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SESSION 1:

Groundwater flow and storage in karst aquifers / Stockage souterrain deau dans le karst
Babi D., Zwahlen F. & Surbeck H. Assessing water origin in a karst system using Radon, CO2 and supersaturation The Alpeau project aims at strengthening the protective role of forest soils with an eye to the sustainable management of groundwater resources and their quality. In karstic areas, it is important to discriminate between water originating from the soil reservoir, the epikarst (interface between soil and karst), the low permeability volume (the rock volume between the epikarst and the system outlet) and the freshly infiltrated rainwater. To do so, the Gorges de l'Areuse test site (Swiss Jura Mountains) was investigated by a combined monitoring of radon, CO2 and TDGP (total dissolved gas pressure). These gases, produced in large quantities in the soil and dissolved in rainwater, were used as natural tracers. Electrical conductivity (EC), temperature, turbidity, TOC (total organic carbon), nitrogen isotopic composition and dissolved ions were also part of the survey program. The same origin of both radon and CO2, their different behaviour in the system, and their temporal variations at the outlet allowed to put forward the following premises: (i) high radon and CO2 concentrations are typical for water originating from the forest soil, (ii) low radon and high CO2 levels for the epikarst, (iii) low radon and CO2 concentrations along with high EC values are representative of the saturated zone, (iv) whereas freshly infiltrated water shows low levels of EC, radon and CO2. The radon and CO2 signals are likely to show periodic oscillation features. Soil radon concentrations are affected by various seasonal and daily changes, such as precipitations, atmospheric pressure and temperature, leading to complex time series. In order to obtain manageable data, these components needed to be removed. A Fourier transfom was therefore applied on this set of measurements. This investigation allowed getting insight into the travel time, the storage location and the quality of water in a karstic and forested watershed.

Bicalho C.C., Batiot-Guilhe C., Seidel J.L., Taupin J.D., Patris N., Van Exter S. & Jourde H. A conceptual model for groundwater circulation by using isotopic ( tracers in a Mediterranean karst system
18

O, 2H and 87Sr/86Sr) and geochemical

The Lez karst spring, located in the Mediterranean basin (southern France), supplies with water the metropolitan area of Montpellier (France) since the 19th century. Since 1981, an intense pumping is being performed directly in the main conduit with a mean pumping rate of 1300 L/s. To improve the understanding of groundwater origins and circulation dynamics in this karst system, physico-chemical parameters have been monitored and groundwater samples have been collected from the Lez spring and surrounding springs and wells, under a wide range of hydrologic conditions. Since March-2006, Hydrochemical and isotopic tracers have been determined. During the first recharge events of autumn, highly mineralized waters have been observed at the Lez spring. Their groundwater chemistry was monitored in a fine time-step, in the aim of characterizing their circulation and origins. For this characterization, a coupled approach integrating geochemistry and isotopical data has been applied in foremost applications for this karst system: water stable isotopes (18O and 2H) and strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr). Results showed that high mineralized groundwaters are characterized by enriched 87Sr/86Sr, which are associated to long residence-time and deep water rising, where evaporite fingerprinting has been identified. This approach provides insight into the different water end-members, the associated lithologies and the mineralsolution reactions that control groundwater chemistry and allows to propose a conceptual model for the groundwater circulation in this karst system. Key words: karst, hydrodynamics, hydrochemistry, natural tracing, stable isotopes.

Blondel T., Fanget B., Perrette Y., Tissier G., Poulenard J. & Malet E. Contribution de ltude des Matires Organiques Dissous la comprhension des hydrosystmes karstiques. Application lhydrosystme de Chevaline (Choranche [38]) This work is about combination between hydrochemical data, classically used to environmental tracing, and monitoring of different Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) types. Chosen studied area is karst system of Choranche caves in Vercors (38) because several previous works and measuring equipment allowed a good knowledge of its behaviour. Thanks to daily sampling of Chevaline outlet, from August to November 2009, and usual

hydrochemical analyses (alkalinity, hardness, TOC), knowledge about hydrogeological behaviour of system has been allowed to improve. Analytical methods of DOM characterization have been used simultaneously to observe their temporal evolution (UV-Vis absorbance spectrometry, spectrofluorescence). They allowed (i) a methodological development to monitor non-absorbent organic molecules, until then not easy to observe, and (ii) to show that, thanks to detailed DOM studies, complementary informations about kart aquifer behaviour can be obtained, when usual environmental tracing methods seem not to be enough distinguishing. Rsum Ce travail propose de combiner des donnes hydrochimiques classiquement utilises pour le traage naturel avec le suivi de diffrents types de Matire Organique Dissoute (MOD). Le site dtude choisi est le systme karstique des Grottes de Choranche dans le Vercors (38), car les nombreuses tudes prcdentes et lquipement en appareils de mesure du site ont permis une connaissance approfondie de son fonctionnement. Grce des prlvements journaliers de lexutoire du systme de Chevaline, pendant une priode stalant daot novembre 2009, et aux analyses hydrochimiques habituelles (alcalinit, duret, COT), nos connaissances sur le fonctionnement hydrogologique du systme ont pu tre amliores. Paralllement cela, des mthodes analytiques de caractrisation de MOD ont t utilises afin dobserver leur volution temporelle (spectromtrie dabsorbance UV-Vis, spectrofluorescence). Elles ont permis dune part le dveloppement dune mthode de suivi des molcules organiques non absorbantes, jusque-l difficilement observables, et dautre part de montrer que ltude approfondie des MOD naturelles apportaient, elles-seules, des informations complmentaires sur le fonctionnement des aquifres karstiques lorsque les mthodes de traage naturel couramment utilises semblent ne pas tre assez discriminantes. Collignon B. & Ondo C. Mise en exploitation daquifres karstiques insouponns pour alimenter en eau Libreville (Gabon) The capital city of Gabon (Libreville) has an 800,000 population and the demand for water is larger than present production capacity. Supplying the city with water has always been hectic, because surface water resources are scarce in the peninsula where the city is located. In 2005, the water utility (SEEG) has decided to mobilize additional water resources and karstic aquifers proved to be the cheapest option, as well as the most easy to implement in short period of time. Two well fields have been built. They extract water from the Madiela limestone formation, explored by deep oil wells. The first well field (near Ntoum) has been implemented along a small limestone compartment (4 km2). It is producing 4.4 million m3 /year since 3 years and meets the water demand for 7% of Libreville. Three wells have been equipped with divers with the purpose to monitor sea water intrusion and outcomes are interesting: (a) although the aquifer is very near a salty river, no sea intrusion has been recorded, (b) permanent storage is limited but (c) recharge by rain is very efficient (> 6 million m3/year). The present exploitation rate (12 000 m3/day) is sustainable and will be expanded to 50,000 m3/day. Investment costs as well as O&M costs are smaller with these karstic aquifers than with present surface water alternatives. For this reason, a second well field (near Meba) will be equipped in 2012 with a 10,000 m3/day scheduled production capacity.

Rsum
La capitale du Gabon (Libreville) est situe sur une pninsule, o les ressources en eau sont limites. La demande en eau dpasse la capacit de production actuelle de lusine de traitement des eaux de surface de Ntoum. La compagnie des eaux (SEEG) a donc dcid en 2005 de mobiliser des ressources en eau supplmentaires et les aquifres karstiques se sont rvls loption la plus conomiquement avantageuse et la plus rapide mettre en uvre. Depuis 2005, deux champs captants ont t dvelopps dans la formation des calcaires de Madiela, qui taient connus dans la rgion grce aux forages ptroliers. Le premier champ ( Ntoum) a t install le long dun petit 2 3 bloc calcaire (4 km ). Il est exploit depuis 3 ans au rythme de 4,4 millions de m /an et couvre 7% des besoins en eau traite de la ville. Les trois forages (200 mtres de profondeur) ont t quips de sondes de mesure pour garantir un monitoring rigoureux du biseau sal. Ce systme de surveillance a permis de faire plusieurs observations intressantes: (a) bien que laquifre soit situ moins de 1 km dun estuaire aux eaux saumtres, il ny a pas dintrusion saline, (b) les rserves permanentes de laquifre sont limites mais (c) la recharge par les 3 prcipitations est extrmement efficace (> 6 millions de m /an). 3 Le rythme dexploitation actuel (12 000 m /jour) est donc compatible avec une exploitation durable de la

ressource et va tre tre quadrupl. Les charges dquipement et dexploitation de ces aquifres karstiques sont plus faibles que celles des solutions alternatives (eaux de surface + usines de traitement). Pour cette raison, un second aquifre karstique est en cours dquipement ( Meba), avec une capacit de production attendue en 3 2012 de 10 000 m /jour. El Janyani S., Dupont J.P., Massei N., Jardani A. & Drfliger N. Variabilit rgionale des fluctuations pizomtriques dans l'aquifre crayeux karstique de la craie du Bassin de Paris Le cadre de ltude correspond la rgion Haute Normandie, situe louest du bassin de Paris. Dans cette rgion, laquifre poreux fissur de la craie est un aquifre libre sous couverture, drain par des conduits karstiques. Dans cette tude, nous avons dfini linfluence de lorganisation morphostructurale des plateaux crayeux de la rgion Haute Normandie sur les modalits de recharge de laquifre de la craie. Les relations entre la variabilit pizomtrique et les caractristiques lithologiques et structurales ont t tudies par l'analyse de sries temporelles de niveau de la nappe de la Craie en diffrents points de l'aquifre. L'analyse par transforme en ondelettes continue des chroniques pizomtriques nous a permis didentifier les principales composantes temporelles de ces signaux, savoir le cycle annuel et une variabilit interannuelle. Ces mmes composantes se retrouvent galement dans les signaux pluviomtriques rgionaux. Les contributions relatives de chacune de ces composantes ont t estimes en rapportant l'cart-type de chaque composante extraite l'cart-type total de chaque srie temporelle tudie. La variabilit hydrologique ainsi caractrise a ensuite t interprte dans le contexte gologique rgional, par confrontation avec la distribution spatiale des caractristiques gologiques et les htrognts structurales. Il ressort que les valeurs les plus importantes sont enregistres dans le dpartement de la Seine Maritime, avec une localisation prfrentielle dans les zones o la puissance de laquifre est maximale, ainsi que les paisseurs des argiles silex et du loess. Mots-cls: Haute Normandie, pizomtrie, aquifre de la Craie, karst, variabilit interannuelle. Abstract This work examines how the chalk plateaus organization in Upper Normandy can influence the recharge of the chalk aquifer. The relationships between the piezometric levels, hydrological variability, the surface properties and structural properties were studied by wavelet and Fourier spectral analysis. The treatment of the piezometric signal allowed us to identify the main temporal components of the signal: (i) the first one corresponding to the annual cycle and (ii) the second corresponding to a multi-year variability. These same components are also found in regional precipitation signals. The relative contributions and standard deviations of each component were estimated by comparing the standard deviation of each extracted component and the total standard deviation of each time series studied. The hydrological variability characterized has been interpreted in the geological region setting, by comparison with the spatial distribution of lithological characteristics and structural heterogeneity. It appears that the most important values are recorded in the department of Seine Maritime, with preferential localization in areas where the thickness of the aquifer and the thickness of the clay with flint and loess are maximum. Key words: Upper Normandy, piezometric level, chalk aquifer, karst, multi-year variability. El Ouali A., Sefrioui S., Mudry J., Fassi Fihri O., Essahlaoui A. & Marah H. Contribution of water isotopic signatures to determine the recharge altitude of major springs in the Middle Atlas limestone (Morocco). La prsente tude est mene au Maroc sur le Moyen Atlas calcaire caractre karstique. Son objectif est de contribuer la caractrisation des aquifres moyens atlasique et la dtermination des altitudes de recharge des principales sources issues des calcaires dolomitiques liasiques afin daider la dtermination de leurs zones dalimentation pour leur protection. La mthodologie utilise est base sur lutilisation des isotopes stables de la molcule deau. La caractrisation chimique des eaux de ces sources montre que leur composition est le reflet de celle des roches-rservoirs quelles drainent dune part et de lvolution quelles subissent au cours de leur transit au sein de ces rservoirs dautre part. Lanalyse de lvolution du deutrium en fonction de loxygne 18 permet de tracer une droite locale similaire celle des pluies analyses au sein de la station de Fs, ce qui montre que les aquifres concerns se rechargent par une infiltration rapide, sans vaporation notable des eaux de pluie. Le gradient altimtrique pour loxygne 18 est tablie -0.27 par 100m. Lapplication de ce gradient aux teneurs

isotopiques des autres sources analyses permet de remonter aux altitudes de recharge de ces sources. La confrontation de ces rsultats aux donnes hydrogologiques locales et rgionales montre une concordance notable pour les sources dont les bassins versants taient connus, et une orientation prcieuse pour les sources dont les bassins taient mal connus, avec des altitudes de recharge qui peuvent tre 1090m plus leves que les zones dmergence. Ces rsultats aident dune manire certaine dterminer les zones de recharge des sources, et donc dfinir une stratgie de protection de cette ressource. Mots cls : Moyen Atlas, Sources, Karstique, caractrisation chimique, Oxygne 18, Deutrium, altitude de recharge, zone de protection, gradient isotopique. Abstract The present study contributes to the characterisation of Middle Atlas limestone karst aquifers by implementing water stable isotopic techniques to determine the recharge altitudes of major springs issuing from liassic dolomitic limestones, helping to delineate protection areas for the springs. Chemical analyses of spring waters show a composition that reflects both reservoir lithology and a chemical evolution over the course of flow within the reservoir. Analysis of the evolution of deuterium as a function of oxygen-18 suggests a local water line similar to that derived for rainwater at a station in Fez, indicating that the aquifers in question are recharged through rapid infiltration, without appreciable evaporation of the rainwater. Application of the established -0.27 per 100m altimetric gradient for oxygen 18 to the isotopic signatures of other analyzed sources allows us to backtrack recharge altitudes for these springs. Comparison of these results with local and regional hydrogeologic data shows a notable agreement among springs for which the drainage basin is known, and allows for more precise localization of springs for which the drainage basin is poorly known, with recharge altitudes reaching 1090m higher than emergence zones. To a certain extent, these results help to determine recharge zones for Middle Atlas springs and thus aid in strategizing protection for this resource. Keywords: Middle Atlas, springs, karst, chemical analysis, oxygen 18, deuterium, recharge altitude, protection area, isotopic gradient Emblanch C., Garry B., Perineau A. & Danquigny C. Utilisation du magnsium et du carbone organique total dans l'estimation du volume d'eau coul avant l'arrive des eaux d'infiltration "directe" en priode de crue. A partir des suivis des concentrations en Carbone Organique Total (COT) et en Magnsium (Mg ), Garry (2008) a propos une classification en trois grands groupes des coulements suivis au Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit (LSBB), dans la zone non sature (ZNS) de laquifre karstique de Fontaine de Vaucluse,. Il a ainsi diffrenci : (i) un groupe dcoulements dfini par de fortes concentrations en Mg2+ et de faibles concentrations en COT, caractrisant des eaux long temps de sjour, associes des coulements de type capacitifs , (ii) un deuxime groupe dfini par des eaux fortes concentrations en COT et trs faibles 2+ concentrations en Mg , caractrisant des eaux rcentes, donc des coulements de type transmissifs , (iii) un 2+ troisime groupe, intermdiaire entre les deux autres, possdant la fois de faibles concentrations en Mg et des concentrations en matires organiques comprises entre 1 et 2 mg/L, caractristiques deaux infiltres depuis environ deux mois. A partir de cette classification et dans loptique dune meilleure comprhension du rle et du fonctionnement de la ZNS des aquifres karstiques, la signature de ces groupements deaux a t recherche dans le signal lexutoire du systme. Il sagit de dterminer les priodes durant lesquelles tel ou tel groupement intervient majoritairement dans le flux lexutoire. Compltant des travaux qui ont montr la participation deaux habituellement non mobilises la vidange des drains (Emblanch, 1999), cette analyse met en vidence une phase intermdiaire entre ltiage et la participation directe des eaux de pluie rcente. Ce phnomne avait dj t observ (Emblanch, 1998) mais partir dune tude beaucoup plus lourde 18 13 ncessitant notamment des suivis isotopique en O et CCMTD. Cette tude montre donc la pertinence du 2+ couplage COT - Mg dans les tudes de vulnrabilit des aquifres karstiques. Avec un cot raisonnable, il est possible de proposer une mthodologie destimation du volume deau qui scoule avant larrive des eaux dinfiltration directe .
2+

Erss A., Mdl-Sznyi J., Surbeck H., Horvth , Goldscheider N. & Csoma A.. Radionuclides for end-member fluid characterization, Buda Thermal Karst, Hungary The springs and wells that supply the spas of Budapest discharge from a regional Triassic carbonate aquifer system. Already in 1912, Weszelszky has reported on elevated radioactivity of the thermal waters of Budapest, especially around the Gellrt Hill, but since then, there has been no detailed study and explanation for its origin. The dissimilarity of the discharging waters within Budapest was long recognized on the basis of hydrogeochemical studies (e.g. Papp 1942; Alfldi et al. 1968). The different discharge characteristics of the Rzsadomb (North System) and Gellrt Hill (South System) was suggested also by the study of Erss et al. (2008). The application of radionuclides provided a new approach for end-member characterization of discharging waters and further supported the differences between the two areas. With the aid of radionuclides, for the North System a meteoric end member with the temperature of 12 C and 775 mg/L TDS, and a hydrothermal end member with the temperature of 76.5 C and 1440 mg/L TDS were inferred, respectively. However, in case of the South System, mixing components could not be identified. Accordingly, the hydrothermal waters with 35-47C temperature and 1400-1800 mg/L TDS discharge directly. These results have direct consequences on the understanding of cave forming processes. In the Buda Thermal Karst mixing of cold and hot karst waters was generally assigned to be responsible for the formation of caves (e.g. by Takcs-Bolner & Kraus 1989; Lel-ssy 1995). However, based on the results of this study, in case of Rzsadomb mixing corrosion might indeed be the dominant cave forming process, whereas in case of the Gellrt Hill due to the lack of mixing members possibly other processes are responsible for cave development. Additionally, this study revealed an explanation regarding the origin of the elevated radioactivity of the thermal waters of the South System. This study suggests that the source of radon in water is the iron-hydroxide precipitates that accumulate in the spring caves. 238 This study confirmed that radionuclides of the U decay series, which can be naturally found in groundwater, are powerful natural tracers to characterize fluid end-members at regional discharge areas, where different order flow systems conveying waters with different temperature, TDS and redox-state to the discharge zone

Hanin G., Laignel B., Massei N., Hauchard E., Ladhui V. & Chedeville S. Hydrological variations and sediment transfer in a karst system (Radicatel springs, Upper Normandy, France) controlled by climate fluctuations The hydrological variability and dynamics of hydrosystems, either surficial or subterranean, can be strongly controlled by climate fluctuations whatever the spatial scale of observation (e.g., Labat, 2008 ; Massei et al., 2010, Mesquita, 2009). Such studies are sometimes based on the charactrization of the relationships between hydrological records (precipitation, water table variations, streamflow) and climate indices (e.g. NAO, ENSO, SOI, ). The originality of this work is to show that within the framework of a karst system (Radicatel) in chalky context of the Western North of the Basin of Paris, it is possible to highlight the influence of the variations of the climatic signal on the hydrological parameters but also on particulate transport and the sedimentary recording. We use in this aim 22 year-long precipitation, piezometry and turbidity time series (from 1987 to 2009) and a sedimentary recording in the gallery of a spring water supply. The study of hydrological and sedimentary signals of precipitation, Chalk aquifer water level and turbidity over the period 1987 to 2009 by continuous wavelet analysis highlighted the presence of three frequency components corresponding to 1 year (hydrological cycle), 2-3 years (quasi-biennial) and 5-7 years (interannual). The identification of these frequency bands is consistent with the work of Massei et al. (2007, 2010), as shown in Laignel et al. (2010) highlighting a common structure between the hydrological signals and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which characterize the climate of North West Europe. The study of the sedimentary recording was carried out in two stages: (i) we first highlighted the existence of small sedimentary structures (alternating laminae of light and dark laminae), each corresponding to a turbid flood event eventually used for calibration of an age model by comparison with the turbidity signal. (ii) wavelet analysis of the sedimentary record has revealed a spectral composition of three frequency bands to 1 cm, 3-4 cm and 7 cm. Thanks to the age calibration, we could deduce that these three frequency bands correspond to 1 year, 2-3 years, 5-7 years. This shows sensitivity of the karst system of Radicatel in response to climate trends.This work confirms that the hydrological parameters variations (precipitation and water level) at the very local scale are clearly under the influence of the climate regime generally dominated by the NAO, and that this influence is also reflected through turbidity resulting from the complex combination of processes of runoff, erosion, particle transport and storage intrakarstique. We have also shown that sediment accumulation in the form of alternating lamination (laminated light / dark laminae) is the result of turbid flood events (event-level) and trapping sediment in the long term (22 years) is under the influence of climatic fluctuations.

Jemcov I. Karst aquifer storage estimation and calculation of the simulated conditions of exploitation Rational use of karst water resources depends considerably on the existence of a successful approach to estimating karst groundwater potential for exploitation. Here, we present two methods of determining the groundwater potentiality, as shown on the examples of two karst springs in Serbia. Ability to assess the groundwater aptitude for future exploitation may facilitate and give directions to future research. Kalantari N., Ghafari H., Keshavarzi M. & Mallaei M. Factors impacting on flow pattern in the Shimbar karstic area in the southwest of Iran In karstic aquifers the complex functioning of the systems together with assorted recharge sources give rise to difficulties to insight the groundwater flow pattern. As groundwater in karstic systems concentrated and mainly flow through conduits, therefore, understanding the structural development and trends allows tracing the groundwater flow pattern. In addition to this, spring hydrograph fluctuation and hydrochemical variation may also present important clues. On this base, detailed structural study of the area including faults, folds and fractures were carried out and spring discharge variation together with hydrochemical changes were thoroughly monitored for 2007 to 2010. The collected results indicates that in spite of heterogeneous characteristics of the Shimbar karstic system, due to faulting and intensive fracturing water drains out of the small and large catchments into the Dareh-Anari (DA) spring catchment and overall two main flows feed the DA spring reservoir. The local circulate system moves along fractures and faulted shear zone while groundwater movement at the base of the Shelar polje and the Chaleh-Monar (CM) thrust fault controls the regional flow. The quick responses of the DA spring to rainfall designates neighborhood inflow while hydrograph rise up, decrease in spring water temperature and increase in ions concentration in dry period displays distant feeding. Liu A.W. & Brancelj A. Response of cave drip water to different recorded rainfall patterns in Velika Pasjica Cave, Central Slovenia Dripping water into karst caves is actually an outlet of groundwater at an intermediate position within the karst system. From this point of view, the epikarstic sub-systems in the caves show the characteristics as a window in more complex karstic aquifer systems. Here, hydrological data were collected from four permanent drips from an epikarstic ecotone system within the cave Velika Pasjica (Central Slovenia) from 20th June 2006 and currently ongoing, where continuous measurements include temperature (water & air), water discharge (four drippings) and RH (relative humidity) by four Delta-T Data- Loggers at one-hour intervals. Hereafter, data only for the hydrological cycle for 2010 are presented. The results indicate that the temperature of the water followed a trend of seasonal variations but with certain time-delays. However, there were considerable differences between inside and outside cave climatic environmental data. In conclusion, the air temperature data-set within the cave was more stable than the water temperature data set, because the rain impacts significantly on the percolating water temperature. The significant spatial and temporal variations in the cave dripping water are mainly due to rainfall patterns (weather events), and the complex system of supply connections, which are heavily dependent on the thickness of the overlying roof and terrain characteristics. Some specific evens were measured, such as a long and heavy rain, several days without any rainfall after a storm, after a prolonged dry period, a short heavy rain and a light rainfall . This study of cave drip water can thus provide important information pertinent to an understanding of the complex dynamic process of karst water resources. Mdl-Sznyi J. & Erss A. Hypogenic karstification processes and products in flow system framework Based on the analysis of discharging fluids, processes and products together with the evaluation of the hydrogeological environment and flow regimes of the Buda Thermal Karst (ERSS et al. 2010; ERSS 2010), general conclusions could be inferred for hypogenic karstification. The regional discharge zone of groundwater flow systems of deep karsts can be characterized by simultaneous existence of different hypogenic processes. The predominance of the individual processes depends on the elements of the hydrogeological environment, flow regimes and the geological and fluid evolution of the system. Moreover, the weight of the karstification processes can change spatially and with geological time scale. The discharge zone of hypogenic karsts moreover is characterized by travertines, calcite rafts, gypsum crust and specific products such as ironmanganese-hydroxide microbial mats. These microbial mats serve as a redox interface indicator, influence sulphuric acid speleogenesis due to their special microbial activity, function as a radium reservoir and thus produce radon for spring water. The elevated radioactivity and the accumulation of trace elements as biominerals on the cell surfaces provide a special environment for microbes. This precipitate can fossilize and, on geological time scale together with the

discharge indicators serve as cave-level marker. These findings highlight the importance of flow-system context in the understanding of the porosity-generating and -plugging hypogenic processes, transport of heat, petroleum and ore components in carbonate systems which have geothermal, petroleum and ore geological importance.

Marchal J.C., Ladouche B., Dewandel B., Fleury P. & Drfliger N.


Diagnostic plots applied to well-tests in karst systems Pumping tests conducted on wells intersecting karst heterogeneities such as the conduit network are difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, this case can be solved by assimilating the horizontal karst conduit to a finiteconductivity vertical fracture. In this case, several flow patterns corresponding to the respective contributions of karst subsystems (fractured matrix, small conduits and main karst drainage network) can be identified on the diagnostic plot of drawdown derivative. This is illustrated on two examples from Mediterranean karst systems. A pumping test on a well crossing the main karst drainage network of the Cent-Fonts karst system shows (i) a preliminary contribution of the karst conduit storage capacity followed by (ii) linear flows into the fractured matrix. A pumping test on a well intersecting a small karst conduit of the Corbires karst system shows the existence of (i) bi-linear flows within both the karst conduit an the fractured matrix at early times, followed by (ii) radial flows within the fractured matrix and (iii) finally the contribution of a major karst cavity. The use of diagnostic plots allows identifying the various flow regimes during pumping tests, corresponding to the response of the individual karst aquifer subsystems. This is helpful in order to understand the structure of the karst aquifer and flow exchanges between subsystems.

Rsum
Les essais de pompage mens sur des puits traversant des htrognits du karst telles que le rseau de drains sont difficiles interprter au moyen des techniques traditionnelles. Nanmoins, ce cas peut tre abord en assimilant le conduit karstique horizontal une fracture verticale de permabilit finie. Dans ce cas, plusieurs types dcoulements correspondant aux contributions respectives des sous-systmes du karst (matrice fracture de la zone noye, petits conduits, rseau de drainage principal) peuvent tre identifis sur la courbe diagnostic de la drive du rabattement. Cette mthode est illustre sur deux cas rels provenant daquifres karstiques mditerranens. Un essai de pompage ralis sur un puits traversant le rseau de drainage karstique principal du systme des Cent-Fonts montre (i) une premire contribution du stockage capacitif au sein du conduit karstique suivi (ii) dcoulements monodimensionnels au sein de la matrice fracture. Un essai de pompage sur un puits traversant un petit conduit karstique du systme des Corbires montre lexistence (i) dcoulements bilinaires au sein du conduit et de la matrice fracture au dbut, suivis (ii) dcoulements radiaux au sein de la matrice fracture et enfin (iii) la contribution dune cavit karstique majeure. Lutilisation de la courbe diagnostic de drive des rabattements permet didentifier les diffrents rgimes dcoulements durant un essai de pompage, correspondant aux rponses successives des sous-systmes de laquifre karstique. Ceci contribue comprendre la structure de laquifre karstique ainsi que les changes de flux entre sous-systmes.

Parise M. Managing water resources in the karst of southern Italy : an historical survey Karst landscapes are characterised by lack or scarce presence of water at the surface. This resulted in the need, for ancient populations, to gain a deep knowledge of the territory in order to exploit the few available water resources. Several techniques were developed at this aim, until reaching a high level of capability to collect, transport, and distribute water, even at long distances. Many areas in southern Italy still nowadays present hydraulic works of remarkable interest and historical values, which are briefly described in the present paper, together with other features used for water storage in karst. The lessons learned from such ancient ability should not get lost, in times when we are periodically facing hydric crisis and droughts.

Sinreich M. Contaminant attenuation in karst aquifers a paradigm shift