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Mosque Management: A Human Capital Competency Model

Hassan Abedi Jafari, Ph.D. 1 Center for Islamic Studies in Development and Management, Director Gholamreza Taleghani, Ph.D. Faculty of Management, University of Tehran Rasoul Abbasi, Ph.D. Candidate Faculty of Management, University of Tehran

Abstract: Mosque is one of the community centers intermingled with the life of majority of Muslims but the issue of mosque management is yet to be paid due attention. The current study has been made to identify the elements of human capital competency model in the mosques that serve as input for the mosque management system. The method of designing a conceptual model in this research work is based on mere scientific conceptualization. The methodology in this work is based on exploratory study, observation and interview based on Delphi methodology with the religious experts. Data has been gathered from various religious, scientific and academic sources. In this study the main dimensions of human capital competency model in mosques are Imam’s competencies, Activists’ competencies, and Jema’ah or mosque-goers’ competencies. Later, the competencies of Imam have fallen into three components of knowledge-skill, virtue and motivation; activists’ competencies have been divided into three components of personal, inter-personal and social characteristics; and finally competencies of Jema’ah have fallen into four components of awareness of the rituals of presence, observing the rituals of presence, religious-ethical capital, and human-social capital. According to the religious experts Imam’s competency is the most important and most influential factor in the success and effectuality of the mosque that come from Imam’s ethical-behavioral virtues.

Key Words: Islamic Management, Mosque Management, Human Capital Competency,
effectuality, Imam of the Mosque, Activists, Jema’ah

1. Introduction Mosque is one of the important religious community centers that safeguards social values and prevents values from falling into oblivion. It serves like a very active cultural center in the Islamic communities. The mosque safeguards religious


teachings and tenets by warning people of cultural assault on one hand, and boosting religious tendencies in the Muslims on the other hand. In other words, the mosque resists against the West’s cultural assault by indoctrinating Islamic culture and tenets. The development and empowerment of mosques play a key role in safeguarding and boosting culture. Despite importance of this religious institution and high number of mosques in the Muslim nations, little academic research has been thus far made on the management of this highly important religious community center. It is clear that human capital competency is one of the fundamental and influential factors behind effectuality and success of this religious institution. The higher the level of human capital competency in the mosque, the better will be performance output of the mosques. A historical survey of the performance of mosques ever since establishment of the first mosque (Qoba) by the Prophet Muhammad (S) shows that whenever a better management was enforced in this religious community center, better achievements were made out of its potential capacities. Therefore, we should admit that as such management by definition means making utmost use of capacities in an organization, mosque management should enjoy deserving human capital resources such as Imam, activists and Jema’ah in order to turn the mosque into a voluntary, popular, nonprofit and religious center with successful and effectual performance in realization of its social and religious duties. In a research conducted by the Islamic Ideology Dissemination Organization (IIDO) in 2005, seven factors were blamed to be responsible for unsuccessfulness of the mosques. Three out of seven factors directly related to the human capital competency in mosques: 1- Lack of a knowledgeable and able Imam of Jema’ah to be familiar with the everyday issues and his inability to attract and communicate with people 2- Lack of a pensioner Imam 3- Lack of a well-coordinated and powerful board of trustees One major prerequisite for developing human capital is identifying key competencies in the mosques. The human capitals in the mosques are Imam, activists (and voluntaries) and Jema’ah. Now, the current work poses these questions that, what are the characteristics of deserving human capital in the mosques? What are their competency model based on dimensions, components and indicators? The main goal of this work, therefore, is identifying dimensions, components and indicators of human capital competency concept in the mosques. 2. Research Literature 2-1 Imam’s Competencies In this study we will try to identify basic competencies of an Imam of mosque like a manager of an institution.

ability or qualification that is capable of presentation. personal characteristics. occupational and popular credibility (Ghaffarian. This awareness helps the person to behave based on general objectives of the organization rather than the demands of the closest associated groups.Perceptional skill. 2003 and Rezaian. competency has been described as essential characteristics of a person that. In another definition.Personal characteristics 4.Skills. knowledge and skill (Spencer & Spencer. techniques and required equipment for performing certain jobs (Hersey & Blanchard.Human skill. . . training and apprenticeship and is used to apply knowledge. on the definition of competency. experience and behavioral characteristics to define competency as the following: A capacity that exists in a person that leads to behavior that meets the job demands within the parameters of the organizational environment and that. Spencer & Spencer believe that there are five types of competency characteristics: motives. 1982).Researchers have always paid much attention to identify the key competencies of managers. that is the ability gained in the course of experiences. Competency is possessing knowledge. In a common classification.Technical skill. 1991). self-concept. 1993). 1998). that is the ability to distinguish how to work with people and have them perform certain jobs. The collection of values is one distinctive factor for managers. methods. He uses such factors as personal qualifications. personal characteristics. Identifying the various aspects of managers’ managerial competencies is important both for development and for evaluating performance of managers. the required skills of the managers fall into three categories: . insight. Skill is the ability to change knowledge into practice.Attitude The value-based decision-making standards are among the major functionaries for forming a decision.” Ghaffarian (2000) believes that in a sum-up the competency indicators of the managers are classified in six categories (in two individual and social competency dimensions): A. 2000) 3.Professional science and knowledge. skill. motives. in turn. 2. . is related to that individual’s effectual or superb performance in an occupational position. that is the individual’s ability to learn about complexities of the organization and his aptness to perform based on the organizational demands. Competency of managers by definition refers to collection of characteristics and behaviors that lead to effectuality of the managers in their occupational environment such as knowledge. observation or change (King & Evans. This includes understanding about the motivations and manifesting an effective leadership.Individual competency dimensions: 1. skill. in a cause and effect relation. Boyatzis believes that success of a manager depends upon a wide spectrum of factors (Boyatzis. David Robotham in an article on competency writes that: “It still remains the case that there seems to be little agreement in the literature. brings about desired results.

readiness is the degree of leader’s ability and motivation in gaining success in performing a certain job or duty. A deeper survey. management of values and prudent decision-making (Bowman et al. hope to the Afterlife. Hersey & Blanchard (1996) believe a successful performance is a function of individual ability and motivation. we must make a distinction between competency and virtue. Competency. has inevitably an attention to virtue in its nature. knowing that the majority of management competencies have inborn virtues. Therefore. Bowman and Colleagues (2004) combine ethical and technical competencies as the essential elements for a successful public administration. insight and motivation. First. 2006) In the end. however. 2004). we must take the two concepts as coexistent. In the first glance. They put forward prospects that shape up our lives and competency is the collection of gained skills and technical efficiency. Macaulay and Lawton in their article’s conclusion maintain that virtues are equally within the sphere of human personality and his measures. too.General credibility: The general credibility of a manager refers to his nonoccupational status in the society. 2.Some of these factors are: the belief in responsiveness to God. second. There are two approaches in this regard.Occupational credibility: Occupational credibility refers to the manager’s status in the occupational communication network and it is the ability to establish relations with influential individuals and making requests with high probability of acceptance. Likewise. attitude toward human beings. Ability means knowledge. commitment and motivation in a person for successful fulfillment of a task (Hersey & Blanchard 1996). the ethical and value-based virtues are among the inseparable competencies of a manager. Rezaian (2000) maintains that the success of a manager depends upon abilities. Virtue is a complementary section of management competency. They believe that the success of public administrators depends upon the triangle of technical qualifications. shows that the two concepts of competency and virtue are interrelated: competencies include certain virtues and successful performance of virtues requires some capabilities. In other words. Ethical competency includes moral reasoning. like management excellence. Robins. motivation has been considered as the final component for competencies of an Imam of mosque. Motivation means the degree of assurance. (Ghaffarian. the three components of . leadership and ethical competency.Social competency dimensions: 1. experience and skill an individual or a group possess for performing a duty or a special task. respecting people. monotheistic belief B. considers performance a function of ability and motivation. virtue should possess some qualities of competency in order to be practicable. strong belief in occupational moral. 2000). Virtanen suggests collection of competencies for the public administrators. virtue criteria seem to be inseparable parts of ethical ideas. (Macaulay and Lawton. 2000) Moreover. one of which is ethical competency (Virtanen.

ethical-religious virtues.Scientific and technical competence. He must avoid talkativeness.Wisdom and farsightedness. The Imam of Jema’ah has the following four major duties: 1. 4To do good against bad. 5. He must respect people’s prestige and avoid humiliation.Delivering an oration (eloquence and rhetoric) According to the Center in Charge of Mosque Affairs (2007). 2. wearing perfumes.Liberality and self-control. 8. 10. Pirouz and Colleagues (2006) maintain that an influential leader in the Islamic societies should possess the following characteristics: 1. 3. 2. 5.Ability.Piety. and trust. He should be able to provide responses to the questions on religious jurisprudence or Fiqh and to the rhetorical skepticism. avoiding the strong passion for chairmanship). good appearance. 3.Performing congregational prayers 2. and motivation have been considered for competency model of the Imam of mosque. tolerating contrary opinions.Faith and piety. 4Good conduct and good-natured. 2Intelligence. always wearing a smile.Teaching and preaching Islamic tenets and sciences 3.Management of mosque affairs 4. greeting people.Modesty.Establishing relations with mosque-goers Adhering to the Prophetic traditions and conduct is very important for the success of the Imam of Jema’ah in his critical responsibility. 7.Reputation. self-possession in happiness.tolerating contrary opinions. 4. 5.Perseverance. the Center believes that from scientific point of view an Imam of mosque should be well familiar with Qoran and its interpretation. mocking and snickering. establishing friendly relations. Some of the personal and social conducts of the Prophet (S) are the following: Cleanliness. and the quotations attributed to the Infallible Imams. idle talking. then we will continue with desirable characteristics of an Imam of Jema’ah according to available theoretical literature. 7. says a leader should have the following personal characteristics: 1. endurance against problems.Courage. 6. shaking hands with people. and respecting others (Center in Charge of Mosque Affairs. In his contacts he should be well-mannered and sociable. He should be well aware of the national and international news.Liberality Nabavi (2006). 3.Intimacy and affection.Moderation and toleration. 9.Moderation in deed and creed. a Muslim administrator should have the following characteristics: 1.Seriousness and Endeavor. traditions. 9.knowledge-skill. backbiting and slandering.Honesty and loyalty.Assurance of equity and social justice. 11.Liberality (forbearance. Here we will discuss special characteristics of a competent Islamic manager and leader. 6.Endeavor. 2007) . 8.Seeking modern knowledge and new horizons for work In connection with the characteristics of the Imam of mosque. alluding to the Qoranic verses and traditions.

” (Al-Kahf: 28) “And do not drive away those who call upon their Lord in the morning and the evening. 219). and let not your eyes pass from them. liberality. Attention to all people in the mosque is one of the important things that an Imam of mosque should consider. On the other hand. in Chapter Towba. regular and disciplined performance of congregational prayers. Verse 108.” Self-trust is also one of the competency indicators of the Imam of mosque. Self-trust refers to the person’s belief in his abilities for successful implementation of his duties (Gholipour. of the Imam of mosque. keeping up prayers. P. so (as for) these. This can be seen in Verse 28 of Al-Kahf Chapter and Verse 52 of Al-Anaam Chapter. nor are they answerable for any reckoning of yours.” This verse puts forward conditions for those who intend to build and repair the mosques that are: belief in God. neither are you answerable for any reckoning of theirs. courage and fear of God. moderation and avoiding extremes. and do not follow him whose heart We have made unmindful to Our remembrance. The Almighty God. He must avoid paying double attention to the rich. and keeps up prayer and pays the poor-rate and fears none but Allah. in Verse 34 of Anfal Chapter of Qoran says only the friends of God and the guardians of Masjed hl-Haraam are the most pious: No men can be its guardians except the righteous. grandees and the nobles in contrast to the people of low financial or social ranks.Piety is one of the most important characteristics of an Imam of mosque. piety. generosity (avoiding deeds and creeds that make him despised and dishonorable). He says in Verse 18 of Al-Towba Chapter that: “Only he shall visit the mosques of Allah who believes in Allah and the Last Day. they desire only His favor. 2007. introducing successor for his absence. and he follows his low desires and his case is one in which due bounds are exceeded. belief in the Last Day and Doomsday. avoiding prolonging of programs. and Allah loves those who purify themselves. desiring the beauties of this world's life. introduces Qoba as a deserving mosque because “… in it are men who love that they should be purified. The Holy Qoran. ethical excellencies. paying poor-rates and alms-taxes. Nobahar (2007) believes that an Imam of Jema’ah based on Islamic capital must possess the following characteristics: Justice (avoiding sin). possessing high scientific rank. where the Holy Book says: “And withhold yourself with those who call on their Lord morning and evening desiring His goodwill.” (Al-Anaam: 52) Movazzaf Rostami (2008) believes that study and research into the verses of the Holy Qoran will help us find required characteristics and qualifications for the preachers and performers of the religious programs that are the following: good . The intention or the decision to practice self-purification and spiritual refinement is among the most important indicators of competency of the mosque-goers and most important of all. serious attention to mosque affairs. so that you should drive them away and thus be of the unjust. it may be that they are of the followers of the right course.

Ghaffarian.Liberality: forbearance. Vol. encouragement and support. avoiding words without action. 33 . 2000 . effective communication with the addressees. objectives and values of mosques in Islam. 2004 . 436-8 . avoiding mocking and faultfinding. belief in consultation. avoiding wrath and violence. creative thought Sources .Supreme Leader’s lecture in June 1996 .Discipline .Forough-e Masjed. 2006 . 3.Ketz. P.Tahrir al-Vasileh. 2007 . understanding and explaining about the duties. 2006 .Nobahar.Rezaei Birjandi. good appearance.Farahi. 2007 . avoiding formalities. liberality and keeping promise. 2004 .Perceptional skill: Observing major issues.Al-Anfal. good appearance. 1.Trust . directing sessions .Nobahar. P. 5. 2004 . Pp.Michael and Lawton.Modesty .Human skill: Knowledge & Skills Leadership. 1974 . 2007 . 1993 .Hersey & Blanchard. establishing groups.Al-Furqan. sound and correct recitation of prayers and Quran verses . consultation and psychology knowledge. selfpossession in happiness . avoiding self-praise.manner.Courage (fearing no one but Allah) .Rezaian. cheerfulness. 2007 . 2007 . soft speech. Verse 63 . 2007 . 2008 .Gholipour.Rezaei Birjandi. strategic thought. 2007 . Vol.Interview and observation .Tafsir-e Noor. 157 .Nahj ul-Balaghah.Gholipour. reconciliation of two parties. forgiveness. Vol.Kreitner. giving good and bad news equally.Center in Charge of Mosque Affairs.Justice based on jurisprudence and piety: Islamic Avoiding mortal sins and no insistence on conducting venial sin s Ethical and Behavioral Competencies Virtues of an Imam of Mosque . Hekmat 176 . Table 1: Competencies of an Imam of Mosque Dimensions Component s Indicators . doing good against bad.Interview and observation . modesty. honesty in deed and creed. political awareness.Good manner .Mozhaji. modern-day knowledge.Technical skills: Religious knowledge.Honesty and fulfillment of one’s obligations .Jackson and Holland.Nabavi. the art of lecturing. employing individuals. identifying addressees. analytical thought. playing only a reminder’s role. fulfillment of one’s obligations. good listening capacity. Verse 34 . endurance against problems. effective listening. awareness on subcultures. management knowledge. tolerating contrary opinions. moderation in behavior. 1998 . forbearance.

1968 . and it deserves to be protected. expecting right and fair deed and creed.Motivation for self-purification and spiritual refinement: .Hersey & Blanchard. Institute of Qom Mosques) Mosque activists both work as the executive staff in the mosques and serve as an operational arm (specially the board members) for the mosques.Tafsir al-Mizan. responsibility orientation. P.Nobahar. endeavor. 2007 .Al-Towba.Rezaei Birjandi.Rezaian.Interview and observation 2-2 Competencies of Activists According to the religious decree issued by the majority of jurisprudents on mosques.Self-trust .Nabavi. the endower has no right to assign someone as administrator of the mosque.General trust. that is. the pious believers should be in charge of the mosques. 18. their interpersonal characteristics may be defined as unity and amity.. 2003 .Motivation to purify and guide others . the characteristics of mosque Activists fall into personal and interpersonal. brotherhood and oneness. their interpersonal characteristics will be also important to consider.Atkinson. Since they work in groups. Given the above. 2003 . affection and compassion. liberty and moderation. On the other hand. Vol. Today’s tradition of mosque administration by a board of trustees – a group of believers who undertake administration of the mosque affairs – is both Islamic and popular. Verse 108 . otherwise. in the first place the Islamic ruler or his representative will be in charge of mosque affairs. honesty and trust. intention to serve. their personal characteristics are important as much as their capabilities and abilities. 2006 .Endeavor and perseverance in the mosque . So. In this sense. and courage.Efforts to settle and alleviate peoples’ problems: Trying to solve Motivation their problems and sympathizing with them . By oneness we mean one for all and all for one. Bilateral and multilateral trust in one another’s deeds and creeds are among the other important factors in behavior of a group. Therefore. skill and knowledge. honesty and agreement . 326 . motivation. bilateral respect. since they work in groups. Trust has three aspects: 1. (Lotfi. according to religious law no one can be assigned as its administrator. the question is: Who is responsible for administration of the mosque affairs? The answer is: Since mosque is an example of public endowment. 2008 . local reputation. The personal characteristics of these people are religious and ethical virtues.

2007 .Toiserkani Ravari. the Almighty God will consider the reward of liberating a slave for him and he who dusts off a mosque.Trust .Interview and observation Interpersonal (Group) characteristics Competencies of Activists (Board of trustees. brotherhood and oneness .Nobahar. 33 . voluntaries.Al-Towba. Verse 63 . P.Spencer & Spencer. the Glorious God will double His blessings to him. Forough-e Masjed.Porter and Lawler.Emotional trust.Being trustable. 2007 .Unity and amity.Al-Anfal.Tafsir-e Noor. believing in the fact that your friend will not present a bad image of you in your back 3.Kreitner and Kinicki. 3 . Forough-e Masjed.Rezaian.Ghaffarian. One of the major distinctions of . 1999 . 1996 .Al-Omran.Nabavi.Intension to serve (giving preference to the demands of others. 2007 .Local reputation Sources . The value of works depends upon the intention to do it. Verse 18 .Al-E’raaf. 127) Table 2: Competencies of Activists Dimensions Components Indicators . 4. 357 . Vol.Honesty and fulfillment of commitments . Quoted from Hadith-e Masjed. On excellence of serving the mosques this suffices to refer to a tradition: He who brooms and cleans a mosque.Endeavor and forbearance .Knowledge and skill . that is. Vol. the belief in the fact that commitments and promises are there and will be fulfilled (Kreitner & Kinicki. 2007) The intention to serve the House of God is one of the major indicators of this part.Razeqi. 56/383/83.Liberality . 2000 .Kaliath and colleagues. Vol. 3 . 5.Tafsir-e Noor.Interview and observation . (Bahar alAnwar. P. Verse 103 . 2008 . servitors of mosques. 1993 . …) Personal characteristis .2. Vol.Becker and Colleagues.Nobahar.Hersey & Blanchard. that is.Courage 2-3 Competencies of Jema’ah The competencies of Jema’ah is placed as the first model in the input of the system as human capital and resources of the mosques. 2000 . 1996 . 2008 . P. Verse 29 .Compassion and kindness . 2009 . having intension to serve the House of God) .Nabavi.

quoted from Hadith-e Masjed. Therefore. it will be the duty of all individuals in the mosque to clean it. To safeguard the sanctity of mosques for the Muslims the Islamic jurisprudence has enforced rules and 2 Abi Davoud Traditions. The Jema’ah of the mosque are indeed a group of Muslims who gather together to pray for God and to interact. As it was previously mentioned by alluding to Verse 108 of Towba Chapter. In this sense. the believers collectively feel responsible for realization of the objectives of the mosques. they have been mixed in the related table for the ease of model. it is an essential religious duty that has to be performed by all believers. Although human and social capitals are different elements. Hadith-e Masjed. In the meantime. Individuals are easily replaced in the two groups. the intention for selfpurification and spiritual refinement is one of the outstanding competencies of the Jema’ah. The Holy Qoran in various verses has stressed unity and amity among Muslims. a number of the Muslims gather together in the mosques based on a series of religious values and norms to realize their Divine and spiritual goals. he will receive that thing only. 119 . in a religious rule it is said that if the mosques become dirty. their human-social capital becomes of high importance. 427/115/1. The indicators of good manner and friendship have been considered in the component of religious-ethical capital. P. The intention to gain virtue and eternal reward by presence in the mosque and worshipping (specially by congregational prayers) is another indicative of the deserving Jema’ah. therefore. and he or she should clean it immediately. 17/4. The competencies of the Jema’ah. who must observe the rites and traditions for presence in the mosques 3.The capacity and potential of this human collection for performing any activity or operation in the mosque The Jema’ah of the mosque are from among the members of the locality and they serve as a sociological collection.Norm competencies of the Jema’ah. For instance. can be classified in the following three components: 1. The individual must not even waste any time in cleaning the mosque.2 (Man La Yahzoroh ul-Faghih.Their religious-ethical capital as a spiritual capital 2. This is because the mosque is a Divine and popular institution. A tradition attributed to the Prophet (S) says that: He who comes to the mosque for something. P. that is to say. rather.mosques from other state-run and private organizations is this that in the mosques the margin between the addressee (customer or client) and the staff is rather unknown with no interference. This means sometimes mosque-goers or the addressees turn to be voluntary members of the human capital of the mosque and help implementation of some works. no one can delegate the responsibility of cleaning the mosque to the servitors or officials. 120) Another component is observing the rituals for presence. The high intention for presence in the mosque is a sign of competency of the Jema’ah of the mosque.

5 (Precepts on Mosques. 2. avoiding boisterous words in the mosque (Shakeri and Mohammadi. according to the Fiqh texts are known as the precepts of mosques and fall into three categories of religiously recommended. 2003) Any place built in the name of mosque by any Muslim is a sacred place and any offense. Verse 31 of Al-E’raaf Chapter says use all your ornaments for all mosques. performing salutation prayer. spitting in the mosque. reciting a piece of poetry with no advice or spiritual point in it. Question 914 from Imam Khomeini’s Resaleh) Other traditions have some recommendations to the mosque-goers: performing prayers and reciting Qoran slowly with a soft voice to avoid bothering others. talking about material things. 2007. “Truly mosques belong to God. P. Vol. 318 & Vasael al-Shia. another part is about the rituals for entering a mosque and the third part is about the deeds that must be avoided in the mosque. Abu Basir asked Imam Sadeq (AS) why respecting the mosques has always been recommended? And he replied: “Truly people have been ordered to bow to and respect mosques because they are the houses of God on Earth. This also refers to the physical (human) and spiritual (ethical manners and pure intention) embellishments. Nobahar. cursed be he who does not respect the mosques. 2007. P. Hadith-e Masjed. opening a space for others to sit beside you and keeping the mosque clean. using mosque as a place of passing by. P. (Tafsir-e Noor. talking idle. throwing stones in the mosque. 154 . stepping in with the right foot. destruction or mean action against the mosque is taken as a mortal sin. 207 5 Vasael al-Shia. P. barter trade. (Precepts on Mosques. quoted by Rezaei. Vol. 2002). This is because a mosque is attributed to God. 52) The religiously disapproved things are: presence in the mosque with bad odor.”3 Therefore.regulations for presence in the mosques. courtesy and modesty. Verse 17 Elal ul-Sharaye’. 557. religiously disapproved and religiously forbidden. 2007. A tradition attributed to the Prophet (S) says: “In the Last Day people will be found gathering in the mosques and talking about the world and friendship with the 3 4 Surah Jinn. facing toward Kiblah or Mecca direction. These orders. sleeping in the mosque. 4 Imam Sadeq told Youness ibn Yaghoub: Cursed be. announcing the lost and found. 2003 and Questions 912-915 from Imam Khomeini’s Resaleh Towzih al-Masael (Book of Jurisprudential Laws). performing religious punishment or using arms in the mosque (Precepts on Mosques. (Rezaei Birjandi. 2007) There are some religious recommendations for presence in the mosque: good appearance. insolence. Part of these precepts presented by the Islamic jurisprudents relates to the quality of the mosque building. Nobahar. wearing clean and quality clothes. P. 5. 2007. talking loud. 3. According to traditions good appearance. 513. wearing perfume and good clothing are examples of embellishment. reciting entry and exit prayers. P. Vol. Vol. having ablution. 4. any offense to mosques is the offense to God. doing business in the mosque. Nobahar. wearing perfumes. quoted by Rezaei. keeping quiet after the call for prayer.

(World Bank. social reputation (including social rank. income.6 Taking the place of a prayer performer by force. 5. 52 -Tafsir-e Noor. 4. closing and destroying a mosque by force. P. Vol. interaction and multilateral trust in the social relations. commitments. Vol. has nothing to do with them. and institutional arrangements in the society that enable the members realize their personal and social goals. The fourth type of capital. P. 254 -Imam Khomeini’s Resaleh. …) Mostadrak ul-Vasael. and skill or knowledge are the Indicators of this component.Al-E’raaf. 214 . 2000.Ornamentation Observing rituals 6 (well-dressed. wearing good perfume. the social capital. the French sociologist. personal discipline. Cultural capital is about the type of cultural upbringing of the individual and refers to such things as farsightedness. taking religiously dirty things to the mosque are among the religiously forbidden things in connection with the mosque affairs. occupational training and skills. 12. Vol. Physical capital includes such phenomena as wealth. has classified various types of capital as physical. The expected behavior in the group of society is called role. hardworking. Do not sit with these people because God. Pierre Bordeaux. Verse 31 -Tafsir-e Noor. norms. Human capital refers to such things as education. and the value and credit the society gives to that role is called social status. 371 quoted from Rezaei. holding wedding ceremonies in the mosque. . prioritizing education and planning and finally appreciating any achievements for economic gain. real estate. knowledge. human. (Precepts on Mosques. Vol. participation and the interest in team works. P. automobile and the like. 3. too. They are not normal capital but are capable of transformation into the ordinary capital. cultural and social. According to sociologists the collection of positions any individual occupies in the society is called social status network (Ghannadan and Colleagues. 58 & Vasael al-Shia. 2004) Society is made of diversified groups each of which is responsible for a certain task. P. Trusting one another. social structures. 6. 2007 -Vasael al-Shia. Vol. P. local or social acceptability) and education. quoted from Kazemipour. financial generosity. Questions 912914 -Precepts on Mosques. 2004) Table 3: Competencies of Jema’ah Dimensions Components Indicators Sources .material world. P. is formed by the rules and regulations. 2007) The last component of this section is the human-social capital of the Jema’ah of the mosque.

318 -Mohaddesi and Mohassel. an exploratory preliminary study was made in the target society to boost the knowledge of the researcher and his efforts for identifying the hidden aspects of the subject matter.Interview and observation . 2000 . Vol. the exploratory interview and observation were made . 2 . 2002. During observations and interviews with the activists.Social reputation: social status. 2004 .Financial generosity . Vol.Avoiding religious forbidden and religiously disapproved things . A number of successful.Elal al-Sharaye’. 146 . 2005 . this is an exploratory research which has used mixed method. Forough-e Masjed.Tafsir-e Noor.Kazemipour. individuals value and social excellence in the locality) 12 -Vasael al-Shia.Gholipour.Participation . 3 . 5. 2008 .of presence in the mosques . P.Intention for selfpurification . relatively successful and weak mosques were selected for observation and interview.Observing religiously recommended norms Competencies of Jema’ah Religious-ethical capital Human-social capital . Verse 108 . 2008 .Smith.Al-e Omran.Shojaei Baghini and colleagues.Shakeri and Mohammadi.Education. 2005 . 1 . Vol. 2008 . Since the methodology was based on Quivy & Campenhudt’s model.Safari. 1 .Firouzabadi. 2002 . local or social acceptability (such as occupational status. Vol.Tafsir-e Kashaf. P.Safari.Interview and observation . 2007 .Towba. 2.Khaki.Intention to gain eternal reward and forgiveness . degree of influence.Trusting one another 3. Verse 103 . special knowledge or skill .Movazzaf Rostami. Vol.Good manner . P. With respect to the special subject matter of this study. theoretical gaps in formulation of the model were filled. Vol.Tahrir ul-Vasileh. Vol. The selection was made upon the assistance of the experts at the Center in Charge of Mosque Affairs. 3. Methodology From the viewpoint of goal. 507 .Friendship among group members .Interview and observation . This also helped in-depth study of various aspects of mosque management and provision of a reliable scientific work in this connection.

5 2. Questions and required space were given to the religious experts to opine on the model and the collection of viewpoints were gathered. and experts from the theological schools and universities. The experts were classified based on their specialty or experience like the following: Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Related Knowledge or Experience Researcher in the field of religion and mosques Management experience in mosques Management experience in upstream mosque organizations Researcher or lecturer of Islamic management Researcher or lecturer of Management of Organizational Change and Development or Excellence Researcher or lecturer of social sciences or religious sociology Researcher or lecturer of voluntary and nonprofit organizations Researcher or lecturer of religious psychology Total Quantity 27 23 19 18 10 7 5 3 112 Percentage 24. Using mathematical techniques and simulation (Kia-Kojouri.3 4. Some concepts are . Conceptualization is one of the major dimensions for construction of an analytical model. Three methods can be used to test a model: 1. Using Delphi methodology or seeking opinions of the experts 3. Dalki (1967) and Brown (1968) consider Delphi methodology a collection of techniques for extracting and purifying viewpoints of a group that are normally specialists. Finally its outcomes are more palpable and accurate.7 100 3-1 Conceptualization and Construction of Analytical Model The process of specifying phenomena of the subject matter of the research work by concepts is called conceptualization.1 2. The next step in making a concept is definition of the indicators that help measure the dimensions. Conceptualization is making an abstract concept for understanding a real thing. In the first place. (Saroukhani. Indicators are the concrete signs for identifying and measuring the dimensions and components of the concept. The experts were selected from among the individuals working in the related organizations such as the successful Imams of mosques. members of the boards of trustees. it is trustable in comparison with individual explanations.simultaneously with studying theoretical foundations of the work.1 8. 2008) Delphi methodology can be used both for model construction and for model testing. Although this collective judgment on specialists brings about diversified mental viewpoints.9 6. conceptualization requires dimension. Then the views of the religious experts and specialists were collected on the subject matter by Delphi methodology. 2004) A total of 48 experts cooperated in the first round of Delphi model and 31 experts in the second round.5 17 16. Real-world test of the model 2.

15 7.65 related to the Jema’ah of the mosque. pertinent theoretical foundations and complementary methods (to be explained in coming pages).simple and can be clarified by a few dimensions and indicators.65 -0.13 7.11 1. There are two methods for conceptualization: inductive approach that makes isolated operational concept and deductive approach that makes systematic concept. ethical and behavioral virtues of the Imam of mosque are of high significance among the other components of this dimension. In dimensions of the competencies of Imam of the mosque.63 8. The required elements for such conceptualization can be found in the course of theoretical studies and exploratory interviews.41 points has the highest importance in human capital category according to the experts. The credits of the major dimensions in two stages of the research work have been brought in the following table. Then the importance of each indicator was asked in the questions. But some concepts are complicated and their dimensions have to be disintegrated into indicators and then components. seven indicators were added to the religiousethical virtues component.20 .03 0. Meanwhile.45 . All indicators along with the weight and rank have been brought in Tables 6-8.43 8.54 1. the conceptual model of the research work was designed. a number of components and indicators were added to the main model in the first round. Ranking the dimensions. Findings In the course of two rounds of Delphi research. Table 4: Mean of Viewpoints of the Experts in Connection with Dimensions of the Research Model Dimensions Competencies of Imam of mosque Competencies of activists Competencies of Jema’ah .66 -0.10 -0. 1998) Based on these explanations. The least importance and effectuality in the success of mosques with a credit of 7. components and indicators according to the credits shows that Imam of mosque’s competency with 8.41 8.45 1st Round SD 1st Round Mean 2nd round SD Chang e 2nd Round Mean Change Rank 1 2 3 . (Quivy & Campenhudt. Also a new component with three indicators was added to the competencies of the Jema’ah. 4.28 8. The isolated operational concept is a concept that is made based on direct observation or based on the information gathered by the others.44 . This work has chiefly used inductive approach toward making isolated operational concept.02 0.64 -0.

96 .56 .2 -0.05 -0.68 8.48 8.06 1.71 .62 -0.1 0.30 7.94 8.26 8.62 6.48 8.38 7.06 0.32 8.87 8.35 8.56 .23 0.77 -0.59 .55 8.49 .13 1 2 3 Competencies of activists 1.09 0.67 .42 1.58 - 3 1 4 2 Table 6: Statistical Description of Experts’ Views on Indicators of Imam of Mosque Competencies Indicators 1st Round SD 1st Round Mean 2nd Round SD Change 2nd Round Mean Change Rank Ethical and behavioral virtues Good manner and sociability Liberality and moderateness Honesty and keeping one’s promise Jurisprudential justice and piety Modesty Trust and accepting responsibility Discipline and punctuality Courage and independence of opinion .33 1.65 8.86 .51 .25 8.47 0.58 8.09 0.30 - 1 2 3 Competencies of Jema’ah 1.68 8.52 -0.69 .00 .24 -0.83 0.71 8.89 .84 -0.51 7.04 -0.70 8.08 -0.40 -0.19 1 2 4 5 7 3 8 12 .Table 5: Mean of Viewpoints of the Experts in Connection with Components of the Research Model Components 1st Roun d SD 1st Roun d Mean 2nd Round SD Change 2nd Round Mean Change Rank Competencies of Imam of mosque Ethical and behavioral virtues .08 -0.67 8.80 .81 0.35 .56 .21 8.13 0.13 -0.74 8.80 .71 8.25 .14 0.3 -0.04 .66 8.68 .07 0.45 8.44 8.53 8.57 .01 -0.75 7.07 0.77 8.76 .73 8.54 .30 0.44 -0.85 7.66 7.96 -0.92 1.43 .11 0.63 .19 7.77 8.52 -0.66 .36 -0.28 Interest-motivation Knowledge-skills Interpersonal Personal Social (communicative) Observing rituals of presence Ethical and religious capital Human-social capital Awareness of rituals of presence .

62 .87 0.48 0 3 .32 0.38 8.02 .01 - New factor New factor New factor New factor New factor New factor 13 6 9 11 10 14 15 Interest-motivation .51 8.29 8.65 1.09 .19 8.48 1.42 8.55 8.63 -0.32 5 3 4 2 6 7 .62 .38 .81 -0.82 .63 8.22 3 1 2 Table 7: Statistical Description of Experts’ Views on Indicators of Activists ’ Competencies Indicators 1st Round SD 1st Round Mean 2nd Round SD Change 2nd Round Mean Change Rank Personal Honesty and keeping one’s promise Intention to serve Trust and accepting responsibility Liberality and moderateness Hard work and endeavor in the mosque Skill and knowledge 1.43 - 8.38 1.01 0.48 .55 8.65 -0.06 -0.90 -0.29 0.39 8.58 8.70 8.32 7.52 8.17 1 2 .22 1.21 -0.97 8.04 4 Knowledge-skills .65 -0.08 8.81 7.57 .58 8.Self-trust and resoluteness Piety and righteousness Social equity and paying attention to all people Dignity and firm personality Living a simple life Good reputation Good appearance and attraction Intention to selfpurification and refinement Motivation to refine and guide others Endeavoring for removing people’s problems Hard work and perseverance in the mosque Perceptional Human Technical 1.44 -0.55 -0.75 -0.06 8.16 8.41 1.31 1.58 8.76 .15 8.68 .25 8.65 .61 8.35 0.16 0.02 -0.85 -0.79 1.55 -0.95 .76 .34 8.54 8.12 0.13 8.78 .62 .84 8.88 8.61 8.3 0.39 7.25 .79 -0.67 1.99 .65 .2 0.32 8.07 7.42 0.57 0.23 0.31 .97 0.03 8.33 1.

71 -0.5 2 1 3 Ethical and religious capital 1.95 .00 7.38 -0.57 1.58 8.81 7.45 1 2 .68 7.26 - 2 Table 8: Statistical Description of Experts’ Views on Indicators of Jema’ah Competencies Indicators 1st Round SD 1st Round Mean 2nd Round SD Change 2nd Round Mean Change Rank Observing rituals of presence Good appearance (wearing good clothes and perfumes) Avoiding religiously forbidden and disapproved deeds Observing religiously recommended deeds(Mustahab) Good manner Friendship with others Intention for self-purification Intention to gain eternal reward from God Trusting one another Participation and interest in team works 1.54 0. organizations and institutions New factor 1.27 0.33 - New factor New factor New factor 9 8 1 10 Interpersonal 1.15 .19 0.67 1.71 8.91 .45 8.42 -0.09 .13 0.27 1.01 0.91 7.52 -0.63 0.38 0.19 1.Courage Modesty Practical belief in religion Being young Kindness and friendship Local reputation and acceptability Unity and amity and brotherhood Bilateral respect Popular relationship: good relations with the local people 1.41 7.93 1.00 0.96 7.76 2.55 0.50 .94 7.89 .01 2 1 3 4 Human-social capital 1.66 -0.52 7.03 1.97 8.03 - 7.70 7.68 -0.46 6.63 7.61 6.86 -0.72 - 7.00 7.91 1.81 7.35 - 1 Organizational relationship: relations with guild unions.5 -0.07 -0.03 0.04 0.16 8.56 .80 8.37 -0.56 -0.02 .00 8.14 - 1 4 3 2 New factor Social (communicative) New factor .29 8.55 7.93 -0.15 8.62 7.10 .35 1.89 1.86 .97 7.06 1.34 0.23 7.78 .05 1.27 8.23 1.03 -0.27 0.47 1.49 8.97 8.

and behavior based on piety is essential for the Imam of the mosque. Irregular presence in the mosque or inattention to the mosque-goers will seriously reduce effectuality of the mosque. consultation and psychology. The Imams of Jema’ah.95 6. 5.84 -0. The Imam must be a model to follow even in the ordinary activities of the mosque. Manifesting a deserving model from the viewpoint of good appearance.90 6. In the first dimension. status and sanctity of mosque Familiarity with mosque precepts and rituals for presence Familiarity with the rituals of congregational prayers 1.15 1. Occupation of the post of board of trustees and servitors by the old and impatient individuals with low education level. universities and those involved in the executive affairs of the mosques.86 6.24 3 4 5 Awareness of rituals of presence .52 0. in-depth spirituality. This is because their behavior is taken as a symbol and epitome of good behavior by the sharp-eyed mosque-goers. and sociology in the intensive courses seriously. are expected to manifest more discipline.23 0.11 7.09 -0.65 6. endeavor and perseverance in the mosques.26 0. the Imam of mosque has the most influential role in the effectuality of the mosque.92 -0. Conclusion According to the experts at theological schools. .91 1.28 . Of the other factors that help increase effectuality of the mosque we can refer to boosting human skills by protecting and increasing a strong connection with the addressees and even with the people in the neighborhood.42 6.Financial generosity Social acceptability Education. depriving the chance of decisionmaking in the mosques from the young and dynamic individuals. are expected to take teaching some aspects of religious education such as mosque management.00 1. The Imams of mosques must show serious efforts to provide responses to the modern-day religious questions and express them in a simple language while teaching people the foundations of religion.83 2.97 1.64 6. consultation and ineffective connection with the younger age groups.31 1.81 - 2 1 3 A close observation of the status of mosques in Tehran and some other cities by the researcher and collecting viewpoints of the experts showed that the weak points of some Imams of the mosques were because of their insufficient familiarity with the management methods. too.84 7. the theological schools as the sources of education of the seminary students. possessing special skill or knowledge Familiarity with excellence.84 7. and no interest or intention of inviting the able people to serve in the mosques are among the other weak points in the mosques.

Establishing connections with the local people.). 4 Shakeri. The Imams of mosques must be sensitive toward the problems of the mosque-goers. Thesis. Issue No.s 3 & 6 Rezaei Birjandi. Status of Mosque in Islamic Culture. Vol. A Quality Study of Research Tools in Social Sciences. Admitting young people and participating them in the mosque management as members of the board of trustees and giving them some responsibilities are among the other important factors behind success of the mosques. too. Persian references            Pirouz. Designing and Clarifying Development Pattern for State Administrative System Managers. Tafsir-e Noor. Issue IV Ghaffarian. must be paid due attention by the organizations presiding over the mosques. Year II. Vasael al-Shia. Training mosque activists. Holding short-term training workshop of the activists can be one of the solutions. Vafa (2000). Elm-o Adab Publications Rezaian. 18. Heidar (2002). Vol. Women Studies Magazine.D. Mohsen (2006). Tehran. Center for Research into Theological Schools and Universities Horr Ameli. Tehran. Management of Organizational Behavior: Concepts. Organizing dialog and discussion sessions with the youth will be very helpful for attracting them. The very sensitivity must be also taught to the seminary students. Training activists by the Imam of the mosque is one of the necessities that has been neglected so far. Tehran. SAMT Publications Saroukhani.Liberality and moderateness must be always stressed while working in the mosque. Mohammadi Publication Center. local organizations and offices is another useful suggestion for the success of the mosque in the neighborhood. Tehran. University o f Tehran Qara’ati. Tehran. Ali Agha and Colleagues (1985). Ali (2004). Ali (2004). Ph. must identify the capabilities of the mosque-goers and the neighbors to seek help from them whenever needed. Borzoo (2002). Teaching the youth how to behave with the old and teaching the elderly how to treat the children and young adults are among the outstanding skills of the Imam of Mosque. The Imam of mosque can play a leader’s role or be deserving model to manifest on-time and constructive interference to promote the competency level of the activists. Faculty of Management. Eslamiyeh Publications. Mosque officials. Qom. Tehran. Ali (2000). Supreme Headquarters for Cultural and Artistic Centers of Mosques Tabatabaii. Muhammad bin Hassan (1403 H. Industrial Management Organization Farahi Bouzanjani. Thaqalayn Cultural Institute Rezaian. Publishing Bureau of the Lessons from Qoran Cultural Center . Managerial Competencies. Theories and Applications. Seyed Reza and Mohammadi. Management in Islam. guild unions. Seyed Mohammad Hossein (1991). therefore. Translated by Seyed Mohammad Bagher Mousavi Hamedani. Bagher (2004). Hadith-e Masjed. Tafsir-e Almizan. Principles of Management. Tehran. Tehran.

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