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Differentiation

Rule: Bring down the power and reduce the power by 1. y= 2 x 4 5 x2 7 x 2 + 12 x 5 1 5 x6 x4 + 9 2 1 2 x = 2x 2 Finding turning points (maximum/ minimum values) A turning point occurs where the gradient is zero, i.e. where dy = 0. dx dy = dx 8 x 3 10 x 14x + 12 30 x 4 2 x3 x
1 2

Example: Find the coordinates of the maximum and minimum points for the curve y = x3 5 x2 + 3x + 4 . dy = 3 x 2 10 x + 3 dx dy = 0. So 3 x 2 10 x + 3 = 0. At a turning point, dx Factorsise: 3 x 2 9 x 1x + 3 = 0 3x(x 3) 1(x 3) = 0 (3x 1)(x 3) = 0 1 x = or x = 3 3 3 2 Find y coordinates from y = x 5 x + 3 x + 4 : Solution: 1 13 1 1 1 When x = , y = 5 + 3 + 4 = 4 3 27 3 3 3 3 2 When x = 3, y = 3 5 3 + 3 3 + 4 = 5 1 13 So coordinates are: , 4 and ( 3, 5 ) . 3 27 To decide whether they are a maximum or minimum calculate the gradient at either side of the point. 1 x= : 3 dy =3 x = 0, dx dy 3 1 = 5 + 3 = 1 x = 0.5, dx 4 4 Therefore a minimum.
3 2

x = 3:

dy = 12 20 + 3 = 5 dx dy = 48 40 + 3 = 11 x = 4, dx Therefore a maximum. x = 2,
y 10

Sketch of graph:

-2

-1

-5

-10

Note: You can also use the 2nd derivative to decide whether a turning point is a maximum or a minimum: If d2y > 0 then it is a minimum dx 2 d2 y < 0 then it is a maximum. dx 2 Equation of a tangent dy tells you the gradient of a curve. dx The gradient m of a tangent line at the point ( x1 , y1 ) can be found from The equation of the tangent is then y y1 = m( x x1 ) . Example 2: Find the equation of the tangent to the graph y = 3x 2 4 x + 2 at x = 1. Solution: dy = 6 x 4 this is used to find gradients dx dy = 6 x 4 = 6 1 4 = 2 . When x = 1, dx When x = 1, y = 3 ( 1) 4 ( 1) + 2 = 1
2

dy . dx

So equation of tangent is y 1 = 2( x 1) So, y = 2x 1.

Perpendicular lines Suppose 2 lines have gradients m1 & m2 . These lines are perpendicular if m1 m2 = 1 , i.e. m2 = Equation of a normal To find the equation of a normal at the point ( x1 , y1 ) : dy Find the gradient from ; dx 1 m= Find the gradient m of the normal using dy ; dx The equation of the normal is y y1 = m( x x1 ) Example: Find the equation of the normal to the graph y = x(x + 1)(x 2). at x = -1. Solution: 2 3 2 Expand brackets: y = x(x + 1)(x 2) = x ( x x 2 ) = x x 2 x dy 2 = 3 x 2 2 x 2 = 3 ( 1) 2 ( 1) 2 = 3 dx 1 1 So gradient of normal is m = dy = 3 . dx When x = -1, y = ( 1) ( 1) 2(1) = 1 1 + 2 = 0 .
3 2

1 . m1

So equation of a normal is

y0 = y=

1 ( x + 1) . 3

1 ( x 1) 3

Questions: 1. Find, and distinguish between, the maximum and minimum points of the curve y = x 3 3 x 2 + 4. Find the gradient of the graph of y = x 5 x3 2 x + 3 at the point where x = 2, and hence show that the equation of the tangent at this point is y = 66x 109. Sketch the graph of y = x(x 2)(x 3) for the values of x in the interval -1 x 4. Find dy/dx and show that the gradient of the graph at the point where x = 1 is -1. Find the equation of the normal to the curve at this point.

2.

3.

4.

(a) Find the gradient of the graph of y = x 2 3x at x = 2. (b) Find the coordinates of the point on the graph where the gradient is zero. (i) Show that the equation of the tangent to the curve with equation y = x3 + x at the point where x = 1 is y = 4x -2. (ii) Show that the curve meets the tangent line again when x 3 3 x + 2 = 0 . By expressing x 3 3 x + 2 as a product of three factors, find where the tangent meets the curve again. (a) Calculate f(2). (b) Solve the equation f (x) = 0. (c) Sketch the graph of y = f(x) for 0 x 4, writing on your diagram the coordinates of (i) the point where it cuts the y-axis, (ii) one of the points where it cuts the x-axis, (iii) the turning points. f(x) = x 3 6 x 2 + 9 x 2 .

5.

6.

7.

Find the coordinates of the point on the curve with equation y = x 2 + 6 x , where the tangent has a gradient of 9. Write down the equation of the line through the origin which is parallel to this tangent. Find the x coordinates of the two points where this line cuts the curve.