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Agrobot

Introduction

The vision is the agro robot , which transforms it into a tool carrier for high-tech plant nursing for e.g. organic grown vegetables. High-tech tools for weeding that at a later stage can be implemented are tools like laser, micro spraying and mechanical devices. The pictures show the commercial Spider and the delivery from this project A robust and simple tool carrier for the outdoor gardener.

: - Development and demonstration of a robot that will establish,care for, the crops - Development of systems for central planning and follow-up on crop related tasks, as well as systems, that can be used for coordination and optimisation of the cooperation between manned and unmanned vehicles. So far requirement analysis and definition of scenarios for theuse of robots in agriculture have taken place. which are: systems for transport administration and control,and optimization of supply chains. The former concerns planning of routes, surveillance, to the customers, technical data regarding vehicle economy etc., while the latter concerns optimization of vehicle routing and material flow

Block diagram

Path following Block

Drilling Block

Microcontroll er

Arm Motor driver

Timer and control circuit

Driller system

Seeding Block

Microcontroll er

Lid Motor driver

Timer and control circuit

Lid system

Circuit Diagram

Working
Circuit description:

Being powered from a 7.2V battery, the regulator U3 provides regulated 5V for the microcontroller and for the logic gates of the motor driver. You can add a capacitor between the output of the regulator and the ground to absorb the noise caused by the presence of motors in the system, but I didn't use any, and didn't face any problems regarding this issue. When the switch SW1 is switched OFF, the battery can be charged using the jack J2. The line sensor is composed of 4 cells, and is based on the IR emission/reception technique described in this tutorial. D1 to D4 are IR LEDs used as receivers, D9 to D12 are also IR LEDs, but used as emitters this time. The output of the line sensor is directly fed from the Op Amps to the microcontroller. Only two outputs are connected to the LEDs D7 and D8, giving a direct indication of the output of the sensor, making the calibration process very easy through the potentiometer R6. For more information about line sensors, check this tutorial specially dedicated to line tracking sensors and algorithms Figure shows the 4 emitter and 4 receiver LEDs at the front of the robot. Note that this is the optimal position of the line sensor, as you can see in the tutorial above about line sensors. It is also clear that they are mounted on the copper side of the board, even through they are regular LEDs (not SMT type). The Leads of the LEDs are used to adjust the height of the sensor from the ground. 10 to 20 millimeters proved to be a fair height for the sensor to function properly. The connections around the microcontroller are standard in most of our 8051 based projects, they are the crystal resonator along with the two decoupling capacitors, the debouncing circuit attached to the reset pin, and the ISP (In system programming). Upon switching on the robot, The software loaded on the microcontroller simply directs the robot to the line, using standard line following algorithms The two motors of the robot are driven using the reliable L293D Motor driver IC, the motors are connected to the wire connections W3, W4, W5, and W6. Being controlled by the microcontroller, the speed of the motors can be easily adjusted using PWM pulses fed to the motor through the Enable PINs of the driver. Note that each channel has it's own independent Enable PIN, making it very easy to control the speed of two different motors simultaneously.

REMINDER: Operating the L293D motor driver Using the L293D motor driver, makes controlling a motor as simple as operating a buffer gate IC. It totally isolates the TTL logic inputs from the high current outputs. Putting a logic 1 on the pin In1 make Out1 pin go to Vpower Volts MAX.), while a logic 0 make it go to will (36 will 0V

Each couple of channels can be enabled and disabled using E1 and E2 pins. When disabled a channel provide a very high impedance (resistance) to the motor, exactly as if the motor wasn't connected to the driver IC at all, which makes this feature very useful for PWM speed control. Figure 5.C shows different ways to connect a motor to the IC. Fig.5C: Using the L293D motor driver One way is to use 2 channels to build a bi-directional motor driver, another way is to use 1 channel per motor, building a unidirectional driver. In this project, we will be using the 4 channels to drive the 2 motors in both directions.

Whether station

Automation Of Weather Station In Agriculture Zone


A weather station is a facility with instruments and equipment to make observations of atmospheric conditions in order to provide information to make weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate. The measurements taken include temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and precipitation amounts. Wind measurements are taken as free of other obstructions as possible, while temperature and humidity measurements are kept free from direct solar radiation, or insulation. Manual observations are taken at least once daily, while automated observations are taken at least once an hour. Instruments Typical weather stations have the following instruments:

Thermometer for measuring temperature Hygrometer for measuring humidity Rain gauge for measuring precipitation

REVIEW OF LITERTATURE

We visited Nagpur regional meteorological centre on 8th September 2009.This MET centre is located at Nagpur Airport. This met centre is governed by Govt. of INDIA Ministry Of Earth Sciences. This centre takes care of weather readings for Nagpur district. We reported to Mr. P.L. Dewangan (Asst. meteorologist) who welcomed us and helped us for further processes. We wanted to take the readings for following parameters. 1. Wind speed 2. Relative humidity 3. Temperature. He told us about for the formalities to be carried out and to pay the fees for the requirement. In the mean while we were told to study how these parameters were recorded. Then we went to recording department, where Mr. Gaikwad (scientific asst.) taught us different techniques to measure the parameters. He informed us about the balloon technique which is used to measure the weather parameters at height above the ground level. This balloon is tied to radiosonde device which is radiog transmitter and measuring equipments. This device transmits the readings at different levels around 16 km from the surface.

PROPOSED SYSTEM Datalogger The electronic weather station includes a datalogger, SM4M storage module, regulated 12-volt power supply, and various sensors. Data from the storage module is downloaded about once a week. Future equipment may include soil moisture sensors, or a modem to allow remote access and "real-time" download of data. Tower The tower is made of aluminum, and is 10 meters (33 feet) tall. It is anchored in concrete 4 feet deep, and at the top is a lightning rod to protect the weather instruments in case of a lightning strike. The tower has 3 guy wires to help support it, and is hinged at the bottom so that the instruments at the top of the tower can be easily lowered close to the ground for maintenance or calibration. Relative Humidity Relative humidity is the amount of water vapor that can be held in the air at a given temperature. It is expressed in percent, ranging from 0% (very dry) to 100% (dripping wet). The relative humidity sensor is also located inside the white 12-plate radiation shield, to protect the instrument from direct sunlight. Air Temperature

This essential parameter is measured with a platinum resistance temperature detector, a very small and sensitive instrument. It is located inside a white 12plate radiation shield, to protect the instrument from direct sunlight. It is located at a height of 2 meters (approx. 6 feet) to avoid temperature extremes found near ground level.

Mine detection One of these oscillators uses a coil of wire that we call the search loop. The second oscillator uses a much smaller coil of wire, and is usually inside the control box and is called the reference oscillator. By adjusting the oscillators so their frequencies are very nearly the same, the difference between them is made audible as a beat note, this beat note changes slightly when the search loop is moved over or near to a piece of metal. It has been found in practice best to make the search oscillator fixed say at 100khz and to arrange for the reference oscillator to be adjustable 100khz plus or minus 250hz. This gives a beat note of 250hz to 0 to 250hz. The beat note disappears or nulls when the two oscillators are about equal. The search loop is best wound on to a plywood former. Method 1: Cut three circles from some 3mm plywood, one 15cm diameter and two 16cm diameter. Using wood glue make a sandwich with the 15cm circle in the center. When the glue has set you can wind 10 turns of . 25 mm enameled copper wire around the groove in the edge of the former. Connect this coil when finished to the points marked coil 1 on the schematic. Method 2: Cut a 16mm diameter circle from some 10mm plywood. Then with this circle clamped in a vice run a saw around the edge of the circle so as to make a slot about 5mm deep and 2mm wide around the edge to accommodate the windings. If you have access to an oscilloscope or frequency counter make a note of the frequency. Ideally This coil will be oscillating at about 104khz, with an amplitude of about .5v p to p. The second or reference oscillator needs to be made much smaller and if possible attached to the control box so it can be adjusted as the detector is used. To make a really good adjustable reference oscillator you will have to visit a DIY store, what you need are some plastic water fittings, two examples are shown below. The smaller one is the inlet pipe to a plastic ball valve assembly fitted with a brass nut. The larger one is a plastic tank connector fitted with a brass nut from an old tap. Both of these work well and are glued to the control box in a position where they can be adjusted. The reference coil itself is wound on a piece of wood or plastic about 10/12mm diameter and about 50mm long The actual number

of turns of this coil depends on the diameter of the former and can only be found by experiment. Start with about 125 turns . 25 enameled copper wire ( this coil when finished has to fit inside the plastic tube ) and remove turns until the two frequencies are close. This coil is attached to the circuit board at points marked coil 2. If all is well the detector should be howling at this point. When the two oscillators are well matched it should be possible by adjusting the brass nut in or out to bring the beat note to a halt or null.

Coil A = Search coil: Coil B = Reference coil: similar : B- = battery Notes for the electronics beginner.

B+ = Battery + 9V PP3 or

2 off 220uf / 16v Electrolytic : These are 220 microfarad / 16v working voltage. You can use a higher working voltage but not less. Higher working voltage capacitors work just the same but they get physically bigger. They have a negative lead that must be connected to the battery - track. These components must go in the correct way round. 5 off .1 and .01 polyester : These also have a working voltage. 63 volt in quite common and will be ideal. If you want to use the pcb layout above you will need capacitors with 5mm lead spacing. .1 can be marked as .1 or 100n or sometimes 104 : .01 can be marked as .01 or 10n or sometimes 103. These components can go in any way round. All resistors 1/4 watt 5%: These are general purpose carbon film resistors with a 5% tolerance and rated at 1/4 watt. You could use resistors of a higher wattage as this does not affect the working they just get bigger. 1 watt or bigger will not fit on the board. These components can go in any way round. Transistors: The bc 184b transistor is described has Audio, low current, general purpose NPN . These are quite easy to get in the UK but may be difficult to get in other countries. There are hundreds of types of small plastic NPN transistors available around the world and just about all will work in this circuit. You will have to be sure of the pinouts though. You can get the pinouts for most transistors from manufacturers websites. This will be the most likely problem area when building this project. These components must be connected correctly. PNP types won't work. Other Transistors: 2N 3904 --2N2222A --BC183--most small npn transistors will work

Methodology :

Fuzzy logic is a form of multi-valued logic derived from fuzzy set theory to deal with reasoning that is approximate rather than precise. In contrast with "crisp logic", where binary sets have binary logic, fuzzy logic variables may have a truth value that ranges between 0 and 1 and is not constrained to the two truth values of classic propositional logic.[1] Furthermore, when linguistic variables are used, these degrees may be managed by specific functions. Fuzzy logic emerged as a consequence of the 1965 proposal of fuzzy set theory by Lotfi Zadeh.[2] [3] Though fuzzy logic has been applied to many fields, from control theory to artificial intelligence, it still remains controversial among most statisticians, who prefer Bayesian logic, and some control engineers, who prefer traditional two-valued logic.

Degrees of truth
Fuzzy logic and probabilistic logic are mathematically similar both have truth values ranging between 0 and 1 but conceptually distinct, due to different interpretationssee interpretations of probability theory. Fuzzy logic corresponds to "degrees of truth", while probabilistic logic corresponds to "probability, likelihood"; as these differ, fuzzy logic and probabilistic logic yield different models of the same real-world situations. Both degrees of truth and probabilities range between 0 and 1 and hence may seem similar at first. For example, let a 100 ml glass contain 30 ml of water. Then we may consider two concepts: Empty and Full. The meaning of each of them can be represented by a certain fuzzy set. Then one might define the glass as being 0.7 empty and 0.3 full. Note that the concept of emptiness would be subjective and thus would depend on the observer or designer. Another designer might equally well design a set membership function where the glass would be considered full for all values down to 50 ml. It is essential to realize that fuzzy logic uses truth degrees as a mathematical model of the vagueness phenomenon while probability is a mathematical model of randomness. A probabilistic setting would first define a scalar variable for the fullness of the glass, and second, conditional distributions describing the probability that someone would call the glass full given a specific fullness level. This model, however, has no sense without accepting occurrence of some event, e.g. that after a few minutes, the glass will be half empty. Note that the conditioning can be achieved by having a specific observer that randomly selects the level for the glass, a distribution over deterministic observers, or both. Consequently, probability has nothing in common with fuzziness, these are simply different concepts which superficially seem similar because of using the same unit interval of real numbers [0,1]. Still, since theorems such as De Morgan's have dual applicability and properties of random variables are analogous to properties of binary logic states, one can see where the confusion might arise.

[edit] Applying truth values


A basic application might characterize subranges of a continuous variable. For instance, a temperature measurement for anti-lock brakes might have several separate membership functions defining particular temperature ranges needed to control the brakes properly. Each function maps

the same temperature value to a truth value in the 0 to 1 range. These truth values can then be used to determine how the brakes should be controlled.
Fuzzy logic temperature

In this image, the meaning of the expressions cold, warm, and hot is represented by functions mapping a temperature scale. A point on that scale has three "truth values"one for each of the three functions. The vertical line in the image represents a particular temperature that the three arrows (truth values) gauge. Since the red arrow points to zero, this temperature may be interpreted as "not hot". The orange arrow (pointing at 0.2) may describe it as "slightly warm" and the blue arrow (pointing at 0.8) "fairly cold".

[edit] Linguistic variables


While variables in mathematics usually take numerical values, in fuzzy logic applications, the non-numeric linguistic variables are often used to facilitate the expression of rules and facts.[4] A linguistic variable such as age may have a value such as young or its antonym old. However, the great utility of linguistic variables is that they can be modified via linguistic hedges applied to primary terms. The linguistic hedges can be associated with certain functions. For example, L. A. Zadeh proposed to take the square of the membership function. This model, however, does not work properly. For more details, see the references.

[edit] Example
Fuzzy set theory defines fuzzy operators on fuzzy sets. The problem in applying this is that the appropriate fuzzy operator may not be known. For this reason, fuzzy logic usually uses IF-THEN rules, or constructs that are equivalent, such as fuzzy associative matrices. Rules are usually expressed in the form: IF variable IS property THEN action For example, a simple temperature regulator that uses a fan might look like this: IF temperature IS very cold THEN stop fan IF temperature IS cold THEN turn down fan IF temperature IS normal THEN maintain level IF temperature IS hot THEN speed up fan There is no "ELSE" all of the rules are evaluated, because the temperature might be "cold" and "normal" at the same time to different degrees. The AND, OR, and NOT operators of boolean logic exist in fuzzy logic, usually defined as the minimum, maximum, and complement; when they are defined this way, they are called the Zadeh operators. So for the fuzzy variables x and y:

NOT x = (1 - truth(x)) x AND y = minimum(truth(x), truth(y)) x OR y = maximum(truth(x), truth(y)) There are also other operators, more linguistic in nature, called hedges that can be applied. These are generally adverbs such as "very", or "somewhat", which modify the meaning of a set using a mathematical formula.

Planning :

We all know the best planning ideas to the best result So when we finalize our project our project it was a question from where to start. There is much direction but we had to choose the right one. This was starting the step of our project, The first event we did was to go through many books, discussion, consultation & suggestion, satisfying the basic needs of client. After hard working we designed our circuit. Now next task was procurement of material for that we listed first the required part & divided our team in four parts. The work was equally divided.

We had divided our project in following parts : 1) Designing of actual material 2) Procurement of material 3) Layout of PCB 4) Preparation of PCB 5) Assembling of components & their maintaining

Testing
Testing is the most important event that has It own important in the electronic field. The least Conciseness can lead to the major fault in the case of Electronic circuit. Printed circuit board is a piece of act. The performance of an electronic circuit depends upon the Layout & design of PCB. Printed circuit board is used to route electrical current and signal through copper tracks, which are firmly bounded to an insulating core. After copper tracks on the printed circuit board, tests the tracks are open or not. The distance between two tracks is sufficient to avoid capacitance. he racks links with the other related tracks properly. The jumpers (if it is required) goes from one tracks to other should short with the tracks which is in between the required two. Thus, by testing the tracks of PCB, it helps the project. Get making successful. After testing copper tracks the component are tested with the help of instruments like multimeter, CRO, Signal generator, etc. After mounting the components on the PCB the components on the PCB the possibility of shacting those tracks. This testing was carried out with the help of multimeter keeping the range of ohms of buffer range. After all the above check supply check supplies the power & test operation of the circuit. Component Description :Resistor : The opposition to the flow of electrons or electric current is known as Resistance. The value of resistance is given by R = l / Where = specific resistance of material L = length of material = cross section area of material The unit of resistance is ohm ( ) The classification of resistor is given as Resistors: Fixed Resist or Variable Resistor Linear Resist or Nonlinear Resistor Wire Wound Resistor Carbon Composed Fiber Type Resistor SOLDER AND SOLDERING TECHNIQUES: Soldering techniques is the process of joining two metals or metal parts with the aid of molten metal whose melting is below that of material to be joined and where by the surface of the parts are wetted without them becoming molten. Now a days soldering is used in three major branches Mechanical joining Sealing Electrically conductive joining

The third group application is used in electronics in soldering the joining process occurs at temperature below the filter metal. Solder wets any alloy with the base metal and gets drawn by capillary action into the gap between them. This process forms a meteorological bond between the part of the joint.

Application

Robots have also found some applications in agriculture. 1. In Australia a robotic system has been developed for sheep shearing 2. Robots for field sowing 3. Raisin and apple gathering 4. Mobile robots can be envisioned performing such work as irrigation, harvesting, cultivating,
planting, spraying and field inspection, and as guardians of animal welfare.

5. looks for the lost calf.


There are many other potential benefits of mobile robots. Some of these are: * better quality of work; * increased productivity; * fewer human accidents; * fewer demeaning jobs for humans

Furture scope

The future developments of Robots can be found in various places. The major among them is in the field of: Development is going in the field of artificial intelligence. This will invoke thinking in Robots which in future will help Man kind in problem solving. Development is going on in the field of nano system which deals with implanting of small chips into human body for early detection of diseases. This can also help in locating a person by GPS technology.

References

REFERENCE http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/robot.htm http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~meam100/hando...botics.pdf http://engineering-ed.org/Robotics/documents http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~rabielmo/miniCourse