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DFMA is an integration of the techniques,  Design for Manufacturability (DFM): DFM analyses the product concept on manufacturability and

it can show the cost of design and can make a new, more accurate calculation directly.  Design for Assembly (DFA) With DFA every part it has to be checked if the part is really necessary. If part is not necessary the part can better be integrated in other parts or replaced by a similar function, but more simple design. DFA can contribute to a low-cost position by reducing scrap and rework, creating efficiencies I purchasing, assembly, and inventory, and allowing the organization to move more quickly down the learning curve. Less parts mentioned by DFM means easier assembly and thus less costs. HISTORY: IN ORDER TO KEEP UP WITH OR BE AHEAD OF the competition it is necessary to develop, produce and launch products in shorter periods every time. The product life cycle is shortening fast. This contains a shorter time to market. This new perspective on product launching is significantly different from the traditional approach. The latter means that a project is broken down into series of steps or activities, which are executed sequentially. These activities are also assigns to departments or divisions that work independently most of the time. This approach enhances specialization and functional job focus. The time to market is longer which the main drawback is. Besides this it is also difficult to integrate manufacturing activities. In order to integrate several activities and have cost effective benefits, concurrent engineering has been developed. CHARACTERISTICS OF DFMA: DFMA contributes to competitive success by matching product demands to manufacturability and assembly capability. Major characteristics of DFMA are: y y Both parts manufacturing and assembly are taken into account in the optimization to the design, because only considering one of these processes may lead to suboptimazation. The closed loop approach which means that product design, process planning and production equipment design are executed in parallel. Throughout the entire design process numerous decisions are taken which have consequences for production. By parallel execution the effect of a design decision on production can be evaluated. Commitment to continuous product and process optimization.

PILLARS OF DFMA
Technological components:

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Knowledge about engineering sciences Design methods Materials Manufacturing Computers

Social components: y y y y y y Corporate and organization culture Team design methods the the nature of the design tasks, and of the designer customer attributes employee involvement

Technique Rules for product redesign:


y y y y y Reducing the number of parts Making assembly foolproof Simplifying the assembly process Making the product easy to test Avoiding excessively high tolerances

Seen these aspects the conclusion can be drawn that DFMA is a more management issue than a technical issue. This also means several techniques are useful, because of several points of view, such as:

DFM; THE AXIOMATIC APPROACH: y y y y IDENTIFY THE MOST COSTLY PARTS OF THE PRODUCT S LIFE CYCLE ESTABLISH MEASURABLE CRITEERIA BY WHICH TO MONITOR THESE COSTS Establish benchmarks against which to measure product progress Monitor the process to sure objectives are met

DFM; the Taguchi method: This method assigns penalty points to each assembly activity and calculates numerical quality rating for a given product design. ADVANTAGES: y DFM can suggest the optimal assembly system and degree of automation

y y y y y y y y

DFM analysis is used to help compare selected materials and manufacturing processes for the component parts of the assembly. Improving quality of design reduction in product development cycle time reduction in manufacturing costs reduction in maintainability/serviceability efforts and warranty costs higher product yields through manufacturing increased product performance greater predictability of product yields

DISADVANTAGES: y y y Current DFMA tools do not take into account many manufacturing capabilities Current DFMA tools do not take tolerancing considerations into account Many of the computer-based DFMA tools nearly complete designs. When the design is finally analyzed there are a number of barriers that prevent substantial modification of the design. Current DFMA tools give the designer little feedback upon which to base design modifications. Combining too many functions in one part can increase manufacturing costs.

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Stages of DFMA: The design for manufacture and assembly process begins with product simplification through design for assembly. Design for manufacture then aids in the selection of material and processes and provides piece part and tooling cost estimate feedback into Design for Assembly. Design for Service and Design for Environment are then utilized to improve the serviceability, maintainability and he environmental impact of the final design. DESIGN FOR ASSEMBLY: Design for Assembly (DFA) is the core software tool for concurrent engineering work. It not only allows you to quantify assembly time and labor costs, but it challenges you to simplify the structure of your products and thereby reduce part cost as well as assembly costs. Companies have recorded millions of dollars in savings simply by applying DFA at the early stages of product design. This tool is a must if you wish to maintain or improve your competitiveness. DESGN FOR MANUFACTUERE: DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE PROVIDES GUIDANCE IN the selection of materials and processes and generates piece part and tooling cost estimates at any stage of product design. DFM is a critical component of the DFMA process that provides manufacturing knowledge into the cost reduction analysis of Design for Assembly.

DFM concurrent costing is a software tool to generate cost estimate for both piece part cost and tooling investments. Unlike existing parametric cost estimating models, DFM concurrent costing does not rely on historical data and therefore allows you to generate accurate cost estimate for new designs and explore alternative materials and processes. Some of the benefits of using DFM concurrent costing are
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Accurate cost estimator Concurrent engineering implementation Supplier negotiations Competitive benchmarking

DESIGN FOR SERVICE:

With a wide range of product options and brands available, today s customer has the luxury of demanding specific attributes that reach beyond traditional product quality. Serviceability, in particular, has become a key selling point for manufacturers of all types of goods. To assist manufacturers in meeting the demand for ease of serviceability, we developed the Design for Service (DFS) software. Typically, the main concerns of an engineer are to design for function, quality, cost and weight. DFS broadens the engineer s objectives and make designing for service part of a total set of priorities. DFS software allows designers and engineers to evaluate the serviceability of a product when it is in the early design stage, where changes can be made to the product design at minimal cost. DESIGN FOR ENVIRONMENT: WITH THE Rapid implementation of environmental legislation worldwide new tools are needed to help innovative companies turn their products green-before legislation is enacted that could put them in red. In several countries the responsibility for end-of-life disposal of products is already being passed to the manufacturer. By designing these products up-front for environmental and cost efficiency, manufacturers will gain an edge on slow-to-react competitors who face the same issues unprepared. The solution: design for Environment (DFE) software from Boothroyed Dewhurst, Lnc. and TNO. DFM simulates the disassembly of products at end-of-life, and reveals the associated cost benefits and environmental impacts of a product design.