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PASSIVE HOUSE

An introduction by Tim Eian,


Certified Passive House Consultant
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TE Studio, Ltd. is a Registered Provider with The American
Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit
earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES
Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-
AIA members are available on request.
This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing
professional education. As such, it does not include content
that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or
endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any
method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing
in any material or product. Questions related to specific
materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the
conclusion of this presentation.
2
This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright
laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the
presentation without written permission of the speaker is
prohibited.
TE Studio, Ltd. 2009
Certified Passive House and the related Logo are certification
marks owned by the Passive House Institute US | PHIUS and is
used by permission.
copyright materials
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1. See the big picture: Global warming, CO
2
and voluntary
building standards
2. Understand the concept of "Conservation First"
3. Know the history of the Certified Passive House building
energy standard
4. Understand how the Certified Passive House building
energy standard works
5. Understand Deep Energy Reduction Retrofit
6. Discuss issues surrounding the Certified Passive House
building energy standard and its potential to generate zero-
energy, carbon-neutral, and net-energy positive buildings
learning objectives
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THE BIG PICTURE
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u.s. energy
consumption
25%
27%
48%
Buildings
Transportation
Industry
Source: architecture2030.com
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u.s. electricity
consumption
1%
23%
76%
Buildings (Operation)
Industry
Transportation
Source: architecture2030.com
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u.s. energy mix 2007
8%
7%
85%
Fossil
Renewable
Nuclear
Source: www.eia.doe.gov
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co
2
green house gas
Top CO
2
Emitting Countries
(2005)
1. USA
2. Peoples Republic of
China
3. Russian Federation
4. India
5. Japan
Source: http://cdiac.ornl.gov/
U.S. Fossil Carbon Emissions
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global warming
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energy independence
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energy outlook
Source: International Energy Agency
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solution
The change requires rigorous adjustment of the infrastructure
and an intelligent lifestyle.
SUPPLY
Significantly improve efficiency
DEMAND
Replace fossil fuels
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architecture 2030
challenge
To accomplish this, Architecture 2030 has issued The 2030 Challenge asking the global architecture
and building community to adopt the following targets:
All new buildings, developments and major renovations shall be designed to meet a fossil fuel,
GHG-emitting, energy consumption performance standard of 50% of the regional (or country)
average for that building type.
At a minimum, an equal amount of existing building area shall be renovated annually to meet a
fossil fuel, GHG-emitting, energy consumption performance standard of 50% of the regional
(or country) average for that building type.
The fossil fuel reduction standard for all new buildings shall be increased to:
60% in 2010
70% in 2015
80% in 2020
90% in 2025
Carbon-neutral in 2030 (using no fossil fuel GHG emitting energy to operate).
Source: architecture2030.com
These targets may be accomplished by implementing
innovative sustainable design strategies, generating
on-site renewable power and/or purchasing (20% maximum)
renewable energy and/or certified renewable energy credits.
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LEED
close to zero
Net Energy Positive
Passive House
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PASSIVHAUS
passive house
building energy
standard
A rigorous, voluntary building energy standard
focusing on highest energy efficiency and quality of life
at low operating cost.
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CONSERVATION
FIRST
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conservation =
resource
Illinois Lo-Cal House, 1974
Source: PHIUS
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back to the future
Source: PHIUS
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first superinsulated
building envelope
Saskatchewan Conservation House
Saskatoon, Canada in 1977
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passive
solar
design
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passive solar design
vs. passive house
PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN PASSIVE HOUSE BUILDING STANDARD
Building design concept Certified building energy standard
Unlimited energy use Limited energy use per square foot and year
Utilization of solar heat gains (passive)
Utilization of solar heat gains and internal
heat gains (passive)
Utilization of shading devices to control solar
heat gains
Utilizes shading devices and glazing to
control solar heat gains
Use of thermal mass for absorption and
storage of solar energy
Use of superinsulation for retention of space
conditioning energy
Use of thermal mass for time-release of
space conditioning energy (passive
convection/radiation or active distribution
with mechanical system)
Use of ventilation system for distribution and
recovery of heating energy
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what happened?
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the focus shifted
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CERTIFIED
PASSIVE HOUSE
TM
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passive house
founders
Prof. Bo Adamson Dr. Wolfgang Feist
Sweden Germany
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passivhaus & phi
1990
1996: PHI - Passiv Haus Institut
Source: Passiv Haus Institut
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passive house u.s.
2008
Passive House Institute U.S. Katrin Klingenberg
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Smith House - Urbana, IL - 2003 - e-colab (rst built in the U.S.) - Zone 3
1
st
passive house in
the u.s.
Source: e-colab
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1
st
certified passive
house in the u.s.
Source: Stephan Tanner
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case study:
urban passive house
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basic design principle
First: Minimize losses
Then: Maximize gains
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A building is already warm inside going from summer into
fall and winter
-
Minimize heat loss through air-tightness, insulation,
advanced windows & doors, and heat-recovery ventilation
retaining space-conditioning energy very effectively
+
Maximize passive solar heat gains through windows
+
Maximize internal heat gains from people and appliances
+
Additional heat comes from a tiny backup system for peak
heat-load
basic design principle
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85 - 450
kWh/m
2
max. 15
kWh/m
2
active vs. passive
Average existing building
Active Heating
System 10 kW+
Passive System with
small post heater 1 kW
Passive House
Source: Krapmeier & Drssler 2001
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economy
Source: Krapmeier & Drssler 2001
Passive House
Low-energy building
Ultra low-energy building
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Space-Conditioning Energy in kWh/(m
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Gas-Mileage for Buildings
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energy
90%+ reduction in space-conditioning energy consumption*
75%+ reduction in source-energy consumption*
Source: Krapmeier & Drssler 2001 *) compared to standard-practice code-compliant construction
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gas-mileage
for buildings
Energy per square foot and year
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4,750 Btu/(sf

yr)
space-conditioning
energy limit
Energy used to heat or cool a building
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11.1 kWh/(sf

yr)
source energy
Energy made at the provider (source)
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environment
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health
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comfort
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durability
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conscience
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value
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QUALITY OF LIFE
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paradigm shifts
Incrementalism is death!
Leapfrog
System versus component approach
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schematic
OPTlONAL SOLAR THERMAL
OR SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAlC
CONTlNUOUSLY SUPER-lNSULATED
BUlLDlNG ENVELOPE & AlR-TlGHT
DETAlLS AND CONSTRUCTlON
THERMAL BRlDGE-FREE
DETAlLS
OPTlONAL EARTH-TUBE
SUMMER: PRE-COOL
WlNTER: PRE-WARM
EXTRACT AlR
- BATHS
- KlTCHEN
- LAUNDRY
- MECH. RM.
SUPPLY AlR
- BED ROOMS
- LlVlNG AREAS
HEAT-RECOVERY
VENTlLATlON &
TlNY BACKUP HEATER
lNTERNAL
HEAT GAlNS
- PEOPLE
- EQUlPMT.
P
A
S
S
lV
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S
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A
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E
EXHAUST
ADVANCED WlNDOWS & DOORS
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superinsulated
envelope
Source: Waltjen 2007
Compare to standard
2x4 wall thickness
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50
advanced windows &
doors
Source: Waltjen 2007
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Image Source: PHI
Protokollband Nr. 24 (2003)
advanced windows &
doors
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thermal bridge free
details
Source: Waltjen 2007
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air-tightness
n
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0.6 ACH
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energy/heat recovery
ventilation
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passive solar
heat gains
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internal heat gains
Copyright Sony Pictures
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backup heater
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optional renewables
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Source: Ecodrain Source: Sun Frost
high-efficiency
appliances
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predictable outcome
& quality control
Passive House Planning
Package (PHPP)
Consider site, climate,
people, envelope,
mechanical system,
renewables, etc.
Field testing &
third party verification
Site supervision by Passive
House Consultant
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field testing
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think globally,
build locally.
Passive House Standard performance requirements are
always the same, no matter where the building is built
Climate zone and a buildings distinctive location impact the
design significantly
Therefore, Passive Houses will look differently depending on
where they are located
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DEEP ENERGY
REDUCTION
RETROFIT
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key benefits
7090% reduced energy bills
Significantly reduced environmental impact and carbon
footprint
Step towards energy independence
Dramatically improved comfort & health
Enhanced durability & reduced maintenance
Integrated designthoughtful approach to how all building
components work together (Systems approach)
Improved survivability
We can overcome energy obsolescence!
Tremendous nation-wide energy-savings potential for existing
building stock
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schematic
P
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A
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S
H
A
D
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N
G

S
U
M
M
E
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HEATRECOVERY
VENTlLATlON
SMALL HEATER
AlRlNTAKE
EXHAUST
LARGE ACTlVE
MECHANlCAL SYSTEM
FURNACE OR BOlLER
EXlSTlNG CONDlTlON
lNSUFFlClENT lNSULATlON
LOWPERFORMANCE
WlNDOWS AND DOORS
AlR LEAKAGE
NO VENTlLATlON
EXTRACT AlR
SUPPLY AlR
lNTERNAL
HEAT GAlNS
PEOPLE
EQUlPMT
RETROFlT CONDlTlON
WATER PROOFlNG
AND MANAGEMENT
ADDED lNSULATlON
MlTlGATlON OF
THERMAL BRlDGES
EXlSTlNG CONDlTlON
NO WATER PROOFlNG
AND MANAGEMENT
NO lNSULATlON AT AND
BELOW GRADE
THERMAL BRlDGES
TYPlCAL EXlSTlNG BUlLDlNG BEFORE DEEP ENERGY REDUCTlON RETROFlT AFTER
OPTlONAL SOLAR THERMAL
OR SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAlC
RETROFlT CONDlTlON
ADVANCED WlNDOWS
AND DOORS
AlRTlGHTNESS LAYER
CONTlNUOUS lNSULATlON
PACKAGE
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derr in a nutshell
Assess viability of existing structure and levels of
obsolescence
Test and analyze existing performance
Create strategy and design:
- Control heat, air, and moisture
- Make the house safe for people
- Take care of ventilation
- Make the envelope air-tight and weather-tight
- Add insulation per energy goal
Assess moisture transfer through shell, and design assemblies
that will be air-tight but diffusion open
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derr in a nutshell
Demo and prepare existing building
Establish air-tightness layer
Test air-tightness layer
Add (exterior) insulation package
Install new doors and windows
Add finishes
Test air-tightness layer
Add heat-recovery ventilation system
Test ventilation system
Adequately size mechanical system
Add renewable energy package as desired
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assembly
STO-GUARD, VAPOR RETARDER,
AIR-TIGHTNESS LAYER, WIND-WASH BARRIER
XPS INSULATION
PLYWOOD SHEATHING
2X4 SLEEPERS
PLYWOOD & CONTINUOUS HIGH
TEMPERATURE ICE AND WATER SHIELD
STANDING SEAM METAL ROOFING
ROOF FRAMING,
FIBERGLASS INSULATION
SHEATHING
T&G OSB SHEATHING,
SEAL ALL JOINTS AIR-TIGHT!
EPS INSULATION
CEILING FINISH
Existing Retrofit
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assembly
Existing Retrofit
EXISTING 2X4 STUD WALL
POLYISOCYANURATE SPRAY FOAM INSULATION
T&G OSB SHEATHING,
SEAL ALL JOINTS AIR-TIGHT!
STO-GUARD
VAPOR RETARDER, AIR-TIGHTNESS LAYER,
WIND-WASH BARRIER
CONTINUOUS XPS INSULATION
PLYWOOD SHEATHING
SIDING
2X4 STUD WALL
WITH FIBERGLASS INSULATION
5/8" CEDAR SHEATHING,
BOARD & BATTEN
POLY VAPOR RETARDER
WALL FINISH
POLY VAPOR RETARDER
WALL FINISH
WATER-PROOFING
XPS INSULATION
PROTECTIVE
SHEATHING
CONCRETE WALL
CONCRETE FLOOR
SEALED MEMBRANE
2X6 I-JOIST SLEEPERS,
POLYISOCYANURATE
SPRAY FOAM INSULATION
SHEATHING
FLOORING
2X4 FRAMING, POLYISOCYANURATE
SPRAY FOAM INSULATION
WALL FINISH
CANTILEVERED JOIST (DECK)
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ZERO ENERGY
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LEED
close to zero
Net Energy Positive
Passive House
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net zero site energy
(ZEB)
Energy produced on site
=
Energy consumed on site
Comment: Desirable minimum level for new construction
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off-the grid
Energy produced on site
=
Energy consumed on site
Comment: Expensive, most useful in areas without grid
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net-zero energy bill
$-value of energy sold
=
$-value of energy purchased
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net-zero source
energy
Energy produced on site
=
Energy consumed at provider including energy content of raw
materials, conversion and distribution
Comment: True zero energy level (for operation)
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net-positive energy
(NPE)
Energy produced on site
>
Energy consumed on site
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net-zero emissions
(ZEB outside us)
CO
2
offset on site

CO
2
generated in source energy production at provider to
deliver site energy
Comment: Sustainability level (for operation)
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safe-the-planet
level
Net Zero Energy Emissions + Net Positive Energy
Comment: Potential to offset others
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save-the-planet house
Energy produced on site 3x energy consumed on site
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QUESTIONS?
This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing
Education Systems Program
Dipl.-Ing. Tim Eian, Assoc. AIA
Certified Passive House Consultant
TE Studio, Ltd.
3429 Benjamin St. NE
Minneapolis, MN 55418
www.teStudioLtd.com
612-246-4670
beautiful, resource-efficient buildings
THANK YOU FOR
YOUR TIME!
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resources
www.passivehouse.us
www.passiv.de
www.timeian.com
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