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Subject Research Methodology

The Research Process

1. Selecting a topic 2. Defining the research problem 3. Objectives of Research 4. Literature Survey 5. Development of working hypothesis 6. Preparing a research design 7. Sample design 8. Collection of Data 9. Execution of project

10. Analysis of data and hypothesis testing 11. Generalisation and interpretation 12. Preparation of research report

Domestic Violence can be described as when one adult in a relationship misuses power to control another. It is the establishment of control and fear in a relationship through violence and other forms of abuse. The violence may involve physical abuse, sexual assault and threats. Sometimes its more subtle, like making someone feel worthless, not letting them have any money, or not allowing them to leave the home. Social isolation and emotional abuse can have long-lasting effects as well as physical violence. Domestic Violence isn't just hitting, or fighting, or an occasional argument.

It's an abuse of power. The abuser tortures and controls the victim by calculated threats, intimidation, and physical violence. . Although both men and women can be abused, in most cases, the victims are women. Children in homes where there is domestic violence are also abused or neglected. Although the woman is usually the primary target, violence is sometimes directed toward children, and sometimes toward family members and friends. Many women in India are the victims of domestic abuse. Domestic violence is a CRIME and you must seek help.

Forms of Domestic Violence

Domestic violence can take many forms and variations and can happen once in a while or all at the same time. Domestic violence can be Psychological Abuse, Social Abuse, Financial Abuse, Physical Assault or Sexual Assault. Violence can be criminal and includes physical assault or injury (hitting,

beating, shoving, etc.), sexual abuse ( forced sexual activity), or stalking.

How children can get affected by domestic violence at home

Effects of domestic violence on children
1) Children can themselves get physically abused or hurt. 2) Witnessing violence actions can be mentally damaging 3) Children often try to intervene to protect the adult victim, which puts them in a dangerous situation 4) Children can copy the violent behavior they witness, both as children and as adults 5) They may develop stress-related problems in health 6) They can loose self- confidence, be afraid/angry, and blame

themselves for what is happening or feel guilty.

Various case studies

No: 1
Rani (wife): 45 years Rathan (Husband): 52 years Religion: Hindu

Rani and Rathan have been married for 26 years. They have two daughters (22 yrs and 18yrs) and a son (24 years). Both husband and wife have only elementary education. Rathan and Rani are agricultural labourers each earning about Rs.1000 per month. Their early years of marriage were happy. However, Rathan began consuming alcohol occasionally and Rani did not

pay much attention to it. Gradually he became addicted to alcohol. After having three children, it became difficult for them to finance the needs of children. So Rani started going for work as an agricultural labourer. Rathan became furious and could not digest the thought of Rani going to work. He started suspecting her of having love affair with someone outside. He often used to follow her to the workplace and on seeing her talking to other men, he used to beat and hit her up severely. They also became sexually maladjusted. At present he talks about her in abusive terms. Rathan spends his entire money on alcohol. Their elder daughter was married off with Ranis efforts. Even after many years of married life, they do not have a house of their own. Recently Rathan started taking Ranis earnings without even leaving a single penny for her. Rani is anxious about getting her younger daughter married.

And out of despair she once poured kerosene on herself, but her daughter prevented her from burning to death. Her son is also an agricultural labourer and earns Rs 1000 per month. He supports the family, but his income is hardly enough to make both ends meet. Their neighbours and friends are very helpful. She has also applied for financial help from a religious institution to get her daughter married off. Rani approached a family counseling centre for help and has been undergoing counseling. After attending regular counseling shehas become optimistic and hopes that her daughters life would not become miserable as has happened in her case.

No: 2

Reeta (Wife): 45 years Rahul (Husband): 52 years

Religion: Christian

Reeta and Rahul were married to each other 25 years ago. Their marriage was legally registered. They have three daughters 22 years, 18 years, and 14 years of age. Both Reeta and Rahul have received only primary education. Rahul is a driver and earns a monthly income of Rs 3000. One of their daughters is also working as a sales girl earning Rs 1000 per month. Rahul is very dominating and possessive in nature; he is also a schizophrenic. He is an alcoholic too. He does not allow his daughters to move out of the house and even beats his daughter who goes to work. He spends all his money according to his whims and fancies. Reeta was not allowed to talk even to her neighbours, if she does, he beats her and inflicts injuries on her. He also picks quarrel with neighbours who

are sympathetic towards Reeta and her children. Reeta and her children had to starve many a time. Rahul even goes to the extent of taking away his daughters salary. Owing to all these, Reeta has become an emotional wreck. She believes that because of tensions and dejection, she fails to take proper care of her daughters. Their neighbours stay away from them for fear of Rahuls outbursts. Through Reeta has registered the case in the nearest police station and received some temporary help, she has not approached any other institution or organisation for advice or assistance.

No. 3

Salim (husband) Salma (wife) Religion Muslim

Salim and Salma had an arranged marriage 11 years ago. Theirs is an extended family with her father-inlaw, mother-in-law, brother-in-law, and two sisters-in-law. They have a daughter, two-and-half year old. Salim has passed SSLC and Salma has done her pre-degree course. Salim is the sole earning member of the family, working in a private company and earning around Rs 4000 a month. Salims parents had taken dowry at the time of the marriage from Salmas parents. But after marriage demands were raised by her-in-laws for more dowry. They keep on heaping curses on her and telling her that she had brought dowry of a much lower amount than they had

expected. Salma has no control over the financial matters of the household nor is she consulted in taking any major decisions. Salim is an alcoholic and is dissatisfied with his job and the salary. He hits, kicks, and beats her, goaded on by his mother and sister. He has also warned her not to seek any legal help from any source lest he and his parents should land in trouble. Once he even strangled Salma just because she had told them that her father was not able to meet their demands and that if they persisted in harassing him he might go to the police. Though she suffers a lot, she has not yet lost hope. She tries her maximum to give the best possible to her child. Her sister-in-laws often harass her and shower abuses on her. Her relationship with her neighbours is adversely affected because her inlaws always speak ill of her. She had

approached the police station once for help and they directed her to the Peoples Council for Social Justice (PCSJ). At present she is seeking help from PCSJ in the form of counseling. This has helped her to handle situations in a much better way than earlier.

Laws against domestic violence in India

The special laws for women protect her integrity and safety. The victim is given reprieve under various sections. During the time of court hearing,assistance is given for preparing the documents and filing a case. The children are given safety as custody immediately is passed to the mother. The act includes physical violence related to shaking, punching with fists, throwing or pushing in a violent manner. It includes physical harm with an object. The stipulations in the sexual violence also include forcible sex or unnatural sex which is done with force.

The percentage of women having been slapped, hit or punched is very common. As the occurrence may not be continual or routine, the ladies do not wish to complain. Besides financial insecurity and social stigma does not help them to work it out. Moreover Indian women do face social stigma easily and hence remain submissive. Serious domestic violence includes burns, forcible injections for drugs, electric shocks or demeaning her modesty. The protection in law is full in this context. Various studies reveal that the real Indian woman is easily subjected to pressure to work out her marriage. This results in bearing the abuse silently. The law has provided mental abuse cases and gives punishment for threatening, using abusive language, hailing insults and passing remarks that are demeaning about her personality. Humiliation of women in domestic set up is not tolerated by law. Accepting abuse like wife beating is just treated as normal about marriage in many cultures and hence the women do not report the

same. Domestic violence if reported can help a women have a life of dignity. The act is self-explanatory and is simple to understand. More guidance can be sought by seeking the help of an expert. With new cases registering justice is given to the victim. The cases are dealt in an intricate manner and though the law takes time to deliver justice, it is a relief for most women to get out of a situation. Shelter homes are especially useful for women as they muster courage to lead a healthy life. Enabling education and skill, survival is easy with the financial security. The bold step by many women especially newly weds is a sign of encouragement. It lifts the standard of women in India. Dowry deaths usually begin with harassment with goes unheeded and results in the killing of the woman. This can be easily avoided if the support for the victimized women is granted via relatives and friends.

Survey Questions
1.) Are you in a relationship? Yes No. 2.) What is your qualification level? Below SSC SSC HSC Any other 3.) Do you know what is domestic violence? Yes No. 4.) Do you think domestic Violence happens only when one is married? Yes No

5.) Do you think illiterate people are the only victims of domestic violence? Yes No

6.) on Old

Domestic violence is done more Men Women Children

7.) Domestic violence exists only in India ? Yes No 8.) Have you ever faced domestic violence? Yes No 9.) Have you ever helped someone who is suffering from domestic violence? Yes No 10.) If domestic violence was done on you, what steps would you have taken? Leave your partner Report the abuse Seek for guidance or help Be silent and wait for the person to change his/her behavior 11.) Who is the main offender in most of the cases?

Men Women Children Parents 12.) Would you recommend the victim to stay with the abuser, if the abuser promises to change? Yes No 13.) Do you think that domestic violence is caused by stress or anger? Yes No. 14.) If the victims file a case against the offender, do you think any action is taken by the police ? Yes No.

If you are being abused, REMEMBER You are not alone. It is not your fault. Help is available. Trust in the Goodness of God & Seek help !