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v v SUB-STATION PLANNING CRITERIA The maximum fault level on any new Sub-Station Bus should not exceed 80% of the rated rupturing capacity of the Circuit Breaker. The 20% margin is intended to take care of the increase in short circuit level as the system grows. The rate of breaking current and making currnt including fault clearing time capability of Switch-gear at different voltage levels may be taken as :Fault cleaning Time 150ms 120ms 100 ms 100ms v Voltage level 33kV 132kV 220kV 400kV 765kV Operating Time 60-80ms 50m s 50m s 40m s Breaking current 25KA 25/31.5KA 31.5/40KA 40KA 40KA Acking current 62.5KA 70KA 100KA 100KA

The capacity of any single sub-station at different voltage levels shall not normally exceed. 765 KV.400 KV.220 KV.132 KV.2500 MVA. 1000 MVA. 320 MVA. 150 MVA.

Size and Number of inter-connecting Transformer (ICTs.) shall be planned in such a way that outage of any single unit would not over load the remaining ICT (s) or the underlying system.

A stuck breaker condition shall not cause disruption of more-than four feeders for 220 KV. system and Two Feeders for 400 KV. system and one Feeder for 765 KV. system.

Sl No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Description of Technical Parameter Nominal system voltage Maximum system voltage Power frequency with stand voltage Switching surge withstand voltage (for 250/2500ms) 1. Line to earth 2. Accross isolating gap 5. Lightinging impluse withstand voltage 1. Line to earth 2. Across isolating gap 6. One minute power frequency withstand value Dry Wet 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. System frequency : Variation in frequency Corona extiniction voltage Radion interference voltage System neutral rating Continous current rating Symmetincal short circuit fault current Duration of short circuit fault current Dynamic short circuit current rating Conductor spacing for AIS layouts Phase to ground Phase to phase 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Design ambient tempertures Pollution level as per IEC-815 and 71 Creepage distance Maximum fault clearing time Bay width Height of bus equipment interconnection from ground Height of strung busbar meter >15 10 8 5.5

Unit kVrms kVrms kVrms kVp 1050kVp kvp for 1.2/50(ms) 1425 kvp 1425kvp+ 240kvms 1050kvp 1200kvp Not 400kV 420kV 630kV 520 kV 220kV 245kV 460kV

System 132kV 145kV 275kV 33kV 36kV 70kV

Not applicable

Not applicable

900kVp+345kVrms applicable

650kvp 750kvp

170kvp. 195kvp.

kVrms kVrms Hz %

520 610

460 530

275 315 50 +2.5

70 80

320kV 1000 mV at 266kv 1600A or 2000A kA Second kAp meters meters meters oC mm ms meter meter 10500 <100 27 8 6.5 7.0 40 1 100

156kV 1000 mV at 167 kv 1600A 40 1 100 4.5 4.5

84kV 1000 mV at 93kv Solidly earthed 800A 31.5 1 79 3 3 50 III 600A 25 3 62.5kA 1.5 1.5

6125 <100ms 16.4-18 5.5

3625 5

900 <150ms 5.5 4

1. Nomenclature

Reliability : The reliability of a power system means supply of uninterrupted power at the specified voltage and frequency. The reliability of a substation depends on the reliability of associated equipment such as busbars, circuit breakers, transformers, isolators and controlling devices. Failure Rate : It is the average number of failures per year. Outage time : It is the time taken to repair the failed component or restore supply from an alternative source by switching. Switching time It is the time taken from the initiation of outage to restoration of service by switching action. Switching scheme It is the type of arrangement of bus bars and equipments considering cost, flexibility of operation and reliability of the system. Phase to ground clearance The phase to ground clearance in a substation are, (a) distance between the conductor and the structures. (b) distance between the live parts of the equipment and structures and (c) distance between the live conductor and ground. Phase to phase clearance The phase to phase clearances in a substation are (a) distance between the live conductors (b) distance between the live conductors and apparatus and (c) distance between the live terminals in equipment like, circuit breakers, isolators etc. Ground clearance It is defined as the minimum clearance from any point, where a person may be required to stand, to the nearest part (which is not at earth potential) of an insulator supporting the live conductor. Sectional Clearance It is defined as the minimum clearance from any point, where a person may be required to stand, to the nearest unscreened live conductor. The basis for fixing the sectional clearance is to take the height of a man with stretched hands plus the phase to ground clearance. Safety Clearance This comprises of ground clearance and sectional clearance. Electro static Field in Substations An energised conductor or metallic part of the equipment produces electrostatic field. The magnitude of the electrostatic field varies at different points in an EHV substation (above 400 KV), depending on the geometry of energised conductor/metallic part and the nearby earthed object or ground.

2. General Substations or switching stations are integral part of the transmission system, and function as a connection or switching point for transmission lines, sub-transmission feeders, generating circuits and step-up and step -down transformers Substations of voltages 66 KV to 40KV are termed as EHV sub-stations. Above 500KV, they come under the terminology of UHV system. The design considerations and procedures are almost the same for the sub-stations in the EHV range except that certain factors become predominant at different voltage levels. Switching surges are very important at 345 KV and above, whereas it can be safely neglected upto 220 KV level.

3. Design Criteria and Studies.

The following studies are to be performed to establish the design criteria for a substation. 1. Load flow studies The purpose of a substation is to provide a path for reliable delivery of power to system loads. Load flow studies establish the current carrying requirements of the new substation or switching station, when all lines are in and when selected lines are out for maintenance. After studying a number of load flow cases, the continues and emergency ratings required for various equipment can be determined. 2. Short circuit studies. In addition to the continuous current ratings, the substation equipment must have short time ratings,. These must be adequate to permit the equipment to sustain, without damage, the severe thermal and mechanical stresses of short circuit currents. In order to provide adequate interrupting capability in the breakers, strength in post insulators and appropriate setting for protective relays, which sense the fault, the maximum and minimum short circuit currents which will flow for various types and locations of short circuits and for different system configuration must be established. 3. Transient Stability Studies. Under normal conditions, the mechanical input to a generator will be equal to the electrical output plus generator losses. So long as this is continues, the system generators rotate at 50 Hz. If this balance is destroyed by upsetting either the mechanical or the electrical flow, the generator speed deviates from 50Hz. and begins to oscillate about a new equilibrium point. The most common disturbance is a short circuit. When a short circuit occurs close to the generator, the terminal voltage drops and the machine accelerates. When the fault is cleared, the unit will try to revert to its original state by feeding the excess energy into the power system. If the electrical ties are strong, the machine will quickly decelerate and became stable. If the ties are weak, the machine will become unstable. The factors which affect the stability are i. Severity of the fault. ii. Speed with which the fault is cleared. iii. Ties between the machine and the system after the fault is cleared.

The aspects of transient stability that are important in substation design are, (a) the type and speed of the line and bus protection relaying, (b) the interrupting time of the breaker and (c) the bus configuration after the fault has been cleared. The last point has a considerable bearing on the bus arrangement. If a fault is cleared in the primary relaying time, only one line will be lost. If the fault is cleared in breaker failure relaying time, owing to a stuck breaker, more than one line may be lost which will weaken the tie to the system. 4. Transient over-voltage studies. Transient overvoltage may be due to lightning stroke or circuit switching . The most reliable means to establish switching over voltage is through the use of a Transient Network Analyser (TNA) study.

4. Substation Arrangement
The substation arrangement depends on physical and electrical aspects and is influenced by the following factors. (i) System Security. The ideal sub-station is one were each circuit is controlled by a separate breaker with facilities for replacement of bus-bar or breaker in the event of a fault or during maintenance. System security may be specified, based on whether complete reliance on the integrity of the substation or a percentage of outage due to periodic faults or maintenance is permissible. Double bus-bar system with double breaker arrangement comes to near ideal, but the cost of such a substation is prohibitively high. (ii) Operational flexibility For the efficient loading of the generators it is necessary to control the MVA and MVAR loading under all conditions of circuit connections. The grouping of load circuits requires to be capable of being arranged to give the best control under normal and emergency conditions. (iii) Simplicity of protection arrangements If more than one circuit is to be controlled from one circuit breaker or greater number of circuit breakers are to be tripped during fault conditions, the protection arrangements are complex. The most advantageous arrangement is single bus-bar with no sectionalising. Ring bus arrangement where each circuit breaker can be in two zones of protection, causes for complex protection scheme.

(iv) Ability to limit short circuit levels Any arrangement which incorporates means of providing a substation into two separate sections either completely or through reactor coupling, is suitable for limiting short circuit levels. By careful use of circuit breakers in ring system, a similar facility can be provided. (v) Maintenance facilities During the operation of the substation, maintenance will have to be carried out, either planned or emergency. The performance of the substation during maintenance is also dependent on the protection arrangements. (vi) Ease of extension The substation arrangement shall be such that extension of bays for new feeders are possible. As the system expands, there may be need to convert a single bus arrangement to double bus system, or to expand a mesh station to a double bus station. There shall be space and expansion facilities. (vii) Site considerations The availability of site plays an important role in planning the substations. When the areas is limited, a station with less flexibility may have to be constructed. The substation which are simple in diagram and use least number of breakers occupy the least site. (vii) Economy A better switching arrangement on technical requirements can be constructed, if the economics are reasonable.

5. Substation Layout and Switching arrangement.

A number of factors are to be considered while finalizing the layout and switching arrangements of an EHV substation. It must be reliable, safe and must provide a high level of service continuity. Normally used substation schemes are detailed below. 1. Single Bus arrangement This arrangement is a simple scheme adopted in less important substations. A breaker or bus failure can cause total outage. By providing a bus sectionalism scheme, this can be overcome to some extent. Even though the protective relaying is simple, single bus scheme is inflexible (Fig. 1)


LA Trans E.Sw PT Feeder

Fig. 1. Single Bus Arrangement


2. Main and Transfer Bus A transfer bus is added to the single bus scheme. An extra bus-tie breaker is provided to tie the main and transfer buses together. When a circuit breaker is in maintenance, the bustie breaker can be used for energising the circuit . Bus-tie

breaker relaying must be so arranged to protect the transmission line or transformer, if the protective relays also are not transferred. As the relaying selectivity is poor this scheme is considered as unsatisfactory. Failure of the main bus can cause for total outage of the substation (Fig-2)





Fig-2 Main and Transfer Bus Arrangement 3. Double Bus, Single Breaker This is superior to the single bus and main and transfer bus schemes. There are two main buses and each circuit can be connected to either of the buses by bus isolators. A bus-tie breaker connects the two main buses when closed allows the transfer of a circuit from one bus to the other without a break in supply (Fig.3) The circuit may operate all from one bus, of half of the circuit connected in each bus. For a bus fault, only half the no. of circuits will be lost. In some cases the tie breaker is permanently closed and both the buses stand connected. A bus protection scheme will be necessary for opening the tie breaker in the event of a bus fault. Possibility of operator error is more as two bus isolators are involved for every circuit.

BUS 1 BUS 2 BI CT CB LI E.Sw LA PT Feeder Fig. 3. Double Bus Arrangement


Bus Coupler Trans

4. Double bus, Double breaker Arrangement breakers for every circuit. The use of two circuit breakers per This scheme involves two main buses and two circuit circuit makes the arrangement very expensive, but this provides a very high order of reliability (Fig.4)


BUS 2 Fig. 4. Double Bus, Double Breaker Arrangement

5. Breaker - and -a- half-scheme. In this scheme two main buses are there and three breakers are connected in series between them. Two circuits are connected between the three breakers. Hence this is called 11/2 breaker scheme (Fig-5) Normally all the 3 breakers are in closed position, and both the buses are energised. When a line trip involves, two breakers open. No additional feeder or source is lost when one circuit is tripped. Any bus or any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance without loss of service.

When a source and a line are connected in opposite directions in a 3 breaker series, even when both the buses fails, it is possible to operate and provide some service. It is more expensive then other schemes, except the double bus-double breaker scheme. Protective relaying and automatic reclosing schemes are complex in 11/2 breaker bus arrangement. But this arrangement is superior in flexibility, reliability and safety.




BUS 2 Fig. 5. Breaker and A Half Scheme


6. Ring Bus arrangement In this scheme (Fig-7) the breakers are arranged in a ring with circuits connected between the breakers. There are some number of breakers as the number of circuits. For a circuit fault, two breakers are tripped. In the event of a breaker failure during a line fault, an additional breaker trips as backup protection. In that case an additional feeder will also be out of service. Feeder

During a breaker maintenance, the ring is broken, but the service is fully maintained. The circuits are generally arranged such that sources and loads are alternated. Where five or six circuits are to be provided, ring bus arrangement is ideal. This scheme is economical and provide good reliability, safety and flexibility. Protective relaying and automatic reclosing schemes are complex in the case of ring bus arrangement.



BI CT CB LI ESW Feeder LA Fig. 6. Ring Bus


7. Other Layout Designs In additional to the above mentioned common bus arrangements, some other layouts are also employed. They are (i) Double bus arrangement with transfer bus (ii) Triple bus arrangement (iii) Double bus with bypass and (iv) Triple

bus with bypass arrangement. These arrangements are mostly used in gas filled substations where more flexibility is ensured. Simple schematics are as given below. All equipment are not shown.





Fig. 7. Double Bus with Transfer Bus


7. Switchyard Structures Structures are required to support and install buses, electrical equipment and to terminate transmission line conductors. The structures may be of steel, wood, RCC or PSC. They need foundations according to the soil conditions of the side. Generally, fabricated steel structures are used in the substations due to various advantages. The design of the structures is affected by the phase clearance, ground clearance, types of insulators, length and weight of buses and other equipment. Steel beams and girders shall be designed to prevent failure by bending, flange buckling vertical and horizontal shear and web crippling. The depth of the lattice box girders shall be about 1/10 to 1/15 of the span and square in section. Maximum beam defluxion shall not normally exceed 1/250 of the span length. All bolts and nuts for structures shall be not less than 16 mm diameter, except in light loaded section, where they may be 12 mm dia. The design load on columns and girders shall include (i) Conductor tension (ii) Earth wire tension (iii) Wt. of insulators and hardwares (iv) Fraction load (about 350 kg) (v) Weight of man & tools to works on them (about 200 kg) (vi) Wind load

and (vii) Impact load, if any, during operation of equipment. The substation gantry structures shall be designed to terminate the overhead line download span. Which may enter + 30 degrees horizontally and +15 degrees vertically. The yard structures may be hot dip galvanized or painted. Galvanized structures require less maintenance. But in some highly polluted locations, painted structures provided more corrosion resistance. Normally adopted phase spacings 11 KV 33 KV 66 KV 110 KV 220 KV 400 KV 8. Bus Design The present day trend is to use rigid bus rather than strain bus due to various reasons. Rigid bus can be constructed at a lower profile and are aesthetically pleasing. Increased capacity for the bus can be provided and corona level is lower.

1.3 m 1.5 m 2.0 to 2.2 m 2.4 to 3 m 4.5 m 7.0 m

8.1 Rigid Bus Aluminium bus materials used for rigid bus may be of different shapes. They may be round tubings, square tubings, channels, angles or integral web designs. Round tubing is used in all voltages, whereas square tubing is used only at lower voltages. Channel bus is the same as square tubings except that they provide more capacity. Angle bus is used only at distribution voltages. Integral web bus is structurally strong and is used for high current and long spansgenerally at lower voltage. 8.2 Capacity The rigid bus must be able to carry the excepted maximum load current without exceeding the temperature limit. The capacity of the bus shall also be checked for maximum temperature under short circuit conditions using the equation. I = K. A.
1 / t x10 4

Where f = Natural frequency of span in Hertz L = Span length in feet E = Modulus of elasticity PSI i = Moment of inertia of cross sectional area (in 4) M = Mass per unit length (Mass = Wt./32.2) K = Constant (1.0 for pinned ends and 1.5056 for fixed ends) Assuming there will be spans with pinned ends where K = I
f = 2.153 x 10 3 r L2

2 2 OD + ID
Where r =

r = radius of gyration (inches)

OD =Outside dia. of tubing (inches) ID = Inside dia. of tubing (inches) L =Span length (feet) As vibration may be induced in the bus by the action of 50 Hz. current, a natural frequency of 50 or 100 may be avoided. Another force which creates vibration in the bus is the wind flowing across the tubing. The maximum aeolian frequency f in Hertz will be
3.26V f = OD

Where I = Symmetrical rms current in amps. A = Cross sectional area in inches t = Time in seconds K = Coefficient for alloy bus at maximum temp. specified. Maximum Temperature 200 C 250 C 3000C
0 0

Value of K for various aluminimum Alloys 5.50 to 5.71 6.28 to 6.52 6.94 to 7.18

Where V = maximum wind speed (mph) OD =Conductor out side dia. in inches 8.4 Short Circuit Force Short circuit force produced between two parallel conductors, in the event of a line to line fault can be expressed as follows.

The general practice is to limit the temperature of rigid aluminium bus to 1000C for emergency ratings and 2500C for short circuit duty. 8.3 Vibration A span of rigid bus has a natural frequency expressed as follows :
K f= 2 Ei 1 2 )

43.2.I f =

2 sc

7 10 ( D)

Where f =short circuit force (Ib/ft.) Isc = Symmetrical rms short circuit current (amps) D = Conductor spacing centre to centre (in)

2( 24L M

For a 3 phase fault, the maximum instantaneous force will be

8.8 Substation Bus Accessories (i) Tubular bus conductor System Nominal Diameter External (mm) 42 60 60 89 89 101.6 245 101.6 114.3 114.3 114.3 114.3 420 127 127 Internal (mm) 35 52 49.25 78 74 90.1 85.4 102.3 97.2 102.3 97.2 114.5 109.0

37.4.I F = 7

2 sc

Voltage KV 72.5 145

10 ( D)
8.5 Bus support system The bus support system must be capable of taking the following weights. i. Weight of the tubing ii. Weight of damping materials iii. Wind on the tubing iv. Short circuit force calculated The resultant load establishes minimum strength of tubing material, span length and expected deflection, the bus deflection shall not generally exceed 1/200 of the span length without ice loading. 8.6 Corona For HV and EHV substations, the diameter of the bus should be checked for corona discharge. Bus tubing can be considered satisfactory, if the voltage gradient at the surface does not exceed 2 KV/cm. The voltage gradient can be determined by

For rigid bus arrangement 7000mm spacing between phases are given for 400 KV and 4500mm for 220KV. (ii) ACSR Conductor for strain bus. Suitable ACSR conductors having the desired capacity shall be used for bus stringing. According to requirement, quadruple Moose, Twin Kundah and Single Kundah ACSR Conductors are used for strain bus. Some Commonly used conductor for Bus Stringing System Voltage (KV) 72.5 145 245 400 Bus Conductor Lynx ACSR, Kundah ACSR 19/3.53 AAC Panther ACSR, Kundah ACSR 19/4.22 AAC Kundah ACSR, Moose ACSR 19/5.36 AAC, 37/5.23 AAC Moose ACSR

g = r. In D / r

Where g = voltage gradient (KV/cm) E =Line to neutral voltage (KV) r =Bus outside radius (inches) D = Bus spacing (feet) 8.7 Strain Bus Strain Bus is widely in use in most of the stations due to the ease of construction. Even in stations where rigid buses are predominant, some spans will be invariably of strain bus construction . The design is followed based on simple sagtension calculations. The down drops from the strain bus appear as a concentrated load and depending on the length and weight of the dropper, tension on the bus will vary considerable. Where bundled conductors are used in strain bus, the types of spacers used may have an influence on the resulting tension. If rigid spacers are used, then during short circuit, the two conductors will attempt to draw together and can cause for increase tension in the strain bus.

a. Conductor tension
The following conductor tensions are generally taken for designing the switchyard structures for bus arrangement.
Details Line termination Main Bus/Sub Bus Interconnections between yards Earth wire 400KV yard (Kgs/conductor) 2000 1000 1000 800 220 KV yard 132/110 KV yard (Kgs/conductor) (Kgs/conductor 1000 900 900 600 1000 800 800 600 74