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Ex.No.

: 01 Date : BASIC UNIX COMMANDS

AIM: To execute and implement the basic UNIX commands. COMMANDS AND THEIR OUTPUT: 1. [root@localhost root]# who am I Identifies the current working System root pts/0 Mar 9 19:21 (:0.0) 2. [root@localhost root]# cat > msb Creates a New file msb My Name is Barnabas 3. [root@localhost root]# cat msb Opens the created file msb" My Name is Barnabas 4. [root@localhost root]# cat >> msb Appends the details in the file msb I'm studying in Vel Tech Multi Tech Engineering college [root@localhost root]# cat msb My Name is Barnabas I'm studying in Vel Tech Multi Tech Engineering college 5. [root@localhost root]# pwd /root Shows the present working directory

6. [root@localhost root]# mkdir barnabas Creates a directory named barnabas 7. [root@localhost root]# cd barnabas [root@localhost barnabas]# 8. [root@localhost barnabas]# cd .. [root@localhost root]# Enters into the directory barnabas

Comes out of the directory barnabas

9. [root@localhost root]# ls Shows the list of files & directories anaconda-ks.cfg arm.sh count.sh great.sh install.log msb swap3.sh arith.sh barnabas fib.sh group_1280.jpg install.log.syslog Shell swap.sh 10. [root@localhost root]# ls -l List the permission of files / Directories total 264 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1093 Mar 11 2010 anaconda-ks.cfg -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 223 Mar 9 18:04 arith.sh -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 260 Mar 9 18:18 arm.sh drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Mar 9 19:24 barnabas drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Mar 9 19:11 Shell 1

11. [root@localhost root]# wc msb 2 10 65 msb

Shows the no. of lines, words & characters.

12. [root@localhost root]# wc -l msb Shows the no. of lines alone. 2 msb 13. [root@localhost root]# wc -w msb Shows the no. of words alone. 10 msb 14. [root@localhost root]# wc -c msb Shows the no. of characters alone. 65 msb 15. [root@localhost root]# echo Hello Hello 16. [root@localhost root]# cal 4 1988 April 1988 Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Prints Hello

Prints the calendar of April 1988

17. [root@localhost root]# cal Prints the calendar if the present month March 2010 Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 18. [root@localhost root]# date Prints the cuurent time. Thu Mar 9 19:26:27 IST 2010 19. [root@localhost root]# time l Prints the System Run-time real 0m0.005s user 0m0.000s sys 0m0.000s 20. [root@localhost root]# tty /dev/pts/0 Prints the Terminal Mode of the System.

21. [root@localhost root]# bc Open the Binary Calculator bc 1.06 Copyright 1991-1994, 1997, 1998, 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is free software with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.

For details type `warranty'. 2

123+246 369 22. [root@localhost root]# grep m msb Prints the sentence with the letter m My Name is Barnabas I'm studying in Vel Tech Multi Tech Engineering college 23. [root@localhost root]# tail -1 msb Prints the last line of the file msb I'm studying in Vel Tech Multi Tech Engineering college 24. [root@localhost root]# head -1 msb Prints the first line of the file msb My Name is Barnabas 25. [root@localhost root]# uname Linux Prints the username

26. [root@localhost root]# uname r Prints the release of the software. 2.4.20-8 27. [root@localhost root]# uname v Prints the version of release #1 Thu Mar 13 17:54:28 EST 2010 28. [root@localhost root]# sort msb1 Sorts in ascending order Aravind Balaji Dinesh Ganesh Kamalesh 29. [root@localhost root]# sort -r msb1 Sorts in descending order Kamalesh Ganesh Dinesh Balaji Aravind 30. [root@localhost root]# man cal Opens manual on cal

31. [root@localhost root]# rmdir barnabas Removes the directory barnabas 32. [root@localhost root]# rm msb Removes the file msb rm: remove regular file `msb'? y

33. [root@localhost root]# chmod 111 msb1

Modifies the permission of the file 3

[root@localhost root]# ls -l -rw-r--r-- 1 root root -rw-r--r-- 1 root root -rw-r--r-- 1 root root drwxr-xr-x 2 root root -rw-r--r-- 1 root root ---x--x--x 1 root root -rw-r--r-- 1 root root

1093 Mar 11 2010 anaconda-ks.cfg 223 Mar 9 18:04 arith.sh 260 Mar 9 18:18 arm.sh 4096 Mar 9 19:11 Shell 3020 Mar 11 2010 install.log.syslog 39 Mar 9 19:30 msb1 97 Mar 9 18:31 swap3.sh

RESULT: Thus the basic UNIX commands were executed.

Ex.No: 02 Date: ARITHMETIC OPERATION USING SHELL PROGRAM

AIM: To write a shell Program to do the Arithmetic Operations like Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start

Step 2: Read the values of a and b

Step 3: Write the expression to calculate sum, difference, Product, Quotient and Remainder. Step 4: Print the Results Step 5: Stop.

SHELL PROGRAM: echo "Enter Two Numbers" read a b c=`expr $a + $b` d=`expr $a - $b` e=`expr $a \* $b` f=`expr $a / $b` g=`expr $a % $b` echo "Sum = $c" echo "Difference = $d" echo "Product = $e" echo "Quotient = $f" echo "Remainder = $g"

SAMPLE OUTPUT: Enter Two Numbers 12 10 Sum = 22 Difference = 2 Product = 120 Quotient = 1 Remainder = 2

RESULT: Thus the shell Program to do arithmetic operation was executed without any errors.

Ex. No.: 03 Date : GREATEST OF THREE NUMBERS AIM: To write a shell program to find the greatest of three Numbers.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Read the value of a, b and c Step 3: Check if a is greater than b and a is greater than c Step 4: Then print A is Greater Step 5: If Step 3 is not satisfied check if b is greater than c Step 6: Then print B is Greater Step 7: Else Print C is greater Step 8: Stop.

SHELL PROGRAM: echo "Enter Three Numbers" read a b c if [ $a -gt $b -a $a -gt $c ] then echo "$a is Greater" elif [ $b -gt $c ] then echo "$b is Greater" else echo "$c is Greater" fi

SAMPLE OUTPUT: Enter Three Numbers 12 14 16 16 is Greater

RESULT: Thus the program to find the greatest of three Numbers was executed and the output was verfied.

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Ex. No.: 04 Date : CHECKING WHETHER THE GIVEN NUMBER IS ARMSTRONG OR NOT

AIM: To check whether the given Number is Armstrong Number or not using Shell Programming.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Read the value of num Step 3: Store the value of num in x and initialize the value of sum = 0. Step 4: When the value of num is greater then 0, solve the following expressions Step 5: y = num/10; z=y*y*y; sum=num+z; num=num/10 Step 6: Close the While Loop Step 7: Check if x is equal to sum Step 8: Print the Result Step 9: Stop.

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SHELL PROGRAM: echo "Enter a Number" read num x=$num sum=0 while [ $num -gt 0 ] do y=`expr $num % 10` z=`expr $y \* $y \* $y` sum=`expr $sum + $z` num=`expr $num / 10` done if [ $x -eq $sum ] then echo "$x is an armstrong Number" else echo "$x is not an armstrong Number" fi

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: Enter a Number 153 153 is an armstrong Number [root@localhost root]# sh arm.sh Enter a Number 123 123 is not an armstrong Number

RESULT: Thus the Shell Program to check whether the given Number is Armstrong or not was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex No.: 05 Date : FIBONACCI SERIES AIM: To write a Shell Program to print the Fibonacci series.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Read the Value of n Step 3: Initialize i=2; a=0; b=1. Step 4: Print the Value of a and b Step 5: When i is lesser than n, solve the expression c=a+b Step 6: Print c Step 7: Swap the Values of b to a and c to b Step 8: Solve the expression i=i+1 Step 9: Stop.

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SHELL PROGRAM: echo "Enter the Limit" read n i=2 echo "Fibonacci Series" echo "----------------" a=0 b=1 echo $a echo $b while [ $i -lt $n ] do c=`expr $a + $b` echo $c a=$b b=$c i=`expr $i + 1` done

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: Enter the Limit 8 Fibonacci Series ---------------0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13

RESULT: Thus the Shell Program to print the Fibonacci Series was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No.: 06(a) Date : SWAPPING OF VALUES (Using 3rd Variable)

AIM:

To write a Shell Program to swap two values using 3rd variable.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Read the Values of a and b

Step 2: Swap the values of a to the third variable temp

Step 3: Swap the value of b to a and b to temp

Step 4: Print the swapped values of a and b Step 5: Stop.

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SHELL PROGRAM: echo "Enter Two Numbers" read a b temp=$a a=$b b=$temp echo $a $b

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: Enter Two Numbers 12 10 10 12

RESULT:

Thus the program to swap two values using 3rd variable was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No.: 06(b) Date : SWAPPING OF VALUES (Without using 3 rd Variable)

AIM:

To write a Shell Program to swap two values without using 3rd Variable.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Read the values of a and b Step 3: Solve the expression, a=a + b; b=a b; a=a b Step 4: Print the swapped values of a and b Step 5: Stop

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SHELL PROGRAM: echo "Enter Two Numbers" read a b a=`expr $a + $b` b=`expr $a - $b` a=`expr $a - $b` echo $a $b

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: Enter Two Numbers 12 10 10 12

RESULT: Thus the Shell Program to swap two values without using third variable was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No.: 07 Date : NUMBER OF DIGITS IN AN INTEGER

AIM: To count the number of digits in an integer, using Shell Programming.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Read the value of a Step 3: Initialize the value of c as 0 Step 4: When the value of a is not equal to 0, solve n=a %10. Step 5: If the value of n is not equal to 0, solve c=c + 1(increment) Step 6: End if condition Step 7: Solve the expression a=a / 10 Step 8: Repeat steps 4 to 7 until a is equal to 0 Step 9: Print the value of c as the number of digits in an integer. Step 10: Stop.

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SHELL PROGRAM: echo "Enter a Number" read a c=0 while [ $a -ne 0 ] do n=`expr $a % 10` if [ $n -ne 0 ] then c=`expr $c + 1` fi a=`expr $a / 10` done echo "The Number of Digits in the Integer is $c"

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: Enter a Number 123456789 The Number of Digits in the Integer is 9

RESULT: Thus the Shell Program to calculate the number of digits of an integer was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No. 08 Date : ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS USING SHELL PROGRAMMING (Using SWITCH - CASE)

AIM: To write a Shell Program to perform Arithmetic Operations using Switch Case

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Read the two Numbers. Step 3: Get the operation choice from the User Step 4: Give the expressions for each case and solve them. Step 5: Print the Result Step 6: Stop

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SHELL PROGRAM: echo "Enter Two Numbers" read a b echo "What do you want to do? (1 to 5)" echo "1) Sum" echo "2) Difference" echo "3) Product" echo "4) Quotient" echo "5) Remainder" echo "Enter your Choice" read n case "$n" in 1) echo "The Sum of $a and $b is `expr $a + $b`";; 2) echo "The Difference between $a and $b is `expr $a - $b`";; 3) echo "The Product of the $a and $b is `expr $a \* $b`";; 4) echo "The Quotient of $a by $b is `expr $a / $b`";; 5) echo "The Remainder of $a by $b is `expr $a % $b`";; esac

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: [root@localhost Shell]# sh arith_switch.sh Enter Two Numbers 12 10 What do you want to do? (1 to 5) 1) Sum 2) Difference 3) Product 4) Quotient 5) Remainder Enter your Choice 4 The Quotient of 12 by 10 is 1

RESULT: Thus the Shell program to perform arithmetic operations using Switch Case was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No. 09 Date : FACTORIAL OF A NUMBER

AIM: To write a Shell Program to find the factorial of a Number.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Read the Number as n Step 3: Assign the value of p as 0 and solve the expression i = n-1 Step 4: While the value of i is greater than or equal to 1 do the following steps. Step 5: Solve the expression n=n*1 and i=i-1 (Decrementing Operation) Step 6: Then print the value of n as the factorial of the given number. Step 7: Stop.

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SHELL PROGRAM: echo "Enter a Number" read n i=`expr $n - 1` p=1 while [ $i -ge 1 ] do n=`expr $n \* $i` i=`expr $i - 1` done echo "The Factorial of the given Number is $n"

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SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost Shell]# sh fact.sh Enter a Number 5 The Factorial of the given Number is 120

RESULT: Thus the Shell Program to find the factorial of the Number was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No.: 10 Date : CHECKING FOR PRIME NUMBER

AIM: To write a Shell Program to check if the Number is a Prime Number or a Composite Number.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Read the Number as n Step 3: Initialize the value of t to 0 and solve the expression i=n-1 Step 4: While i is greater than or equal to 2, perform the following steps. Step 5: Solve p=n%i Step 6: Check the condition (p=0) and then solve t=t+1 Step 7: End the If Condition Step 8: Solve the expression i=i-1 Step 9: If t is greater than 0, print The Number is not a Prime Number Step 10: If the condition is not satisfied, print The Number is a Prime Number

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SHELL PROGRAM: echo "Enter a Number" read n i=`expr $n - 1` t=0 while [ $i -ge 2 ] do p=`expr $n % $i` if [ $p -eq 0 ] then t=`expr $t + 1` fi i=`expr $i - 1` done if [ $t -gt 0 ] then echo "The Number $n is not a Prime Number" else echo "The Number $n is a Prime Number" fi

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SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost Shell]# sh prime.sh Enter a Number 2 The Number 2 is a Prime Number [root@localhost Shell]# sh prime.sh Enter a Number 4 The Number 4 is not a Prime Number

RESULT: Thus the Shell Program to check if the given number is prime or not, was executed and the output was verified.

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SUMS OF DIGITS OF AN INTEGER Ex. No. 11 AIM: To write a Shell Program to calculate the sum of digits of an Integer.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Read the Integer as num Step 3: Initialize the value of sum=0. Step 4: While the value of num is greater than 0, solve the following expressions. Step 5: Find the remainder of num by 10 and store in y Step 6: Add sum with y and store it in sum Step 7: Divide num by 10 and store the value in num Step 7: Close the while loop Step 8: Print the Result Step 9: Stop

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SHELL PROGRAM: echo "Enter a Number" read num sum=0 while [ $num -gt 0 ] do y=`expr $num % 10` sum=`expr $sum + $y` num=`expr $num / 10` done echo "The Sum of the Digits of the Integer is $sum"

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SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost Shell]# sh digits_sum.sh Enter a Number 123456 The Sum of the Digits of the Integer is 21

RESULT: Thus the Shell program to calculate the sum of the digits of the integer was executed and the output was verified.

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C PROGRAMMING UNDER UNIX ENVIRONMENT Ex. No. 12 Date : MATRIX ADDITION

AIM: To write a C Program to add two matrices under UNIX Environment

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Declare a[10][10], b[10][10], add[10][10], i, j, m, n. Step 3: Get the number of rows and columns as m and n respectively Step 4: Scan the values of the matrices according to the values of m and n. Step 5: Add the two matrices directly and store the values in add[10][10] Step 6: Using for loop print the values of add[10][10] Step 7: End the loop Step 8: Stop.

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C PROGRAM: #include<stdio.h> main() { int add[10][10],a[10][10],b[10][10],i,j,m,n; printf("\nEnter the Number of Rows and Columns:\n\n "); scanf("%d%d",&m,&n); printf("Enter the 1st Matrix: \n\n"); for(i=0;i<m;i++) for(j=0;j<n;j++) scanf("%d",&a[i][j]); printf("Enter the 2nd Matrix: \n\n"); for(i=0;i<m;i++) for(j=0;j<n;j++) scanf("%d",&b[i][j]); for(i=0;i<m;i++) { for(j=0;j<n;j++) add[i][j]=a[i][j]+b[i][j]; } printf("The Addition of the two matrices is: \n"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) { printf("\n\n"); for(j=0;j<n;j++)

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{ printf("%d\t",add[i][j]); } } }

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: [root@localhost C_Program]# cc matadd.c [root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out

Enter the Number of Rows and Columns: 2 2 Enter the 1st Matrix:

1 2 3 4 Enter the 2nd Matrix:

1 2 3 4 The Addition of the two matrices is:

RESULT: Thus the C Program to add two matrices under UNIX Environment was executed and the output was verified. 41

Ex. No. 13 Date : SORTING OF INTEGERS

AIM: To write a C Program to sort an array of integers under UNIX environment

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Get the number of array integers as n Step 3: Using for loop, get the n number of integers as a[] Step 4: Again using for loop check if the second number is greater than the first Step 5: If the above step is true, swap the value of second to first Step 6: Repeat Steps 4 and 5 for all the integers scanned using for loop Step 7: Again using for loop print the sorted list of values. Step 8: Stop

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C PROGRAM: #include<stdio.h> main() { int x[50],n,i,j,temp; printf("How many Numbers ?\n"); scanf("%d",&n); printf("\nEnter the List of %d numbers:\n",n); for(i=0;i<n;i++) scanf("%d",&x[i]); for(i=0;i<n-1;i++) for(j=i+1;j<n;j++) if(x[i]>x[j]) { temp=x[i]; x[i]=x[j]; x[j]=temp; } printf("\nThe Sorted list of Numbers is \n"); for(i=0;i<n;i++) printf("%d\t",x[i]); }

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: [root@localhost C_Program]# cc sort.c [root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out How many Numbers ? 5

Enter the List of 5 numbers: 4 8 3 6 2

The Sorted list of Numbers is 2 3 4 6 8

RESULT: Thus the C Program to sort the given array of integers under UNIX environment was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No.: 14 Date : FILE MANIPULATION AIM: To write a C Program to perform following file manipulation: 1. Read a file 2. Copy a file 3. Change the case of the entire file 4. Count the number of words, spaces and lines in a file.

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C PROGRAM: #include<stdio.h> #include<string.h> main() { char ch,ct; int choice,tr,letters=0,words=0,spaces=0,lines=0; FILE *fp1,*fp2; do { fp1=fopen("data1.txt","r"); printf("\nEnter u'r Choice\n"); printf("\n1.Read the file\n2.Copy the file\n3.Change\n4.Count\n5.Exit\n"); scanf("%d",&choice); switch(choice) { case 1: while(!feof(fp1)) { ch=getc(fp1); printf("%c",ch); } break; case 2: fp2=fopen("data2.txt","w"); fseek(fp1,0L,SEEK_SET); while(!feof(fp1)) { ct=fgetc(fp1); tr=fputc(ct,fp2); } fclose(fp1); fclose(fp2); fp2=fopen("data2.txt","r"); 46

printf("The Content of the copied file is "); while(!feof(fp2)) { ch=fgetc(fp2); printf("%c",ch); } fclose(fp2); break; case 3: fp2=fopen("data2.txt","r"); while(!feof(fp2)) { ch=getc(fp2); if((ch<91)&&(ch>=65)) { ch=ch+32; printf("%c",ch); } else if((ch>=97)&&(ch<=122)) { ch=ch-32; printf("%c",ch); } else { printf("%c",ch); } } break; case 4: fp2=fopen("data2.txt","r"); while(!feof(fp2)) { ch=fgetc(fp2); if(ch==' ') 47

{ spaces++; } else if (ch=='\n') { lines++; } else { letters++; } } printf("\nTotal lines: %d",lines); printf("\nTotal words: %d",spaces+lines); printf("\nTotal spaces: %d",spaces); printf("\nTotal letters: %d",spaces+lines+words); fclose(fp2); break; } } while(choice!=5); }

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: Enter u'r Choice 1.Read the file 2.Copy the file 3.Change 4.Count 5.Exit 1 Wisdom better than the Rubies. ? Enter u'r Choice

1.Read the file 2.Copy the file 3.Change 4.Count 5.Exit 2 The Content of the copied file is Wisdom better than the Rubies. ?? Enter u'r Choice 1.Read the file 2.Copy the file 3.Change 4.Count 5.Exit 3 wISDOM BETTER THAN THE rUBIES. ?? Enter u'r Choice 1.Read the file 2.Copy the file 3.Change 49

4.Count 5.Exit 4 Total lines: 1 Total words: 5 Total spaces: 4 Total letters: 5

RESULT: Thus the FILE MANIPULATION operation was performed and the output was verified.

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Ex.No.: 15 Date : GREAEST AND SMALLEST NUMBER IN AN ARRAY

AIM: To write a C Program to find the greatest and smallest number in an array of integers.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Get the maximum limit for the array as n Step 3: Using for loop, get the array of integers to the value of n Step 4: Again using for loop, sole the following conditions. Step 5: If the first digit is greater than the second, perform the following swap conditions. Step 6: Swap the value of a[0] to temp, a[j] to a[i] and a[i] to temp. Step 7: Print the result Step 8: Stop

C PROGRAM: 51

#include<stdio.h> main() { int a[100],i,j,n,temp; printf("\nEnter the maximum limit: "); scanf("%d",&n); printf("\nEnter %d numbers: \n",n); for(i=0;i<n;i++) scanf("%d",&a[i]); for(i=0;i<n;i++) { for(j=i+1;j<n;j++) { if(a[i]>a[j]) { temp=a[i]; a[i]=a[j]; a[j]=temp; } } } printf("\nThe smallest number is %d",a[0]); printf("\nThe biggest number is %d",a[n-1]); }

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: [root@localhost C_Program]# cc maxmin.c [root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out

Enter the maximum limit: 5

Enter 5 numbers: 9 6 2 10 15 The smallest number is 2 The biggest number is 15

RESULT: Thus the C Program to find the greatest and smallest number in an array was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No.: 16 Date : TO CHECK WHETHER THE NUMBER IS A PALINDROME OR NOT

AIM: To write a C Program to check if the given number is a palindrome or not

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Get the number as n Step 3: Swap the value of n to c. Step 4: While the value of n is greater than or equal to 1, solve the following expressions. Step 5: Store the remainder of n by 10 as a; Solve b=(b*10)+a; and n=n/10 Step 6: If the value of c is equal to b, print The number is a palindrome. Step 7: If the above condition is not satisfied, print The number is not a palindrome. Step 8: Stop.

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C PROGRAM: #include<stdio.h> main() { int a,c,n,b=0; printf("\nEnter a number: "); scanf("%d",&n); c=n; while(n>=1) { a=n%10; b=(b*10)+a; n=n/10; } if(c==b) printf("\nThe number is a palindrome\n"); else printf("\nThe number is not a palindrome\n"); }

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: [root@localhost C_Program]# cc palin.c [root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out Enter a number: 12321 The number is a palindrome

[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out Enter a number: 123 The number is not a palindrome

RESULT: Thus the C Program to check whether the number is a palindrome or not was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No.:17 Date : SYSTEM CALL FOR A READ ONLY FILE

AIM: To write C Program to perform system call to open for a read-only file.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize the integer variables- i and fd. Also initialize the string variable, buf[100]. Step 3: Open the already created file aa as a read only and store its contents in fd. Step 4: Read fd, buf, 100 Step 5: Using for loop, print the character array, buf[i] Step 6: The data already stored in aa along with the garbage value will be printed as output. Step 7: Stop Note: A file aa with data must be created before the program is compiled and is run, to avoid segmentation error. Header Files: fcntl.h File control Options unistd.h Standard symbolic constants and types.

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C PROGRAM: #include<stdio.h> #include<fcntl.h> #include<unistdio.h> main() { int i,fd; char buf[100]; fd=open("aa",O_RDONLY); read(fd,buf,100); for(i=0;i<100;i++) { printf("%c",buf[i]); } }

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: [root@localhost C_Program]# cc syscall-r.c [root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out My name is Barnabas t B <@PB@,X@&8Z@0 @ @c@TB

RESULT: Thus the C Program for system call to open a read-only file was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No.: 18 Date : SYSTEM CALL FOR WRITE-ONLY FILE

AIM: To write a C Program to perform system call to open a write-only file.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize the integer variables i and fd with a character variable buf[100]. Step 3: Get the data form the user and store it as buf. Step 4: Open the file aa as write-only and store it in fd. Step 5: Write the data given by the user to the file and fd Step 6: Stop Note: After the program is run, open the file aa to find the garbage values stored in it. A file aa with data must be created before the program is compiled and is run, to avoid segmentation error. Header Files: fcntl.h File control Options unistd.h Standard symbolic constants and types. 60

C PROGRAM: #include<stdio.h> #include<fcntl.h> #include<unistd.h> main() { int i,fd; char buf[100]; printf("Give data: "); scanf("%s",buf); fd=open("aa",O_WRONLY); write(fd,buf,sizeof(buf)); }

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SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost C_Program]# cc syscall-w.c [root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out Give data: I study in VEC [root@localhost C_Program]# cat aa IBe B B Bt <@PB@,X@-8Z@0 @ @c@TBB

RESULT: Thus the C Program to perform system call to opena write-only file was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No.: 19 Date : IMPLEMENTATION OF COPY COMMAND

AIM: To write a C Program to implement copy command in UNIX.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Open the file to be copied, and store it in fp1 Step 3: Open a new file, where the contents are to be copied and store it in fp2. Step 4: Copy all the characters one by one until the End of File. Step 5: Close all the files. Step 6: Stop.

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C PROGRAM: #include<stdio.h> main(int a, char *av[2]) { char ch; FILE *fp1,*fp2; fp1=fopen(av[1],"r"); fp2=fopen(av[2],"w"); while((ch=getc(fp1))!=EOF) { putc(ch,fp2); } fclose(fp1); fclose(fp2); }

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SMAPLE OUTPUT: [root@localhost C_Program]# cc copy.c [root@localhost C_Program]# cat>a Vel Tech Multi Tech Engineering college [root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out a b [root@localhost C_Program]# cat b Vel Tech Multi Tech Engineering college

RESULT: Thus the C Program to implement copy command in UNIX was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No.: 20 Date : IMPLEMENTATION OF WC COMMAND

AIM: To write a C Program to implement wc command in UNIX.

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize the variables c=0; w=0; l=0. Step 3: Using If Else condition count the no. of characters, letters and words. Step 4: Using string compare function, print the result with respect to the command given. Step 5: Stop.

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C PROGRAM: #include<stdio.h> main(int a,char *av[3]) { FILE *f; char ch; int w=0,l=0,c=0; if(a==2) f=fopen(av[1],"r"); else f=fopen(av[2],"r"); while(!feof(f)) { ch=getc(f); c=c++; if(ch==' '||ch=='\n') w=w+1; if(ch=='\n') l=l+1; } fclose(f); if(strcmp(av[1],"-c")==0) printf("\nThe no. of characters are %d\n",c-1); else if(strcmp(av[1],"-w")==0) printf("\nThe no. of words are %d\n",w); else if(strcmp(av[1],"-l")==0) printf("\nThe number of lines are %d\n",l); else if(av[2]=='\0') printf("\n%d\t%d\t%d\n",c-1,w,l); }

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SAMPLE OUTPUT:

[root@localhost C_Program]# cc wc.c [root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out msb

77

10

[root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out -l msb

The number of lines are 7 [root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out -w msb

The no. of words are 10 [root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out -c msb

The no. of characters are 77

RESULT: Thus the C Program to implement wc commad in UNIX was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No.: 21 Date : FORK SYSTEM CALL

AIM: To write a C Program for FORK SYSTEM CALL

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Open the inbuilt function fork() inside the header file, unistd.h and store it in f Step 3: When f is equal to 0, print the Child process ID, Parent ID and the process ID, using inbuilt ID functions. Step 4: Stop.

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C PROGRAM: #include<stdio.h> #include<unistd.h> main() { int f; f=fork(); if(f==0) { printf("\nChild Process ID: %d\n",getpid()); printf("\nParent ID: %d\n",getppid()); } else { printf("\nProcess ID: %d\n",getpid()); printf("\nParent ID: %d\n",getppid()); } }

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: [root@localhost C_Program]# cc fork.c [root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out

Child Process ID: 3844

Parent ID: 3843

Process ID: 3843

Parent ID: 3677

RESULT: Thus the C Program for Fork System Call in UNIX was executed and the output was verified.

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Ex. No.: 22 Date : EXECL SYSTEM CALL

AIM: To write a C Program for EXECL System Call in UNIX

ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Give the command for Execl, to print the Date and Time. Step 3: Stop

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C PROGRAM: #include<stdio.h> #include<unistd.h> main() { execl("/bin/date","date",0); }

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SAMPLE OUTPUT: [root@localhost C_Program]# cc execl.c [root@localhost C_Program]# ./a.out Tue March 18:01:37 IST 2010 [root@localhost C_Program]#

RESULT: Thus the C Program for EXECL System Call in UNIX was executed and the output was verified.

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