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Report No.

C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003
MPM VALIDATION: SPHERE-CYLINDER IMPACT: MEDIUM
RESOLUTION SIMULATIONS
B. Banerjee
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
August 12, 2004

ABSTRACT
In a previous report we compared the experimental and the computed axial velocity and axial strain from a
low spatial resolution study of the impact of an aluminum sphere on an aluminum plate supported by a hollow
aluminum cylinder. We report results from a higher resolution study of the same problem using input parameters
that conserve both momentum and energy quite accurately. The simulations show a slower wave speed than
the experiments which suggests that the elastic moduli and density of the material used in the experiments
may be different from those used in the simulations. The simulated free surface velocity also differs from the
experimental data. Further study is required to determine the cause of these differences.

1 INTRODUCTION
The validation experiments described in this report simulate the impact of a 6061-T6 aluminum
sphere against a plate attached to a hollow cylinder of the same material (Chhabildas et al. [1]). We
compare the free surface velocity histories for four experiments - L1, L3, L5, and L6 and the axial
strain histories for three experiments - L3, L5, and L6. Figures 1(a), 1(b), 1(c), and 1(d) show the
geometries for L1, L3, L5, and L6, respectively.
The set of input parameters that best conserves energy and momentum has been described before
(Banerjee [2]). The approach used to determine the axial velocities and strains from the simulations
has been described in detail in our previous report (Banerjee [3]). The simulations shown in this
report were performed using 20 particles along the thickness of the front plate and 60 particles along
the radius. For the cylinder, we used a resolution of 100 particles along the axial direction and 6
particles The background mesh had a resolution of 100 × 40 × 40. Each of the runs took around 19
hours of wall time using 16 processors. The input file for experiment L3 is shown in Appendix I.
The energy and momentum plots for experiment L1 are shown in Figure 2(a) and (b). Those
for experiments L3 (with and without damping) are shown in Figure 2(c),(d), (e), and (f). Energy
and momentum plots for L5 and L6 are shown in Figures 3, and 4, respectively. The plots show that
momentum is conserved almost exactly for all the cases. Energy is conserved extremely well for all
the undamped simulations. The expected energy dissipation in the damped simulation of experiment
L3 can also be observed from Figure 2(e).
Section 2 shows the results for experiment L1. Two sets of particles at depths of 1 mm and 1.5
mm from the free surface, respectively, have been probed for their velocity history. These velocities
are compared with experimental data for L1. Results for experiment L3 are discussed in Section 3.
The damped and undamped simulations are compared and the free-surface velocity histories are
compared and well as the axial strains at gages S1, S2, S4, S5, and S6. Results for experiment L5 are
discussed in Section 4. These include the free-surface velocity and the axial strains at all the strain
gages without damping. Results for experiment L6 are discussed in Section 5. The velocity history
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 2

13.614
90
Aluminum Sphere
S1 S2 S3
Aluminum Sphere
Velocity = 1480 m/s

31.8
28.62
9.52
VISAR Reading of
Axial Velocity
X Y
(0.12,2.5)
Axial Strain Gages

S4 S5 S6

Aluminum Plate 19 Hollow Aluminum Cylinder


48
78 Aluminum Plate

Z (All dimensions are in mm. Not to scale) Z

(a) Initial geometry of experiment L1.


13.919
90
Aluminum Sphere
S1 S2 S3

Aluminum Sphere

31.8
28.6
Velocity = 1470 m/s
VISAR Reading of (11.4,−3.8)
Axial Velocity
9.52
X Y

Axial Strain Gages

S4 S5 S6

Aluminum Plate 19 Hollow Aluminum Cylinder


48
78 Aluminum Plate

Z (All dimensions are in mm. Not to scale) Z

(b) Initial geometry of experiment L3.


13.665
90
Aluminum Sphere
Aluminum Sphere S1 S2 S3
Velocity = 1520 m/s

9.52
31.8
28.61

VISAR Reading of
Axial Velocity
X (−2,5.2) Y

Axial Strain Gages

S4 S5 S6

Aluminum Plate 19 Hollow Aluminum Cylinder


48
78 Aluminum Plate

Z (All dimensions are in mm. Not to scale) Z

(c) Initial geometry of experiment L5.


13.614
90
Aluminum Sphere
Aluminum Sphere S1 S2 S3
Velocity = 1520 m/s

9.52
31.8
28.57

VISAR Reading of
Axial Velocity
X Y
(−2,3)
Axial Strain Gages

S4 S5 S6

Aluminum Plate 19 Hollow Aluminum Cylinder


48
78 Aluminum Plate

Z (All dimensions are in mm. Not to scale) Z

(d) Initial geometry of experiment L6.


Figure 1: Initial geometry of impact experiments.
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 3

1500 2

1.5

Momentum (kg m/s)


1000
Momentum (mag)
Energy (J)

Kinetic Energy X−Momentum


Strain Energy 1 Y−Momentum
Total Energy Z−Momentum

500
0.5

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (µ sec) Time (µ sec)
(a) Energy evolution for experiment L1. (b) Momentum evolution for experiment L1.

1500 2

1.5
Momentum (kg m/s)

1000 Momentum (mag)


Kinetic Energy X−Momentum
Energy (J)

Strain Energy Y−Momentum


Total Energy 1 Z−Momentum

500
0.5

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (µ sec) Time (µ sec)
(c) Energy evolution for experiment L3 (without (d) Momentum evolution for experiment L3
damping). (without damping).

1500 2

1.5
Momentum (mag)
Momentum (kg m/s)

1000 X−Momentum
Y−Momentum
Energy (J)

Kinetic Energy Z−Momentum


Strain Energy 1
Total Energy

500
0.5

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (µ sec) Time (µ sec)
(e) Energy evolution for experiment L3 (with (f) Momentum evolution for experiment L3
damping). (with damping).

Figure 2: Energy and momentum evolution for experiments L1 and L3.


C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 4

1500 2

1.5

Momentum (kg m/s)


1000
Momentum (mag)
Kinetic Energy X−Momentum
Energy (J)

Strain Energy Y−Momentum


Total Energy 1
Z−Momentum

500
0.5

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (µ sec) Time (µ sec)
(a) Energy evolution for experiment L5. (b) Momentum evolution for experiment L5.
Figure 3: Energy and momentum evolution for experiment L5.

1500 2

1.5
Momentum (kg m/s)

1000 Kinetic Energy Momentum (mag)


Strain Energy X−Momentum
Energy (J)

Total Energy Y−Momentum


1 Z−Momentum

500
0.5

0 0
0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100
Time (µ sec) Time (µ sec)
(a) Energy evolution for experiment L6. (b) Momentum evolution for experiment L6.
Figure 4: Energy and momentum evolution for experiment L6.

at the free surface and the strains at gage S2 are compared with experimental data. Conclusions and
future work are discussed in Section 6.

2 EXPERIMENT L1
The particle identifiers used for velocity data extraction for the simulations are shown in Figure 5(a).
These particles are located at a depth of approximately 1 mm from the free surface of the plate. As
there are no particles at the exact location of the VISAR readings, we have chosen to average the
velocity over particles located along each of the paths shown in red in the figure. Figure 5(b) shows
plots of the simulated and experimental free surface velocity for experiment L1.
The initial time of arrival appears not to match the experimental data. This is probably due to
the interval at which we sample the velocity. A run with a higher rate of sampling is currently being
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 5

−3
x 10
2
5911060411777024
59110561168097285911060411777025
5629581140099078 5629585435066376
5629585435066372
56295811400990765629585435066373
5629581140099077 5629585435066377
1
5629581140099075 5629585435066374
5629585435066369
5629585435066370 5629589730033664
5629576845131777 5629581140099073
5629581140099074 5629585435066375
Z−Coordinate

5629585435066368
56295768451317765629581140099072 56295854350663715629589730033665
0
53481061633884225348106163388416
53481104583557125348110458355715
53481018684211205348106163388418 53481104583557135348114753323008
5348106163388421 5348110458355716
5348106163388417
5348110458355714
5348106163388424 5348110458355719
−1 5348106163388420 5348110458355717
5348106163388419
5348106163388423 5348110458355718
5348110458355720

5066631186677761 5066635481645056
5066631186677760
5066635481645057
−2
−2 −1 0 1 2
Y−Coordinate −3
x 10
(a)Particle tags used for free surface velocity data extraction.

300
Expt.
250 Inner Circle
2nd Circle
200 3rd Circle
Axial Velocity (m/s)

4th Circle
150

100

50

−50
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(b)Velocity history for experiment L1.

Figure 5: Particle tags and average velocity history for experiment L1.
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 6

performed. After the initial peak velocity is reached, there is an immediate sharp drop off to almost
zero velocity. This drop reduces slightly if artificial damping is used and is probably the result of the
shock not being resolved sufficiently.
Though the simulated free-surface velocity shows some ringing up to 20 µs, it matches the ex-
perimental data quite well on average. Beyond that time, the particles in the inner circle show much
higher velocities than the experimental data. Particles in the second circle match the experimental
data most closely (in a least squares sense) for the first 50 µs while particles in the fourth circle
provide the best match beyond that time.
We wanted to check if the large initial fluctuation the the free-surface velocity was due to the
location of the particles. With that in mind, we also looked at the velocities at a depth of 1.5 mm
from the surface. The particle tags for these particles are shown in Figure 6(a). Figure 6(b) shows
plots of the simulated and experimental free surface velocity for experiment L1 for particles at a
depth of 1.5 mm from the surface.
The data clearly show that much higher velocities are observed on the plane at a depth of 1.5
mm from the surface. Chhabildas et al. [1] concluded that the yield strength of 6061-T6 Aluminum
is 400 MPa based on velocities at a similar depth which generated a plot similar to Figure 6(b). We
feel that such a conclusion is not justified because the magnitude of the free-surface velocities is
captured very well with a the initial yield strength pf 324 MPa used by the Johnson-Cook model as
can be seen in Figure 5.

3 EXPERIMENT L3
As suggested in the previous report (Banerjee [3]) we ran simulations with and without damping
for experiment L3. Figure 7(a) shows plots of the simulated and experimental free surface velocity
for experiment L3 without damping. Figure 7(b) shows the velocities with damping. Experimental
velocity data are available only up to 16 µs for this case.
The initial peak velocities match the experimental data very well. However, the high velocities
remain for around 7-10 µs longer than is seen in the experimental data. Large fluctuations in the
initial velocities are damped out in Figure 7(b), but the apparently delayed response of the simulated
velocities remains. There can be a number of causes for this difference which should be explored
further.
The strain histories with and without damping are shown in Figures 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. The
simulated strains shown in the figures represent the average over 28-40 particles depending on the
location of the strain gage. The top plot in each figure shows the strain without damping while the
bottom plot shows the strain with artificial damping turned on. It is clear from the plots that artificial
damping affects only the high frequencies in the strain history.
The strain at gage S1 (Figure 8) matches the experimental data quite well initially but tends to
drift with time, though the trends remain similar. This suggests that the stress waves is traveling
more slowly in the simulations than in the experiments. The amplitude of the wave is also lower
with time. We believe that the boundary conditions at the end of the cylinder may be slowing down
the reflected wave and causing this anomaly. A one-dimensional wave propagation problem should
be used to verify the accuracy of the MPM code in this regard.
Similar trends are observed for gage S2 (Figure 9. The initial trend matches the experimental
data. However, with time the compute stress wave appears to lag behind the experimental data and
the peak amplitude of the strain also seems to be lower.
Gage S4 is closest to the point of impact in experiment L3. This is reflected my the high
compressive strains shown in Figure 10. The initial computed strains match the experimental data
extremely well. However, once again we observe a lag as time increases though the trend of the
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 7

−3
x 10
2
5911060411711500
59110561167442015911060411711501
5629581140033549 5629585435000850
5629585435000846
56295811400335475629585435000847
5629581140033548 5629585435000851
1
5629581140033546 5629585435000848
5629585435000843
5629585435000844 5629589729968139
5629576845066252 5629581140033544
5629581140033545 5629585435000849
Z−Coordinate

5629585435000842
56295768450662515629581140033543 56295854350008455629589729968140
0
53481061633228955348106163322889
53481104582901855348110458290188
53481018683555935348106163322891 53481104582901865348114753257481
5348106163322894 5348110458290189
5348106163322890
5348110458290187
5348106163322897 5348110458290192
−1 5348106163322893 5348110458290190
5348106163322892
5348106163322896 5348110458290191
5348110458290193

5066631186612235 5066635481579532
5066631186612234
5066635481579533
−2
−2 −1 0 1 2
Y−Coordinate −3
x 10
(a) Particle tags used for free surface velocity data extraction at a depth of 1.5 mm from the surface.

300
Expt.
250 Inner Circle
2nd Circle
200 3rd Circle
Axial Velocity (m/s)

4th Circle
150

100

50

−50
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(b) Velocity history for experiment L1 for particles at a depth of 1.5 mm from the surface.

Figure 6: Particle tags and average velocity history for experiment L1 at a depth of 1.5 mm from the
surface.
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 8

50
Expt.
Inner Circle
40 2nd Circle
3rd Circle
Axial Velocity (m/s)

30 4th Circle

20

10

−10
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(a) Without damping.

50
Expt.
Inner Circle
40 2nd Circle
3rd Circle
Axial Velocity (m/s)

30 4th Circle

20

10

−10
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(b) With damping.

Figure 7: Velocity history for experiment L3.

strain history matches the experimental data quite well.


The simulated strains match the experimental strains at L5 and L6 quite well at initial times
but the tendency to drift at later times is similar to that observed for the other strain gages. This
can be seen in Figures 11 and 12. Perhaps a higher resolution study is required to determine if the
mesh resolution plays any part in the wave propagation velocity in MPM. This conjecture is based
on the observation that the lower resolution studies in our previous report (Banerjee [3]) showed an
even slower apparent wave speed. The size of the computational box should also be increased in
the direction of impact so that the cylinder does not hit the walls of the computational domain and
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 9

−3
x 10
8
Expt.
6 Simulation

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(a) Gage S1 - without damping.
−3
x 10
8
Expt.
6 Simulation

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(b) Gage S1 - with damping.
Figure 8: Strain histories for experiment L3: gage S1.

reflect waves in an unplanned manner.

4 EXPERIMENT L5
Figure 13 shows the velocity history for experiment L5. In this case, the experimental data are avail-
able up to around 12 µs. The computed peak velocities are around 120 m/s while the experimental
peak is approximately 170 m/s. This difference could be due to variability in material properties of
the aluminum plate.
The strain histories for experiment L5 are shown in Figures 14, 15 and 16. Since the aluminum
cylinder is the same between experiments and undergoes only elastic deformations, we expect to see
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 10

−3
x 10
8
Expt.
6 Simulation

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(a) Gage S2 - without damping.
−3
x 10
8
Expt.
6 Simulation

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(b) Gage S2 - with damping.
Figure 9: Strain histories for experiment L3: gage S2.

uniform behavior between experiments. This conjecture is borne out by the strain gage results for
experiment L5.
As observed before, the strain history of gages S1 and S2 show good agreement with exper-
imental data at initial times. However, with time the computed stress wave again appears to lag
behind the experimental data since the trends are similar but separated by 5-7 µs. If we consider a
one-dimensional pressure wave, this lag implies a wave velocity that is 1-2% smaller than the ac-
tual wave velocity of the material. This should be reflected in the initial time for the stress wave
to reach the strain gage. However, the arrival time is computed quite accurately. It is therefore
unlikely that the lag is due to incorrect bulk and shear moduli. The more likely reason is that the
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 11

0
Expt.
Simulation
−0.002

−0.004
Axial Strain

−0.006

−0.008

−0.01

−0.012
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(a) Gage S4 - without damping.
0
Expt.
Simulation
−0.002

−0.004
Axial Strain

−0.006

−0.008

−0.01

−0.012
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(b) Gage S4 - with damping.
Figure 10: Strain histories for experiment L3: gage S4.

stress wave reflects off the back end of the front plate in the actual experiment whereas in our MPM
calculations there is no interface between the cylinder and the plate. Hence, in our computations the
wave reflects of the impact surface and hence reaches the strain gage later in time. This possibility
is further strengthened by the fact that the lag occurs later in time for strain gages further from the
impact plane. We suggest that an interface be introduced between the cylinder and the plate and the
simulations rerun.
Strain gage S3 shows a slight offset from the experimental data from the time the stress wave
arrives at the gage (as shown in Figure 15(a)). However, the experimental data shows significant
fluctuations beyond that points which are not reflected in the computations. This could be due to
incorrect digitization of the experimental strain plots. The plots shown in Chhabildas et al. [1] can
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 12

−3
x 10
8
Expt.
6 Simulation

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(a) Gage S5 - without damping.
−3
x 10
8
Expt.
6 Simulation

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(b) Gage S5 - with damping.
Figure 11: Strain histories for experiment L3: gages S5.

not be clearly distinguished from each other.


The initial strains in gage S4 match the experimental data well up to around 30 µs (see Fig-
ure 15(b)). The lag in the computed strains is clear beyond that point and could be due to the reasons
discussed earlier.
Initial arrival times for gages S5 and S6 match the experimental data well but exhibit the same
lags as in the other cases and lower strain amplitudes than the experimental data. These can be seen
in Figures 16(a) and (b).
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 13

−3
x 10
8
Expt.
Simulation
6

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(a) Gage S6 - without damping.
−3
x 10
8
Expt.
6 Simulation

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(b) Gage S6 - with damping.
Figure 12: Strain histories for experiment L3: gage S6.

5 EXPERIMENT L6
Figure 17(a) shows the velocity history for experiment L6. The experimental data are available
only up to 18 µs. Barring initial fluctuations, the experimental velocities are matched well by the
simulations. However, the peaks are slightly offset and the computed peak value is lower than
the experimental. The strain history for gage S2 in experiment L6 is shown in Figure 17(b). As
discussed before, the the initial strains are matched well by the simulations but a drift is observed
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 14

300
Expt.
250 Inner Circle
2nd Circle
200 3rd Circle
Axial Velocity (m/s)

4th Circle
150

100

50

−50
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
Figure 13: Velocity history for experiment L5.

with increasing time.

6 CONCLUSION
The initial arrival times are matched well by the simulations. With time, however, a drift in the
computed values is observed relative to the experiments. In other words, the computed wave speed
appears to decrease with time. One cause of this anomaly could be the use of a single material to
model the front plate and the cylinder leading to reflections from the impact plane instead of the back
of the plate. Another reason could be the size of the domain. It is possible that the domain in not
large enough to accommodate the axial movement of the cylinder after impact. Other reasons could
be the resolution of the grid. The sampling rate could be the reason some of the high amplitude
values are not being plotted and the cause of the apparent early arrival of the stress wave at the free
surface.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported by the the U.S. Department of Energy through the Center for the Simulation
of Accidental Fires and Explosions, under grant W-7405-ENG-48.

REFERENCES
[1] Chhabildas, L. C., Konrad, C. H., Mosher, D. A., Reinhart, W. D., Duggins, B. D., Trucano, T. G., Summers, R. M., and
Peery, J. S. A methodology to validated 3D arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian codes with applications to ALEGRA. Int. J.
Impact Engrg., 23:101–112, 1998.
[2] Banerjee, B. MPM validation: Sphere-cylinder impact tests: Energy balance. Technical Report C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-001,
Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions, University of Utah, USA, 2004.
[3] Banerjee, B. MPM validation: Sphere-cylinder impact: Low resolution simulations. Technical Report C-SAFE-CD-IR-
04-002, Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions, University of Utah, USA, 2004.
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 15

APPENDIX I. INPUT FILE : EXPERIMENT L3


<?xml version=’1.0’ encoding=’ISO-8859-1’ ?>
<!-- @version: -->
<Uintah_specification>

<!-- 6061 T6 Al Sphere impacting 6061 T6 Al Cylinder,


Hypoelastic stress update,
Johnson Cook Plasticity Model, Johnson Cook Damage Model,
Default Hypoelastic Equation of State -->

<Meta>
<title>Sphere Impacting Cylinder</title>
</Meta>

<Time>
<maxTime> 100.0e-6 </maxTime>
<initTime> 0.0 </initTime>
<delt_min> 0.0 </delt_min>
<delt_max> 1e-5 </delt_max>
<delt_init> 1e-7 </delt_init>
<timestep_multiplier>0.1 </timestep_multiplier>
</Time>

<DataArchiver>
<filebase>impactAlSphCylSmEroJCL3Sml.uda</filebase>
<outputInterval> 1.0e-6 </outputInterval>
<compression>gzip</compression>
<outputDoubleAsFloat/>
<save label = "p.particleID"/>
<save label = "p.x"/>
<save label = "p.stress"/>
<save label = "p.velocity"/>
<save label = "p.deformationMeasure"/>
<save label = "p.localized"/>
<save label = "AccStrainEnergy"/>
<save label = "KineticEnergy"/>
<save label = "ThermalEnergy"/>
<save label = "CenterOfMassVelocity"/>
<checkpoint cycle = "2" timestepInterval = "100"/>
</DataArchiver>

<MPM>
<time_integrator>explicit</time_integrator>
<nodes8or27> 27 </nodes8or27>
<minimum_particle_mass> 1.0e-8</minimum_particle_mass>
<maximum_particle_velocity> 1.0e8</maximum_particle_velocity>
<artificial_damping_coeff> 0.0 </artificial_damping_coeff>
<artificial_viscosity> false </artificial_viscosity>
<artificial_viscosity_coeff1> 0.07 </artificial_viscosity_coeff1>
<artificial_viscosity_coeff2> 1.6 </artificial_viscosity_coeff2>
<accumulate_strain_energy> true </accumulate_strain_energy>
<turn_on_adiabatic_heating> false </turn_on_adiabatic_heating>
<use_load_curves> false </use_load_curves>
<create_new_particles> true </create_new_particles>
<erosion algorithm = "KeepStress"/>
</MPM>

<PhysicalConstants>
<gravity> [0,0,0] </gravity>
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 16

<reference_pressure> 101325.0 </reference_pressure>


</PhysicalConstants>

<MaterialProperties>
<MPM>
<material>
<density>2700.0</density>
<toughness>29.e6</toughness>
<thermal_conductivity>166.9</thermal_conductivity>
<specific_heat>896.0</specific_heat>
<room_temp>294.0</room_temp>
<melt_temp>925.0</melt_temp>
<constitutive_model type = "elastic_plastic">
<tolerance>1.0e-15</tolerance>
<useModifiedEOS> true </useModifiedEOS>
<evolve_porosity>false</evolve_porosity>
<evolve_damage>true</evolve_damage>
<compute_specific_heat>false</compute_specific_heat>
<do_melting> true </do_melting>
<check_TEPLA_failure_criterion>true</check_TEPLA_failure_criterion>
<shear_modulus>26.0e9</shear_modulus>
<bulk_modulus>66.4e9</bulk_modulus>
<equation_of_state type = "default_hypo">
</equation_of_state>
<plasticity_model type = "johnson_cook">
<A>324.0e6</A>
<B>114.0e6</B>
<C>0.002</C>
<n>0.42</n>
<m>1.34</m>
</plasticity_model>
<yield_condition type = "vonMises">
</yield_condition>
<stability_check type = "drucker_becker">
</stability_check>
<damage_model type = "johnson_cook">
<D1>-0.77</D1>
<D2>1.45</D2>
<D3>-0.47</D3>
<D4>0.0</D4>
<D5>1.60</D5>
</damage_model>
</constitutive_model>
<geom_object>
<sphere label = "sphere">
<origin>[9.75e-3, -3.8e-3, 11.4e-3]</origin>
<radius> 4.75e-3 </radius>
</sphere>
<res>[2,2,2]</res>
<velocity>[1470.0,0.0,0.0]</velocity>
<temperature>294</temperature>
</geom_object>
</material>
<material>
<density>2700.0</density>
<toughness>29.e6</toughness>
<thermal_conductivity>166.9</thermal_conductivity>
<specific_heat>896.0</specific_heat>
<room_temp>294.0</room_temp>
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 17

<melt_temp>925.0</melt_temp>
<constitutive_model type = "elastic_plastic">
<tolerance>1.0e-15</tolerance>
<useModifiedEOS> true </useModifiedEOS>
<evolve_porosity>false</evolve_porosity>
<evolve_damage>true</evolve_damage>
<compute_specific_heat>false</compute_specific_heat>
<do_melting> true </do_melting>
<check_TEPLA_failure_criterion>true</check_TEPLA_failure_criterion>
<shear_modulus>26.0e9</shear_modulus>
<bulk_modulus>66.4e9</bulk_modulus>
<equation_of_state type = "default_hypo">
</equation_of_state>
<plasticity_model type = "johnson_cook">
<A>324.0e6</A>
<B>114.0e6</B>
<C>0.002</C>
<n>0.42</n>
<m>1.34</m>
</plasticity_model>
<yield_condition type = "vonMises">
</yield_condition>
<stability_check type = "drucker_becker">
</stability_check>
<damage_model type = "johnson_cook">
<D1>-0.77</D1>
<D2>1.45</D2>
<D3>-0.47</D3>
<D4>0.0</D4>
<D5>1.60</D5>
</damage_model>
</constitutive_model>
<geom_object>
<smoothcyl label = "end plate">
<bottom> [15.0e-3, 0.0, 0.0] </bottom>
<top> [28.919e-3, 0.0, 0.0] </top>
<radius> 31.8e-3 </radius>
<num_axial> 20 </num_axial>
<num_radial> 60 </num_radial>
</smoothcyl>
<res>[2,2,2]</res>
<velocity>[0.0,0.0,0.0]</velocity>
<temperature>294</temperature>
</geom_object>
<geom_object>
<smoothcyl label = "hollow cylinder">
<bottom> [28.919e-3, 0.0, 0.0] </bottom>
<top> [119.0e-3, 0.0, 0.0] </top>
<radius> 31.8e-3 </radius>
<thickness> 3.20e-3 </thickness>
<num_axial> 100 </num_axial>
<num_radial> 60 </num_radial>
</smoothcyl>
<res>[2,2,2]</res>
<velocity>[0.0,0.0,0.0]</velocity>
<temperature>294</temperature>
</geom_object>
</material>
<contact>
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 18

<type>single_velocity</type>
<mu>0.0001</mu>
<vel_fields>[0,0,0]</vel_fields>
</contact>
</MPM>
</MaterialProperties>

<PhysicalBC>
<MPM>
</MPM>
</PhysicalBC>

<Grid>
<Level>
<Box label = "1">
<lower>[0.0, -33.0e-3,-33.0e-3]</lower>
<upper>[119.0e-3, 33.0e-3, 33.0e-3]</upper>
<patches>[16,1,1]</patches>
<extraCells>[1,1,1]</extraCells>
<resolution>[100, 40, 40]</resolution>
</Box>
</Level>
<BoundaryConditions>
<Face side = "x-">
<BCType id = "0" label = "Symmetric" var = "symmetry">
</BCType>
</Face>
<Face side = "x+">
<BCType id = "0" label = "Symmetric" var = "symmetry">
</BCType>
</Face>
<Face side = "y-">
<BCType id = "0" label = "Symmetric" var = "symmetry">
</BCType>
</Face>
<Face side = "y+">
<BCType id = "0" label = "Symmetric" var = "symmetry">
</BCType>
</Face>
<Face side = "z-">
<BCType id = "0" label = "Symmetric" var = "symmetry">
</BCType>
</Face>
<Face side = "z+">
<BCType id = "0" label = "Symmetric" var = "symmetry">
</BCType>
</Face>
</BoundaryConditions>
</Grid>

</Uintah_specification>
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 19

−3
x 10
8
Expt.
6 Simulation

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(a) Gage S1.
−3
x 10
8
Expt.
6 Simulation

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(b) Gage S2.
Figure 14: Strain histories for experiment L5: gages S1 and S2.
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 20

−3
x 10
8
Expt.
6 Simulation

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(a) Gage S3.
−3
x 10
8
Expt.
6 Simulation

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(b) Gage S4.
Figure 15: Strain histories for experiment L5: gages S3 and S4.
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 21

−3
x 10
8
Expt.
Simulation
6

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(a) Gage S5.
−3
x 10
8
Expt.
Simulation
6

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(b) Gage S6.
Figure 16: Strain histories for experiment L5: gages S5 and S6.
C-SAFE-CD-IR-04-003 22

300
Expt.
250 Inner Circle
2nd Circle
200 3rd Circle
Axial Velocity (m/s)

4th Circle
150

100

50

−50
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(a) Velocity history for experiment L6.

−3
x 10
8
Expt.
6 Simulation

2
Axial Strain

−2

−4

−6

−8
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (µ sec)
(b) Strain history for experiment L6: gage S2.

Figure 17: Velocity and axial strain history for experiment L6.