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Mechanical Engineering Principles and Practives III Expt.

8 Bare and Lagged Pipes Apparatus

De La Salle University College of Engineering Mechanical Engineering Department Experiment 8 Bare & Lagged Pipe Apparatus Date Performed: Date Submitted: Instructor: Subject/Section: Group Number: Submitted by: LBYME16 / 2 Amparo, Carlos Manuel Cuyco, Kevin Delos Santos, Dann June 6, 2011 June 27, 2011

Presentations Data and Results Analysis and Conclusion Answers to Questions Total

:________________ :________________ :________________ :________________ :________________

Remarks _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Instructors Signature: ________________

Mechanical Engineering Principles and Practives III Expt.8 Bare and Lagged Pipes Apparatus

OBJECTIVES: A. To determine the combined radiation and convection coefficient (hr +hc) at various temperatures from different surfaces:

1. 85% Magnesia insulation 2. Pipe painted with aluminum paint 3. Pipe painted with black paint 4. Bare pipe 5. Foam insulation

B. To determine the efficiency of these insulating materials. C. To compare the experimentally determined (hc + hr) with those calculated from empirical equations. THEORY AND ANALYSIS: A good pipe covering, in addition to being a good insulator, should be fire proof, water proof, vermin proof, odorless and light in weight. It should also be mechanically strong and should suffer no loss of insulating value with age. Asbestos and carbonate magnesia are the most commonly used pipe-covering materials. The only logical method for testing commercial pipe covering is, of course, to mount those coverings on pipes of the size for which they were intended. Two general methods for heat measurement have been used. For steam-pipe coverings, the most natural method is to fill the covered pipe with steam, to measure the heat content of the steam entering and leaving the test section, and to condense and weigh the steam. A dead-end pipe is ordinarily used, the pipe itself acting as the steam condenser. The second and more accurate method is to supply and measure the heat electrically. This method eliminates the end correction. When covering pipe ends with heavily insulated caps and maintaining separately heated end sections adjacent to the caps at the same temperature as the test section, the heat from the main test section cannot travel along the pipe and must escape radially through the covering under test. Heat escapes from a pipe, or other surface, to the room in two ways: (1) by conduction trough an air film, and then by convection in the bulk of the air; and (2) by direct radiation to the cooler walls of the room.

Mechanical Engineering Principles and Practives III Expt.8 Bare and Lagged Pipes Apparatus That proportion of the heat which is lost by conduction and convection can be calculated by the equation: qc = hc A(ts tg) and that proportion which is lost by radiation may be expressed by simplified equation: qc = hr A(ts tw) where: qc = heat transferred from surface to room by conduction and convection, Btu/hr qr = heat transferred from surface to room by radiation Btu/hr hc = coefficient of heat transfer by conduction and convection, Btu/(hr sq ft ftoF) hr = coefficient of heat transfer by radiation, Btu/(hr-sq ftoF) A = surface area ts = temperature of the surface oF tg = temperature of the air oF tw = temperature of the walls of the room oF the convection coefficient hc can be evaluated from equation: hc =0.42 ( t/d)0.25 and: hr = 0.173 p (_ts_)4 (_tw_)4 100 100 t Substituting can result in: q = qc + qr = (hr + hc)(A)(ts tw) and q = (hc + hr)(A)(t) where: q = total heat transfer from the surface by conduction and convection, and by radiation, Btu/hr (hc + hr) = combined coefficient of heat transfer A = surface area, sq ft

Mechanical Engineering Principles and Practives III Expt.8 Bare and Lagged Pipes Apparatus t = temperature difference, surface to room oF The lagging efficienct of a pipeline with insulation can be calculated from the equation: L.E. = qB qL x 100 qB where: qB = heat loss from bare pipe qL = heat loss from logged pipe Since the heat loss is proportional to the quantitiy of condensate collected, then L.E. = WB WL x100 WB Where WB and WL are the quantities of condensate from the bare and logged pipes, respectively. APPARATUS: For determining the heat loss from bare and lagged pipes, heat is supplied by the dead condensation of steam, and surface temperatures are measured by means of a portable thermocouple potentiometer. The test section consists of four 10 feet lengths of one-inch standard steel pipe mounted with a slope of 0.63 inches per foot in a framework of welded two-inch steel angles. One of the lengths is bare and the other are covered with asbestos insulation, aluminum paint, black paint, and foam insulation. The test pipes are connected to a common header into which steam is introduced either directly from the main or from a line containing a reducing valve. The steam condensate is drained from the opposite ends of the pipes through plug-type valves and is collected in beakers and measured. 1. 5 pcs. Beaker 1000 ml capacity 2. 1 pc. Stopwatch 3. 1pc. Graduated cylinder 1000ml capacity 4. 18 pcs. Thermometer 0-360C SET-UP OF THE EXPERIEMENT:

Mechanical Engineering Principles and Practives III Expt.8 Bare and Lagged Pipes Apparatus

PROCEDURE: 1. Make at least two runs with steam at approximately 20 psig and 30 psig. 2. For each run: a. After adjusting the system to the desired pressure, crack the drain cock under the header to remove water from the steam line and header. b. Open the four plug-type valves to blow out any condensate from the pipes and then close them until only a small amount of steam escapes along with the condensate. c. When the system has reached equilibrium, as determined by surface temperature measurements, collect and measure the condensate from each pipe over a time interval of 15 to 30 minutes. During this period record the following data: i. Barometric Pressure ii. Room Temperature iii. Steam pressure and Temperature iv. Surface Temperature (should be taken at three equally spaced points along each test pipe; at least three sets of readings should be taken during each run) 3. From the experimental data for each run, calculate the combined film coefficient for convection and radiation and the lagging efficiencies and compare the experimental values of the coefficients with those calculated from empirical equations. DATA SHEET:

Mechanical Engineering Principles and Practives III Expt.8 Bare and Lagged Pipes Apparatus Steam Pressure : 20 psi Time (mins.) Pipe 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 a 39 120 110 90 45 39.5 111 109 90 45 40 111 109.5 92 47 40 111 109 91 45 40 114 110 90 44 b 38.5 120 110 120 90 40 39.5 111 109.5 110 89 40 40 110 110 110 90 40 40 114 111 110 90 40 40 116 109 110 90 40 c 39 118 100 108 38 39.5 109 101 100 39 39.5 111 104 100 38 40 111 101 100 39 40 102 104 100 39 Steam Temp. In (oC)

130

10

127

15

130

20

131

25

133

Steam Pressure: 30 psi Time (mins.) Pipe 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 a 40 124 119 98 48 40 124 b 40 120 118 119 90 40 40 122 C 40 120 110 110 38 40 120 Steam Temp. In (oC)

135

10

138

Mechanical Engineering Principles and Practives III Expt.8 Bare and Lagged Pipes Apparatus 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 119 98 48 40 126 119 98 48 41 124 119 98 48 40 124 119 98 48 119.5 120 98 40 40 129 120 120 94 40 41 124 119 118 96 40 41 121 119 118 96 40 110 110 38 40 120 110 110 39 40 120 109 108 40 40 118 108 108 39

15

139

20

138

25

138

Volume of Condensate, in ML. Pipe no. 20 psi 30psi 1 1250 340 2 270 470 3 440 390 4 550 690 5 660 400 6 150 190

Pipe No.

Average Surface Temp. (surface) oF 103.91 243.5 232.7 221.126 198.14

Temp. Difference (surface to room) oF 104.49 35.1 24.3 12.726 10.26

hc

hr 0.00423799076 9 0.1549123688 0.1822262704 0.2743770848 0.1970706054

hc+hr 0.428909356 8 0.478190308 4 0.477110032 6 0.525231800 8 0.434774488 7

L.E.

1 2 3 4 5

0.424671366 0.3232779396 0.2948837622 0.250854716 0.2377038833

89.39 59.09 33.33 16.67 100

Mechanical Engineering Principles and Practives III Expt.8 Bare and Lagged Pipes Apparatus 6 107.186 101.214 0.4212689377 0.00411173282 9 0.425380670 5 77.27

SAMPLE COMPUTATIONS: Formulas used:

CONCLUSION: Through the experiment we conducted, we found that the pipes without insulation have higher surface temperature readings than those with insulation. Therefore, putting insulation in pipes lead to higher efficiency due to less heat loss. QUESTIONS: 1. What are the properties, besides providing insulation that a good insulation must have for a hot surface? A good insulation material must have a high dielectric strength, good mechanical properties ,fire proof, water proof, vermin proof, odorless, light in weight, and must have a long lifetime at operating temperature. Insulation materials must withstand the operating temperatures that occur.

2. How is heat lost from a pipe?

Heat is generated by the substance inside the pipe and heat travels from medium to medium: substance to pipe and pipe to surroundings wherein heat loss due to friction, convection from air bulk, conduction through air film, radiation, and heat absorbed by insulation.

3. How does black paint effect the heat emission of steam from a pipe?

Mechanical Engineering Principles and Practives III Expt.8 Bare and Lagged Pipes Apparatus

Black paint affects the emission of steam in pipe because of its thermal conductivity or simply called as black body which in turn absorbs more heat than other colors.

4. Calculate the lagging efficiencies of the asbestos insulated pipe and the foam insulated pipe using the results of the first run.

Solved from the previous table using the formula Asbestos: |660-1250|/660 X 100 = 89.39 Foam: |660-150|/660 x 100 = 77.27

5. A 75% magnesia insulated 10-foot steel 0.0. = 3.5 inch has a radiation and convection coefficient of 0.0099 Btu/hr-sq. ft-R. What is the heat rate q if ambient temperature is 77.3F and surface temperature is 96.4F?

q = (0.0099)(2)(3.1416)(3.5/12)2(10)(96.4-77.3) q = 1.01 Btu/hr