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Human Geography

Chapter One Cities and Civilizations

. The development of the modern world obviously has is foundation laid on previous societies. It is rightly believed that the emergence, of cities in the past had a great deal on many factors which are timeless. By timeless we meant that those factors that are responsible for the development of those cities in. the past can equally be effective for the creation of modern day cities. Bui before we shall be doing justice to the development of modern city, it would be apt to quickly glance through factors with which past cities and civilizations were laid. Firstly is has to be registered that the survival of human race at any given time would definitely rest on the availability of provision for livelihood. Agriculture takes a great part in the creation of city and civilization, whole lot of civilizations and cities created in the olden times were formed based on agriculture. Yet having agriculture is itself not alone to build a city, the necessity of administrative structure becomes important. Generally speaking, city and civilization is created on agriculture, administrative structure, and territory, specialization in trade (artisan), ruler/king religion and technology. Obviously before the modern era there have been different forms and shapes of human societies in the past. History has recorded that at some point there was the gathering and hunting societies. In this society there was division of labor as women were responsible for gathering fruits and vegetable while men have to go hunting. Hence this tells us that division of labor is not a modem making rather it has been part of human society since the ancient times. Similarly we need make ourselves understand that the sustenance of any society is it in the past or present would definitely rest on the exploration and exploitation technology. Thus, we can assert that no civilization or creation of city with out technology. Thus, at every point in human history any society that has developed lived its life based on certain technology. Before the modern era, there was the stone era (stone technology), bronze era (bronze technology), iron era (iron technology) all identified with the technology of their time. Furthermore, we shall not fail to mention civilizations of the past such as the Sumer civilization (3000 BC) in present day Iraq, Chinese civilization (1500 BC), Maya civilization (1000 BC), and Greek and Roman civilization. The last civilization was the foundation with which the modem western civilization was laid.

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Pre-Capitalist Societies Since most of what we shall be looking at points to the history of the world according to the understanding of the west, hence we shall start by looking at the modern western society particularly known as the capitalist society. But before attempting that we have to see what preceded the capitalist society. Feudalism is said to be the preceding society before the capitalist western society, as clearing discussed in the class what are the major features of feudalism. This system known as feudalism means a society where few within the society have the ownership of land (landlords) at the expenses of the many. The many known as commoners only live their lives by working for the landlords, with, little in return. It is sometimes believe that such system was exploiting and failed to grant every individual his right. According to the feudal system in Europe, it was not just a matter of the feudal lords rather it also saw the collaboration of the Church with, the feudal lords in exploiting the people. By and large the feudal system was very much distinctive from the present capitalist system. Feudalism is simply not peculiar to the Europe alone but was present in many societies as we know it in subcontinent or Pakistan as Jagidar system. Summarily, European feudalism was characterized by the Church, small community, subsistence farming, lordship and peasantry, wars, and hierarchical decentralization.

Dilemmas of the Pre- Capitalist Societies

Communication dilemma in the past, as people has limited communication with themselves in that people in the rural areas are not informed and less aware of the happenings in other neighborhood. Unlike today in the capitalist society where rampant communication facilitates mobility of people on one hand and the spread of information at the slightest shortest time. In the pre-capitalist society, city life which expresses civilization was unknown to the rural people. This dilemma never allowed the rural people acquaintance with the city life as well as city religion necessary for uniting the people. In the pre-capitalist society, the rulers have little or not interest and care for their subject, particularly because the concept of individual right has no meaning to them. The commoners, ordinary people are marginalized and deprived of better life. During that era, the merchants were part of the minority group within the society, the feudal lord failed to accord them ample opportunity. This obviously is the big difference between the capitalist and the pre-capitalist societies, where in the former the merchants can explore and exploit as much as they can.

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Chapter two
The Capitalist Societies
The fall of the feudal system paved way for the manifestation of the capitalism. Capitalism obviously was spearheaded by the merchants. Adam Smith one of the earliest modern western economic thinkers believed capitalism to be a selfish system geared at selfish desire for self interest and strictly takes individual into consideration. However broadly speaking by way of definition, capitalism is defined as the system that gives an individual ownership of property. Similarly, capitalism is also known as the liberal economy and as the economic aspect of liberal democracy. Characteristics of Capitalism Profit Oriented Free Market based on (Demand and Supply) Low Cost of production for low price Low wage for workers Division of Labor Competition Exploit of unskilled labor Cheap labor Investment Oriented Models of Development We shall identify three models that try to explain capitalism and its development 1. Development Model, according to this model development to take place in any society should follow the capitalist way of development. Rostow five stages of development can better explain how the capitalist wants development to take place (traditional, pre condition for take off, take off, drive to maturity and mass consumption) 2. The Marxist Model also explains capitalism in its own light, Marxist model says that capitalist reproduce themselves that is to say capitalist always want power to be with them and as such would like that their family, relations or corporate fellows maintain power to that they can continue power usurpation. Similarly, this model sees the capitalism system as exploitative and pushes society into classification. 3. The third model of Immanuel Waller stein which speaks on world system equally tries to explain capitalism in the light of world order. According this model it is the existing world order or system that determines what kind, of system will be ruling. Hence capitalism existence is due to the

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Chapter Three
The intelligible mind would know that the modem world have its foundation laid on the progress and development of the pre-modern and modern era. The industrial revolution that grabbed Britain and eventually spread across the continent of Europe account for many of what we are now enjoying as development, It is apt to know that the industrial revolution did not happen or flourished without certain factors such as the availability of technology. It was the steam technology that seriously supported the revolution. The use of the steam engines with coal as the underground resource made the industrial revolution a reckonable development. Thereby we can rightly say that for any development of civilization the availability of technology and resources are very much important. This is true of all civilizations that had passed through the surface of the earth. The modern development however starting from the industrial revolution started with the coal energy, then later when oil was discovered the importance of coal decline although it was still being used in some other places, but, the fact that oil (petroleum) has more utility than the coal drew the importance of coal down. Hence the modern capitalism system which was brightened by the industrial revolution and many other developments also has its glory on the marriage of technology and resources. Capitalism as a system known for desire for huge productivity and investment tendency has been able to divide the world into two that is the producers and finishers. Here what we mean is that, the third world that has long been exploited since the era of colonialism stands as agricultural societies where raw materials for industries can be tapped and having no technology, while the developed world (responsible for colonialism) stands out as the society having technology, can get agricultural raw materials from the third world, and with its technology can transform this raw materials into finished goods, which are later sold at expensive price to the third world. This was what Immanuel Waller stein termed as the difference between the Core state (developed world) and the Peripheral state (developing world). Capitalism undoubtedly has become a system which we are made to be believe as a virile system good for any country that wants to develop, due to its individuality and freedom of ownership given to everyone one based on willingness, capability and potential. Capitalism continues to flourish since its birth but as it is always natural that no progress comes without obstacles or problem. In the same way, capitalism has been facing several forms of difficulties challenging or trying to obstruct it progress. There are numbers of such difficult challenging times and obstructions among which was the first and second World Wars, both of these depicted situation where progress of capitalism was derailed as destruction from the war brought down capitalism. One will expect that industries or capitalist will not be interested in war because such will hinder their ability to make profit and invest. War although might have become profitable but generally it derails economic development. Similarly, the global economic depression 1923-33 also caused

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some damages to global capitalism. We might not really understand the global depression of that period (1923-33) but we are all witness to the recent global economic meltdown that hit the whole of the world causing global inflation and economic hardship for many. If we can understand and experience the itching effect of recent global financial crisis (2008) then we can better understand the (1923-33) global economic depression that gave a huge blow to capitalism. It was a depression that sent many banks to bankruptcy, many businesses packed off and inflation did not simply affected economies but strangled many household. The aftermath of the Second World War also gave some drawbacks to capitalism as many countries and their economies were destroyed and the process of reconstruction means lot of money needed to be expended. The 1970s oil crisis was another big issue and serious concern for capitalism, since most western industrial economies rely on oil, they cannot afford that anything happens to the soul of their economy. The crisis happened as a result of the crisis between Israel and Palestine, a Jewish terrorist went to attack Bait ul Maquds in Jerusalem (the Muslim mosque in Jerusalem) and that resulted to crisis between Israel and Palestine and the Arab countries. The Israelis were supported by the western countries against the Arabs, so the Arab having the world oil with them felt they can better punish the western countries and Israel by stopping the sale of oil through OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) and OAPEC (Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries). The oil crisis really dealt a huge blow on capitalism and since then the western industrial societies have been trying to get alternative energy from oil and dependence on Arab oil. This tells us that energy (resource) and technology are essential in the development and progress of any system such as capitalism.

Challenges to Liberal Capitalism

The rise of certain ideologies such as Fascism and Nazism: Fascism was a political and socio-cultural ideology developed in Italy from 1922 until 1943 under leader Benito Mussolini. The term Fascism comes from the Word fasces, the Roman symbol of collectivism and power. Fascism is a. radical, authoritarian nationalist ideology that aims to create a single-party state, with a government led by a dictator who seeks national unity and development by requiring individuals to subordinate self-interest to the collective interest of the nation or race. Under this system there is no class division, an attempt to restore traditional family system and values. The reason why this system is said to be a challenge to capitalism is that is stands opposite to most of what capitalism represents. Most particularly freedom and individual ownership of property is totally not welcomed in Fascism, a system that monitors and interfere individual private and public life. This obviously shows the disparity between fascism and capitalism.

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Under Fascism the state through official cartels, controlled all aspects of manufacturing, commerce, finance, and agriculture. Planning boards set product lines, production levels, prices, wages, working conditions, and the size of firms. Licensing was ubiquitous; no economic activity could be undertaken without government permission. Levels of consumption were dictated by the state, and "excess" incomes had to be surrendered as taxes or "loans." The consequent burdening of manufacturers gave advantages to foreign firms wishing to export. But since government policy aimed at autarky, or national self-sufficiency, protectionism was necessary, imports were barred or strictly controlled, leaving foreign conquest as the only avenue of access to resources unavailable domestically. Fascism was thus incompatible with peace and the international division of labor hallmarks of liberal capitalism.

Nazism is another radical ideology developed in Germany under Adolph Hitler. Nazism
refers to the ideology and practices of the National Socialist German Workers' Party from 1933 to 1945. Scholars often equate Nazism with Fascism that both ideologies almost share same thought and direction. Nazism is said to be a populist system, mass oriented, dogmatic, and racial discriminatory and outrageous to liberal democracy. Nazism has come to stand for a belief in the superiority of an Aryan race, an abstraction of the Germanic peoples. During Hitler's time, the Nazis advocated a strong, centralized government under the Fuhrer and claimed to defend Germany and the German people (including those of German ethnicity abroad) against Communism and so-called Jewish subversion. Ultimately, the Nazis sought to create a largely homogeneous and autarkic ethnic state, absorbing the ideas of Pan-Germanism. Nazism was against capitalism (especially anti-finance capitalist) Hitler attacked what he called "Pluto democracy," which he claimed to be a Jewish conspiracy to favor democratic parties in order to keep capitalism intact. The "corporation" was attacked by orthodox Nazis as being the leading instrument of finance capitalism, with the role of Jews emphasized. The National Socialist party described itself as socialist, and, at the time, conservative opponents such as the Industrial Employers Association described it as "totalitarian, terrorist, conspiratorial, and socialist." Hitler said in 1927, "We are socialists, we are enemies of today's capitalistic economic system for the exploitation of the economically weak, with its unfair salaries, with its unseemly evaluation of a human being according to wealth and property instead of responsibility and performance." The Nazi Party's 1920 "Twenty-Five Point Programme" demanded that the State shall make it its primary duty to provide a livelihood for its citizens the .abolition of all incomes unearned by work, the ruthless confiscation of all war profits. The nationalization of all businesses which have been formed into corporations, Profit-sharing in large enterprises extensive development of insurance for old-age and reform suitable to our national requirements..."

Communism became a virulent opposition to capitalism as it believed that the latter was
exploiting the masses and living on the people's sweat. Communism was against capitalism because it felt capitalism causes class division and inequality in the society. Unlike capitalism that does not believe in government interference in economic, communism sees the necessity of

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the state to manage the economy through a centralized system. Similarly communism share different view with capitalism, while capitalism believes in individuality, communism believes in collectivity and that is why it called itself communal system. The Russian-communist revolution-made the threat to capitalism more salient as many states were adopting communism, as communist were able to prove to the people that capitalism was responsible for the division of the world into semi-peripheral, peripheral and core. However if was most, of the state that belongs to the peripheral and semi-peripheral that communism was; able to carry along. Communism obviously became the state system in China, former Yugoslavia, former East Europe and Central Asia and many countries in Africa also attempted to practice it. In this way the spread of communism created a serious global concern for liberal capitalism.

Islamic Revivalism,
Muslim had one time were at the helm of global affairs ruling and directing the world, but as the cycle of leadership changes particularly when Europeans invaded most of the Muslim society, the whole system changed. Hence Muslims began clamoring for their freedom, asking the imperialist western countries to leave their countries. Muslims often tries to recollect that their prestige as leaders of the world thereby cannot accept being slave to anyone, particularly the western world. The challenge to Europeanization of Muslim societies was later known as pan-Islamism or Islamic revivalism that wants to bring back Islamic image to its right position in world affairs. Islamic revivalism was seen as anti-westernization, colonialism, and attempt to reconstruct the glorious past of Muslim history. Nevertheless, Muslims believe that they do have their own e conomic system and would not blindly accept western capitalist system in view of certain shortcomings of capitalist system.

End of Imperialism
Since Europeans were at the centre of imperialism, and colonialism, any attempt to stop the system will definitely have impact on them. The gradual decline of Europe till the Second World War when power finally shifted away from Europe to America speaks a lot. Hence the two World Wars, economy depression, rise of communism and Americanization of the world, spread and development of education, decolonization all had great impact on the authority of Europe. We should not fail to glance through the dilemma of modernization and the underdevelopment as regard the core and peripheral countries. The question is that has modernization been helpful to the development of the third world countries, or has capitalism championed by the west further makes stagnate the development of third world nations.

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Chapter Four
Modernity and its manifestations is obviously the product of certain development such as the industrial revolution, technology revolution and many more. These developments brought about a new kind of environment, having a distinctive face different from the traditional society that man has always lived in. Urbanization was the product and new society that developed from the developments. The process of urbanization is known to be the process of creating a city, hence both urban and city are often interchangeably used. Nevertheless we must not forget the fact that creation of the city or urban settlement was facilitated by the middle class. The reason for this is due to the fact that the city or urban settlement has it own feature such as presence industries and many other symbols of modernity, obviously it is only the middle class who are equipped with the knowledge can best do well and make the city functional. By and large urban or city is said to be created out of modernization, industrialization and drastic change in mode production. The urban life is distinguishes itself from the rural or traditional society, because life in the city influences all spheres of human endeavors. The city is an interconnected settlement where one function is linked to another function; hence it is like a system that can only function when all the units are in proper place and shape. There are many reasons why people would desire to move to the city. Hence this gives us the understanding that migration is a vital factor in the formation of the city, because many migrate from the rural to the city in search of better life, job opportunity, reunification with their family and desire to avail social infrastructures that cab better their lives.

What is a City? The word city is derived from civility, having links with civilization. Hence city dwellers are expected to be civilized and cultured. Yet we shall not fail to look at the definition of the city according to Lewis Wirth, he define the city as "a relatively large, dense and permanent settlement of socially heterogeneous individuals." By this definition, relatively large, dense and permanent settlement, socially heterogeneous individuals are important factors to be noted. Similarly, due to the transformation of the city and its manifestation, political-economist have closely studied the city and came to the conclusion that the city can equally be seen as the concentration of elite, wealth, population, financial and economic power and political power. Evidently, we are made to believe that the city remains a place where policies are taken because of its vital status of concentration of newer.

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Characteristics of the City Individualism, people residing in the city are believe to be self conscious, they would rather want the betterment of their own life than to think of others. Base on the theory of survival of the fittest, people living in the city struggle for their survival, hence when struggling, definitely and naturally, one would better be concerned of himself than other. Similarly due to the nature of work in the city and large size of the city calls for individualism. Competition, the first point of individualism and struggle, for survival obviously would have given the understanding of the kind of competition that exists in the city. For survival a person need to compete with others. In view of the competition and survival tendency the City is often witnessing social dislocation meaning that some people are pushed to the bottom of the society because they lack the tool for competition. Competition in the city can come in the form of educational pursuit, social status and many more, such competition also .contribute to the complex social segregation and structure often seen in the city. Dynamism, the fact that the city the concentration of resources and power explains its dynamism, however that alone is not enough a fact as to the heterogeneity (different kind of people) living in the city. Unlike many rural area that is strictly homogenous, such as the rural area of Punjab will be strictly populated by the Punjab, but the city is not, rather it place that welcomes people of different cultural background. Hence one can also say that it is the diverse taste, desire and wishes of the people brings about dynamism and progress of the city. Inequality, the city is characterized by inequality which could be as a result of disparity of educational achievement, social status and networking. The competitiveness present in the city spun inequality as a result one would see classes of people, upper, middle and lower class within the city, having dissimilar kind of life.

Security, there is appreciable amount of security consciousness in the city, as result of the social status whereby some are rich and others; are poor bring forth this argument of security consciousness. The rich is always nurturing the fear that the poor will come and cart away his property or tries to tamper with his family; hence one will always see how the rich people in the society takes important the matter of security. Similarly the poor also have sense of security alertness, as he feels the rich as a result of his wealth can violate his right, imprison him or maltreat him due to his low social status. Furthermore, in any competitive society is always a sense of security alertness. Unemployment and employment in certain sectors, many migrate to the city in search of economic welfare but on getting to the city they failed to fit into the society either due to their low educational achievement or other factors, thereby becoming unemployed or doing less skilled job, because with higher education there is always better opportunity in the city.

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Ghettoization Castell refers to the presence of ghettoes in the city as the 4"' world, because the ghettoes are different world on their own, in spite the flamboyant infrastructures in the city, yet there are many people lacking social amenities and because they cannot afford the social demand of the city they end their lives in the slums and ghettoes (Kachi abadi). This of course is not peculiar to the developing world or third world but ghettoes are equally visible in developed world of the western society.

The growing nature of the modern city as turned into a chain of connection, whereby world cities are linked to each other. The happenings in New York often closely reflected in Berlin or London. Hence there is a sort of connection among city, as in financial connection, global consumerism, and global entertainment industries as in Hollywood and Bollywood or the different automobile complex across the globe.

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Chapter Five
Rural Alternative, it is rightly discussed that the existence of the city lies, with the existence of the rural area. The city is said to be the core while the rural area remains the peripheral. But with such situation we can submit that there are certain relations between city and rural area. But the question that comes to mind is that what does rural means, although answer to it might not be far to fetch as rural area is seen as the society lacking in modern infrastructures and relatively less developed as compared to the city.
According to the functional school of thought (functionalism) that the rural area functions for certain purposes. The rural are maintains the institutions of society such as the family, religion that are major aspects of the social structure. These institutions are made up of interconnected roles or inter-related norms. For example, inter-connected roles in the institution of the family are of wife, mother, husband, father, son and daughter. Functionalism speaks of the communal life in the rural society where people do things in common, unlike in the city where things are done individually. The rural area does believe in a system based collectivity and interdependence parts, with a tendency toward equilibrium. Similarly the functional sees the rural area that creates avenues for its survival by maintaining those institutions. Hence we can say that the rural locality lives by social construct, that rules, norms and value of the society which it believes can preserve its existence. It is quite clear that traditional value and norms prevails in the rural area and modem norms are most seen in the city. The rural area obviously has it own merit and that of course is the provision of raw material for the services needed in the city. Hence what makes a city different from the rural should be pointed out. Housing facility, employment (traditional and unskilled...rural versus skilled...city) income, services and transport, lower population, rural, dense population....city, use of natural resources. ..Rural, land for agriculture The rural area equally plays its political economic role, by being the means of production and serving as locality where agricultural raw materials are transported to the urban city. Rural Network The rural area because of it potentials creates a network, among the state, national and global economy. The fact that a rural has resources needed in the global market, will definitely creates attention towards it and by that it will, make the state and the national government more concern about the rural area in order to explore and exploit the resources. This will definitely have two consequences; on one hand it might trigger

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development of the rural area and on the other lead to exploitation of the area only for its resources. By and large one can see that the rural area becomes a link among state, national and global market. Similarly in view OF the resources available in the rural setting it becomes a sphere where government enforces law for specific purpose (for research purpose, agricultural purpose, strategic and many more that are of state interest. Based on this, it will not be hard to see Land Tenure Law enacted for such, rural area. This obviously will affect land ownership. Traditionally, ownership of land in the rural area is hereditary; where land is transfer from father to son, but with government interference such traditional ownership of land changes. Secondly, as a result of such law it often bring about struggle for the available land, as traditional land has been taken away from the people, hence the available land will become a source of scramble among the ruralite. Whatever be the case, the fact that government interfere in land ownership and gives attention to the rural speaks of the influence of national and global demand on the rural areas.

Urban Fringe: Encroachment of the Urban into the rural areas

When the urban moves into the rural for whatever reason, such, situation is refer to as urban-rural encroachment. Obviously, when such situation happens there comes with it many socio-economic consequences. Lose of Farmland, people in the rural area loses their farmland as a result of this encroachment, particularly when certain infrastructural development is to take place in the rural area such as construction of railways, building, operation of oil companies, scientific research institute, recreational centers (like park and zoo) or many other things that, will need land usage. Hence one will see that the major agricultural and source of survival of the people becomes affected. Land for Market, Land in the rural area as result become a commodity, in view of the factor that many people from the urban area wanting land would have to struggle getting land and thus land is previously transfer from father to son., becomes something that is transferred to an outsider. This sometimes encourage conflict, among land owners struggling to make profit out of their land. However most of the land being sold is often profitable to the urban developer, in that productivity of the land or the end result which the land is producing after been bought is greater than the price the ruralite sold it out. For instance once a land is sold out and an industry is established on the land, the profit making by the industries in both short and long run will be much greater than the price of the original land. Rural Land Use, when rural lands are used by urban developers, they often cause degradation to the land, resulting in land pollution in view of exploration of natural resources such as petroleum or scientific research. When the ruralite realizes such degradation and

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pollution, they lay complain to the perpetrators and protest against it, when protest does not correct the, situation, it often result to conflict as seen in various part of the world. Another question that comes to mind, is the involvement of Lobby groups interested in rural land, these group could be local, domestic and international. The interest they get from the land is often greater than the ordinary people in the rural area. Although there can be direct encroachment yet at the same time there can be indirect encroachment. Agriculture market opportunities: Usually in the rural area the people often involve in monoeconomy, whereby farmland is used just for singular activity but the involvement of urban can change this, whereby farmers can be more aware of the least farming process and their farmland can better be used for many things than just singular activity. Rural Labor Market: as explained above, diversification of the rural economy can be seen when urban encroaches into the rural area, and at the same time creating better opportunity for the rural people in terms of employments in the established industries. O one hand when people migrate from rural area to urban, it creates the situation of depopulation, such situation obviously affected lives in the rural area, it reduces the working force and makes redundant the utility of resources in the rural area. Yet in the similar fashion when urban encroaches into rural it brings about over population to the rural area. We are well informed that the rural population is thin in nature, so it get affected when people start migrating from urban into the rural. Counter-urbanization By this term it means a process of developing the rural area in such a way that people would have no desire to migrate from the rural to the urban. Hence such a process can happen when people desire to migrate from the urban to the rural in view of development and providing social infrastructures, wealth, for the people. The construction of universities, industries and companies, employment for ruralites. There are many reasons why people will leave Urban for Rural Economic constraint: the economic stress in the urban, area pushes many out to search for alternative in the rural area. Most metropolitan areas are characterized by their expensive nature, therefore for those that cannot afford shift towards the rural area. Many industrialists would shift to the rural area for cheap labor, cheap raw material and due to less labor unionism in the rural area that is many people in the rural area have little or no knowledge about labor law, so it is possible for the urban industrialist to exploit their labor. Consequently, social environmentalism that is (retirement, romanticism, social responsibility in the rural area)

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Consequences of Counter-urbanization Disparity within the rural area Difference in life style Education and urban experience becomes yardstick for leadership Population growth and services Services and its effectiveness

Rural Development There are two models for top-down model and bottom-top model Top-down represent the situation when state or national government is responsible for the development of the rural as explained above, while the bottom-top model represents ruralites developing themselves and later the government Lakes interest.

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