However, the input
and output coupling must satisfy the
relationship
and
Table 2 lists the -type resonator,
bandpass filter data.
A schematic for the five-section, -
t ype r esonat or bandpass filt er is
Q
Z
J
g g f
f
e
out
n n
n n

( )

+
+

0
1
2
1 0
,

Q
Z
J
g g f
f
e
in

( )

0
0 1
2
0 1 0
,

2
0 1
0 1 0


f C
f
f g g Z
n n
n n
, +
+


2
0 0 1
0 0 1 0


f C
f
f g g Z
,


2
0
1
1

f C k
for
i i
i i
,
,
+
+

i = 1 to i = n 1
tions within the appendix or may be
determined from available tabular
data.
The filter parameters are
f
0
= 100 MHz
f = 5 MHz
n = 5
r
dB
= 0.01 dB
g
0
= g
6
= 1.0000
g
1
= 0.7563
g
2
= 1.3049
g
3
= 1.5773
g
4
= 1.3049
g
5
= 0.7563
The unloaded quality factor for
this type of resonator at this frequen-
cy is Q
u
= 250. A schematic of the
resonator is shown in Figure 1.
BAN DPASS FI LTER DESI GN
PRO CEDU RE
The bandpass filter design proce-
dure is listed in Table 1. The values of
the inductance and capacitors may be
determined using
where
and
The inductance formula provides a
good estimate of a convenient value
of the resonator self-inductance from
which the resonator capacitance may
be calculated.
Next, the coupling values are cal-
culated using
k
f
f
g g
i i
i i
,
,
+
+

1
0
1
1

for i = 1 to i = n 1
C
f L
pF
( )

2
2
50 66
0
2

.
L
f
nH
10
100 0
0
.
f
LC
MHz
0
1
2
2
100


TABLE I
BAN DPASS FI LTER DESI GN PRO CEDU RE
Determine the Filter Parameters:
Center frequency, f
0
Bandwidth, f
In-band ripple, r
dB
Number of resonators, n
Rejection requirements, R(f') Insertion loss, L(f)
Resonator type: lumped element, comb-line, interdigital, coaxial cavity, dielectric
Special conditions: MFTD, Bessel, Gaussian
Determine the Low Pass Prototype Elements:
Calculate elements Acquire from tabular data
Calculate Coupling Coefficients:
Determine Resonator Reactance or Susceptance Slope Parameter:
or .
Determine Coupling Reactance or Susceptance:
K
i,j+1
or J
i,i+1
for i = 1 to n1; K
i,i+1
= k
i,i+1
and J
i,i+1
= k
i,i+1
.
Determine Input and Output Coupling Parameters.
Determine Filter Elements (for lumped element resonators).
Determine Filter Dimensions (for distributed resonators).
Optional:
Computer simulation
Estimate filter insertion loss
Estimate filter group delay
k
f
f
1
g g
i,i 1
o
i i 1
+
+


for i = 1 to n1.
C C
L
w
Fig. 1 Schematic of a -type resonator.
TABLE I I
- TYPE RESO N ATO R BAN DPASS
FI LTER DATA
i g
i
C
, I , I +1
C
i a
C
i b
0 1.0000 16.4
1 0.7563 5.1 37.7 45.6
2 1.3049 3.5 45.6 47.1
3 1.5773 3.5 47.1 47.1
4 1.3049 5.1 47.1 47.1
5 0.7563 16.4 45.6 37.7
6 1.0000
TUTORI AL
TUTORI AL
shown in Figure 2. A computer sim-
ulation was conducted on the five-
resonator bandpass filter using only
the inductors as variable or tuning el-
ements. The results of the simulation
are shown in Figure 3. Note that the
bandwidth is 5.12 MHz as compared
to the design bandwidth of 5.0 MHz,
and that the midband insertion loss is
approximately 2 dB. The midband in-
sertion loss of a bandpass filter may
be estimated from the equation
The computer simulation of the
transmission group delay is also pre-
sented in the results. The midband
group delay may be estimated from
the formula
It should be mentioned that the
only filt er element s which wer e
tuned in order to achieve the desired
passband were the inductors of the -
resonators.
CO AXI AL C AVI TY BAN DPASS
FI LTER / 8 RESO N ATO RS
The second bandpass filter design
example is the coaxial cavity type fil-
ter using /8 resonators with capaci-
t ive t uning or comb-line filt er, so
called because t he resonat ors are
fixed to ground on a single surface in
much the same configuration of the
teeth of a comb. This is a very popu-
lar filter structure because a moder-
ate value of unloaded resonator quali-
ty factor may be achieved (and there-
fore low loss), and because a wide
rejection band is indigenous to the
structure by virtue of the wide sepa-
ration in resonant modes. The res-
onator structure employed for the ex-
ample filter is that depicted in Part I.
Unlike the traditional comb-line fil-
ter, which has no metallic obstacle
between resonators, the filter exam-
ple employs rectangular cavities with
coupling slots as shown in Figure 4.
This structure yields a somewhat
higher unloaded quality factor be-
cause more of the field is enclosed.
The coupling between resonators is
controlled via the width of the slot, w.
The coupling coefficient bet ween
resonat ors may be det ermined by
measurements of symmetrical-cou-

d k
k
n
f
f
g ns
0
1
1
2
181
( )


IL f
f
fQ
g dB
u
k
k
n
0
0
1
4 343
1 98
( )

.
.

pled resonators as a function of the


slot width or via analysis of the self
and mutual capacitance using an EM
simulator. Both methods were em-
ployed and resulted in acceptable
agreement, that is, less than 5 per-
cent over the slot widths used in the
filter, between the experimentally de-
termined coefficients and the mea-
sured values as shown in Figure 5.
To illustrate the filter design pro-
cedure a PCS1900 transmit band fil-
t er (19301990 MHz) is required
with minimum insertion loss (< 1.5
dB) and volume as the principal de-
sign specifications. A filter rejection
of 60 dB, minimum, in the PCS1900
receive band (18501910 MHz) is
also required.
From the earlier data, an eight-res-
onator filter is required to achieve the
rejection requirements. This may be
verified from direct calculation using
where
L(f
a
) = the attenuation required at
the specific rejection
frequency f
a
r
db
= the in-band ripple factor
f
n
= the normalized bandwidth at
the rejection frequency,
n
f
L f
r
n
a
dB

]
]
]
]
]
]
]
( )
( )
cosh

cosh

1
10
10
1
10 1
10 1

that is
Because the reject band is close to
the passband, the passband was de-
liberately narrowed to 55 MHz so
that coupling adjustment could be fa-
cilitated in order to increase the final
filter bandwidth to 60 MHz. The fil-
ter parameters are
f
0
= 1960 MHz
f = 55 MHz
n = 8
r
dB
= 0.05 dB
Q
u
= 2250
Y v C mhos
g 0 0
1
60


0
4

f
f f
f
n
a

2
0

90 100 110
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
FREQUENCY ( 1 MHz/ div)
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
S
1
1

(
d
B
)
,

2
1

(
d
B
)
w
Fig. 3 Computer simulation results.
w
w
Fig. 4 Coaxial cavities with slot coupling.
37.7 45.6 45.6 47.1 47.1 47.1
I N DUCTOR VALUES I N nH
CAPACI TOR VALUES I N pF
47.1 45.6 45.6 37.7
16.4 100 100 100 100 5.1 3.5 3.5 5.1 16.4 100
vFig. 2 Schematic of a five-section -type resonator bandpass filter.
The LP prototype g-values are
g
0
= 1.0000
g
1
= 1.0437
g
2
= 1.4514
g
3
= 1.9899
g
4
= 1.6502
g
5
= 2.0457
g
6
= 1.6053
g
7
= 1.7992
g
8
= 0.8419
The coupling values are calculated
using
The slot width may be determined
from the measured coupling data of
symmetrical coupled resonators or
from an EM simulator that provides
the capacitance matrix data for the
particular structure. For this exam-
ple, bot h t echniques are ut ilized.
First, the measured coupling data
from a pair of symmetrical coupled
resonators was subjected to polyno-
mial regression of degree three. Next,
the coefficients of the polynomial
were used to generate an equation
for the coupling coefficient as a func-
tion of the slot width. Finally, a plot
of the coupling coefficient was used
K
f
f
g g
i i
i i
, +
+

1
0
1
1
to determine the slot width for each
coupled section.
The measured coupling data is dis-
played in Table 3 for three values of
slot width for square cavities of 0.875
inches and center conductor diame-
ters of 0.375 inches. These dimen-
sions produce a resonator characteris-
tic impedance of approximately 60 .
Performing a polynomial regres-
sion produces an equation for the
coupling coefficient K
c
as a function
of the slot width, w such that
K
c
(w) = 0.02717 + 0.10865w
0.03150w
2
The correlation coefficient R for the
polynomial regression was 1.00.
Alt ernat ively, an EM simulat or
may be utilized to determine the self-
capacitance C
g
and the mutual capac-
it ance C
m
for various slot widt hs.
Subsequent data may also be subject
to polynomial regression analysis to
determine the correct slot width for
each coupled resonator.
The susceptance slope parameter is
calculated using
and the mutual coupling capacitors

( )
+
( )
[ ]
Y
0
0 0
2
0
2
cot csc
becomes
The filter configuration is shown
in Figure 6. Note that all resonators
are the same diameter and that cou-
pling to the input and output is via di-
rect tap or contact to the first and
eighth resonator at a low impedance
point on the resonators. Alternate
coupling mechanisms are via capaci-
t ive probe at a high elect ric field
point of the resonator or via trans-
former coupling. Generally, the tap is
preferred because it eliminates the
need for another machined part, pro-
vides a mor e compact filt er, and
makes the filters input and output a
direct short to ground at DC. The de-
sign data for the comb-line filter is
listed in Table 4.
Fi l t er Si mul at i on
In order to conduct a simulation of
the filter characteristics, an equiva-
lent circuit is required. A suitable
equivalent circuit may be constructed
wit h t he aid of t he t wo-wir e line
equivalent of the coupled line shown
in Figure 7.
C
k C
K
i i
i i g
i i ,
,
, +
+
+


+
|
.

`
,
1
1
0
1
2
1
2

0.030
0.026
0.022
0.018
0.014
0.010
0.60 0.56 0.52 0.48
SLOT WI DTH w ( " )
SI MULATED MEASURED
0.44 0.40
C
O
U
P
L
I
N
G

K
(
w
)
v Fig. 5 Coupling coefficient for /8 lines
vs. slot width.
TABLE I I I
M EASU RED CO U PLI N G DATA
Sl ot Wi dt h ( " ) Coupl i ng Coef f i ci ent
w k
c
0.400 0.01125
0.500 0.01928
0.600 0.02668
0.375 Dia OD
0.228 Dia ID
0.750 Long
8 plcs. t yp
0.750 Ref
0
Dimensions in inches
4 40 t ap
0.25 Dp. mim
18 plcs
0.125
0.1875
0.626
1.125
1.0625
1.1875
1.625
2.125
2.0625
3.625
1.000
0
0
4.250
1.625 2.625 0.625
0.200
0.1875
4.125 2 2.125 3.125 1.125
0.125 R. t yp 0.125 R. t yp
0.405 00
0.452 0.452 0.547
0.449 44
0.325
0.547 7
0.125
2.250
0
w
Fig. 6 Filter configuration.
TUTORI AL
If the coupled line equivalence is
applied repeatedly, a complete filter
equivalent circuit may be realized, as
shown in Figure 8, where the tuning
capacitance C
t
, resonator quality fac-
tor Q
u
and external circuit coupling
has been included. The complete fil-
ter was subjected to simulation and
optimization using only the tuning ca-
pacitance and external coupling taps
as the variable. The simulation results
are shown in Figure 9.
Note that the actual bandwidth is
52.8 MHz versus the design band-
width of 55.0 MHz, and that the re-
turn loss is consistent with the 0.05
dB Chebishev response. The simulat-
ed midband insertion loss and group
delay are 0.85 dB and 37.1 ns, re-
TUTORI AL
pling to the input and output is ac-
complished via contact at the low im-
pedance point of the resonator.
The design procedure for interdig-
ital bandpass filters is very similar to
the comb-line filter design proce-
dure. In this case, the example illus-
trates the design of a 500 MHz band-
width filter centered at 10 GHz.
The filter parameters are
f
0
= 10 GHz
f = 500 MHz
n = 5
r
dB
= 0.1 dB

0
= /4
Q
u
= 2500
Z
c
= 70
g
0
= 1.0000
g
1
= 1.1468
g
2
= 1.3712
g
3
= 1.9750
g
4
= 1.3712
g
5
= 1.1468
The coupling values are calculated
using
the susceptance slope parameter be-
comes
and the mutual coupling capacitors
are determined using
The calculation of the resonator
coupling dimensions must be preced-
ed by select ion of t he r esonat or
ground plane spacing. I n order to
properly define a dist ribut ed res-
onator and reduce evanescent modes,
certain geometric and aspect ratios
must be maintained. I t was found
empirically that selection of ground
plane spacing in accordance with
produced acceptable results.
The formula results from a res-
onator aspect ratio (ratio of length to
diameter) of 2 1. The approximate
ground plane spacing for a resonator
characteristic impedance of 60 is
listed in Table 5.
h
Z


0 138
32
10
0
C
C k
i i
g i i
,
,
+
+

1
1
4

Y
0
4
k
f
f
g g
i i
i i
,
,
+
+

1
0
1
1
spectively. The midband insertion
loss and group delay estimates are
and
I N TERDI GI TAL
BAN DPASS FI LTER ( / 4 - LI N ES)
The interdigital bandpass filter is
another popular type of microwave
filter implementation. They typically
have lower loss than comb-line struc-
tures and are easier to tune. They re-
quire resonat ors t hat are fixed t o
ground at opposite
sides of t he sup-
porting housing as
shown in Fi gu r e
10. Therefore, the
construction is not
as suitable for man-
ufact ur e as t he
comb-line filter.
I n most cases,
the resonator length
is slight ly shor t er
than /4 (typically,
0.9/4), which al-
lows the filter to be
tuned to the center
frequency with the
tuning elements just
breaking the cavity
wall. This facilitates
both ease of tuning
and maximum un-
loaded quality fac-
tor Q
u
of each res-
onat or. The cou-

d k
k
n
f
f
g ns
0
1
1
2
35 9
( )

.
IL f
f
fQ
g dB
u
k
k
n
0
0
1
4 343
0 85
( )

.
.

TABLE I V
CO M B- LI N E FI LTER DESI GN DATA
G Coupl i ng M ut ua l Sl ot
I ndex
Va l ues Coef f i ci ent Ca pa ci t a nce Wi dt h
i
g
i
k
i , I +1
C
i , I +1
W
i , I +1
1 1.0437
0.02280 0.18402 0.547
2 1.4514
0.01651 0.13327 0.465
3 1.9899
0.01549 0.12498 0.452
4 1.6502
0.01527 0.12326 0.449
5 2.0457
0.01549 0.12498 0.452
6 1.6053
0.01651 0.13327 0.465
7 1.7992
0.02280 0.18402 0.547
8 0.8419
PORT
1
PORT
1
PORT
2
PORT
2
Y
se
= V
o
C
m
Y
se
Y = V
o
VV C
g

0
v Fig. 7 Coupled line equivalent circuit.
For the present example, a ground
plane spacing of 0.275" has been se-
lected, which requires a resonator di-
ameter of 0.128" to obtain a resonator
characteristic of 60 . This value is
calculated from
Cristal
2
has given the closed-form
expressions for t he even and odd
mode capacitance per unit length for
this line configuration, from which
the self and mutual capacitance may
be calculated (see Appendix A). The
graph of the mutual capacitance ver-
sus resonator center-to-center spac-
ing is shown in Figure 11.
The design data for the interdigital
filter is listed in Table 6.
Fi l t er Si mul at i on
The equivalent circuit shown in
Figure 12 is utilized to conduct a
computer simulation. As in the case
of the comb-line filter, a contact at
the low impedance end of the res-
Z
h
d v C
r
g
0
0
138 4 1

|
.

`
,


log
onator serves as the input and output
coupling to the filter.
The results of the computer simu-
lation using only the end capacitance
and tap points as variables are shown
in Figure 13. Note that the actual
bandwidth is 467 MHz versus the de-
sign bandwidth of 500 MHz, and that
the return loss is consistent with the
0.1 dB Chebishev response. The sim-
ulated midband insertion loss and
group delay are 0.30 dB and 2.3 ns,
respectively. The midband insertion
loss and group delay estimates are
and

d k
k
n
f
f
g ns
0
1
1
2
2 2
( )

.
IL f
f
fQ
g dB
u
k
k
n
0
0
1
4 343
0 30
( )

.
.

TUTORI AL
Z
1
,
2

=

2
0
4
5

1 2
INPUT
3 4 6 7 8
Z
2
,
3

=

2
0
2
7

Z
3
,
4

=

3
0
1
3

Z
4
,
5

=

3
0
5
5

Z
5
,
6

=

3
0
1
3

Z
6
,
7

=

2
8
2
7

Z
7
,
8

=

2
0
4
5

Z
c
= 60

0
= 45

0
=

4
5

0 Z
c


4
5

6
0

Z

0 Z
c


4
5

0
=

4
5

5 5
O UTPUT
v Fig. 8 Filter equivalent circuit.
0
10
30
40
50
60
2035 1885
FREQUENCY ( 15MHz/ div)
150
125
100
75
50
25
0
S
1
1
(
d
B
)
S
2
1

(
d
B
)
v Fig. 9 Simulation results.
/ 4
v Fig. 10 Interdigital filter construction.
TABLE V
GRO U N D PLAN E SPACI N G
Fi l t er Frequency Ground Pl a ne
f
0
( GH z) Spa ci ng h ( " )
1 3.000
2 1.500
4 0.750
8 0.375
10 0.300
12 0.250
15 0.215
18 0.175
0.50
0.40
0.30
0.20
0.10
0
0.50 0.45 0.40
0.388 0.364
0.35
CEN TER- TO- CEN TER SPACI N G ( " )
0.30 0.25
N
O
R
M
A
L
I
Z
E
D

M
U
T
U
A
L
C
A
P
A
C
I
T
A
N
C
E
0.1966
0.1498
v Fig. 11 Mutual capacitance vs. spacing.
TABLE VI
I N TERDI GI TAL FI LTER DESI GN DATA
I ndex G Va l ues Coupl i ng Coef f i ci ent M ut ua l Ca pa ci t a nce Cent er Spa ci ng
i g
i
k
i , I +1
C
i , I +1
S
i , I +1
1 1.1468
0.03987 0.1966 0.364
2 1.3712
0.03038 0.1498 0.388
3 1.9750
0.03038 0.1498 0.388
4 1.3712
0.03987 0.1966 0.364
5 1.1468
The via-hole coupling reactance is
calculated using
and
The coupling reactance is the re-
sult of the via-hole self-inductance,
which is controlled by the via-hole di-
ameter and/or number. The length of
the resonators
n
must be reduced by
an amount commensurate with the
magnitude of the coupling reactance
using the equations
and
The actual via-hole diameter may be
determined from the via-hole model
within Series IV. This model was
utilized to obtain data that was fur-
ther refined using polynomial regres-
sion. The results are shown in Figure
16. The design procedure is very sim-
ilar to the direct-coupled waveguide
filter using inductive iris coupling
found in Matthaei, Young and Jones.
1

n j j
+
( ) +

1
2
1

j
j j
X
Z

|
.

`
,

+
tan

,
1
1
0
2

for j = 0 to j = n
X
K
K
Z
n n
n n
n n
,
,
,

+
+
+

|
.

`
,

1
1
1
0
2
1
X
K
K
Z
0 1
0 1
0 1
0
2
1
,
,
,

|
.

`
,

X
K
K
Z
i i
i i
i i
,
,
,

+
+
+

|
.

`
,

1
1
1
0
2
1

for i = 1 to i = n 1
H ALF WAVELEN GTH
VI A- H O LE CO U PLED FI LTER
This bandpass filter design exam-
ple illustrates the utilization of series-
type resonators coupled by imped-
ance inverters. The general schematic
of a bandpass filter, which employs
series-type resonators coupled by im-
pedance inverters, is shown in Fig-
ure 14.
The design procedure is similar to
those previously explored. The filter
parameters are
f
0
= 10 GHz
f = 700 MHz
n = 5
r
dB
= 0.1 dB
g
0
= g
6
= 1.0000
g
1
= 1.1468
g
2
= 1.3712
g
3
= 1.9750
g
4
= 1.3712
g
5
= 0.1468
The filter is constructed on 25 mil
alumina (Al
2
O
3
) substrate material (
r
= 9.9). The available resonator quality
factor for this type of filter is 750 if
pure alumina with high quality metal-
ization is employed. A schematic of
the filter is shown in Figure 15.
The resonator coupling values are
calculated using
and the reactance slope parameter is
The impedance inverter values be-
come
K
i,i+j
= k
i,i+1
for i = 1 to i = n1
and the input and output inverter val-
ues are
and
K R
f
f g g
n n b
n n
, +
+

1
0 1
1


K R
f
f g g
a 0 1
0 0 1
1
,

Z
o
2
k
f
f
g g
i i
i i
,
,
+
+

1
0
1
1

for i = 1 to i = n 1
TUTORI AL
1 2
INPUTT O UTPUT
3 4 5
ZZ
c
= 60

0
=
Z =

= 60

0
85
Z =

=

1910
= 85
Z
85
Z
2,3


Z
1,2


5 5
v Fig. 12 Interdigital filter equivalent circuit.
IN
IN
OUT
5 4 3 2 1
5 4 3 2 1
/2 /2 /2 /2 /2
OUT
v Fig. 15 Half-wavelength via-hole coupled filter.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
11 9 10
FREQUENCY ( 0.2 GHz/ div)
S
1
1

(
d
B
)
,

S
2
1

(
d
B
)
G
R
O
U
P

D
E
L
A
Y

(
n
s
)
v Fig. 13 Interdigital filter
simulation results.
INPUT
O UTPUT
n
22 11
K
0,1
K
1,2
K
n1,n
K
n,n+1
v Fig. 14 Bandpass filter using series
resonators.
The filter data are listed in Table
7. The via-hole, half-wavelength, di-
rect -coupled filt er was simulat ed
using the previously displayed equiv-
alent circuit. The results are shown in
Figure 17.
This via-hole, direct-coupled filter
is particularly suited to wider band-
width filters because the dimensions
of the filter are more realizable than
the side-coupled filters. There are
also several implementations in addi-
tion to the microstrip medium, in-
cluding stripline, finline, coplanar
waveguide and slotline.
The implementation of the induc-
tive reactance, direct-coupled filter in
coplanar waveguide is shown in Fig-
ure 18. This implementation results
in low insertion loss if an air-dielec-
tric is utilized.
ACKN O WLEDGM EN T
The principal reference for the
content of this article is the work of
Matthaei, Young and Jones.
1
Many of
the concepts within this reference
have been investigated and interpret-
ed in order to provide a greater intu-
itive understanding of the bandpass
filt er design process. This t ext is
strongly recommended for those hav-
ing little familiarity with this work. s
Ref erences
1. G.L. Matthaei, L. Young and E.M.T. Jones,
Microwave Filters, Impedance-matching
Networks and Coupling Structures, Mc-
Graw-Hill, New York, 1964.
2. E.G. Cristal, Coupled Circular Cylindrical
Rods Between Parallel Ground Planes,
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory
and Techniques, Vol. MTT-12, July 1964,
pp. 428439.
3. W.J. Getsinger, Coupled Rectangular Bars
Between Parallel Plates, IRE Transactions
on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol.
MTT-10, January 1962, pp. 6572.
4. A.I. Zverev, Handbook of Filter Synthesis,
John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1967.
5. G.L. Matthaei, Interdigital Band Pass Fil-
ters, IEEE Transactions on Microwave
Theory and Techniques, Vol. MTT-10, No.
6, November 1962.
6. G.L. Matthaei, Comb-line Band Pass Fil-
ters of Narrow or Moderate Bandwidth,
Microwave Journal, August 1963.
7. S.B. Cohn, Parallel-coupled Transmission-
line-Resonator Filters, IEEE Transactions
on Microwave Theory and Techniques,
Volume MTT-6, No. 2, April 1958.
8. R.M. Kurzrok, Design of Comb-line Band
Pass Filters, IEEE Transactions on Mi-
crowave Theory and Techniques, Vol.
MTT-14, July 1966, pp. 351353.
9. M. Dishal, A Simple Design Procedure
for Small Percentage Round Rod Interdig-
ital Filters, IEEE Transactions on Mi-
crowave Theory and Techniques, Vol.
MTT-13, September 1965, pp. 696698.
10. S.B. Cohn, Dissipation Loss in Multiple-
coupled-resonator Filters, Proceedings of
t he I RE, Vol. 47, August 1959,
pp. 13421348.
Ke nne t h V. Pugl ia
holds the title of
Distinguished Fellow of
Technology at the
M/A-COM division of
Tyco Electronics. He
received the degrees of
BSEE (1965) and
MSEE (1971) from the
University of
Massachusetts and
Northeastern
University, respectively. He has worked in the
field of microwave and millimeter-wave
technology for 35 years, and has authored or
co-authored over 30 technical papers in the
field of microwave and millimeter-wave
subsystems. Since joining M/A-COM in 1971,
he has designed several microwave components
and subsystems for a variety of signal
generation and processing applications in the
field of radar and communications systems. As
part of a European assignment, he developed a
high resolution radar sensor for a number of
industrial and commercial applications. This
sensor features the ability to determine object
range, bearing and normal velocity in a
multi-object, multi-sensor environment using
very low transmit power. Puglia has been a
member of the IEEE, Professional Group on
Microwave Theory and Techniques since 1965.
TUTORI AL
20
16
12
8
4
0
20 18 16 14 12 10
VI A- HO LE DI AMETER ( mils)
8 6 4 2
R
E
A
C
T
A
N
C
E

(

)
v Fig. 16 Via-hole reactance vs. diameter.
TABLE VI I
VI A- H O LE CO U PLED FI LTER DESI GN DATA
G I mpeda nce Vi a Vi a Resona t or
I ndex Va l ues Coupl i ng I nversi on Rea ct a nce Di a met er Lengt h
i ( k ) ( K) ( ) ( mi l s) ( )
0 1.0000 15.487 17.130 3.0
1 1.1468 0.05585 4.387 4.421 10.0 157.78
2 1.3712 0.04256 3.343 3.358 14.0 171.16
3 1.9750 0.04256 3.343 3.358 14.0 172.35
4 1.3712 0.05585 4.387 4.421 10.0 171.16
5 1.1468 15.487 17.130 3.0 157.78
6 1.0000

1
1
w
0,1
w
1,2
w
2,3
w
3,4
w
4,5
ww w
5,6
OUT IN
2 3 4 5
v Fig. 18 Inductive-coupled filter in coplanar waveguide.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
11 10
FREQUENCY ( 0.2 GHz/ div)
9
S
1
1

(
d
B
)
,

S
2
1

(
d
B
)
G
R
O
U
P

D
E
L
A
Y

(
n
s
)
v Fig. 17 Via-hole coupled filter
simulation data.
TUTORI AL
APPEN DI X A
N O RM ALI ZED SELF AN D M U TU AL C APACI TAN CE
O F RO U N D RO DS BETWEEN PARALLEL GRO U N D PLAN ES
Upon completion of specific elements of the design procedure and
the calculation of the normalized self and mutual capacitance per unit
length, rod diameter and center-to-center spacing may be calculated.
First, the filter ground plane spacing h must be selected. The selection
of a suitable ground plane spacing is bounded by the out-of-band spu-
rious response, passband frequency and insertion loss. Certainly, the
ground plane dimension should be less than one quarter wavelength
and no smaller than that required to achieve an unloaded Q
u
consis-
tent with the insertion loss requirements. The maximum ground plane
spacing may be estimated in accordance with
This formula provides the approximate values for ground plane spacing
listed in Table A1:
Cristal
2
has given the closed-form expressions for the even and odd
mode capacitance per unit length from which the self and mutual ca-
pacitance may be calculated from
and
For reasonable accuracy, the parameter m may be limited to 100. The
self and mutual capacitance is calculated using
1
C
g
(c) = C
e
(c)
and
C
m
(c) = 0.25[C
0
(c)C
e
(c)]
The equations have been programmed using Mathcad for a ground
plane spacing of 0.275 inches and a rod diameter of 0.128 inches, that
is, Z
o
= 60 . The data are shown in Figures A1 and A2.
C c
d
b
d
b
d
b
c
b
m c
b
e
m
( )
|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

+
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
]
]
]
+
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]

1
2
4
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2 4
4
1
ln

ln ln tanh
C c
d
b
d
b
d
b
c
b
m c
b
m
m
0
4
4
1
1
2
4
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1
2
( )
|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]
]
]
]
+
( )
|
.

`
,

]
]
]
]

ln

ln ln tanh
h
Z


0 138
32
10
0
TABLE AI
APPRO XI M ATE VALU ES
FO R GRO U N D PLAN E SPACI N G
Fi l t er Frequency Ground Pl a ne
f
0
( GH z) Spa ci ng h ( " )
1 3.000
2 1.500
4 0.750
8 0.375
10 0.300
12 0.250
15 0.215
18 0.175
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
500 450 400 350
CENTER- TO- CENTER SPACI NG ( mil)
300 250
N
O
R
M
A
L
I
Z
E
D

M
U
T
U
A
L
C
A
P
A
C
I
T
A
N
C
E
v Fig. A1 Mutual capacitanve of coupled lines for h = 0.275 and d
= 0.128".
7.0
6.5
6.0
5.5
5.0
4.5
4.0
500 450 400 350
CENTER- TO- CENTER SPACI NG ( mil)
300 250
N
O
R
M
A
L
I
Z
E
D

C
A
P
A
C
I
T
A
N
C
E
T
O

G
R
O
U
N
D
v Fig. A2 Normalized self-capacitance
to ground for h = 0.275and d = 0.128.
N O RM ALI ZED SELF AN D M U TU AL C APACI TAN CE O F RO U N D RO DS BETWEEN PARALLEL GRO U N D PLAN ES
TUTORI AL
APPEN DI X B
ALTERN ATE FI LTER I M PLEM EN TATI O N S
In addition to the examples within Part II
of this tutorial, there are several alternative fil-
ter implementations that lend themselves to
the general design procedure and should be
cited. These alternative filter implementations
utilize resonators not fully exploited in recent
literature and for which recent CAD tools
have permitted extensive analysis and under-
standing. Two specific types of resonators are
suggested for special applications: cylindrical
dielectric resonators and helical resonators.
DI ELECTRI C RESO N ATO R FI LTER
Figure B1 shows the electrical and me-
chanical schematic of a three-section band-
pass filter using cylindrical dielectric res-
onators. Resonators of this type are not typical
of conventional lumped or distributed ele-
ment structures due to the existence of multi-
ple resonant frequencies or modes. This res-
onator type permits the design of narrowband,
low loss filters due to the high unloaded quali-
ty factor (Q
u
> 10,000) in the principal or
dominant resonant mode.
A note of caution is in order with respect
to the multiple resonator modes and the envi-
ronment necessary to suppress excitation of
these modes and thereby eliminate loss spikes
and spurious responses in the filter transfer
function. There are two techniques suitable
for such a determination. The first technique
requires experimental characterization of the
resonator modes and mode coupling via the
methods described in Part I. The second, and
until recently more difficult analysis, involves
analytical determination of the modes and
mode coupling through the utilization of a
three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation
tool. Some sophisticated filter designers have
made use of auxiliary modes to design so-
called dual-mode or multi-mode filters that
utilize two or more of the resonant modes to
obtain very compact, low loss filters with ex-
cellent rejection band characteristics. The
general design procedure is not suitable for
this task.
The input, output and inter-resonator cou-
pling is accomplished via the magnetic field
which is orthogonal to the circular plane of
the cylindrical resonator for the dominant
TE
01
mode. The equivalent circuit of the di-
electric resonator filter represents the electri-
cal behavior in the principal mode only. It has
acceptable accuracy if the resonator environ-
ment and mounting arrangement has demon-
strated elimination of the auxiliary modes.
To obtain the highest unloaded quality fac-
tor available from the cylindrical dielectric
resonator, a low loss dielectric support struc-
ture is required to separate the resonator from
the electrical ground boundary.
H ELI C AL RESO N ATO R FI LTER
The helical resonator filter is another filter
type for which the general design procedure is
applicable. Helical resonator filters are partic-
ularly useful within the VHF and UHF bands
for low loss, narrowband applications, and
where the greater volume of a distributed res-
onator filter is prohibitive. The helical res-
onator is at least partially distributed due to
the combination of self-inductance and the
electrical length of the coil structure. The he-
lical resonator is tuned via the distributed ca-
pacitance of the tuning screw at the high elec-
tric field point of the resonator. A direct tap at
the low electric field point of the resonator ac-
complishes input and output coupling. The
resonator spacing and coupling slot at the high
magnetic field point of the helical structure
facilitates inter-resonator coupling.
Fi gu re B2 shows t he mechanical and
electrical schematic of a typical five-section
helical resonator filter. Once again, resonator
parameters and coupling coefficients may be
determined experimentally or analytically by
the use of EM simulation tools. Usually, a low
loss dielectric form that facilitates uniformity,
placement and structure supports the helical
resonator.
DIELECTRIC
RESON ATOR
DIELECTRIC
RESON ATOR
COUPLIN G
SLOT
COUPLIN G
SLOT
DIELECTRIC
RESON ATOR
OUTPUT
COUPLIN G
LOOP
TUN ER
H- FIELD LIN ES OF TE
01
M ODE LOW DIELECTRIC SUPPORT
TUN ER TUN ER
OUTPUT
COUPLIN G
LOOP
DR3 DR2 DR1
v Fig. B1 Dielectric resonator filter.
SLO T SLO T
TUNER TUNER TUNER TUNER TUNER
SLO T SLO T
v Fig. B2 Helical resonator filter.