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Rocket Spanish version 1.01


Copyright 2005 by Libros Media Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microlm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of Libros Media Ltd; exceptions are made for brief excerpts used in published reviews.

Published by Libros Media Ltd Level 2 107 Cashel Street, Christchurch, 8001, New Zealand

This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information with regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional advice. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. From a Declaration of Principles jointly adopted by a Committee of the American Bar Association and a Committee of Publishers and associations.

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Table of Contents
1.1 How to Pronounce Spanish Words The Spanish Alphabet Pronuncation Practice Accent Marks Listen! 1.2 People, Places, and Things Understanding Nouns Is it a Boy or a Girl? Talking about People and Animals What The?! Same Endings, Different Story Talking about Things and Ideas Hermaphroditic Nouns When Theres More than One 1.3 Using The and A Understanding Articles How to Say The in Spanish How to Say A or An in Spanish 1.4 Talking about You, He, and We Pronouns in Spanish Which You Should You Use? 1.5 To Be Part 1: The Verb SER To Be or Not to Be Drop the Subject Talking about Whose It is and Where Youre From Talking about What You Do for a Living Be Careful with To Be Verbs 1.6 Numbers Starting out: 0 to 35 Masculine and Feminine Numbers Numbers from 36 to 102 Asking How Much or How Many Numbers from 101 Dont Forget the Gender Reverse Puncuation: How to Write Big Numbers
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12 12 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 20 20 20 21 22 22 22 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 29 29 30

1.7 Telling the Time Exception at One OClock Talking about Quarter Hours and Thirty Minutes Asking at What Time Something will Occur 1.8 Review 2.1 Verbs in the Present Tense Understanding Innitives Isolating Verb Endings How to Conjugate a Verb 2.2 The Verb IR (to go) Going To a Place Using IR to Talk about What is Going to Happen 2.3 Asking Questions Inection Funky Punctuation Marks Using a Statement as a Question Asking Really? Is That True? 2.4 To Be Part 2: The Verb ESTAR Where am I? Forming DEL from DE and EL How Do You Feel? 2.5 Review 3.1 Adjectives Part 1: Descriptions Getting Nouns and Adjectives in Order Describing Things Adjust the Adjective to Suit the Noun Adjectives that End in o or a Adjectives that End in e Describing How Much in General Short and Simple: Adjectives like BUEN and MAL Big or Great? Using GRAN and GRANDE 3.2 Using ESTAR to Express a Feeling or Condition When to Use ESTAR, When to Use SER The Importance of Getting SER and ESTAR Right 3.3 Talking about the Weather

31 31 32 33 34 44 44 46 47 50 50 51 52 52 52 53 53 55 55 58 59 60 70 70 72 73 73 73 76 76 77 78 81 81 82

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3.4 Adjectives Part 2: Who Owns What My Hat, Your Hat: Understanding Possessive Adjectives What is Owned v. Who Owns It This is All Mine 3.5 Review 4.1 Talking about Me, Her, and Us: Direct Object Pronouns Understanding Direct Object Pronouns When People are Direct Objects 4.2 Indirect Object Pronouns To Whom? Adding Clarity to Le and Les 4.3 Putting Direct & Indirect Object Pronouns Together Which Object Comes First? Why Does Le Change to Se? To Whom? Clarifying Se 4.4 More about Us and Them: Prepositional Pronouns Understanding Prepositions Prepositional Pronouns The Exceptions: Entre T y Yo, Conmigo and Contigo 4.5 Talking about This, That, and That One over There Demonstrative Adjectives in Spanish Demonstrative Pronouns A Note of Caution: Accent Marks 4.6 Review 5.1 Introduction to Irregular Verbs: TENER and VENIR

84 84 84 85 87 97 97 98 99 100 102 102 103 104 105 105 105 106 107 107 108 109 110 118

Why Complicate Things? The Role of Irregular Verbs in Spanish 118 Using TENER to Talk about Age, What You Have, Whether Youre Hungry, What You Feel Like Doing 119 5.2 Stem Changing Verbs in the Present What is a Stem Change? A Rare Stem Change: i to ie Another Rare Stem Change: u to ue The Last and Strangest Stem Change: o to hue 5.3 Irregular Verbs in the Yo Form Now a G, Now an O, GO! Thinking about VALER
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121 121 121 122 123 124 124 125

5.4 To Say and To Give: Using DECIR and DAR 5.5 When Something is Happening Understanding the Present Progressive The Present Participles of Regular Verbs Irregular Stem Changing Verbs 5.6 Review 6.1 Talking about What You Know: SABER and CONOCER Strange Shades of Meaning SABER: To Know Information or How to Do Something CONOCER: To Know a Person, Place, or Thing Knowing Places 6.2 Talking about What You Like, Love, and Lack Verbs without English Equivalents Using GUSTAR to Talk About What You Like Common Errors with GUSTAR Using FALTAR to Talk about What You Lack or Need Using the Verb QUEDAR 6.3 Actions You Perform on Yourself: Reexive Verbs Understanding Reexive Verbs When a Verb is Reexive and When It is Not To Get Emotional with a Reexive Verb 6.4 Review 7.1 Talking about Whats Good, Better, and Best Understanding Comparatives and Superlatives For Better or for Worse: MEJOR QUE and PEOR QUE The Best of All: LA MEJOR The Most of All: MS DE Super Cool: The Ending -simo Some More Comparisons: MS QUE and MENOS QUE Expressing How Things are Alike: TAN COMO and TANTO COMO 7.2 Talking about Ifs, Ands, Buts Understanding Conjuctions 7.3 Talking about Something and Nothing Understanding Indenite Words Understanding Negative Words
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126 128 128 128 129 130 138 138 139 139 140 141 141 142 144 145 146 148 148 149 151 153 163 163 164 164 165 166 166 167 169 169 170 170 171

7.4 Review Appendix 1. Grammatical Concepts in English Appendix 2. Answer Key Appendix 3. Complete Beginners Book Vocabulary (Spanish to English) Appendix 4. Complete Beginners Book Vocabulary (English to Spanish)

173 183 187 193 206

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Introduction
Hello! Welcome to the rst book of Rocket Spanish! My name is Mauricio, and I want to congratulate you for taking the rst step on the road to learning a very special language. My rst language has a very important place in my heart, because it represents my family, culture, and traditions. I grew up in one of the most colorful and friendly cities in Chile, Via del Mar. Speaking Spanish brings back all the memories of my childhood like the smell of our weekly asados (barbecues), the sounds of the msica folklrica (Andean music), and the sight of the streets bustling with vendors, musicians, even jugglers! I hope that you are learning Spanish because you want to speak with natives. If someone in your life is a native speaker, your ability to share thoughts with them in their rst language will be a special gift. If you are not yet planning a trip to a Latin American country, I hope that this book will inspire you to do so. Speaking another peoples language is the best way to enter into their culture, their imagination, and their way of life.

What You Get with My Book


You may have tried other Spanish-learning products before and felt as if learning the language was an uphill battle. The amount of memorization may have seemed enormous. Every little bit you learned was just a thimbleful of the vast ocean of words. Let me tell you now: this book is different! Its fun. No other how-to-speak-Spanish product gives you so much! Youll get a great computer game to teach you the vocabulary you want to know fun and informative illustrations on every page and a complete audio recording of the entire book so that you can listen as you follow along! Youll also get many exercises to practice what you have learned. Its quick. Instead of throwing lists and lists of words at you, Im going to give you the bare minimum you need to understand how the language works. Does this sound impossible? Its not!! Did you know that in most languages half of ALL conversation is made up of only 150 or so words? If you can memorize those words, youll be well on your way to becoming uentwithout having to spend hours and hours and HOURS memorizing.

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Thats why I dont bombard you with vocabulary from the start. If youre interested in expanding your vocabulary, youll nd piles more words in the Beginners Supplemental Vocab Book. If you want to get exactly what you need, however, youll nd a list of 20 of the 140 most common words in Spanish in the vocabulary review at the end of each section. This list includes words like the, a/an, and, or, but, you, and I. You HAVE to know these words. With ordinary nouns, verbs, and adjectives, it will be easy to pick up what you need to know. All youll need to do is point to a watermelon, for example, to ask a Spanishspeaking person what the word for watermelon is. (By the way, its sanda.) Or, if you want the verb to eat (comer), you can pretend to shovel food in your mouth. But you CANT do this with words like this, that, always, or never. If you are immersed in a Spanish-speaking country and ask a non-English speaker to tell you what the word is for many in Spanish, youll nd that it will be almost IMPOSSIBLE to communicate what you need to know! THATS why you need to focus on memorizing the essential words, not the ordinary nouns and verbs that other books give you. Its real. This is the most important aspect that my book can offer you. Youll get all the right grammar in this book, but what youll also get is a focus on how those rules get applied in everyday sentences. Every concept is extensively illustrated with examples about what you can and cant say. Youll learn about the pitfalls and the common mistakes. If youre not comfortable with English grammar, a handy appendix is included at the end of the book with a list of necessary concepts.

Suitable for the Traveler


If youre planning to go to a Spanish-speaking country for a vacation or on business, you need to know the basics to keep from getting stranded. At the end of this book, youll be able to engage in simple conversations about topics like how youre feeling, the weather, what time something is happening, directions to an unfamiliar place, to whom something belongs, and more. If you dedicate yourself completely to the material in this book, youll even be able to go to a party and have fun trying out your language skills on your new Spanish-speaking friends! Rememberits more important that you try to communicate with whatever amount of Spanish you know, rather than waste your mental effort on tricky concepts

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that are best mastered once youre out there hearing others speak. The more you speak Spanish, and the more youre around other Spanish speakers, the faster your language facility will improve.

Overview of What Youll Learn


Let me tell you a bit about the structure of this book. It is divided into seven parts on topics ranging from the basics to action words to descriptions. Each section concludes with a review chapter. Youll nd a list of the concepts you should have mastered followed by a vocabulary list that contains all the Spanish words used in the section, as well as a special list of 20 of the most commonly used words in Spanish. After the vocabulary list, you will be able to read or listen to a conversation, in order to practice your comprehension and listening skills. Finally, youll be able to test your knowledge of Spanish with exercises before moving on to the next section. If you are well and truly interested in increasing your vocabulary, you have the option of continuing your learning with the Beginners Vocabulary Supplement. There, youll nd specialized vocabulary lists on topics ranging from sports to going on vacation, and youll be able to apply your newfound skills by reading a short story. Youll also be able to practice your new vocabulary words by playing the Rocket Spanish Mega Vocab game. Memorization has never been so fun! Good luck!

Mauricio

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Part I. The Basics

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1.1 How to Pronounce Spanish Words


Spanish is such an easy language to speak. It is phonetic, which means that as long as you memorize the sounds of each letter in the alphabet, you can read ANY word!

The Spanish Alphabet


You can form almost every sound in Spanish using the English sounds that you already know. Look at the Spanish alphabet below. See if you cant pick out the letters that do NOT occur in the English alphabet: a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, ll, m, n, , o, p, q, r, rr, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z If you said ch, ll, , and rr, youd be right! The ch sound is pronounced just as it is pronounced in English, like Charles. The ll sound is often pronounced like a y, as in yo-yo. Please note that this sound is difcult to pin down, as it is prounced in a variety of ways around Latin America. The sound is pronounced like an n followed by a yay. The rr sound is pronounced by trilling the r sound. Think of a purring cat! Below is a guide to the pronunciation of the letters of the alphabet. Just remember to pronounce the letter combination ay as in day and the letter combination ah like you were opening your mouth for the dentist, and youll be ne! A B C CH D E F G H I J K L LL M N O P ah beh say chay day ay ef-ay hay ah-chay ee hotah kah el-ay ay-yay em-ay en-ay en-yay oh peh
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Q R RR S T U V W X Y Z

coo air-ay airrr-ay (roll those Rs!) es-ay (like S-ay) teh oo beh doh-bleh-beh eh-keys ee-gree-ay-gah say-tah

Notice that the letters b and v sound alike. Thats because, for most Spanish speakers, there is no difference between the sounds of the two letters in Spanish: v is pronounced just like b. This can make it difcult when youre trying to spell an unfamiliar word that youve only heard before, like grabadora (tape recorder) or vago (lazy). If you ask someone to spell a word in Spanish for you, that person may differentiate b and v by talking about beh grande (big b) and beh pequeo (little v). You may also have difculties with the Spanish sounds g, h, and j. They sound rather different from their English counterparts! Both g and j can sound like the English h (as in hey). The Spanish h, on the other hand, is usually silent! By the way ... Did you know that the letter w is only used in words of foreign origin, like Washington?

Pronuncation Practice
Now, see if you can pronounce the following words: A: gata (cat) B: barra (bar) C: cabra (goat) CH: chancho (pig) D: dar (to give) E: edad (age) F: feliz (happy) G: gafas (glasses) H: hay (there is), hielo (ice), hora (hour) I: ida (return) J: ja-ja (ha-ha), joya (jewel) K: kilo (kilogram) L: lado (side) LL: pollo (chicken), bello (beautiful) M: madre (mother) N: no (no) : nio (child), extrao (strange, foreign)
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O: P: Q: R: RR: S: T: U: V: W: X: Y: Z:

color (color) prueba (test) que (what, that) rojo (red) perro (dog) sbado (Saturday) tener (to have) t (you) vosotros (you) wter (toilet) xito (success) ya (already) zapato (shoe)

Accent Marks
The nal thing that you need to remember about pronouncing Spanish words is that accent marks will completely change the pronunciation AND meaning of a word. Consider the following stressed vowels:

When you see one of the above vowels, stress that syllable. For example, the three words below all sound different. esta sta est Each of these three words has a different meaning, as well as different sound. Youll learn more about them in Chapter 4.5.

Listen!
Thats enough pronunciation practice for now. Remember: the more you listen, the more youll be able to recognize words as theyre spoken! In the next chapter well work on nouns: words for people, places, and things

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1.2 People, Places, and Things


Understanding Nouns
Nouns are words used to name or identify a person, animal, place, thing, or idea. Examples include: girl, hat, coat, weather, picture, coffee, hotel. Just as in English, Spanish nouns can either be singular, such as cat or gato, or plural (i.e., more than one), like cats or gatos. The rst thing that you must learn about Spanish, however, is that all nouns also have a gender. In other words, all objects and living things are either masculine or feminine.

Is it a Boy or a Girl?
The concept of gender can feel confusing for new students of Latin languages. Having a gender does not mean that nouns actually refer to male or female things, although, in most circumstances, the nouns that refer to males (such as a male doctor or a male animal) are masculine, while nouns that refer to females are generally feminine. In many situations, you will be able to distinguish between masculine and feminine nouns by the distinctive association to a gender. For example, the sun tends to be associated with masculine imagery, and in Spanish we nd that its gender is also masculine: el sol. The moon tends to be associated with feminine imagery, and, in Spanish, it is feminine: la luna. You may nd it impossible to gure out the gender of other nouns, however. For example, how would anyone know whether a table or a cup is masculine or feminine? (La mesa and la taza are both feminine.) You wont be able to gure out the gender of most nouns from their English equivalents. Once you know the word in Spanish, however, youll be able to gure out the gender in a snap.

Talking about People and Animals


Masculine nouns often end in o or or, while feminine nouns often end in a or ora. Masculine nouns el hombre Ends with o el perro el gato the (male) cat the man la mujer Ends with -a the (male) dog la perra la gata
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Feminine nouns the woman the (female) dog the (female) cat

Ends with or el doctor el seor

Ends with -ora the doctor la doctora the gentleman la seora the (female) doctor the lady

Ends with -ista el pianista the pianist Examples: 1. Dnde est el gato? - Where is the cat?

Ends with -ista la pianista the (female) pianist

2. Cando fue el doctor a ver a la seora? - When did the doctor go to see the lady? 3. La mujer est llorando. - The woman is crying. 4. Cmo est el seor? - How is the gentleman? 5. El hombre est en Espaa. - The man is in Spain.

What The?!
One of the most common words in the English language is the. In Spanish, the is not a single word, however. Rather it has four forms, depending on the gender and quantity of the noun to which it is matched. This isnt as confusing as it sounds! For right now, just remember that the word the, if followed by a masculine noun, is el. If followed by a feminine noun, use la. the the + + masculine noun feminine noun = = el la

Same Endings, Different Story


When you nd a noun ending in ista (e.g. pianista) you will notice the ending is the same for both the masculine and feminine forms. In these cases, the gender of the noun will be indicated by whether it is preceded by el (masculine) or la (feminine). Other nouns follow this pattern. Review the following:

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el artista the male artist el atleta the male athlete Examples:

la artista the female artist la atleta the female athlete

1. La atleta sale a correr todos los das. - The athlete goes for a run every day. 2. Jose es el artista en la familia. - Jose is the artist in the family.

Talking about Things and Ideas


Who could guess that the word problem would be masculine? Or that the word destruction would be feminine? Non-living things can be quite tricky to assign a gender to. As mentioned before, guring out the gender of these nouns from the English is impossible, but you can gure out gender easily once you know how the noun ends in Spanish. Nouns that end in o, ma, and s (in their singular form) are generally masculine. Nouns that end in a, cin, and dad are generally feminine.

Review the examples in the following table: Masculine nouns End with o el cuchillo el zapato el pelo el ajo End with ma el problema el sistema End with -s el pas the country the problem the system the knife the shoe the hair the garlic End with -a la computadora la puerta la guitarra la ventana End with -cin la conversacin la destruccin End with -dad la universidad la sociedad the university the society the conversation the destruction the computer the door the guitar the window Feminine nouns

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Hermaphroditic Nouns
Of course, there are always exceptions to the rules. For example, la mano (the hand) nishes on o, but it is a feminine noun. Theres no way around it: some memorization will be necessary. Once you get into the habit of associating a gender with each new noun you learn, however, the el or la will come naturally. Examples: 1. Me cort la mano con el cuchillo. - I cut my hand with the knife. 2. Me gusta tocar la guitarra. - I like playing the guitar. 3. Dnde est la puerta de salida? - Where is the exit door?

When Theres More than One


How do you take a singular noun in Spanish and make it plural? Amazingly enough, its not that different from English. Just as you add an s or es in English (such as cats or buses), you add the same endings in Spanish. The rules of their application are just a bit different. 1. For nouns ending in a vowel, add an s to make it plural.

gato

becomes

gatos.

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2. For nouns that end in a consonant, add es to make it plural.

doctor

becomes

doctores.

3. For nouns that end in z, replace the z with ces.

pez

becomes

peces

4. When you refer to a group of mixed gender items or people, always use the masculine plural form. 1 gato + 2 gatas = 3 gatos

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1.3 Using The and A


Understanding Articles
You may not have learned this in grammar school, but in English the word the is a denite article. That is because it points to a very specic thing. For example, you may tell someone, I want the mug, assuming that they will bring you the mug you have in mind. However, if you tell them, I want a mug, you will get whatever mug they choose to hand you! That is because the words a or an are indenite articles.

How to Say The in Spanish


Spanish has denite and indenite articles as well. However, as mentioned before, Spanish speakers must suit the form of the article to the gender of the noun it precedes. Remember el hombre and la mujer? What you didnt know then was that the article must also reect the quantity of the nounwhether or not it is singular or plural. For example, if there is one man, we speak of el hombre. If there are two or more men, we speak of los hombres. If there is one woman, we speak of la mujer. If there are two or more women, we speak of las mujeres. You can see how the Spanish forms of the are used in the following table: Masculine Singular el chico the boy Por ejemplo: 1. El libro est en mi maleta. - The book is in my bag. 2. Compr los libros en la librera. - I bought the books from the bookstore. 3. Las manzanas estn podridas. - The apples are rotten. 4. Las chicas salieron a correr. - The girls went running.
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Feminine Plural los chicos the boys Singular la chica the girl Plural las chicas the girls

How to Say A or An in Spanish


In Spanish, there are four forms of the indenite articles a, an, or some. Masculine Singular un lpiz a pencil Plural unos lpices some pencils Singular una or a ower Feminine Plural unas ores some owers

Por ejemplo: 1. Hay una or en el orero. - There is a ower in the vase. 2. Tengo unas ores para mi novia. - I have some owers for my girlfriend. 3. Necesito un lpiz. - I need a pencil.

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1.4 Talking about You, He, and We


Pronouns in Spanish
In English, when talking to people or about people, you often use pronouns like I, you, we, they, and them. Spanish is the same with a few twists. Singular form yo t usted (Ud.) l ella I you (familiar) you (polite) he she

Be careful! Notice that l is spelled exactly the same as el except for the accent mark over the e. Make sure that whenever you write he you dont end up inadvertenly writing the. Plural form nosotros/as vosotros/as ustedes (Uds.) ellos ellas we you (familiar) you (polite) they (masculine) they (feminine)

Which You Should You Use?


Ustedes and vosotros are used when you are addressing or talking about other people, not including yourself. It has the same sense in which you would say, Hey, you guys! Por ejemplo: 1. Ustedes son el futuro del pas. - You are the future of the country. 2. Muchas gracias a todos vosotros por su contribucin. - Thank you very much for your contribution. 3. Ellas no tienen sus boletos de avin. - They (the girls) dont have their plane tickets.

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Helpful Hint: Spain is one of the only countries where youll hear the pronoun vosotros commonly used. In most of Central and South America, the pronoun ustedes is used for both plural forms of you.

A Bit of History: Thou and Thee


Back in the days of Shakespeare, people used the words thou and thee to address their friends or loved ones (royals were addressed with the more formal you and ye). These familiar forms of you have fallen out of use in modern-day English, but Spanish has maintained a distinction between familiar and polite forms of you. The familiar t Use the t form of you to speak to children, friends, family members, or loved ones in a casual, relaxed way. The polite usted Use the usted form of you when you wish to be polite or show respect. You might use it with strangers, the elderly, teachers, or authority gures. Por ejemplo: 1. Addressing a stranger: De que pas es usted? - What country are you from? 2. Addressing a child: T eres muy joven. - You are very young. 3. Addressing a coworker: Usted tiene el dinero. - You have the money. 4. Addressing a friend: T no puedes levantar esa pesa. - You cant lift that weight. 5. Addressing an elderly person: Adnde va usted? - Where are you going?

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1.5 To Be Part 1: The Verb SER


To Be or Not to Be
In English we know the forms of the verb to be without thinking. I am. You are. We are. They are. In Spanish, each verb changes to reect the subject of the verb, as well as the tense (such as present, past, or future). These changes are called conjugations. The following table shows the conjugations of the verb ser in the present tense. Singular Subject soy Yo (I) eres T (familiar you) Ud., l, ella (polite you, he, she) es Por ejemplo: 1. Yo soy de Espaa. - I am from Spain. 2. T eres joven. - You are young. 3. Ella es profesora. - She is a teacher. 4. Nosotros somos de Nueva Zelanda. - We are from New Zealand. 5. Vosotros sois de Espaa. - You are all from Spain. 6. Ustedes son muy inteligentes. - You are all very intelligent. Plural Subject Nosotros/as (we) Vosotros/as (familiar you) Uds, ellos, ellas (you, them)

somos sois son

Drop the Subject


Each conjugation is so precise that you usually dont need to include a subject at all! In Spanish you can simply say the verb: Soy de Espaa. Eres joven. Somos de Nueva Zelanda.

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Talking about Whose It is and Where Youre From


The word de is widely used with the verb ser. It means of when used to indicate possession and from when used to indicate origin. Por ejemplo: 1. De quin es el zapato? - Whose shoe is this? 2. El zapato es de Mateo. - It is Matthews shoe.

Literally: Of whom is this shoe? Literally: The shoe is of Matthew.

3. Esos son los pasaportes de mis padres. - Those are my parents passports. Literally: Those are the passports of my parents. 4. De dnde es Eduardo? - Where does Edward come from? 5. Eduardo es de Espaa. - Edward is from Spain. Literally: From where is Edward?

Talking about What You Do for a Living


The verb ser is used to describe occupation. Note that in Spanish you will say, She is professor (Ella es profesora), NOT She is a professor (Ella es una profesora). When talking about occupation, you should not include either un or una. Por ejemplo: 1. Jos es piloto de aviones. - Jos is an airplane pilot. 2. Yo soy actor. - I am an actor. 3. Ellos son estudiantes. - They are students.

Be Careful with To Be Verbs


Unlike English, there are TWO verbs for to be in Spanish! Youll learn about the second to be verb (estar, which describes location, health, or temporary characteristics) in Chapter 2.4.

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1.6 Numbers
In the last lesson you learned about some ways Spanish uses the verb to be. Well learn more about that in Chapter 2.4. Now, its time to learn Spanish numbers.

Starting out: 0 to 35
0 cero 1 uno 2 dos 3 tres 4 cuatro 5 cinco 6 seis 7 siete 8 ocho 9 nueve 10 diez 11 once Por ejemplo: 1. Tengo veintin aos de edad. - I am twenty-one years old. 2. Tengo dos lpices en mi mano. - I have two pencils in my hand. 3. El pasaje de tren cuesta treinta y cuatro pesos. - The train fare costs thirty-four pesos. 12 doce 13 trece 14 catorce 15 quince 16 diecisis 17 diecisiete 18 dieciocho 19 diecinueve 20 veinte 21 veintiuno 22 veintids 23 veintitrs 24 veinticuatro 25 veinticinco 26 veintisis 27 veintisiete 28 veintiocho 29 veintinueve 30 treinta 31 treinta y uno 32 treinta y dos 33 treinta y tres 34 treinta y cuatro 35 treinta y cinco

Masculine and Feminine Numbers


You dont have to worry about gender with numbers 90% of the time. However, if you are talking about one thing, or are using a number that ends in 1, you need to change the ending to reect the gender of the noun that the number is describing. If a number ends in 1, change the ending according to whether or not the number is referring to a masculine or feminine noun. (The ending will only change according to gender, not by whether the noun is singular or plural.) un for masculine, e.g. un perro, un ao, un lpiz una for feminine, e.g. una vaca, una or, una chica

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Por ejemplo: 1. Eduardo tiene treinta y un aos de edad. - Edward is thirty-one years old. 2. Necesito veintiuna invitaciones ms. - I need twenty-one more invitations. However if you want to talk about the number 1 (or 21 or 31) on its own (i.e., as a numerical term rather than a quantity), you will not have to worry about gender. You will simply use uno. For example, if you want to say that 20 + 1 = 21, you will say: Veinte ms uno son veintiuno.

Numbers from 36 to 102


36 treinta y seis 37 treinta y siete 38 treinta y ocho 39 treinta y nueve 40 cuarenta 41 cuarenta y uno 50 cincuenta 60 sesenta 70 setenta 80 ochenta 90 noventa 100 cien 101 ciento uno 102 ciento dos

Once you master the basic pattern, you can construct any number. For example, how would you say 135? Simply remember: 135 = 100 + 30 + and + 5. Ciento + treinta + y + cinco = ciento treinta y cinco Although the number 100 is cien, any number between 101 and 199 starts with ciento. 199 = ciento + noventa + y + nueve = ciento noventa y nueve

Asking How Much or How Many


In Spanish, the question How many? is asked with one simple word: Cuntos? If you are asking how many oranges (las naranjas) there are, however, you must ask, Cuntas? as oranges are feminine.

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If you want to know how much something costs (el costo), ask: Cunto cuesta? Can you guess why you use cunto instead of cuntos Heres a hint: is el costo singular or plural? A response to How many? will often begin There are. For example, How many (orange are there)? There are 10 oranges. Cuntas (naranjas hay)? Hay diez naranjas.

Fortunately, in Spanish there is no difference between there is and there are. You can say both of them with a single word: hay You can also use hay to ask the questions: Is there? or Are there? Por ejemplo: 1. Cuntas cosas hay en la maleta? No hay nada. - How many things are in the bag? There isnt anything.

2. Hay ores en tu jardn? No hay ores en mi jardn. - Are there owers in your garden? There are no owers in my garden.

3. Cuntas manzanas hay en el refrigerador? Hay una manzana en el refrigerador. - How many apples are there in the refrigerator? There is one apple in the fridge.

You may also be interested to know that the words unos and unas can also mean some. For example: Tengo unas ores. Quiero unos pantalones. I have some owers. I want some pants.

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Numbers from 101


Be careful some of these numbers can be tricky. 101 102 110 150 200 500 700 900 1000 ciento uno ciento dos ciento diez ciento cincuenta dos cientos quinientos setecientos novecientos mil 1100 2000 3000 5000 100,000 500,000 1,000,000 2,000,000 100,000,000 mil cien dos mil tres mil cinco mil cien mil quinientos mil un milln (de) dos millones (de) cien millones (de)

Unlike English, you do not say one thousand for the number 1000 in Spanish (un mil is incorrect), but simply use the word mil. Also note that when you get to the thousands, the word for thousand in Spanish, mil, does not have a separate plural form. Two thousand is dos mil, NOT dos miles. The only time mil is used in its plural form (miles) is when you talk about thousands of something in general, using it in the sense of many rather than any particular number. For example, Hay miles de peces en el mar. - There are thousands of sh in the sea. Tengo un milln doscientos mil quinientos pesos en el banco. - I have 1,200,500 pesos in the bank. Hay cincuenta mil automviles en la carretera. - There are 50,000 automobiles on the highway. En Chile hay ms o menos trece millones de habitantes. - In Chile, there are more or less 13,000,000 inhabitants.

Dont Forget the Gender


Not only will you continue to change the gender of numbers ending in 1 when used as a quantity, you will also change the gender of numbers ending in tos (i.e., the hundreds) to reect the noun they describe.

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Por ejemplo: 1. El rancho tiene cuatrocientas vacas. - The ranch has four hundred cows. 2. Hay dos cientas nias en la escuela. - There are two hundred girls in the school. 3. Manejamos seiscientos clientes en mi compaa. - We manage six hundred clients in my company.

Reverse Puncuation: How to Write Big Numbers


If you are in Spain and about to write down a number for some Spanish friends, you need to be careful with your punctuation! Periods and commas are reversed in Spanish numbers. For example, if you want to tell them that something costs $12,870.65, you need to write it down as $12.870,65. Although some parts of the Spanish-speaking world do follow the American convention, it helps to know that 99,95 is not a typo in Spain, so dont go looking for a missing nal digit!

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1.7 Telling the Time


Do you want to know what time it is? Asking the time is simple in Spanish. All you need to ask is: Qu hora es? Literally, this question means: What hour is it? But we translate it as: What time is it? If you wish to ask a stranger for the time in a more polite way, you could say Me puede decir la hora, por favor? This question means, Can you please tell me the time? You already have all the vocabulary you need to understand the answer. All you need are the verb ser and the numbers. The sentence structure for telling the time is similar to English. What time is it? Qu hora es? It is twelve thirty. Son las doce y media.

In most cases, you will start the answer with Son las. Por ejemplo: 1. Qu hora es? (9:25) Son las nueve y veinticinco. 2. Me puede decir la hora, por favor? (3:32) Son las tres y treinta y dos.

Exception at One OClock


Nevertheless, there is an exception. If it is only one oclock, you will start the answer with Es la. Qu hora es? (1:00) Es la una.

That is because the verb ser must agree with the quantity of the subject, hours. Do you know why the feminine la and las are used? Hint: what gender is hora?

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International Variations In some parts of the Spanish-speaking world, you hear the question, Qu hora es? asked as Qu hora son? Your answer will always begin Son las, regardless of whether the hour that follows is singular or multiple. Por ejemplo Qu hora son? Son las una.

Talking about Quarter Hours and Thirty Minutes


As in English, you can also tell the time in 15- or 30-minute chunks. 15 min/quarter 30 min/half Por ejemplo: 1. Qu hora es? (2:15) 2. Qu hora es? (1:30) Son las dos y cuarto. Es la una y media. Its a quarter past two. Its half past one. = = cuarto media

You can also tell how much time remains until striking the hour. For example, a quarter to Por ejemplo: 1. Qu hora es? (3:45) 2. Qu hora es? (2:55) Is it Morning or Night? You can indicate morning or afternoon by using am and pm just as you would in English. Alternatively, you may say de la maana de la tarde de la noche Por ejemplo: 1. Qu hora es? (10:23am) 2. Qu hora es? (6:05pm) 3. Qu hora es? (11:45pm) Son las diez y veintitrs de la maana Son las seis y cinco de la tarde Es cuarto para las doce de la noche Es cuarto para las cuatro. Son cinco para las tres. = cuarto para las

for for for

in the morning in the afternoon, or in the evening.

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Asking at What Time Something will Occur


When you need to ask the time that a meeting or certain activity is going to take place, you can use the phrase: A qu hora? This means, At what time? Por ejemplo:

1. A qu hora te levantaste hoy? - At what time did you get up today?

2. A qu hora nos juntamos esta noche? - At what time should we meet tonight?

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1.8 Review
I. Section Summary
After completing this section, you should know the following:

How to use nouns in Spanish


o The difference between masculine and feminine nouns o The difference between singular and plural nouns

How to choose the correct the or a How to talk about people: I, you, he, she, we, and they
o The differences between the four forms of you: t, usted, vosotros, and ustedes

The basic use of the verb SER


o How to say who something belongs to o How to say what you do

The numbers in Spanish


o How to ask how much or how many o How to answer with, There are o How to write down numbers correctly

How to tell the time


o How to ask at what time something will occur

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II. Vocabulary Review


Now its time to review the vocabulary youve seen in this chapter! The vocabulary lists at the end of each section are handy resources to decipher the examples given in each chapter. You will nd that each section is completely independent: if a vocabulary word appears in several sections, it will appear in the vocabulary list for each section in case youve forgotten it from before. Each vocabulary list is divided into ve sections: nouns, verbs, adjectives, other parts of speech, and 20 of the 140 MOST commonly used words in Spanish. Even if you dont use any other part of the vocabulary, study those 20 words! Youll be able to use them frequently in conversation. Remember: the more time you invest in familiarizing yourself with these words, the more easily your speech will ow. If you make Spanish practice a habit, the right words will come to mind without effort, and youll have made the rst step towards becoming uent!

Vocabulary List #1
Spanish
SUSTANTIVOS actor (el) ajo (el) artista (el, la) atleta (el, la) automvil (el) avin (el) banco (el) boleto de avin (el) carretera (la) chica (la) chico (el) cliente (el, la) compaa (la) computadora (la) contribucin (la) conversacin (la) cosa (la) costo (el) cuchillo (el) destruccin (la) da (el) dinero (el) doctor (el) doctora (la) edad (la) escuela (la) Espaa NOUNS actor garlic artist athlete automobile airplane bank, bench plane ticket highway girl boy client company computer contribution conversation thing cost knife destruction day money doctor doctor (female) age school Spain
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English

estudiante (el, la) familia (la) or (la) orero (el) futuro (el) gata (la) gato (el) gracias (las) guitarra (la) habitante (el, la) hombre (el) hora (la) invitacin (la) jardn (el) mano (la) lpiz (el) librera (la) libro (el) maleta (la) manzana (la) maana (la) mar (el) mujer (la) naranja (la) nia (la) noche (la) novia (la) Nueva Zelanda padres (los) pas (el) pantalones (los) pasaje de tren (el) pasaporte (el) pelo (el) perra (la) perro (el) pesa (la) pez (el) pianista (el, la) piloto (el) problema (el) profesora (la) puerta de salida (la) puerta (la) rancho (el) refrigerador (el) seor (el) seora (la) sistema (el) sociedad (la) tarde (la) universidad (la) vaca (la) ventana (la)

student family ower vase future cat (female) cat (male) thanks guitar inhabitant man hour invitation garden hand pencil bookstore book bag, suitcase apple tomorrow sea woman orange girl night girlfriend New Zealand parents country pants train fare passport hair dog (female) dog (male) weight sh pianist pilot problem professor (female) exit door door ranch refrigerator gentleman, Mr. lady, Mrs. system society afternoon university cow window
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zapato (el) VERBOS comprar correr cortar costar decir estar gustar juntarse levantar levantarse llorar manejar necesitar poder salir ser tener tocar ver ADJECTIVOS inteligente joven podrido EXPRESIONES COMUNES cmo? cuarto dnde? hay hoy ms o menos media mi nada por favor que quin? todos los das tu TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST cundo? cunto? cuntos? de l el, la, los, las ella ellas ellos en

shoe VERBS to buy to run to cut to cost to say, to tell to be (temporary state e.g, health, emotion) to be pleasing to (to like) to get together, to join to lift to get up to cry to manage, to drive to need to be able to, can, may to leave to be (permanent condition) to have to touch to see ADJECTIVES intelligent young rotten OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH how? quarter where? there is, there are today more or less half my nothing please that who? every day your COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH when? how much? how many? of, from he the she they (female) they (all male or mixed gender) in
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nmero (el) dos nosotros/as todos/todas t un, uno, una unos, unas usted (Ud.) ustedes (Uds.) vosotros yo

number two we all you (familiar singular) a, an, one some, few you (polite singular) you (polite plural) you (familiar plural, used in Spain) I

Find a Conversation Partner! The best way to learn how to use these wordsas well as learn new onesis to nd yourself a conversation partner. Many cities have informal Spanish conversation groups that meet regularly in members homes or cafs and are open to anyone who wants to speak or listen. Discover one near you at http://spanish.meetup.com/.

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III. Read the Conversation


The best way to remember what you have just learned is to see it in the context of a conversation. Read the following dialogue, in which Linda is trying to get to her class reunion. Try to understand what is being said without worrying about understanding every word. When you are learning a language, 90% of the words will y right past your ear! Thats okay. Bear with it, and in time the words will resolve themselves in your head without your making any effort at all.

Linda: Pablo: Linda: Pablo: Linda:

Perdn, me puede decir la hora? Claro. Son ... las doce y media. Doce y media Estoy atrasada para una reunin importante. Te puedo ayudar? Tengo un carro. Gracias. La reunin est en una ciudad al norte de aqu. Tengo la invitacin.

Linda pulls out the invitation and reads it aloud. Linda: Bienvenidos a la reunin anual de la clase de mil novecientos sesenta y cuatro. Sea uno de los treinta y dos ex-alumnos en la ciudad de Coquimbo a las doce de la tarde. Eres de Coquimbo? S. Mi hermano es de Coquimbo. Es artista. Se gradu de la universidad en mil novecientos sesenta y tres. Se llama Ricardo? S. Yo lo conozco! Qu mundo pequeo....

Pablo: Linda: Pablo: Linda: Pablo: Linda: Pablo:

PALABRAS NUEVAS estoy atrasada te puedo ayudar? al norte de aqu bienvenidos anual sea uno de
Im late can I help you? to the north of here welcome annual be one of

ex alumnos hermano se gradu se llama? lo conozco que mundo pequeo

former students brother he graduated is his name? I know him what a small world

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IV. Exercises
Answers to the exercises can be found in Appendix 2 at the back of the book. Exercise 1. Insert the correct denite article (el, la, los, or las) before the noun. The rst one is done for you. Ex.

Los

libros son interesantes.

9. _____ pantalones son viejos. 10. _____ noche es fra. 11. _____ atleta es rpido. 12. _____ pas es grande. 13. _____ problema es difcil. 14. _____ pianista es buena. 15. _____ profesores son inteligentes. 16. _____ refrigerador est lleno. 17. _____ jardn es hermoso.

1. ______ manzana es deliciosa. 2. ______ zapato es negro. 3. ______ cuchillo est alado. 4. ______ conversacin es aburrida. 5. ______ seores son importantes. 6. ______ gatas son de Anita. 7. ______ lpices son amarillos. 8. ______ ores son bonitas.

Exercise 2. Insert the correct indenite article (un, una, unos, or unas) before the noun. Some may have MORE THAN ONE correct answer. Ex.

Un

piloto vuela.

8. _____ banco presta dinero. 9. _____ perros ladran. 10. _____ peces nadan. 11. _____ estudiante estudia. 12. _____ habitantes viven aqu. 13. _____ atletas compiten. 14. _____ compaa hace negocios. 15. _____ novia ama a su querido.

1. ________ doctora cura. 2. ________ clientes compran. 3. ________ familia vive juntos. 4. ________ computadora calcula. 5. ________ automvil anda. 6. ________ pianista hace msica. 7. ________ actora acta.

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Exercise 3. Draw lines to connect the correct form of ser with the sentence in which it belongs. Two words will be left unused. Ex. Ud.

una persona amable.

soy sois

1. Nosotros _________de Argentina. 2. Ellas _________ muy chistosas. 3. Yo _________ artista. 4. Vosotros _________ estudiantes. 5. T _________ de los Estados Unido.

eres ser somos es est son

Exercise 4. Write out the cost of the products below in full words in Spanish, including the dlares (dollars) and centavos (cents). Ex. El jabn cuesta 85 centavos. 1. El orero cuesta $21. 2. Los pantalones cuestan $100. 3. El costo del boleto es $46. 4. El costo de los zapatos es $65,50.

ochenta y cinco centavos


___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

5. El refrigerador cuesta $399,99.

___________________________________

6. El costo de la computadora es $1.750,00. ___________________________________

7. El costo del automvil es $6.199,00.

___________________________________

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Exercise 5. What time is it? Look at the picture of the watch and answer the question, Qu hora es? Ex. Qu hora es?

Son las doce.


Me puede decir la hora? Son las ___________________________ (1)

Qu hora es? (2) Son las ___________________________

Qu hora tienes? Es _______________________________ (3)

Me puede decir la hora, por favor? (4) Son las ___________________________

Qu hora es? Es ______________________________ (5)

Qu hora tienes? (6) Son las ___________________________

Me puede decir la hora? Es _______________________________ (7)

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Part II. Using Verbs

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2.1 Verbs in the Present Tense


Understanding Innitives
The innitive of a verb is, as the name suggests, timeless. It is the unconjugated form of the verb and therefore has no tense (such as past, present, or future). In English, the innitive of a verb is formed by adding the word to. Examples include: to learn, to act, and to be. In Spanish, the innitive of a verb is indicated by one of the following endings: AR, -ER, and -IR. Here are some common verbs.

-AR verbs

caminar to walk

dibujar to draw

preguntar to ask

estudiar to study

trabajar to work
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-IR verbs

escribir to write

sentir to feel

decir to say, tell

compartir to share

describir to describe

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-ER verbs

comer to eat

leer to read

entretener to entertain

beber to drink

tener to have

Isolating Verb Endings


Just as you saw with ser, every verb has a different conjugation according to the subject and tense of the sentence. Fortunately, the conjugations follow some very simple rules. All you have to do is change the ending of the verb according to the appropriate rule. Lets start with the present tense and see how the verb endings change with each subject pronoun.

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Each type of verbAR, ER, and IRhas a different set of endings. Study the verb endings in the table below. How is each type of verb different? Can you detect any patterns?

-AR verbs caminar (to walk) Yo T Ud., l, ella Nosotros Vosotros Uds., ellos, ellas camin-o camin-as camin-a camin-amos camin-is camin-an

-ER verbs comer (to eat) com-o com-es com-e com-emos com-is com-en

-IR verbs escribir (to write) escrib-o escrib-es escrib-e escrib-imos escrib-s escrib-en

How to Conjugate a Verb


In order to conjugate a verb, you rst need to identify the verb stem. The stem is the part of the verb that, in most cases, remains constant. Find the stem by taking the innitive of the verb and removing the ar, -er, or ir ending. Por ejemplo: Verb dibujar preguntar leer compartir Stem dibuj pregunt le compart

Now that you have the stem by itself, consult the table of verb endings and add the appropriate one, according to who is performing the action. Por ejemplo: (Yo) I draw. dibuj + o Dibujo. (T) You run. corr + es Corres.

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(Ud, l, ella) She asks. pregunt + a Pregunta.

(Nosotros) We read. le + emos Leemos.

(Uds, ellos, ellas) They share. compart + en Comparten.

(Vosotros)

You share. compart + s Comparts.

Using Two Verbs in a Row


When two verbs are used consecutively without changing the subject, the second verb is usually written in the innitive form. Por ejemplo: 1. T necesitas estudiar para la prueba. - You need to study for the exam. 2. Espero terminar pronto. - I hope to nish soon. 3. Los nios necesitan descansar esta semana. - The children need to rest this week.

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When Something Isnt Happening: Negative Sentences


To convert a sentence into a negative form in Spanish, all you need to do is add the word no immediately before the conjugated verb. Por ejemplo: 1. No vamos a terminar pronto. - We are not going to nish soon. 2. Ella no necesita estudiar para la prueba. - She does not need to study for the test. 3. Yo no soy piloto de aviones. - I am not an airplane pilot. Be careful that you add the no before the conjugated verbnot the innitive or subject. Por ejemplo: No ella necesita! ( incorrecto) Ella no necesita! ( correcto)

In this section youve begun to learn about verbs, their endings, and use in the present tense. Youll learn more about verbs in the next chapter..

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2.2 The Verb IR (to go)


The verb ir (to go) is one of the most commonly used verbs in Spanish. It can be used for everything from announcing where you are going to what you are going to do. Ir happens to be a highly irregular verb. Like ser, it doesnt follow the normal patterns for verb conjugations. Can you imagine why? For example, try to conjugate ir by taking the innitive ir ending away and youll nd theres nothing left! Therefore, youll have to memorize the following pattern for ir in the present tense: Yo T Ud., l, ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds., ellos, ellas voy vas va vamos vais van

Going To a Place
If you want to say, I am going to the beach, in English, you know that youll have to add the word to after the verb to go. Similarly, in Spanish, the verb ir is almost always followed by a. For example, the preceding sentence would be translated as Voy a la playa. If the noun that follows the a is masculine singular, as in el mercado, you must combine the two sounds of a and el into a single sound: al. a + el = al

For example, if you wanted to say that you were going to the market, you would say, Voy al mercado NOT Voy a el mercado. Por ejemplo: 1. Voy al cine con Felipe. - I am going to the cinema with Phillip. 2. Nosotros vamos a las carreras de caballos. - We are going to the horse races. 3. Van Ustedes con nosotros? - Are you going with us?

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Using IR to Talk about What is Going to Happen


The simplest way to express that something is going to happen in the future is to use the verb to gojust as it was used in this sentence. Im going to walk to the beach. Voy a caminar a la playa.

In order to express what is going to happen, add the appropriate conjugated form of ir plus a before the innitive form of the verb. He l is going va a to read. leer. We are going to eat. Vamos a comer.

Por ejemplo: 1. Vamos a salir a caminar el sbado. - We are going to go for a walk Saturday. 2. Maana los estudiantes van a estudiar en la biblioteca. - Tomorrow the students are going to study in the library. 3. Voy a escribirlo en la maana. - I am going to write it in the morning. 4. Vamos a nadar en la piscina. - We are going to swim in the pool. 5. El hombre va a caminar alrededor de la ciudad. - The man is going to walk around the city. 6. Vas a estudiar esta noche? - Are you going to study tonight?

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2.3 Asking Questions


There are many helpful words to enable you to ask questions in Spanish. The most common are: Interrogative word Cundo? Dnde? Adnde? De dnde? Cunto/a? Cuntos/as? Qu? Por qu? Cmo? Cul? Cules? Quin? / Quines? When? Where? Where to? From where? How much? How many? What? Why? How? Which Which ones? Who? Por ejemplo Cundo terminas? Dnde est el bao? Adonde vamos? De dnde eres t? Cunto cuesta? Cuntos son? When do you nish? Where is the bathroom? Where are we going? Where are you from? How much is it? How many are they?

Qu te gusta What do you like to tomar? drink? Por qu preguntas? Why do you ask? Cmo estas? Cul es mo? Cules son tuyos? Quin es l? How are you? Which is mine? Which ones are yours? Who is he?

Inection
Unlike English, however, you dont raise the pitch of your voice at the end of a question in Spanish. Rather, you ask the interrogative word in a higher-pitched voice and drop your pitch for the rest of the question.

Funky Punctuation Marks


Punctuation marks in Spanish are almost exactly the same as Englishexcept for two. If you wish to add a question mark (?) at the end of a sentence, you must also add an upside-down question () mark at the beginning. Cmo te va? Hows it going?

Additionally, if you wish to use an exclamation point (!), you must add an upside-down exclamation point () at the beginning of the exclamation. Bien hecho!
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Well done!

Using a Statement as a Question


As in English, you may use a statement to ask a question as long as you raise the pitch of your voice at the end of the question. Por ejemplo: 1. Tienes calor. Tienes calor? 2. Estamos contentos. Estamos contentos? You are hot. Are you hot? We are happy. Are we happy?

Note that in English the order of the subject and verb are switched when converting a statement to a question. The same is true in Spanish. When asking a question, the order is as follows: Complete verb(s) + subject + object? Por ejemplo: 1. Maria y Juan terminan primero. Terminan Maria y Juan primero? 2. Ustedes tienen mucha comida. Tienen Uds. mucha comida? Mary and John nish rst. Do Mary and John nish rst? You guys have a lot of food. Do you have a lot of food?

Asking Really? Is That True?


Often, in English, when we want to know whether or not something is true, we make a statement then add, Right? or Really? or No? For example: Youre going to take the garbage out, right? The museum is on the left, no? You can do the same thing in Spanish: El museo est a la izquierda, no? However, instead of saying right or really, youll ask, True? Vas a sacar la basura, verdad?
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Simply remember to raise the pitch of your voice when you say no? or verdad? Por ejemplo: 1. El carro tiene gasolina. El carro tiene gasolina, verdad? The car has gas. The car has gas, right?

2. El vestido es muy bonito. El vestido es muy bonito, no?

The dress is very pretty. The dress is very pretty, no?

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2.4 To Be Part 2: The Verb ESTAR


A couple of chapters ago, we worked on the basic use of the verb to be. In this lesson we take a further look. If you wanted to say, I am sick, or, I am lost, in Spanish, youd be mistaken to use the to be verb that you learned in Chapter 1.5, ser. Ser only describes permanent or nearly permanent states, such as being married (casado) or being tall (alto) or skinny (aco). The second to be verb in Spanish, estar, is used to describe location, health, or any condition that is only temporary. In the above example, you certainly dont expect to be sick or lost forever. The verb estar has a straight-forward conjugation in the present tense: Present tense of ESTAR Yo T Ud., l, ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds., ellos, ellas estoy ests est estamos estis estn

Note the placement of the accent marks as well. While est can mean he or she is or you are, esta means this, as in esta cosa or this thing. The accent marks, in addition to indicating the correct pronunciation, distinguish completely separate words.

Where am I?
The most common way of asking the location of an object, person or place is: Dnde est? This means, Where is? For example: Dnde est el bao? Dnde est mi carro? Dnde est el hotel? Where is the bathroom? Where is my car? Where is the hotel?

If you want to understand the answer, you need to learn some basic direction and location words.

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Important Direction Words

a la derecha to the right

a la izquierda to the left

adelante in front delante de in front of

delante de in front of

en in, on

encima de on top of

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cerca near

lejos far away

debajo underneath

sobre above

entre between

al lado beside

detrs behind

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For example:

Dnde est el bao? - Where is the bathroom? Est adelante. - Its in front.

Dnde est mi carro? - Where is my car? Est lejos. - Its far away.

Dnde est el hotel? - Where is the hotel? Est a la derecha. - Its to the right.

Forming DEL from DE and EL


Remember that the word de means of? Except for adelante, entre, and en, all the above direction words require de if they are followed by an object. For example: a la izquierda de la calle principal delante de la tienda cerca del parque al lado del museo nacional to the left of the principal street in front of the shop near the park beside the national museum

Hint: The words de + el form the contraction del. More examples: 1. Dnde est el gato? El gato est al lado del perro. 2. Dnde est el lpiz? El lpiz est a la derecha de Maria. 3. Dnde est el bao? El bao est cerca de la ocina. Where is the cat? The cat is beside the dog. Where is the pencil? The pencil is to Marias right. Where is the bathroom? The bathroom is near the ofce.

Youll get more practice with the verb estar in Chapter 3.2. Coming up next is a review of what youve learned in this part of the program.

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How Do You Feel?


When you talk about how you feelwhether you be tired, sad, or sick--you are usually talking about a temporary state. Therefore, you should use the to be verb estar. How do you ask others how they feel? Yo T Ud. Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds. Cmo estoy? Cmo ests? Cmo est Ud? Cmo estamos? Cmo estis? Cmo estn Uds.? How am I? How are you? (e.g., to a friend) How are you? (e.g., to your boss) How are we? How are you? (e.g. to a group of friends) How are you? (e.g., to a group of co-workers)

Por ejemplo: 1. Cmo ests esta maana? Estoy muy bien, gracias. 2. Cmo est tu madre? Ella est muy cansada por el viaje. 3. Cmo est Juanita? Juanita est muy feliz. 4. Cmo estn los pajaros de tu to? Los pajaros de mi to estn enfermos. 5. Cmo estoy, Doctor? How am I, Doctor? Usted est muy saludable. You are very healthy. How are you this morning? I am very well, thank you. How is your mother? She is very tired because of the trip. How is Juanita? Juanita is very happy. How are your uncles birds? My uncles birds are sick.

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2.5 Review
I. Section Summary
After completing this section, you should know the following:

How to use verbs in Spanish


o What it means to talk about the innitive of a verb o The steps of a verb conjugation

How to talk about where youre going How to talk about what youre going to do How to ask a question How to ask for and give directions How to ask how someone is feeling and express how you feel

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II. Vocabulary Review Vocabulary List #2


Spanish
SUSTANTIVOS bao (el) basura (la) biblioteca (la) calle principal (la) calor (el) carreras de caballo (las) carro (el) cine (el) ciudad (la) gasolina (la) gato (el) hombre (el) hotel (el) lpiz (el) madre (la) maana (la) mercado (el) museo nacional (el) nios (los) pjaro (el) parque (el) perro (el) piloto de aviones (el) piscina (la) playa (la) prueba (la) sbado (el) semana (la) tienda (la) to (el) verdad (la) vestido (el) viaje (el) VERBOS beber caminar comer compartir descansar describir dibujar entretener esperar estar estudiar gustar leer NOUNS bathroom garbage, trash library principal street heat horse races car theater, cinema city gas cat man hotel pencil mother morning market national museum children bird park dog airplane pilot swimming pool beach test Saturday week shop, store uncle truth dress trip VERBS to drink to walk to eat to share to rest to describe to draw to entertain to hope, to wait to be (health, feelings, location) to study to be pleasing to (to like) to read
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English

necesitar preguntar sacar sentir terminar tomar trabajar ADJECTIVOS bonito cansado contento enfermo feliz saludable EXPRESIONES COMUNES adelante adnde? al lado alrededor de cerca cundo? cunto/a? cuntos/as? de dnde? debajo delante de derecha detrs en encima esta hecho izquierda lejos maana mo pronto sobre tuyo TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST a, al bien cada como cmo? cul? cules? decir dnde? entre ir

to need (to) to ask to take out to feel to nish to drink, to take to work ADJECTIVES pretty tired content, happy sick happy healthy OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH in front where to? beside around near when? how much? how many? from where? underneath in front of right behind in, on on top this done left far tomorrow mine soon above yours COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH to, to the (masculine singular) well each as, like, how how? which which ones? to say, tell where? between to go
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mucho muy por qu? primero qu? quin? quines? solo, solamente todava vez (una)

much, a lot very why? rst what? who? only still, yet once

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III. Read the Conversation


Margarita is asking Esteban for directions. See if you can follow their conversation.

Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban: Margarita: Esteban:

Estoy buscando el museo nacional. Me puedes ayudar? Claro. Est cerca de aqu. Ves el edicio alto? S. Desde ese edifcio, vas a ir a la izquierda. Cmo se llama la calle? Se llama la Calle San Isidro. De all, vas a seguir tres cuadras. Vas a ver un hotel grande. El museo est detrs del hotel. Cmo se llama el hotel? Creo que se llama el Windsor, pero no estoy seguro. Entonces, voy al edicio alto, sigo la calle a la derecha a la izquierda. A la izquierda. De all, camino cuatro cuadras tres cuadras. Tres cuadras hasta la Calle San Isidro. No, hasta el Hotel Windsor. El Hotel Windsor. El museo est delante del hotel. No, el museo est detrs del hotel. Listo. Gracias, seor! De nada. Buena suerte. La necesitas!

PALABRAS NUEVAS estoy buscando Me puedes ayudar? Ves? edicio alto seguir una cuadra Im looking for Can you help me? Do you see? tall building to continue a block
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Creo que estar seguro listo de nada buena suerte la necesitas

I think that, I believe that to be sure ready, set youre welcome good luck you need it

IV. Exercises
Exercise 1. Using the AR verb endings that you have just learned, write in the correctly conjugated verb to the right of the sentence.

Ex. Yo caminar al parque.

camino
_________________________________

1. Nosotros le preguntar a la profesora.

2. Los estudiantes estudiar todos los das.

_________________________________

3. Juan trabajar los das mircoles.

_________________________________

4. El artista dibujar el paisaje.

_________________________________

5. Vosotros descansar ahora.

_________________________________

6. Casuela y yo nadar los nes de semana.

_________________________________

7. Lupita y su hermano sacar la basura.

_________________________________

8. T esperar el autobs.

_________________________________

9. Necesitar ustedes algo?

_________________________________

10. Carlos y Pepe tomar jugo.

_________________________________

11. A ella le gustar el chocolate.


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Exercise 2. Using the ER and IR verb endings that you have just learned, write in the correctly conjugated verb to the right of the sentence. Ex. Ustedes leer los libros.

leen
_________________________________

1. Nadia y yo escribir cartas.

2. T beber una cola.

_________________________________

3. Mi to compartir su sndwich conmigo.

_________________________________

4. El doctor describir el problema.

_________________________________

5. Cristbal y Emilio comer hamburguesas.

_________________________________

6. La atleta correr rpidamente.

_________________________________

7. Vosotros salir temprano.

_________________________________

8. La nia ver el jardn.

_________________________________

9. T me escribir un mensaje electrnico.

_________________________________

10. German, Luis, y yo leer todas las noches.

_________________________________

11. Yo correr alrededor de la escuela.


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Exercise 3. Take each sentence and rewrite it as a future happening by using the verb ir. Ex. Nadamos en el mar. 1. Estudio por una hora. 2. Caminis al parque. 3. Tenemos una esta.

Vamos a nadar en el mar.


_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

4. Gloria y Juana comen pescado. _____________________________________________ 5. La mujer corta el pan. 6. Manejas el carro. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

7. Los nios preguntan por su amigo.__________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 8. Termino los ejercicios. _____________________________________________

Exercise 4. Answer each question with the answer supplied. Write out the numbers. Ex. Cunto cuestan los zapatos? ($21,25) 1. Cul maleta es de Pablo? (la maleta negra)

Los zapatos cutan veintin dlar y veinticinco centavos.


_____________________________________________

2. Cundo llega Elena a la estacin? __________________________________________ (3:30 p.m.) ________________________________________________________________________ 3. De dnde es Ud.? (Brasilhint: answer as I) 4. Quin est en la casa? (Manuel) 5. Cuntas naranjas tenemos? (12) _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

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Exercise 5. Look at the picture below. Explain where each item is by lling in the blanks below with one of the following direction wordsal lado de, alrededor de, debajo de, detrs de, en, encima de, and sobreplus the correct form of the. Use each word once.

Dnde est el gato?

Ex. El gato est

debajo del

pjaro.

1. El gato est __________________________ perro. Dnde est la manzana? Dnde est la guitarra? Dnde est la calle? Dnde est el automvil? Dnde est el nio? Dnde juegan los nios? 2. La manzana est ______________________ nio. 3. La guitarra est _______________________ nio. 4. La calle est ________________________ parque. 5. El automvil est ______________________ nio. 6. El nio est _______________________ manzana. 7. Los nios juegan ____________________ parque.

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Part III. Describing Things

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3.1 Adjectives Part 1: Descriptions


Getting Nouns and Adjectives in Order
One of the biggest differences between English and Spanish is the order of the adjectives and nouns. In English, you say white horse. In Spanish, you say horse white (caballo blanco). Descriptive words always come after the noun they describe (such as gato gordo, fat cat). Here are some common descriptive words.

alto tall

bueno good

bajo short

caliente hot

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brillante bright

chico small

claro clear

fuerte strong

dbil weak

grande big

fro cold

hermoso beautiful

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lento slow

oscuro dark

malo bad

rpido fast

mojado wet

sucio dirty

Describing Things
The two most common words used to link nouns and descriptive words are ser (to bea permanent condition) and estar (to bea temporary state). Por ejemplo: 1. Los caballos son grandes. - The horses are big. 2. La seora es rubia. - The woman is blond. 3. El nio est sucio. - The boy is dirty. 4. La noche est oscura. - The night is dark.
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Use ser because the horses will always be big. Use ser because the womans hair color is a stable characteristic. Use estar because the boy is just dirty right now. Use estar because it is especially dark this night in particular.

Adjust the Adjective to Suit the Noun


Adjectives in Spanish reect the characteristics of the noun. For example, if the noun is feminine, the adjective will have a feminine ending. If the noun is plural, the adjective will have a plural form. Examine the examples above. In the rst example, the noun caballos is masculine and plural. Therefore, the adjective grandes is in a masculine plural form. In the second example, the noun seora is feminine and singular. Therefore, the adjective rubia is also feminine and singular.

Adjectives that End in o or a


Adjectives ending in o are already in masculine form. To change to the feminine form of the adjective, you need to change the o to a. To make an adjective plural, simply add s. Por ejemplo lento (slow) Masculine lent-o Masculine plural lent-os Feminine lent-a Feminine plural lent-as

1. El autobs est muy lento hoy. - The bus is very slow today. 2. Maria es lenta para leer. - Maria is a slow reader. Literally, this means: Maria is slow to read.

Adjectives that End in e


Adjectives ending in e or any consonant will not change their form no matter what the gender of the noun. In other words, their masculine and feminine forms are the same. Nevertheless, they do change according to whether the noun is singular or plural. To convert the singular form to the plural, simply add an s to the ending. Por ejemplo: fuerte (strong) Masculine fuert-e Masculine plural fuert-es Feminine fuert-e Feminine plural fuert-es

1. El viento est muy fuerte. - The wind is very strong.

2. Los luchadores son fuertes. - The ghters are strong.

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What Country are You From?


Descriptive adjectives are also used to describe the nationality of people. Review the examples below:

estadounidense American (US)

canadiense Canadian

espaol/a Spanish

francs/a French

ingls/a English

indio/a Indian

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alemn/a German

peruano/a Peruvian

australiano/a Australian

chileno/a Chilean

Note that in Spanish, unlike English, adjectives of nationality are not capitalized. Por ejemplo: 1. Mi padre es alemn y mi madre espaola. - My father is German and my mother Spanish. 2. Yo soy chileno. - I am Chilean. 3. Mis abuelos son peruanos. - My grandparents are Peruvians. You can also express your nationality using the phrase Soy de (Im from) that you learned in Chapter 1.5. Por ejemplo: 1. Soy de Alemania. - Im from Germany. 2. Ella es de Francia. - She is from France. 3. Mis padres son de Inglaterra. - My parents are from England. or or or
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Soy alemn. - I am German. Ella es francsa. - She is French. Mis padres son ingleses. - My parents are English.

Describing How Much in General


You also use adjectives to describe quantity. Unlike descriptions of qualities, these adjectives are usually placed before the noun. Some examples are: muchos/as pocos/pocas demasiado suciente Por ejemplo: 1. Hay poca gente en el cine. - There are few people in the cinema. 2. Compramos suciente papel para todos? - Did we buy enough paper for everyone? 3. Tengo muchas manzanas en mi bolso. - I have many apples in my bag. many few too much sufcient, enough

Short and Simple: Adjectives like BUEN and MAL


Adjectives that are very common, simple, and short may go before the noun in some instances. For example, you may place the following adjective either before or after the noun: grande/gran (big, great) malo/mal (bad) bueno/buen (good)

The above adjectives will change their structure if placed before a noun by dropping off their nal syllable (i.e., -de or o). Por ejemplo: 1. Matas es un mal pescador. or Matas es un pescador malo. - Matthew is a bad sherman. 2. Hay un buen concierto esta noche. or Hay un concierto bueno esta noche. - There is a good concert tonight.

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Big or Great? Using GRAN and GRANDE


The meaning of the adjective grande may change from big to great depending on whether it is placed in front of or after the noun.

Por ejemplo: 1. l es un cantante grande. l es un gran cantante. 2. Es una carrera grande. Es una gran carrera. He is a big singer. He is a great singer. It is a long race. It is a great race.

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3.2 Using ESTAR to Express a Feeling or Condition


The verb estar is one of the most useful verbs in Spanish, as it not only describes location but also physical, mental, and emotional states or feelings. Lets practice more with this important verb. Express a condition or feeling by adding a descriptive adjective after estar. Por ejemplo: 1. Estoy muy enojado. - I am very angry. 2. Mi padre y yo estamos ocupados. - My father and I are busy. 3. Ests cansado? - Are you tired? You can also use estar in this way to describe the condition of various places or things. Por ejemplo: 1. La casa est limpia. - The house is clean. 2. Mi habitacin est ordenada. - My room is tidy. 3. La tienda est cerrada. - The shop is closed. Remember that these conditions or states must be temporary. In other words, a clean house will eventually become messy, a tidy room will soon become disorganized, and a closed shop will eventually open. If you are describing a permanent condition of something (for example, El pared es blanco, or The wall is white), you must use ser. On the following page is a list of common adjectives used with estar:

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Physical conditions or states

caliente hot

ordenado tidy

helado icy

oscuro dark

limpio clean

sucio dirty

lleno full
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vaco empty

Mental or emotional feelings

triste sad

nervioso nervous

feliz happy

cansado tired

ocupado busy

enojado angry

preocupado worried

adolorido sore

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DO NOT use estar to describe feeling hungry, thirsty, hot, or cold, however. Instead, you will use the verb tener (to have), as in, I have hunger, I have thirst, I have heat, et cetera. You will learn how to use the verb tener in Chapter 5.1. Using the proper verb to express feelings is very important. If you try to say, Estoy caliente, to mean I am hot (rather than Tengo calor) people will look at you strangely! That is not because the sentence is grammatically incorrect. Rather, it is because the statement Estoy caliente meansto be bluntIm horny.

When to Use ESTAR, When to Use SER


One of the most difcult things for new Spanish speakers to learn is the difference between ser and estar. Here is a summary to help you clarify their use. Use SER for... Possession Nationality Occupation Permanent Characteristics Time Por ejemplo La casa es ma. Yo soy de Espaa. l es profesor. La puerta es vieja. Son las ocho y media. Use ESTAR for Location Weather Physical Health Mental Health and Well Being Emotions Continuous actions in the present Por ejemplo Estamos en Per. Est nublado. Estoy enfermo. Estamos cansados. Ests triste. Ests estudiando.

The Importance of Getting SER and ESTAR Right


You may wonder why all the fuss. If you confuse ser and estar while youre in a Spanish-speaking country, theyll still understand you right? I hate to disappoint you, but no. The meaning of many sentences can completely change according to whether you use ser or estar and sometimes in very embarrassing ways. Por ejemplo: 1. El nio est aburrido. El nio es aburrido. 2. La manzana est verde. La manzana es verde. 3. El perro est malo. El perro es malo. 4. El hombre est borracho. El hombre es borracho. The boy is bored. The boy is boring. The apple is unripe. The apple is green. The dog is sick. The dog is bad. The man is drunk. The man is a drunk.
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3.3 Talking about the Weather


If you nd yourself with nothing left to say to your new Spanish-speaking friends, you can always talk about the weather. Imagine that you are on the phone to a friend in Spain and want to ask what the weather is like over there. There are two ways that you can do so. You can ask: Qu tiempo hace? Or, you can ask: Cmo est el tiempo? In fact, there are a variety of phrases you can use, including, Cmo est el clima? (Hows the weather/climate?) and Cmo est por afuera? (Whats it like outside?). The rst two phrases are the most common, however. Both are interchangeable, but when you respond, you will have to decide whether to use one of two verbs: hacer and estar. Por ejemplo: 1. Qu tiempo hace? Hace mucho fro. 2. Cmo est el tiempo? Est lloviendo. Whats the weather like? Its very cold. Hows the weather? Its raining.

You are going to have to memorize the conditions in which you use hace as opposed to est. Here are some common weather conditions to help you: Use hace (+ mucho if desired) Hace calor. Hace frio. Hace viento. Hace sol. Hace buen tiempo. Hace mal tiempo. Its hot. Its cold. Its windy. Its sunny. Its good weather. Its bad weather. Use est (+ muy if desired) Est despejado. Est nublado. Est fresco. Est malo. Est bueno. Est lloviendo. Est nevando. Its clear. Its cloudy. Its fresh. Its bad. Its nice. Its raining. Its snowing.

To emphasize a weather condition (in other words, add a very in front), you will use mucho for hace and muy for est. For example: Hace mucho calor. Est muy bueno. Its very hot. Its very nice.
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However, if the word following est is a verb (such as lloviendo or nevando), you cannot use muy. You will have to add a mucho after the verb. Est lloviendo mucho. Por ejemplo: 1. Cmo est el clima? Hace mucho frio. 2. Qu tiempo hace? Est nevando mucho. 3. Cmo est por afuera? Hace mucho viento. 4. Cmo est el tiempo? Est muy despejado. Hows the weather? Its very cold. Whats the weather like? Its snowing a lot. Whats it like outside? Its very windy. Hows the weather? Its very clear. Its raining a lot.

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3.4 Adjectives Part 2: Who Owns What


My Hat, Your Hat: Understanding Possessive Adjectives
Singular Noun mi tu su nuestro/a vuestro/a Plural Noun mis tus sus nuestros/as vuestros/as Translation my your (familiar) their, your, his, her , its our your (formal)

These types of adjectives are used to express possession or ownership. When the pronoun is singular, these adjectives do not change according to gender. However, when the pronoun is plural (nosotros or vosotros), the possessive adjectives do reect the gender of the subject noun. As you can see from the table above, all possessive adjectives reect the quantity of the noun to which they refer.

What is Owned v. Who Owns It


It may seem confusing to distinguish between the pronoun (e.g., I, you, we, them) implied by the possessive adjective, and the noun that is the subject of the sentence. Possessive adjectives will not reect the gender or quantity of the person or persons owning a thing; rather, theyll reect the gender and quantity of the thing being owned. For example, take the sentence, My hands are sore. What is the subject? What is the possessive adjective? What is the descriptive adjective? hands my sore (in Spanish, manos) (in Spanish, mis) (in Spanish, doloridas)

Both the possessive and descriptive adjectives will reect the gender and quantity of the subject noun, hands. Por ejemplo: 1. El color de mi vestido es negro. - The color of my dress is black. 2. Sus padres estn enfermos. - Their parents are sick. 3. Nuestras carteras son iguales. - Our handbags are the same.
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This is All Mine


There is another way of referring to what you own. You may wish to say, That car is mine, or, The purse is hers. Use one of the following words. Singular mo/a tuyo/a suyo/a nuestro/a vuestro/a Por ejemplo: 1. El carro es mo. - The car is mine. 2. La cartera es suya. - The handbag is hers. 3. Las manzanas son nuestras. - The apples are ours. Just like an ordinary adjective, you must match the gender (masculine or feminine) and quantity (singular or plural) of the stressed possessive adjective to the noun. You can also use one of these words to replace the noun. Look at the difference between the following sentences: Is this seat yours? I dont want to use yours. Es este asiento suyo? No quiero usar el tuyo. Plural mos/as tuyos/as suyos/as nuestros/as vuestros/as Translation mine, my your, yours his, her, hers, its, your, yours our, ours your, yours

In the rst sentence, yours is acting as an adjective. In the second sentence, yours is acting as a pronoun. To use mo, tuyo, suyo, etc. as pronouns, all you have to do is add an el, la, los, or las in front. For example, if you want to use mine as a noun (as in, Mine is the best, or, You want mine), you will use el mo, la ma, los mos, or las mas.

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Por ejemplo: 1. Tienes t los libros de la biblioteca? S, y tambin tengo los mos. - Do you have the books from the library? Yes, and mine too. 2. Mi casa est muy desordenada, y la tuya? - My house is very messy, and yours? 3. Las ores en mi jardn estn todas secas! - The owers in my garden are all dry! La ma est muy limpia. - Mine is very clean. Las tuyas tambin, no? Yours are too, arent they?

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3.5 Review
I. Section Summary
After completing this section, you should know the following:

How to describe a person, place, or thing How to express your nationality How to talk about physical conditions or emotional states When to use SER, when to use ESTAR How to ask about the weather How to say my, your, his, her, our, and their.

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II. Vocabulary Review Vocabulary List #3


Spanish
SUSTANTIVOS asiento (el) autobs (el) biblioteca (la) bolso (el) caballo (el) calor (el) cantante (el, la) carrera (la) cartera (la) casa (la) cine (el) clima (el) color (el) concierto (el) gato (el) habitacin (la) hombre (el) libro (el) luchador (el) manzana (la) nio (el) noche (la) padre (el) padres (los) papel (el) pared (la) perro (el) pescador (el) seora (la) tiempo (el) tienda (la) vestido (el) viento (el) VERBOS comprar estudiar llover nevar tener ADJECTIVOS aburrido adolorido alemn/a alto australiano bajo NOUNS seat bus library bag horse heat singer race handbag house theater, cinema climate, weather color concert cat room man book ghter apple boy night father parents paper wall dog sherman lady, Mrs. time, also weather shop, store dress wind VERBS to buy to study to rain to snow to have ADJECTIVES boring sore German tall Australian short
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English

blanco borracho brillante caliente canadiense cansado cerrado chico chileno/a claro dbil demasiado desordenado despejado enfermo enojado espaol/a estadounidense feliz francs/a fresco fro fuerte gordo helado hermoso igual indio/a ingls lento limpio lleno mojado mucho negro nervioso nublado ocupado ordenado oscuro peruano preocupado rpido rubia seco sucio suciente triste vaco verde

white drunk bright hot Canadian tired closed small Chilean clear weak too much disorganized clear sick angry Spanish American (US) happy French fresh cold strong fat icy beautiful same Indian English slow clean full wet many black nervous cloudy busy tidy dark Peruvian worried fast blond dry dirty sufcient; enough sad empty green

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TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST bajo bueno corto diferente gran grande largo leer mal malo mi, mis nuestro, nuestros pequeo poco sin sobre su, sus tu, tus viejo vuestro, vuestros

COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH under, below good short different great big long to read badly, wrongly bad my our small few without about, above, on top of his, her, your (Ud), their, your (Uds) your (t) old your (vosotros)

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III. Read the Conversation


Read the following conversation, in which Sierra and Hernando take a break from their party to swap stories.

Hernando: Sierra: Hernando: Sierra:

Qu esta, no? S! No est aburrida. Pero hace mucho calor. Qu tiempo hace afuera? Si no est lloviendo, podemos abrir las ventanas.

Hernando looks outside. Hernando: No, no est lloviendo.

He opens a window. Hernando: Sierra: Hernando: Sierra: Hernando: Sierra: Hernando: Sierra: Hernando: Sabes, estoy muy preocupado por Juan. Por qu? Porque est borracho, y la cara est media verde. Est enfermo? No, no est enfermo, pero va a estar enfermo si sigue tomando. No te preocupes. Yo le voy a hablar. Y qu ms? Estoy muy feliz. Habl con un chico muy guapo. Se llama John y es australiano. Tiene el pelo rubio. Chvere!

PALABRAS NUEVAS
qu esta pero afuera si sabes por qu? porque what a party but outside if you know why? because cara media seguir tomando y qu ms? habl con guapo chvere face a little bit to continue drinking what else? I talked with handsome cool

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IV. Exercises
Exercise 1. Using the pictures below, write two adjectives that describe the picture. Choose from the following list: bajo, brillante, caliente, enojado, feliz, fro, fuerte, grande, hermosa, mojado, rpido, and sucio.

(3) _________________________________ Ex.

brilliante, caliente

__________________________________

(1) _________________________________ _________________________________

(4) _________________________________ _________________________________

(2) _________________________________ _________________________________

(5) _________________________________ _________________________________

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Exercise 2. Pick the correct form of ser or estar to ll in the blanks in the story, then answer the questions below. Es lunes dos de mayo. Pilar se levanta tarde, porque no suena su despertador. Mira el reloj. Ya son las ocho! Corre para el autobs. Pasaje, por favordice el chofer. Pilar busca en su maleta. No encuentra su cartera. Qu voy a hacer?piensa ella. El chofer (1) ________ una persona importante y (2) ________ muy ocupado. No me va a esperar. Pilar (3) _________ nerviosa ahora. Perdn, seordice Pilar. (4) ________ muy tonta y me olvid la cartera. Lo siento mucho. No sea malito, djame pasar. Seorita, tienes suerte que (5) _________ un hombre muy amable y que el bus (6) _________ casi vaco. Puedes pasar esta vez! Pilar sube al bus. Ella (7) ________ muy cansada. La prxima vez va a levantarse ms temprano!
levantarseto wake up sonarto make a sound despertadoralarm pasajefare choferdriver buscarto search encontrarto nd

esperarto wait

ahoranow perdnexcuse me tontafoolish olvidarseto forget lo sientoIm sorry no sea malitodont be mean djamelet me tener suerteto be lucky casialmost esta vezthis time la prxima veznext time

Ex. A qu hora se levanta Pilar? 7. Cal cosa no tiene?

Pilar se levanta a las ocho de la maana.


_____________________________________________

8. Cmo se siente Pilar cuando _____________________________________________ descubre que no tiene dinero? (sentirsefeel, descubrirto discover) 9. Cmo es el chofer? _____________________________________________

10. Cmo se siente Pilar cuando _____________________________________________ sube al bus?


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Exercise 3. Answer the question, Qu tiempo hace? by writing in the appropriate weather phrase next to the picture. Chooose from the following descriptions: est nevando, hace fro, est nublado, est despejado, hace calor, hace viento, est lloviendo, hace sol. Ex.

Est lloviendo
____________________ (1)

(2) ____________________

____________________ (3)

(4) ____________________

____________________ (5)

(6) ____________________

____________________ (7)

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Exercise 4. Answer each question by inserting the correct possessive adjective. Ex. De quin son los papeles? (ella) Son

sus

papeles.

1. De quin es el perro? (Pepe)

Es ___________________ perro.

2. De quines son los libros? (ustedes)

Son _________________ libros.

3. De quin son los pantalones? (t)

Son _____________ pantalones.

4. De quin es la guitarra? (yo)

Es _________________ guitarra.

5. De quin es el automvil? (Juana y Diego)

Es _______________ automvil.

6. De quin es la invitacin? (mi madre y mi padre)

Es _______________ invitacin.

7. De quin es el problema? (nosotros)

Es _______________ problema.

8. De quin es el rancho? (la familia Correa)

Es _________________ rancho.

9. De quin es el pasaporte? (yo)

Es _______________ pasaporte.

10. De quin es la piscina? (vosotros)

Es __________________ piscina.

11. De quin es la cartera? (t)

Es _________________ cartera.

12. De quin es el dinero? (usted)

Es __________________ dinero.

13. De quin son los zapatos? (Carlita y yo)

Son _______________ zapatos.

14. De quin son las cosas? (los nios)


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Son _________________ cosas.

Part IV. More Pronouns

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4.1 Talking about Me, Her, and Us: Direct Object Pronouns
Understanding Direct Object Pronouns
In English, pronouns replace nouns previously mentioned to avoid unnecessarily repeating them. For example, in the sentence, John did not come to work, because he was sick, the pronoun he is used to replace the proper noun John. We have seen that pronouns can be used in the same way in Spanish. For example, the above sentence in Spanish would be: Juan no vino a trabajar, porque l estaba enfermo. The pronoun l replaces the proper noun Juan. There is another way in which pronouns are used: to avoid unnecessarily repeating the direct object of a sentence. The direct object is the object that the action in the sentence is happening to. For example, in the sentence, The cat ate the mouse, the cat is the subject, ate is the verb, and mouse is the direct object. If you wanted to replace the direct object noun with a pronoun, you could say, The cat ate it. The pronoun it would refer to the mouse. In Spanish, the construction of direct object pronouns is a bit different from English. The direct object comes before the verb, not afterwards. Lets look at some direct object pronouns now. Spanish me te lo la nos os los las Por ejemplo: 1. Estela tiene el libro. - Estela has the book. 2. Estoy comprando unos zapatos. - I am buying some shoes. becomes becomes becomes becomes Estela lo tiene. Estela has it. Los estoy comprando. I am buying them. English me you (informal) you (formal, masculine), him, it you (formal, feminine), her us you (familiar, plural) you (formal, plural), them (masculine) you (formal, plural), them (feminine)

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When People are Direct Objects


The nice thing about direct object pronouns is that theyre quick and simple, once you get the hang of them. On the other hand, if you need to spell out the direct object and use a proper noun, you need to be careful about one thing. When human beings are direct objects, you need to add an a in front of the direct object noun. Por ejemplo: 1. Vamos a ver a mi abuela. - We are going to see my grandmother. 2. Voy a traer a Maria. - Im going to bring Mary.

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4.2 Indirect Object Pronouns


Now that you understand the concept of the direct object (i.e., the object to which the action is being done in a sentence), you are ready to look at the concept of the indirect object. An indirect object is the person or thing for whom an action is being or has been performed, usually indicated in English by the words to or for. For instance, take a look at the following sentence: Jenny is writing a letter to her father. The subject in this sentence is Jenny, and the verb is is writing. The direct object is letter. The indirect objectthe person or thing for whom the action is being performedis father. You could also say the sentence in the following way: Jenny is writing a letter to him. Him refers to Jennys father. In this sentence, the indirect object noun has been replaced by a pronoun. You can do the same thing in Spanish, if you know the indirect object pronouns. Singular me te le Plural nos os les

me you you, him, her, it

us you you, them

Unlike in English, the indirect object pronouns go directly before the verb. If the sentence is negative (has a no in it), the indirect object pronoun still goes directly before the verb (see example 2). Por ejemplo: 1. Quiero comprar un regalo para Teresa. - I want to buy a gift for Teresa. Le quiero comprar un regalo. - I want to buy her a gift.

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2. No voy a invitar a Pedro y Ernesto a la esta. - Im not going to invite Peter and Ernest to the party. No les voy a invitar a la esta. - Im not going to invite them to the party. 3. Lupe est hablando con nosotros - Lupe is talking with us. Lupe nos est hablando. - Lupe is talking with us. There is one case, however, in which the indirect object pronoun can be placed somewhere else. It can be attached to the end of an innitive. For example, in example 1 above, the second sentence could be written, Quiero comprarle un regalo. In example 2 above, the second sentence could be written, No voy a invitarles a la esta.

To Whom? Adding Clarity to Le and Les


As you can see in the table above, when you use the indirect pronouns le or les, you could be referring to anyone: you, him, her, them! English is much more specic than Spanish in that sense. For that reason, if it is unknown or unclear to whom the indirect object pronoun is referring, its a good idea to use proper nouns in addition to the indirect object pronoun. Por ejemplo: 1. Jenny le est escribiendo una carta a su padre. - Jenny is writing a letter to her father. 2. Carlos quiere darles algo a ustedes. - Carlos wants to give you something. 3. Le voy a llamar a Juan maana. - Im going to call John tomorrow.

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You can also use the indirect object noun in addition to the pronoun if you want to emphasize to whom or for whom the action is occurring.

Por ejemplo: Te invito a ti y nadie ms. - Im inviting you and no one else.

A Note of Caution
Indirect object pronouns in the yo, t, nosotros, and vosotros forms are identical to reexive pronouns! (Youll study reexive pronouns further in Chapter 6.3.) Their uses are quite different, however, so the only way youll be able to tell the difference is by the context of the sentence.

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4.3 Putting Direct & Indirect Object Pronouns Together


Now that youve learned about direct and indirect object pronouns, what happens if you want to use them together? The sentences that follow are examples of both object pronouns being used together. The direct object is in bold, while the indirect object is underlined. Does Hector give them to you? They ask us for it. I need to give it to him tomorrow. Te los da Hctor? Ellos nos lo piden. Necesito drselo maana.

To refresh your memory, the direct and indirect object pronouns that you will use in combination are as follows: Indirect object pronouns me te se (this is le normally) nos os se (this is les normally) Direct object pronouns lo, la los, las

When you combine the direct and indirect object pronouns in a sentence, you have two options. You can put the indirect object pronoun, followed by the direct object pronoun, as two separate words before the verb. o such as, Te lo voy a dar. Im going to give it to you. You can attach the indirect object pronoun and the direct object pronoun onto the end of an innitive. o such as, Voy a drtelo. Im going to give it to you. (Note that you must add an accent on the innitive ending to preserve the correct pronunciation.)

Which Object Comes First?


In English, you can switch the order of the direct and indirect objects. For example: I will give it to him. or Hector gave them to you. or I will give him it. Hector gave you them.

In Spanish, on the other hand, the indirect object pronoun will ALWAYS come before the direct object pronoun.
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Por ejemplo: 1. Mi profesor me ensea hablar espaol. Mi profesor me lo ensea. 2. Nos arreglan los boletos de avin. Nos los arreglan. 3. Paula te repara la computadora. Paula te la repara. 4. Jorge le pide los libros a Carla. Jorge se los pide. My professor teaches me to speak Spanish. My professor teaches me it. They arrange our plane tickets for us. They arrange them for us. Paula repairs the computer for you. Paula repairs it for you. George asks Carla for the books. George asks her for them.

Why Does Le Change to Se?


As with so many irregularities in the Spanish language, the change of the indirect object pronoun in the third person makes pronunciation easier. Try saying, Le loy voy a dar. Now, try saying, Se lo voy a dar. Can you hear why le changes to se?

Im going to give it to him.

Por ejemplo: 1. Les servimos la comida. Se la servimos. 2. Les muestra la casa. Se la muestra. 3. Les explican los chistes a Uds. Se los explican. We serve them the food. We serve them it. He shows them the house. He shows them it. They explain the jokes to you. They explain them to you.

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To Whom? Clarifying Se
The word se can refer to any number of indirect pronouns: him, her, it, them, you. Just as it is recommended to add a clarication after le, if your audience does not know to whom you are referring, it is also recommended to add a clarication after the use of se if the indirect object is not clear. To do so, use se as you normally would, then append one of the following to the end of your sentence: a Ud. a l a ella a Uds. a ellos a ellas

Por ejemplo: 1. A quin le servimos la comida? Se la servimos a l. 2. A quin le muestra l la casa? Se la muestra a ellos. 3. A quin les explicamos los chistes? Se los explicamos a Uds. To whom do we serve the food? We serve it to him. To whom does he show the house? He shows it to them. To whom do we explain the jokes? We explain them to you.

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4.4 More about Us and Them: Prepositional Pronouns


Understanding Prepositions
Do you know what prepositions are? They indicate location as well as placement in time (such as before and after). They include words like about, above, across, after, against, along, around, at, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond... and so on. Examples of prepositional phrases in use (with the prepositions in bold) include: The cat was on the mat. The trapeze artist hung above the crowd. There were many stars in the sky.

Prepositional Pronouns
Sometimes, the object of a proposition (in the above examples, mat, crowd, and sky) is a pronoun like you, me, or it. For example, look at the following sentences. The prepositional pronoun is in bold. He sat in front of me. They left before us. Everyone but them got to go.

In Spanish, the prepositional pronouns are exactly the same as the subject pronouns with the exceptions of m and ti. Look at the chart below. m ti Ud. l ella me you you him her nosotros/as vosotros/as Uds. ellos ellas us you (plural) you (plural) them them

Note that the word m has an accent mark over the i, whereas ti has no accent mark. Por ejemplo: 1. Me siento entre l y ella. - I sit between him and her. 2. Marco sale antes de Uds. - Marco leaves before you. 3. Quieren ir con nosotros. - They want to go with us.
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The Exceptions: Entre T y Yo, Conmigo and Contigo


Some combinations can sound a bit strange, though. Try saying, entre ti y m (between you and me). The sequence of ee sounds can be hard to say! For that reason, if you need to combine you and me in a phrase, use the subject pronouns instead: entre t y yo Por ejemplo: 1. Vamos a compartirlo entre t y yo. - We are going to share it between you and me. 2. Entre t y yo, pienso que l es un poco raro. - Between you and me, I think that he is a little strange.

Another strange sound occurs when you want to say with me or with you. Try saying con m or con ti. Its hard to keep the words separated, isnt it? For that reason, if you need to say, with me, or, with you, use the following words: conmigo or contigo Por ejemplo:

1. Vas a venir conmigo? - Are you going to come with me?

2. Mauricio quiere ir contigo. - Mauricio wants to go with you.

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4.5 Talking about This, That, and That One over There
Understanding This and That
When you want to point to something, you often use demonstrative adjectives or pronouns. For example, imagine that you are in a caf in Spain. You are selecting un pan, or a bread roll, from a glass case. The waiter is waiting with his tongs to select the roll you want. He points to one, which isnt the roll you want. No, you say, pointing to the one nearest you. Not that roll, this one. While English only has two optionsthis for something close to you, and that for something farther awaySpanish has three: this, that, and that over there. The third option implies an even greater distance. To get a better understanding of the difference between that and that over there, imagine yourself standing with a friend at a harbor. Your friend tells you, Id like to own that boat. You point to one at the other end of the dock, asking, That one? No, he tells you. He indicates a boat on the horizon. That boat, way over there.

Demonstrative Adjectives in Spanish


Study the table of demonstrative adjectives below. Notice that they change according to the gender and quantity of the noun they describe. Close this these Farther Away that those At a Distance that (over there) those (over there) Por ejemplo: 1. Puedes ver aquel barco? Can you see that boat over there? Masculine este estos ese esos aquel aquellos Feminine esta estas esa esas aquella aquellas

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2. Aquellas montaas me parecen muy altas. Those mountains over there seem to me very tall. 3. Esos lpices son de Pamela. - Those pencils are Pamelas. 4. Esta revista es interesante. - This magazine is interesting.

Demonstrative Pronouns
The main difference between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun is that the adjective comes before a noun (Quiero este pan) while the pronoun can stand on its own (Quiero ste). In English, the difference can be characterized in this way: I want that roll. I want that. demonstrative adjective demonstrative pronoun

You can review demonstrative pronouns in the following table. Close this (one) these (ones) Farther Away that (one) those (ones) At a Distance that (one over there) those (ones over there) Masculine ste stos se sos aqul aqullos Feminine sta stas sa sas aqulla aqullas

Notice that the demonstrative adjectives and pronouns are exactly the same except for one small difference: the accent mark. You may also be interested to know that if you dont know whether something is masculine or feminine, there is a neuter form for each of the above demonstrative pronouns. esto eso aquello Use these forms only if youre referring to an abstract idea or an unknown object. For example... Qu es eso?
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What is that?

Por ejemplo:

1. Cules zapatos quieres comprar? -Which shoes do you want to buy? Quiero comprar sos. - I want to buy those.

2. Cul es tu carro? - Which is your car? Aqul es mo. - That one over there is mine.

3. De quin son estos guantes? - Whose are these gloves? stos son mos. - These are mine.

A Note of Caution: Accent Marks


As mentioned before, accent marks are very important in Spanish, because a misplaced or missing accent mark can completely change the meaning of a word. For example, think of the words: esta sta est

The rst (esta) is an adjective that means this ____ The second (sta) is a pronoun that means this. The third (est) is a verb that means is.

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4.6 Review
I. Section Summary
After completing this section, you should know the following:

The difference between direct and indirect objects How to form direct and indirect object pronouns in Spanish How to identify a prepositional pronoun How to form a prepositional pronoun in Spanish How to point out this one, that one, or that one over there.

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II. Vocabulary Review Vocabulary List #4


Spanish
SUSTANTIVOS abuela (la) barco (el) boleto de avin (el) carro (el) casa (la) chiste (el) comida (la) computadora (la) esta (la) guantes (los) libro (el) maana (la) montaa (la) padre (el) pan (el) partido (el) profesor (el) regalo (el) revista (la) zapato (el) VERBOS arreglar compartir comprar ensear escribir explicar hablar invitar ir mostrar pedir pensar reparar salir sentarse servir tener traer ADJECTIVOS raro EXPRESIONES COMUNES algo antes de aquel / aquellos / aquella

English
NOUNS grandmother boat airplane ticket car house joke food computer party gloves book tomorrow, morning mountain father bread game professor gift magazine shoe VERBS to arrange to share to buy to teach to write to explain to talk to invite to go to show to ask for, to request to think to repair to leave, to go out to sit down, to seat oneself to serve to have to bring ADJECTIVES strange OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH something before that over there (adjective)
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aqul / aqullos / aqulla conmigo contigo entre la las le les lo los ms me nadie poco ti unos / unas TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST con dar ese / esos / esa / esas se / sos / sa / sas estar este / estos / esta / estas ste / stos / sta / stas me m mo nos os querer se se ser suyo te todo tuyo

that over there (noun) with me with you between direct object: you (Ud), her direct object: you (Uds.), them (feminine) indirect object: you (Ud), him, her, it indirect object: you (Uds), them direct object: you (Ud), him, it direct object: you (Uds), them (masculine) more, else me no one little prepositional pronoun: you (t) some COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH with to give that (adjective) that (noun) to be this (adjective) this (noun) myself (reexive) prepositional pronoun: me mine ourselves yourselves (vosotros) to want himself, herself, yourselves (Ud) themselves, yourselves (Uds) to be (permanent characteristic) his, hers, yours (Ud), theirs, yours (Uds) yourself (t) all yours (t)

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III. Read the Conversation


Read the following conversation, in which Toms and Lucena have an argument about a book. Toms: Lucena: Me trajiste el libro? No, lo siento. Te traje este libro.

Lucena hands a book to him. Toms: Lucena: Toms: Lucena: Toms: Lucena: Toms: Lucena: Toms: Lucena: No es el libro que necesito. Ese libro es viejo. Necesito el libro nuevo. Son iguales. Por qu siempre me haces sto? Qu cosa? Siempre me prometes que vas a hacer algo, pero nunca lo haces. Te traje el libro! Qu ms quieres? Dme tu libro. Mi libro? No! Lo necesito para estudiar. Es mejor que el libro viejo que me trajiste. Vale.

Lucena takes the book she gave Toms and gives him hers. Lucena: Voy a pensar dos veces antes de prometerte otra cosa.

PALABRAS NUEVAS
trajiste (traer) lo siento traje (traer) siempre hacer prometer algo you brought Im sorry I brought always to do to promise something nunca ms querer dme para es mejor que dos veces never more to want give me for, in order that its better than twice

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IV. Exercises
Exercise 1. Rewrite each sentence using a direct object pronoun. Ex. Ins tiene una manzana. 1. Javier tiene los guantes.

In la tiene.
_______________________________________

2. El profesor quiere una computadora. _______________________________________ 3. Mi padre compra tres caballos. 4. Los estudiantes estudian los libros. 5. Nosotros ganamos la carrera. 6. Yo s la verdad. _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________

Exercise 2. Rewrite each sentence using an indirect object pronoun. Ex. Ins da las manzanas a Carlos y ngel. 1. Describo el concierto a mis amigas. 2. Compras pan para el nio. 3. Escribo una carta a mis abuelos. 4. Sara invita a m a la esta. 5. Felipe da unos regalos a nosotros. 6. Espero por t.

In l da las manzanas.
_______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________

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Exercise 3. Now, rewrite the sentence using both direct and indirect object pronouns. Ex. Ins les da las manzanas a Carlos y ngel. 1. Compro doce lpices para mis amigos. 2. Esperanza pide dinero de su mam y pap. 3. El hotel tiene una habitacin para nosotros. 4. Ustedes muestran el trabajo al profesor. 5. Ellos comparten la comida con nosotros. 6. T le enseas la informacin a la clase.

In se las da.
_________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________

Exercise 4. Read the following paragraph. Find the answer to each question in the paragraph and underline it. Then, in the blank, rewrite the phrase using one of the following prepositional pronouns: ellos, ellas, nosotros, nosotras. En la escuela, mi asiento est entre los asientos de mis mejores amigas, Mercedes y Lola. La profesora tiene un escritorio en frente de los estudiantes. Ella se llama Maestra Hernndez, y siempre habla con Mercedes, Lola y yo despus de la clase. Quiere compartir su conocimiento con las mujeres del futuro. Tenemos mucha suerte tener una profesora como ella.
asientoseat escritoriodesk maestrateacher siemprealways conocimientoknowledge tener suerteto be lucky comolike, such as

Ex. Dnde est mi asiento? 1. Dnde est el escritorio de la profesora? 2. Con quin habla la maestra? (hint: from the narrators point of view) 3. Con quin comparte su conocimiento?
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entre los asientos de ellas


_________________________________ _________________________________

_________________________________

Exercise 5. Read the dialogue below. Insert the appropriate demonstrative adjective or pronoun (esta, sta, esa, sa, aquella, or aqulla). Alejandro: Sandra: Alejandro: Hola, Sandra! Hola, Alejandro. Cmo te va? Bien, bien. Sabes, Sandra, estoy buscando la maleta que dej por aqu.

Sandra holds up a bag and shows it to Alejandro. Sandra: Alejandro: Sandra:

Esta

maleta?

No, no _________ maleta. La ma es una maleta negra y grande. (1) Entonces

Sandra searches below the table and behind the chairs. She nds another bag and picks it up. Sandra: Alejandro: _________ maleta? (2) No, no _________ maleta. Dnde est la maleta ma? (3)

Sandra spots another bag on top of the coffee table by the window. Sandra: Ja! All est. Es _________ tu maleta? (4)

Alejandro: Es negra, pero no es mi maleta. Que bonita, la maleta. Si no encuentro mi maleta, voy a llevar _________! (5) Sandra: Vamos a encontrar tu maleta. Mira all hay una maleta.

Sandra points to a bag on the far side of the room, hidden among the books on a shelf. Sandra: Alejandro: Es _________ tu maleta? (6) S, s! _________ maleta es ma. Gracias, Sandra!

PALABRAS NUEVAS
cmo te va? bien estoy buscando que dej por aqu hows it going? well Im looking for that I left around here no se que bonita mira all all I dont know how pretty look (informal command) there over there

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Part V. Irregular Verbs in the Present

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5.1 Introduction to Irregular Verbs: TENER and VENIR


Unlike most er and ir verbs weve learned, tener and venir are both irregular verbs. In other words, their verb endings do not follow the ordinary pattern for verbs with their innitive endings.

Why Complicate Things? The Role of Irregular Verbs in Spanish


Why do irregular verbs exist in Spanish? Just as in English, irregular verbs have evolved as a result of spoken usage and ease of pronunciation. For example, compare the sounds of the word teno with the word tengo. The second word sounds cleaner and clearer, doesnt it? If tener was a regular verb, its yo form would be teno. But its not. Look at the verb endings for venir and tener in the following table: Subject Yo T Ud., l, ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds., ellos, ellas TENER ten-go tien-es tien-e ten-emos ten-is tien-en VENIR ven-go vien-es vien-e ven-imos ven-s vien-en

The irregularity of the verbs occurs in two areas. 1. The yo form is completely irregular, with a g added before the o ending. 2. The stem of the verbs changes in the t, Ud., and Uds. forms. The e is replaced by ie. Try saying the word tene. Now say tiene. Can you hear why the stem changes? Por ejemplo: 1. T vienes de Brasil, verdad? No, yo vengo de Argentina. 2. Tienen Ustedes familia en Espaa? S, nosotros tenemos familia en Espaa. You come from Brazil, right? No, I come from Argentina. Do you have family in Spain? Yes, we have family in Spain.

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Using TENER to Talk about Age, What You Have, Whether Youre Hungry, and What You Feel Like Doing
The verb tener is extremely common in Spanish. A mastery of it will enable you to say everything from how old you are to whether youre cold or thirsty. In its most basic meaning, tener means to have. For example, Tengo un trabajo, means I have a job. If you want to say that you have to do something, you will use tener que. For example, Tengo que ir al mercado, means I have to go to the market. Tener is also used in the colloquial phrase, I feel like. If you want to say you feel like doing something, start your sentence with, Tengo ganas de Por ejemplo: 1. Tengo ganas de salir. T tienes que venir conmigo. - I feel like going out. You have to come with me. 2. Tengo que ir hacer compras. Tienes ganas de ir conmigo? - I have to go shopping. Do you feel like going with me?

Tener can also mean the same thing as the English to be in many situations. o For example, if you feel hot, cold, hungry, or thirsty, you will use tener to express your state. Tengo calor, means I am [feeling] hot. o When you want to express how many years old someone is, you can say, Ella tiene 17 aos. In other words, She is 17 years old. o You will also use tener in some expressions, like tener cuidado, or to be careful.

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Por ejemplo: 1. Tengo mucha hambre. - I am very hungry. Tenemos que comer algo. - We have to eat something.

2. Hay que tener cuidado cruzando la calle. - One must be careful crossing the street.

3. Cuantos aos tienes? - How old are you? Tengo veintisis aos. - I am 26 years old.

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5.2 Stem Changing Verbs in the Present


What is a Stem Change?
Remember the two ways in which the verbs venir and tener were irregular? First, their yo form had a g before the o, and second, they had a stem change in the t, Ud., and Uds. forms. This notion of a stem change will become quite familiar to you over time, as many Spanish verbs are stem changing in every form exept nosotros/as and vosotros/as. Lets go back and review what a stem is. The stem of a verb is the part of the verb that is left once you take away the ar, -er, or ir ending. In regular verbs, the stem does not change no matter what ending you add on to it. However, in stem changing verbs, the stem will change in every form but two. There are three common types of stem changing verbs: e to ie, e to i, and o to ue. Review the following examples: e to ie COMENZAR to begin Yo T Ud., l, ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds., ellos, ellas Por ejemplo: 1. Mis primos duermen mucho. - My cousins sleep a lot. 2. Mido mi altura todas las semanas. - I measure my height every week. 3. Nosotros comenzamos el juego. - We start the game. comienzo comienzas comienza comenzamos comenzis comienzan e to i MEDIR to measure mido mides mide medimos medis miden o to ue DORMIR to sleep duermo duermes duerme dormimos dorms duermen

A Rare Stem Change: i to ie


The stem change patterns above are the most common, but you will nd a few verbs that make a different stem change: from i to ie.
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Yo T Ud., l, ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds., ellos, ellas Por ejemplo:

ADQUIRIR to acquire adquiero adquieres adquiere adquirimos adquirs adquieren

INQUIRIR to inquire inquiero inquieres inquiere inquirimos inquirs inquieren

1. Hoy tus padres adquieren una casa nueva. - Today your parents acquire a new house. 2. Mi hermano inquiere sobre su equipo de ftbol. - My brother inquires about his football team.

Another Rare Stem Change: u to ue


A verb that you will use often in Spanish is jugar (to play). Jugar is a stem-changing verb with a u to ue stem change. Yo T Ud., l, ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds., ellos, ellas Por ejemplo: 1. Los nios juegan en el parque. - The kids play in the park. 2. Jugamos con ellos. - We play with them. juego juegas juega jugamos jugis juegan

Please note that jugar does not include the sense of playing music or an instrument. If you want to say that you play the guitar, you will use the verb tocar, as in, Toco la guitarra.

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The Last and Strangest Stem Change: o to hue


Last of all, you should note that the verb oler (to smell) is also irregular. Youll need to memorize this stem change if you want to talk of smelling the roses. Yo T Ud., l, ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds., ellos, ellas Por ejemplo: Huelo el aire del mar. - I smell the air from the sea. huelo hueles huele olemos olis huelen

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5.3 Irregular Verbs in the Yo Form


Now a G, Now an O, GO!
In the last chapter, I said there were two different irregularities in the verbs venir and tener: a stem change and a change in the yo form. Well, venir and tener arent the only verbs that add an extra g before the o in the yo form. Many commonly used vebs in Spanish are irregular in the yo form, even if that is the only irregularity they have. For example, look at the table below. PONER to put yo t Ud., l, ella nosotros/as vosotros/as Uds., ellos, ellas pongo pones ponen ponemos ponis ponen TRAER traigo traes trae traemos trais traen VALER valgo vales vale valemos valis valen SALIR salgo sales sale salimos sals salen HACER hago haces hace hacemos hacis hacen

to bring to value to leave, go out to do, to make

Note that traer has an additional irregularity in the yo form, with an i in addition to the extra g. Por ejemplo:

1. Dnde pongo tus maletas? - Where do I put your bags?

2. Te traigo un vaso de agua. - I bring you a glass of water.

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3. Salgo inmediatamente para Paris. - I leave immediately for Paris.

4. Qu hago con eso? - What do I do with that?

5. Qu no valgo yo nada para ti? - Am I not worth anything to you?

Thinking about VALER


You may be interested to know that the word vale is quite frequently used in Spain. For example, the phrase no vale is often used to mean, It wont work, or Its no good. The phrase vale, on the other hand, is a catch-all phrase meaning, Okay, or Its ne. Youll hear it a lot!

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5.4 To Say and To Give: Using DECIR and DAR


As in English, the verbs decir (to say or to tell) and dar (to give) are widely used in the Spanish language. Like tener and venir, the verb decir is both stem-changing (-e to i) and irregular in the yo form. The verb dar, on the other hand, is irregular in the yo form only (aside from an unstressede.g., unaccentedvosotros form). It is a good idea to memorize each individual form of these verbs, as you will use them frequently. DECIR to say, to tell digo dices dice decimos decs dicen DAR to give doy das da damos dais dan

yo t Ud., l, ella nosotros/as vosotros/as Uds., ellos, ellas

Remember those indirect and direct object pronouns from the previous section? These verbs will give you the perfect chance to practice. Both are often used with indirect object pronouns. In other words, the action is performed for you or me, or he or she. Por ejemplo: 1. Manuel te dice que no! - Manuel tells you no! 2. Tus amigos me dicen que la esta es el sbado. - Your friends tell me the party is on Saturday. 3. Yo te doy el dinero. - I give you the money. 4. l me da el libro. - He gives me the book. 5. Ellos nos dan la comida. - They give us the food. You can also use decir and dar to practice combining direct and indirect object pronouns.

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Por ejemplo: 1. l me lo dice. - He tells me it. 2. Ellos se los dicen. - They tell it to them. 3. Te lo doy. -I give it to you. 4. Vosotros me la decs. - You tell me it. 5. Nosotros se los damos. - We give it to them.

DID YOU KNOW?


Did you know that in Spanish, you dont capitalize the days of the week unless they start a sentence? The same goes for the months. For example Nos reunimos el primer viernes en marzo. (We meet on the rst Friday in March.)

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5.5 When Something is Happening


Understanding the Present Progressive
The term present progressive is a fancy way of describing the verb tense that emphasizes that an action is currently taking place as we speak. It is characterized by the verb to be, followed by a second verb that ends with ing (the present participle). For example:

I am studying. You are running.


In Spanish, the present progressive is constructed in a similar way. Use the to be verb estar. Instead of ending the present participle with ing, however, youll end it with ando or iendo. Por ejemplo: 1. Estoy caminando. - I am walking. 2. Sara est viajando. - Sarah is travelling. 3. Nosotros estamos corriendo. - We are running.

Be careful, though! In English you can also use the present participle in this way: We are going shing. In this case, the verb to be indicates a future occurrence, that of shing. You cannot use the present participle in this case in Spanish. Rather, you must use an innitive. In other words: DO NOT say Vamos pescando. DO say, Vamos a pescar.

The Present Participles of Regular Verbs


-ar verbs comprar esperar ensear estudiar p. participle comprando esperando enseando estudiando -er verbs correr tener beber comer p.participle corriendo teniendo bebiendo comiendo -ir verbs vivir pedir abrir salir p.participle viviendo pidiendo abriendo saliendo

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The general rules for creating the present participle of regular verbs are: 1. 2. ar verbs will end in ando. er verbs and ir verbs will both end in iendo.

The present participles never change no matter which subject pronoun is used. Por ejemplo: 1. Estoy comprando unos calcetnes. - I am buying some socks. 2. Estamos bebiendo la cerveza. - We are drinking the beer. 3. T ests viviendo en Argentina. - You are living in Argentina.

Irregular Stem Changing Verbs


Note the following irregular verbs, which make a stem change in the present participle form: From e to i venir viniendo sentir sintiendo decir diciendo Por ejemplo: 1. Me estoy sintiendo triste. - I am feeling sad. 2. Nosotros estamos viniendo pronto. - We are coming soon. 3. T ests durmiendo en la cama. - You are sleeping on the bed. 4. Ellos estn durmiendo ahora. - They are sleeping now. From o to u dormir durmiendo morir muriendo

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5.6 Review
I. Section Summary
After completing this section, you should know the following:

What it means to call a verb irregular How to use TENER to talk about:
o o o o what you have what you feel like whether youre hungry or thirsty, hot or cold how old you are

The different kinds of stem-changing verbs That some verbs are only irregular in their yo form How to talk about something that is happening at this moment

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II. Vocabulary Review

Vocabulary List #5
Spanish
SUSTANTIVOS agua (el) aire (el) altura (la) calcetnes (los) calle (la) calor (el) cama (la) cerveza (la) compras (las) edad (la) equipo (el) familia (la) ftbol (el) guitarra (la) hambre (el) hermano (el) juego (el) maleta (la) mar (el) nio (el) parque (el) primo (el) semana (la) vaso (el) VERBOS abrir adquirir beber caminar comenzar comer comprar correr cruzar dar decir dormir ensear esperar estudiar inquirir ir jugar medir oler pedir NOUNS water air height, altitude socks street heat bed beer shopping age team family soccer guitar hunger brother game suitcase sea child, boy park cousin week glass VERBS to open to acquire to drink to walk to start to eat to buy to run to cross to give to say, to tell to dream to teach to wait, to hope to study to inquire to go to play to measure to smell to ask, to request
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English

pescar poner salir tener tener calor tener cuidado tener ganas de tener hambre tener X aos de edad tocar traer valer viajar ADJECTIVOS mucho triste EXPRESIONES COMUNES algo hay que hoy inmediatamente mi / mis nada pronto sobre todos tu / tus vale TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST ahora algn, alguno/a ao (el) ayudar da (el) haber hacer llamar antes mirar tomar nuevo para parecer poder signicar tierra venir ver vivir

to sh to put to leave, to go out to have to be hot to be careful to feel like to be hungry to be X years old to touch, to play (an instrument) to bring to be worth to travel ADJECTIVES a lot, much sad OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH something one must now, today immediately my nothing soon about, over every, everyone, all your (t) colloquial phrase (Spain) meaning okay COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH now some, any year to help day to have (only as a helping verb) to make, to do to call before, earlier to look, to watch to take, to drink new for, in order to to seem to be able to, can, may to mean, to signify earth, land or soil to come to see to live

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III. Read the Conversation


Read the following conversation, in which Alfonso and Denisa discuss what they want to do this evening.

Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa: Alfonso: Denisa:

Qu quieres hacer esta noche? Tengo ganas de salir. Tengo hambre. Tengo que comer. Tienes ganas de comer en un restaurante en la ciudad? S. Me parece bien. Tambin tengo ganas de tomar una cerveza. Si tienes sed, debes tomar agua. Yo estoy comenzando un rgimen. Por qu? Eres bonita. Puede ser, pero no soy aca. Soy gorda. Pero la cerveza no te engorda. S, me engorda. Tengo que tener cuidado con mi dieta. Bueno, yo estoy tomando una cerveza. T puedes tomar agua. Ya no quiero comer. Pero tienes hambre. Ya no. Mejor nos quedamos en casa y vemos una pelcula.

PALABRAS NUEVAS
me parece bien rgimen puede ser engordar entonces it seems good to me diet (for losing weight) it could be to make fat /to fatten then solo bueno ya no nos quedamos una pelcula only, just well now I dont we stay a movie

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IV. Exercises
Exercise 1. Fill in the appropriate form of tener or venir to complete the sentences. Ex. Soy millonario.

Tengo

tres casas, diez carros, y mucho dinero en el banco.

1. Lupe es muy joven. Solo _______________ ocho aos de edad. 2. Juan Carlos y Marcos son argentinos. _______________ de Argentina. 3. Nosotros queremos comer ahorita. _______________ hambre. 4. Mi mam me est llamando para ir a comer. _______________, Mam! 5. Necesitas hacer el trabajo antes de m. _______________ que ayudarme despus. 6. Est nevando afuera. _______________ ustedes fro?

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks in the story with the appropriate form of the verb indicated
in parentheses.
Mis amigos Guillermo, Marta, Ral y yo

jugamos

(jugar) ftbol todos los das. Nuestro

equipo de ftbol se llama los Dragones Rojos. Todos nosotros ___________ (venir) del barrio San Pablo en el sur de la ciudad. Yo soy German. A m me encanta el ftbol. Cada noche cuando ___________ (dormir) tengo sueos de ser un futbolista profesional. ___________ (medir) mi altura todos los viernes para ver si estoy creciendo rpidamente. Tengo que ser ms grande para jugar con el equipo de San Rafael, el cual es mejor que el nuestro. Yo ___________ (comenzar) la escuela en septiembre. No voy a tener suciente tiempo para practicar. Mis amigos me ___________ (inquirir) sobre mi horario de clases. Ellos terminan de estudiar a las tres. Ellos ___________ (jugar) en el parque mientras me esperan. No anticipo el comienzo del ao escolar mucho. Dragones Rojos barrio el sur me encanta cada noche tener sueos Red Dragons neighborhood the south I love every night to have dreams futbolista estoy creciendo sobre horario de clases terminar de ao escolar
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soccer player I am growing about class schedule to nish school year

Exercise 3. Read the following story and answer the questions below.

Yo me llamo Sara. Voy a viajar a Francia maana. Esta noche estoy haciendo mi maleta. Pongo todos mis pantalones y camisas en un lado de la maleta. Pongo todos mis zapatos en el otro lado. Tambin tengo un vestido para bailar. Salgo a Paris a las ocho de la maana. Tengo hospedaje en un hotel muy caro. Espero que sea un buen viaje!

hacer una maletato pack un ladoone side el otro ladothe other side tambinalso bailarto dance hospedajeaccommodations sea un buen viajebe a good trip

Ex. Qu hace Sara maana?

Sara viaja a Francia maana.


1 Qu est haciendo Sara hoy? ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. Qu pone Sara en la maleta? ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. Para qu tiene un vestido? ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. A qu hora sale a Paris? ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. Dnde va a dormir en Paris? ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. Qu espera Sara? ___________________________________________________________________________
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Exercise 4. Place the parts of the scrambled sentence back into the correct order.
Ex. viniendo el sbado estoy a tu esta

Estoy viniendo a tu ta el sbado.


1. los durmiendo nios estn ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. ? ests qu diciendo me ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. caf bebiendo t ests ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. esperando Estela el autobs est ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. comiendo estamos Ramiro y yo hamburguesas ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. estn en Quito ustedes viviendo ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. la puerta est Pepe abriendo para m ___________________________________________________________________________ 8. est rpidamente Carla corriendo ___________________________________________________________________________ 9. regalos est nuestra para nosotros madre comprando ___________________________________________________________________________ 10. en estis vosotros la universidad estudiando ___________________________________________________________________________
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Part VI. Special Verbs

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6.1 Talking about What You Know: SABER and CONOCER


Strange Shades of Meaning
You cannot expect to have a language thats a literal one-on-one translation of another language. As a result, you nd some Spanish words that seem to convey a million and one English meanings (such as the word llave, which can mean a key, a tap, or a wrench). Conversely, you are going to nd many verbs in Spanish that have shades of meaning that dont exist in English, such as ser and estar. The verbs saber and conocer fall into the latter category. Both verbs mean to know. They are very, very useful in everyday life, but they are used in different contexts. If you understand which verb to use, you can also ask someone if he or she knows someone else, or even tell people, I dont know! Which verb you use will depend on what is being known in your sentence. ideas. Saber is used in the context of knowing information or I know how to cook.

e.g., Yo s como cocinar.

Conocer is used in the context of knowing a person or a place. e.g., Conoces bien la ciudad? Do you know the city well? The present tense conjugations of the verbs can be seen in the following table. You will notice that both yo forms are irregular in the present. Present Tense Yo T Ud., l, ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds., ellos, ellas SABER s sabes sabe sabemos sabis saben CONOCER conozco conoces conoce conocemos conocis conocen

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SABER: To Know Information or How to Do Something


Saber is used when the subject knows a piece of information or how to do a specic task. It can be translated as to know as well as to know how. Por ejemplo: 1. Sabes t leer msica? - Do you know how to read music? 2. Yo s escribir en espaol. - I know how to write in Spanish. 3. Ellos saben jugar a las cartas. - They know how to play cards. 4. No s! - I dont know!

CONOCER: To Know a Person, Place, or Thing


Conocer is used when the subject knows a particular person or place, as in, Do you know where to go? or Do you know Jamie? It can also be used in the context of knowing a particular thing, such as, I know this computer. I used to work on it before I switched desks, or I know that outt! I almost bought it last week. Por ejemplo: 1. Ellos conocen el sitio donde van a tener el concierto. They know the site where theyre going to have the concert.

2. Conozco este modelo, como casi lo compr anteriormente. - I know this model, as I almost bought it previously. 3. No conozco al abuelo de Estefana. - I dont know Stephanies grandfather.

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Notice that in the third example, the direct object is a person, which means that you should add the word a before el abuelo. Remember that a + el = al.

Knowing Places
The word conocer can be difcult to translate when youre talking about places. For example, if someone asks you Conoces Espaa? they usually want to know if youve been to Spain. If, on the other hand, they ask: Conoces Espaa bien? they want to know whether you are familiar with the country, i.e., whether you know it well. Por ejemplo: 1. Conoces mi casa? - Do you know my house? (Have you been to it before?) 2. Conoces Nueva York? Que chvere! - Do you know New York? How cool!

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6.2 Talking about What You Like, Love, and Lack


Verbs without English Equivalents
Not only are there Spanish words that convey shades of meaning that dont exist in English, there are also Spanish words that cant be translated literally into their equivalent English meaning. Although they may be quite common in the Latin world, their usage will seem strange to an English speaker. The verbs in the list below might seem quite complicated at rst! However, you will encounter them often enough that you should invest some time in understanding them. You may feel less confused if you do not try to translate them literally. Rather, get used to how theyre used and the contexts in which you hear them. Many of these verbs follow a similar pattern. In English, the meaning conveyed by these verbs would usually have a person or people as the subject. For example: I like X. Im missing Y. Im fascinated by Z. In Spanish, however, what would have been the direct object in the English sentence (X, Y, and Z) becomes the subject, while the person (I) becomes the direct object. X is pleasing to me. Y is missed by me. Z fascinates me. Sound confusing? Perhaps the table below will help clarify things. Verb encantar Meaning to delight or enchant to be missed, to be lacked, to be needed to fascinate Por ejemplo Me encanta la msica latina. Me falta dinero para comer. Me fascin la pe lcula. Everyday meaning / Literal translation I love Latin music. / Latin music delights me. I dont have enough money to eat. / Money is lacking for me to eat. I was fascinated by the movie. / The movie fascinated me. I like to hear your voice. / Your voice is pleasing to me.

faltar

fascinar

gustar

to be pleasing to, to be liked

Me gusta or tu voz.

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importar

to be important to; No me importa nada to be cared about to interest, to be interesting to annoy, to bother to t, to suit Me interesa la poltica.

interesar

molestar

Me molestan los mosquitos. Me qued el vestido.

I dont care about anything. / Nothing is important to me. Im interested in politics. / Politics is interesting to me. The mosquitoes annoy me. The dress suited me.

quedar

You will nd the verbs above in the third person singular and plural forms almost exclusively, and they always be accompanied by an indirect object pronoun. Por ejemplo: 1. Nos falta un escritorio para la ocina. - We lack a desk for the ofce. 2. No te interesa ver la televisin conmigo? - Arent you interested in watching television with me? 3. Nos faltan dos jugadores en el equipo de ftbol. - Were missing two players on the soccer team. 4. Juanita siempre me molesta cuando estoy intentando trabajar. - Juanita always bothers me when Im trying to work. 5. A ella le encanta pasar por las huertas botnicas. - She loves to walk through the botanical gardens.

Using GUSTAR to Talk About What You Like


As an example of these verbs, lets take the verb gustar. This is one of the most common verbs in Spanish, because it enables you to express what you like and dont like.

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Por ejemplo:

1. Me gusta la comida espaola. - I like Spanish food.

2. No me gusta mojarme. - I dont like to get wet.

Literally, the rst example translates as, The Spanish food pleases me. The second example literally translates as, To get wet does not please me. Obviously, it can be quite unhelpful if you feel as if you have to understand every expression in terms of its direct English translation. When you are learning a new language for the rst time, you may feel as if you need to know exactly what each word means in English so that you can do the translation in your head. Languages dont work like that! If you are going to learn to speak a new language, you have to allow your mind to connect words and ideas in Spanish ways ways that may be untranslatable in English. If you want to say that you like more than one thingfor example, that you like the cats, or the colors blue and green, you will use the third person plural form of gustar. For example, Me gustan las gatas. Me gustan los colores azul y verde.

Notice that, in the above examples, las gatas and los colores azul y verde are actually the subjects of the sentences. However, rather than coming rst, they will nearly always come after the verb. If you are constructing a sentence using gustar or one of the verbs in the above table, put the elements of the sentence in the following order: indirect pronoun + conjugated verb + subject

You may wish to use the handy table below. Choose one pronoun from the rst column and the correct form of gustar from one of the other two columns, depending on the tense and the quantity of what is being liked. (If what you like is a verb, like running or cooking, then use the singular form of gustar followed by the innitive form of the verb.) Remember that the correct form of the verb does NOT follow from the pronoun, but rather from what is being liked.
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Pronoun Me, te, le Nos, os, les Por ejemplo: 1. Me gust la esta. - I liked the party.

Present gusta gustan

Past (preterite) gust gustaron

2. Nos gusta estudiar la geografa. - We like studying geography. 3. Les gustaron las dos pelculas. - They liked the two movies. 4. A Cecilia le gusta el ftbol. - Cecilia likes soccer.

Example #4 is a bit trickier than the other examples. If you use le or les (for he, she, formal you, or them), youll need to clarify who the pronoun is referring to. For example, if you heard the following sentence: Le gustan los chocolates. How would you know who liked the chocolates? You would be able to guess that it is a male, a female, or you (formal singular), but the sentence would be much clearer if you heard it like this: A Lorena le gustan los chocolates. or A Ud. le gustan los chocolates.

Common Errors with GUSTAR


Mistake #1 DO NOT say Me gusta corriendo. DO SAY Me gusta correr. In other words, do not say in Spanish, I like running. Do say I like to run. Rule: If you are talking about an activity you like, follow gustar with the innitive form of the verb (to run) rather than the present participle (running).

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Mistake #2 DO NOT say A ellos les gustan acampar. acampar. DO SAY A ellos les gusta

Rule: Make sure that the verb gustar reects the quantity of what is being liked (to camp is a single thing), not the quantity of the people doing the liking. Mistake #3 DO NOT say A m me gustan pias. DO SAY A m me gustan las pias. In other words, do not say in Spanish, I like pineapples. Do say, I like the pineapples, even when you are talking about pineapples in general. Rule: If what you like is a noun, always include the correct form of the. Mistake #4 DO NOT say Me gusta Jorge. DO SAY Jorge me cae bien. Rule: Avoid using gustar to talk about liking people. If you say Me gusta Jorge, people will assume that you nd Jorge attractive and would like to date him! If you just like Jorge as a friend, nd some other way to express your affection towards him. Me cae bien is a much more neutral phrase to express positive feelings towards an acquaintance or friend. Similarly, if you dont like someone, you can use the phrase, Me cae mal, as in, Jorge me cae mal. Think about the following what would someones intentions be if they came up to you and said, Me gustas t? (Answer: It would usually mean that they liked youand I dont mean as friends!)

Using FALTAR to Talk about What You Lack or Need


You will nd the verb faltar to be a very useful tool as you talk about what youre lacking, missing, or dont have enough of. It can be difcult to translate directly. For examp le, if you want to say that youre lacking three assignments to nish the course, youd say... Me faltan tres tareas para terminar el curso. The verb faltan must be plural to reect the plural tareas. In another example, Me falta dinero para comprar la leche (I dont have enough money to buy the milk), the verb falta will reect the singular la leche. You will also notice that the verb hacer is often used with faltar. This gives emphasis to the need or lack. For example, Me hace falta un auto. I need (or am lacking) a car. In another common usage, this phrase can be used to talking about what you miss (extraar).
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Por ejemplo:

1. Me haces falta. - I miss you. 3. Me hace falta estar con mi familia. - I miss being with my family. 4. Me falta un vestido para el baile. - Im lacking a dress for the dance. 5. Me faltan los ltimos dos certicados. - Im lacking the last two certicates. 6. Me hace falta tomar caf contigo. - I miss drinking coffee with you.

2. Me falta un lpiz para dibujar. - I need a pencil for drawing.

Using the Verb QUEDAR


The verb quedar is also quite commonly used in Spanish. It can mean a variety of things and be used in a variety of contexts. For example, you can use it to express: Agreement Nos quedamos en salir a las siete. - We agreed to leave at seven.

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Location La tienda queda dos metros de la estacin del tren. - The store is two meters from the train station.

What is left or remaining No queda ms. - Theres nothing left. How much is left to go Quedan dos das para el n de semana. - There are two days to go until the weekend.

How something ts or looks Esa camisa te queda muy bien. - That shirt suits you very well.

Dont stress about memorizing all of these! For now, just be familiar with the concepts behind each of these important words. As you hear more Spanish being spoken, youll start to pick up the nuances of meaning that are impossible to convey in a book. Language is an organic, living thing. Seek out conversation practice wherever you can!

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6.3 Actions You Perform on Yourself: Reexive Verbs


Understanding Reexive Verbs
At last, youve come to the nal section on pronouns. This is one of the more complicated sections (but no more complicated than the last section!). In Spanish, when you talk about an action being performed on yourself, you show the reexive nature of the action with a reexive verb. Reexive verbs indicate that the subject of the sentence has performed an action on itself. In other words, in a reexive sentence the subject is the same as the object. Examples of reexive actions are the following: Jos got up. He put his shoes on. Eva got sick. I asked myself a question. The girl brushed her teeth.

You may look at the last example and say, But the object is teeth! Why should that verb be reexive? In Spanish, parts of the body are never preceded by personal pronouns. In other words, you never talk about my teethyou talk about the teeth, with a reexive verb preceding it. For example, in English you would say: I comb my hair. I wash my face. I scratch my arm.

In Spanish, you would say: o Me peino el pelo. o Me lavo la cara. o Me rasco el brazo.

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All reexive verbs are preceded by reexive pronouns. Reexive pronoun me te se nos os se Example using peinarse, to comb Me peino el pelo. Te peinas el pelo. Ella se peina el pelo. Nos peinamos el pelo. Os peinais el pelo. Ellos se peinan el pelo. Translation I comb my hair. You comb your hair. She combs her hair. We comb our hair. You comb your hair. They comb their hair.

Yo T Ud., l, ella Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Uds., ellos, ellas

When a Verb is Reexive and When It is Not


If you are reading Spanish, you will know that a verb is reexive by the ending se tacked onto its innitive form. Below is a list of some common reexive verbs. Note the common se ending.

alegrarse to be happy

enojarse to get angry

cepillarse to brush (yourself)

lavarse to wash (yourself)

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cortarse to cut yourself

levantarse to get up

despertarse to wake up

quemarse to burn yourself

enfermarse to get sick

meterse to put (yourself)

A verb is not reexive if it does not have this ending. For example, compare: Me despierto. with Te despierto.

The rst example is reexive, but the second one is not! In the rst example, the subject is performing the action on his/herself (e.g., I wake myself up), and the verb is despertarse. In the second example, the subject is performing the action on someone else (e.g., I wake you up), and the verb is despertar. Now compare: Te enojaron. with Nos enojamos.

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Can you guess which example uses a reexive verb and which does not? The rst example is not reexive (They made you angry) and uses the verb enojar. The second example is reexive (We got angry) and uses the verb enojarse.

Some verbs are ALWAYS reexive, like enfermarse. Por ejemplo: 1. Maria se peina el pelo todas las noches. - Mary combs her hair every night. 2. Me lavo la cara todas las maanas. - I wash my face every morning. 3. Mis padres se enojan cuando no los llamo. - My parents get angry when I dont call them. 4. Francisco se cort la mano. - Francis cut his hand. 5. Los nios se quemaron con los juegos pirotcnicos. - The children burned themselves with the reworks. 6. Nos metimos en una mala situacin. - We got ourselves into a bad situation. 7. Te enfermaste ayer? - Did you get sick yesterday? 8. Me alegro por ti. - Im happy for you.

To Get Emotional with a Reexive Verb


When a person becomes emotional, the verb used will often be reexive. For example, if you get angry, become sad, or feel happy for someone, you will need to express yourself using a reexive verb. This can seem a bit confusing at rst. Back in Chapter 3.2, you learned how to use estar with descriptive adjectives to express emotions. Estoy enojado I am angry. Estoy feliz I am happy.

Estoy triste I am sad. When you say how you feel in this way, youre expressing your emotional state at that moment.

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However, when you want to describe how your emotional state has changed over time or as a result of something, estar simply wont do. Youll need a reexive verb. I quickly got angry. It made me sad. It makes me happy to hear your voice. Me enoj rpidamente. Me puso triste. Me alegro or tu voz.

Dont worry too much about this nuance of reexive verbs! The more you hear verbs in action, the more youll naturally pick up which verbs are used reexively and which are not.

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6.4 Review
I. Section Summary
After completing this section, you should know the following:

How to talk about what or whom you know


o the difference between SABER and CONOCER

How to talk about what fascinates or interests you How to talk about what you like How to talk about what you need or lack How to talk about whether your clothes t or look good on you How to talk about what is left or remaining How to talk about your personal daily routine (waking up, showering, brushing your hair, etc.) How to recognize a reexive verb by its -se ending How to talk about becoming angry or being happy for someone

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II. Vocabulary Building

Vocabulary List #6
Spanish
SUSTANTIVOS abuelo (el) baile (el) caf (el) camisa (la) cara (la) carta (la) cepillo de dientes (el) certicado (el) chocolate (el) ciudad (la) color (el) comida espaola (la) concierto (el) cuarto (el) equipo (el) escritorio (el) estacin del tren (la) esta (la) n (el) n de semana (el) ftbol (el) gato (el) geografa (la) huerta botnica (la) juegos pirotcnicos (los) jugador (el) lpiz (el) mano (la) metro (el) modelo (el) mosquito (el) msica (la) msica latina (la) ocina (la) pelcula (la) pelo (el) pia (la) poltica (la) sitio (el) situacin (la) televisin (la) vestido (el) voz (la) VERBOS acampar

English
NOUNS grandfather dance coffee shirt face card, letter toothbrush certicate chocolate city color Spanish food concert room (also habitacin) team desk train station party end, ending weekend soccer cat geography botanic garden reworks player pencil hand meter model mosquito music Latin music ofce movie, lm hair pineapple politics site situation television dress voice VERBS to camp
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alegrarse cepillarse cocinar correr cortarse despertarse dibujar encantar enfermarse enojarse escribir faltar fascinar hacer falta importar intentar interesar ir jugar lavarse leer levantarse llamar meterse mojarse molestar or pasar peinarse ponerse triste quedar quemarse tener tomar trabajar ADJECTIVOS azul enojado triste verde EXPRESIONES COMUNES algunos / algunas anteriormente ayer bien casi chvere como conmigo este (esta, estos, estas) ms me cae bien.

to be happy to brush (yourself) to cook to run to cut yourself to wake up to draw to enchant (love) to get sick to get angry to write to be lacking, to be missing, to be needed to fascinate to miss something (emotionally) to be important to try to be interesting to go to play to wash (yourself) to read to get up to call to put (yourself) to get wet to annoy, to bother to hear to pass, to stroll to comb (yourself) to become sad to t, to suit, to be remaining, to be left to burn yourself to have to drink, to take to work ADJECTIVES blue angry sad green OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH some previously yesterday well almost cool, great, amazing how with me this (adj) more I like (in the context of liking someone)
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me cae mal. nada para por ti propio rpidamente TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST ac all all amigo aqu conocer cual (el, la) cuando despus donde encontrar feliz gustar por que quien, quienes saber siempre ltimo vez

I dont like nothing for for you own rapidly COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH over here over there there friend here to know (a person, place, or thing) which when after, later where to nd happy to be pleasing to (like) through, for, along, by that, which, who, than who, whom to know (knowledge, an idea) always last once

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III. Read the Conversation


Read the following conversation between Marta and Mateo, as they meet on the street unexpectedly, very early in the morning. Mateo: Marta: Mateo: Marta: Mateo: Marta: Mateo: Hola, Marta. Qu sorpresa! Cmo ests? Estoy bien, y t? Bien. Bueno, un poco cansado. Te levantaste temprano. Son las seis de la maana. Adnde vas? Me gusta levantarme temprano, y adems voy a mi nuevo trabajo. Me alegro que tienes un trabajo nuevo! Dnde trabajas? Trabajo en una compaa de msica. Ayudo a los artistas con sus necesidades. Tuve que comprar ropa nueva para parecer ms profesional. Te gusta? Tus pantalones negros te quedan bien. S, me gustan! Adnde vas t? Voy a la panadera. Estaba cocinando el desayuno, pero me faltan pan y leche. Bueno, creo que tus hijos te estn esperando. No te quito ms tiempo. Hasta luego, Mateo. Chao!

Marta: Mateo: Marta :

Mateo: Marta: Mateo:

PALABRAS NUEVAS qu sorpresa un poco cansado temprano adems necesidades ropa profesional what a surprise a little tired early furthermore necessities clothing, clothes professional panadera estaba cocinando desayuno pan leche quitar hasta luego bakery I was cooking breakfast bread milk to take away until later

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IV. Exercises
Exercise 1.
preference. Ex. A Maria le gusta bailar. Te gusta bailar? Answer the following questions according to your own personal

S, me gusta bailar.

or

No, no me gusta bailar.


Te gustan las

1. A Eduardo y Ramn les gusta comer las hamburguesas. hamburguesas?

___________________________________________________________________________ 2. A nosotros nos gusta nadar en el mar. Te gusta nadar en el mar? ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. A mi profesor le gusta hablar. A ti te gusta hablar? ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. Me gusta la msica latina muchsimo. A ti te gusta la msica latina? ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. Al Seor Salazar le gustan los carros japoneses. Te gustan los carros japoneses? ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. A Rosario le gusta jugar ftbol. Te gusta jugar ftbol? ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. A Javier, Ramiro, Jorge y yo nos gusta manejar los carros rpidamente. Te gusta manejar rpidamente? ___________________________________________________________________________ 8. A m me gustan las clases de espaol. Te gustan las clases de espaol? ___________________________________________________________________________

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Exercise 2. Answer the following questions according to your own personal preference.
Use the verb faltar. Ex. A Maria le falta dinero. Te falta dinero?

S, me falta dinero.

or

No, no me falta dinero.

1. A Rodrigo y Miguel les faltan sombreros para el sol.Te falta un sombrero? ___________________________________________________________________________

2. Me falta dinero para comprar almuerzo. Te falta dinero para comprar almuerzo? ___________________________________________________________________________

3. Nos falta una computadora para trabajar. Te falta una computadora para trabajar? ___________________________________________________________________________

4. A Ramona le falta un lpiz para escribir. Te falta un lpiz para escribir? ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. No me gusta el primer ao de universidad. Me hace falta mi familia. Te hace falta tu familia? ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. A Wilfredo le falta un carro para ir a la universidad. Te falta un carro? ___________________________________________________________________________

7. A Marcela le hace falta un esposo con mucho dinero. Te hace falta un esposo/a? ___________________________________________________________________________

8. Jaime siempre llega tarde. Le hace falta un reloj. Te hace falta un reloj? ___________________________________________________________________________

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Exercise 3. Describe Tias morning routine, using the pictures below.


Ex. A las

sie de la maana se levanta

Tia

1. A las ____________________________________________

Tia ________________________________________________

2. A las _____________________________________________

Tia _________________________________________________

3. A las ____________________________________________

Tia ________________________________________________

4. A ________________________________________________

Tia __________________________________________________

5. A las ____________________________________________

Tia ________________________________________________

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Exercise 4. Decide whether the underlined verb is reexive or not and check in the appropriate box. Reexive NOT Reexive Ex. Estaba tan enferma ayer. Me enferm rpidamente.

1. Necesito una alarma para despertarme en la maana.

2. Mi mam siempre me cepilla el pelo.

3. Es importante lavarse las manos antes de comer.

4. Hay tener cuidado con los cuchillos, como una persona puede cortarse.

5. Los profesores aburridos me enojan, mientras los profesores interesantes me alegran.

6. El padre de Enrique se enoja cuando sus hijos ven demasiado televisin.

7. Mi hermana siempre me despierta todas las maanas.

8. Me lav el pelo antes de salir del bao.

9. La nia se pone los zapatos.

10. Las amigas se ayudan a cepillar el pelo.

11. El gato se meti en un rbol y no quera salir.

12. Me llamo Carmen.

13. Nos llamaron desde la estacin de tren.


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Part VII. Special Words

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7.1 Talking about Whats Good, Better, and Best


Understanding Comparatives and Superlatives
Now lets take a breather and go to something easier and more fun! Lets talk about the best band of all time, who is the oldest person in your class, and how your friends car compares with yours. You can compare things just as easily in Spanish as you can in English. You should already be familiar with the concept of good, better, and best. When youre talking about one thing, its good. When youre comparing it to something else, its better. When you say that it is better than anything else, its the best. If you understand this, you already know what a comparative and a superlative are. Words that compare one thing to another (e.g., better, older) are called comparatives. Words that put something at the top or bottom of the class, so to speak, (e.g., best, oldest) are called superlatives. Below are some common comparatives and superlatives in Spanish. Look at the table and follow each word from left to right. Adjective bueno malo viejo joven Translation good bad old young Comparative mejor que peor que mayor que menor que Translation Superlative better worse older younger el / la mejor el / la peor el / la mayor el / la menor Translation the best the worst the oldest the youngest

(You should also know that bien and mal share the same construction as bueno and malo.) Lets say that you want to talk about your favorite soccer team. Mi equipo de fbol favorito es muy bueno. My favorite soccer team is very good.

Say that you want to claim that your favorite soccer team is better than your friends. Mi equipo de ftbol favorito es mejor que el tuyo. My favorite soccer team is better than yours.
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Now, say that you want to boast that your soccer team is the best of all! Mi equipo de ftbol es el mejor! My soccer team is the best!

For Better or for Worse: MEJOR QUE and PEOR QUE


When you want to compare the age (older, younger) or quality (better, best) of two things, you will use the comparative form of the adjective plus than. For example: o o o o better than = mejor que worse than = peor que older than = mayor que younger than = menor que

If you want to say, for example, that your sister is older than you are, you will say, Mi hermana es mayor que m. Por ejemplo: 1. El hermano de Juan es mayor que l. - Juans brother is older than him. 2. El sombrero negro es mejor que el sombrero blanco. - The black hat is better than the white hat. 3. La primera banda fue mejor que la segunda. - The rst band was better than the second.

The Best of All: LA MEJOR


If you want to say that your sister is the oldest in your family, you will simply add the article the to the comparative form of the adjective. The sentence becomes: Mi hermana es la mayor.

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Por ejemplo: 1. l es el mejor cantante del mundo. - He is the best singer in the world. 2. Ella es la peor estudiante de la clase. - She is the worst student in the class. 3. La seora es la mayor del barrio. - The lady is the oldest in the neighborhood. 4. Margarita es la hija menor. - Margaret is the youngest daughter. You will notice that the word de is often used with superlatives. When used after a superlative, de can mean in or of. Por ejemplo: 1. El jugador es el mejor de todos. - The player is the best of all. 2. Lupe es la mejor trabajadora del grupo. - Lupe is the best worker in the group. Notice that in the second example, de has combined with el to form del. This is identical to the formation of al from a and el. Anytime you see de and el together, remember: de + el = del

The Most of All: MS DE


You can also form superlatives by talking about the strongest, coolest, fastest thing of all. Whereas you form these superlatives in English by adding an est to the end of the adjective or adverb, you form them in Spanish by using the word ms instead. Ms means most. If you wish to talk about the hottest day of the summer in Spanish, youll have to say the day most hot of the summer. Sound strange? Remember that in English, not all adjectives can be transformed with an est ending. You cant say beautifulest or expensivest! In those cases, you form the superlative just as it is done in Spanish: you talk about the most beautiful or the most expensive. Thats exactly how its done in Spanish. All other superlatives will be formed using the sentence construction below. noun + ms + adjective or adverb + de + noun

In Spanish, then, the phrase the hottest day of the summer will become:
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el da

ms

caluroso

del

verano

Por ejemplo: 1. Hoy es el da ms caluroso del verano. - Today is the hottest day of the summer. 2. La primavera es la estacin ms lluviosa en mi regin. - The spring is the wettest season in my region. 3. Los matadores profesionales solo usan los toros ms fuertes de Espaa. - Professional bullghters only use the strongest bulls in Spain. 4. Estas son las ores ms hermosas de mi jardn. - These are the most beautiful owers of my garden. 5. Juan tiene la guitarra ms cara del grupo. - John has the most expensive guitar in the group.

Super Cool: The Ending -simo


In Spanish, theres another way of expressing how something is just the most-est. You can intensify the meaning of any adjective by adding the ending -simo. This is the English equivalent adding a very or super before the adjective. Por ejemplo: 1. La comida est riqusima. - The food is super delicious. 2. Ests bellsima, mi hija. - Youre gorgeous, my daughter. 3. El atleta corri rapidsimo en la competencia. - The athlete ran super fast in the competition. 4. La noche estuvo heladsima. - The night was super cold.

Some More Comparisons: MS QUE and MENOS QUE


Other comparisons you will make will be of the greater and lesser sort. In other words, you will say that something has more or less of a quality than the other thing. For example,
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Julie has more pens than Matt. San Francisco has fewer people than Los Angeles. When it comes to shoes, Annette has more than her sister.

Notice that the words more and less are followed by a than. In Spanish, its just the same, but instead of talking about more than you will talk about ms que. ms que = menos que = Por ejemplo: 1. Ricardo es ms inteligente que Jos. - Richard is more intelligent than Joe. 2. Elena tiene menos dinero que Nadia. - Ellen has less money than Nadia. 3. Javier es ms fuerte que su hermano. - Javier is stronger than his brother. 4. Pedro come menos que Miguel. - Peter eats less than Michael. 5. El pasaje de tren cuesta menos que el de avion. - The train ticket costs less than the airplane ticket. more (or greater) than less (or fewer) than

Expressing How Things are Alike: TAN COMO and TANTO COMO
You can also use comparatives to describe how similar two things are. For example, you might wish to say: Youre as nice as your sister. I have as many toys as you.

Expressions like tan como and tanto como help you do that. When you compare two things that are similar in English, you often use as as, whether or not the word that the two things have in common is a noun, adjective, or adverb. In Spanish, however, there is a distinction. Use tan como for as as when the characteristic in common is an adjective or adverb. Use tanto como for as many as or as much as, when the characteristic in common is a noun. Go back and look at the sample sentences in English above. Can you guess which would
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use tan como and which would use tanto como? Eres tan amable como tu hermana. Tengo tantos juguetes como t. (nice is an adjective) (toys is a noun)

Remember that the word tanto must reect the gender and quantity of the noun it describes. Tengo tanto dinero como l. Ella tiene tantos zapatos como su amiga. Nosotros tenemos tanta comida como los otros. Ustedes tienen tantas cosas como nosotros.

Por ejemplo: 1. Tu auto es tan lento como un caracol. - Your car is as slow as a snail. 2. Tenemos tantas vacas como ovejas. - We have as many cows as sheep. 3. Carlos es tan guapo como su hermano. - Charles is as handsome as his brother. 4. T tienes tantas ideas como yo. - You have as many ideas as I do. (slow is an adjective) (cows is a noun) (handsome is an adjective) (ideas is a noun)

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7.2 Talking about Ifs, Ands, Buts


Understanding Conjuctions
Up until now, youve only been able to speak in simple sentences. But what if you want to say, I want the red one and the blue one? Or, I like this one, but I prefer that one? To create complex sentences, you need to be able to use conjunctions. These are words that join two parts of a sentence together. The most common are:

o pero si y porque

or but if and because

You will use these conjunctions in the exact same way you do in English. Por ejemplo: 1. Quiero la camisa roja y la camisa azul. - I want the red shirt and the blue shirt. 2. Me gusta ste, pero preero se. - I like this one, but I prefer that one. 3. Si quieres ir con nosotros, te puedo llevar. - If you want to go with us, I can take you. 4. Podemos elegir entre esta opcin o la otra. - We can choose between this option or the other. Watch those accent marks! Make sure that you dont confuse si with s. Si means if. S means yes.

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7.3 Talking about Something and Nothing


Understanding Indenite Words
Sometimes you dont exactly know what you want to refer to. It could be something, or someone, or anyone, for that matter. These sorts of words are indenite words. Spanish has them just as English does. algo alguien alguna vez alguno/a cualquier/a something, anything someone, somebody once, sometime some, any whichever, whatever

Note that algo and alguien never change formsthere is NO such thing as algos or alguienes. However, alguno and cualquier do change forms according to gender. Alguno also changes form according to quantity (in which case it translates as several). Por ejemplo: 1. Algo pas en el banco. - Something happened in the bank. 2. Alguna vez en mi vida, quiero volar en un avin pequeo. - Sometime in my life, Id like to y in a small plane. 3. Alguien est en mi cuarto. - Someone is in my room. 4. Cul bebida te gusta? No me importa; cualquiera est bien para m. - Which drink do you like? I dont care; whichever is ne for me. 5. Vamos a llevar algunos en caso de emergencia. - Were going to take several in case of emergency. Some other useful words along this vein are: siempre tambin always also, too

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Por ejemplo: 1. Hctor siempre va al colegio en bus. - Hector always goes to the high school by bus. 2. Quiero ir con usted tambin. - I want to go with you, too.

Understanding Negative Words


Perhaps, though, you dont want to talk about somebody or something. Perhaps you prefer to talk about nobody and nothing. These are negative indenite words. In Spanish, there is a word with exactly the opposite meaning for each of the positive words you learned above. Positive Indenite algo alguien alguno cualquier o siempre tambin Negative Indenite nada nadie ningn ninguno/a ni nunca, jams tampoco Translation nothing no one / nobody not any neither one neither / nor never neither / not either

Forming negatives in Spanish can be tricky. Sometimes you can form a negative sentence in Spanish just as you would in English. Por ejemplo: 1. Jams he jugado ftbol. - I have never played soccer. 2. Nadie tiene ganas de salir. - No one wants to go out. 3. Cul bebida quieres? Ninguna. No me gustan estas bebidas. - Which drink do you want? Neither one. I dont like these drinks. 4. Quieren ustedes ir conmigo? No. Yo tampoco. - Do you want to go with me? No. Me neither.

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Theres another way of forming negative sentences, however. This involves placing the word no before the verb. (Make sure that you do NOT place it before the subject.) Por ejemplo: 1. No quiero ir. - I dont want to go. 2. Ellos no van maana. - They arent going tomorrow. 3. Sarita y Toms no estn en la clase hoy. - Sarah and Thomas are not in class today. If you want to add a negative indenite word like nobody or nothing to a negative sentence, youre going to have to unlearn some English grammar! Remember how you learned in school that you should never say things like I aint never done it. He dont know nothing. There isnt no one here.

These are called double negatives and theyre perfectly ne in Spanish! No lo he hecho nunca. l no sabe nada. No hay nadie aqu. In fact, you have to form double negatives in Spanish, because thats the proper way to form those sentences grammatically. Por ejemplo: 1. No tengo nada. - I have nothing. (Literally, I dont have nothing.) 2. No quiero ni ste ni el otro. - I dont want either this one or the other. (Literally, I dont want neither this one nor the other.)

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7.4 Review
I. Section Summary
After completing this section, you should know the following:

How to say when something is good, something else is better, and something else is the best How to talk about the oldest and youngest people in your family How to talk about the hottest, wettest, strongest, prettiest, etc. How to talk about who has more or less than others How to compare two things How to interject an if, and, or but How to talk about something, anything, no one, nothing, etc. Why you should use double negatives in Spanish.

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II. Vocabulary Building Vocabulary List #7


NOUNS athlete car airplane bank band neighborhood drink bus shirt, blouse singer snail class high school food competition room day money season, station student ower soccer group guitar sister brother daughter idea garden player toy bullghter world night option sheep fare spring region lady, Mrs. hat bull female worker train cow summer life
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Spanish
SUSTANTIVOS atleta (el, la) auto (el) avin (el) banco (el) banda (la) barrio (el) bebida (la) bus (el) camisa (la) cantante (el, la) caracol (el) clase (la) colegio (el) comida (la) competencia (la) cuarto (el) da (el) dinero (el) estacin (la) estudiante (el, la) or (la) ftbol (el) grupo (el) guitarra (la) hermana (la) hermano (el) hija (la) idea (la) jardn (el) jugador (el) juguete (el) matador (el) mundo (el) noche (la) opcin (la) oveja (la) pasaje (el) primavera (la) regin (la) seora (la) sombrero (el) toro (el) trabajadora (la) tren (el) vaca (la) verano (el) vida (la)

English

VERBOS comer correr costar elegir estar gustar ir jugar llevar pasar poder preferir querer saber salir ser tener tener ganas de volar ADJECTIVOS amable azul bella (bellsima) blanco bueno caluroso caro fuerte helado (heladsimo) hermoso inteligente joven lento lluvioso malo negro pequeo profesional rpido (rapidsimo) rica (riqusima) rojo viejo EXPRESIONES COMUNES algo alguien alguna vez alguno/a aqu conmigo cualquier/a

VERBS to eat to run to cost to select, to elect to be (health, location, feeling) to be pleasing to (to like) to go to play to take, to carry to happen, to stroll, to pass to be able to, can, may to prefer to want to know (information) to leave, to go out to be (permanent condition) to have to feel like to y ADJECTIVES nice blue beautiful (extremely beautiful) white good hot expensive strong icy cold (extremely icy cold) beautiful, handsome intelligent young slow rainy bad black small professional fast (extremely fast) delicious (extremely delicious) red old OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH something, anything someone, somebody once, sometime some, any here with me whichever, whatever
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de el / la mayor el / la mejor el / la menor el / la peor en caso de emergencia entre se esta ste hay hoy jams mayor mejor menor nada nadie ni nunca para peor que primera segunda siempre tampoco todos TWENTY OF THE 140 MOST del entonces hola ms menos mismo ningn ninguno/a no o otro (el) pero porque si s tambin tan como tanto como usar y

in, of the oldest the best the youngest the worst in case of emergency between that one (masculine singular) this (adj., singular feminine) this one (masculine singular) there is, there are today never older better younger nothing no one, nobody neither, nor never for worse rst second always neither / not either all COMMON WORDS IN SPANISH in the, of the (masculine singular) then hello more less, fewer same not any neither one no, not or other but because if yes also, too as as as many as, as much as to use and

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III. Read the Conversation


Read the following conversation, in which Carlota and Tonio argue over who is older.

Tonio: Carlota: Tonio: Carlota:

Yo soy mayor que t! No, yo soy mayor que t! Yo tuve una esta de cumpleaos. Tena ocho velas en la torta. Eso no es nada. Yo tuve mi esta de cumpleaos, y tena ocho y media velas. No puedes tener una media vela. Por qu? Porque porque Tengo ms velas que t, entonces soy la mayor. T no eres tan alta como yo. S soy! No eres! T eres tan lento como un caracol. T eres tan lenta como una piedra. Pero todava soy la mayor. Est alguien hablando conmigo? No sabes nada, Tonio.

Tonio: Carlota: Tonio: Carlota: Tonio: Carlota: Tonio: Carlota: Tonio: Carlota: Tonio: Carlota:

PALABRAS NUEVAS
tuve / tena
esta de cumpleaos

vela

I had birthday party candle

torta media piedra

cake half rock

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IV. Exercises
Exercise 1. Rank the following three things in order of how much you like them.
Ex. caf, agua, cerveza

El agua El caf La cerveza

es buen o . es mejor que es

el agua
mejor.

la

1. caballos, gatos, perros __________________ son buen___. __________________ son mejores que__________________. __________________ son _______ mejores.

2. autobs, avin, automvil __________________ es buen___. __________________ es mejor que__________________. __________________ es _______ mejor.

3. museo, parque, piscina __________________ es buen___. __________________ es mejor que__________________. __________________ es _______ mejor.

4. manzanas, naranjas, pias __________________ son buen___. __________________ son mejores que__________________. __________________ son _______ mejores.
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Exercise 2. Who is youngest in the family? Who is oldest? Read the paragraph about
the Jimnez family and answer the following questions. Hola! Yo soy Ricardo, y soy de la familia Jimnez. Es una familia grande. Tengo cuatro hermanos. Mis hermanas se llaman Dolores y Maricruz, y tienen doce aos y quince aos respectivamente. Mis hermanos se llaman Diego y Francisco. Diego tiene catorce aos de edad, mientras Francisco tiene diecisis aos. Mi pap se llama Carlos. l es abogado. Tiene dos aos ms de edad que mi mam, Lorena. Ella es cientca y tiene cuarenta aos de edad. Yo tengo ocho aos de edad. Algn da, quiero ser bombero!

respectivamente respectively mientraswhile abogadolawyer cientcascientist bomberoreman

Ex. Quin es la persona ms mayor de la familia Jimnez?

Carlos el mayor de la familia.


1. Quin es el menor? ___________________________________________________________________________

2. Es Maricruz mayor que Diego? ___________________________________________________________________________

3. Es Carlos menor que Lorena? ___________________________________________________________________________

4 Quin es menor: Dolores o Ricardo? ___________________________________________________________________________

5. Quin es el hijo mayor? ___________________________________________________________________________


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Exercise 3. Complete the sentence by making a superlative from the fragments


below. Ex. Hoy es el da ms frio del invierno. (da fro invierno) 1. Jos es _________________________________________________________________ (hijo alto familia) 2. Emilia es ________________________________________________________________ (chica bonita ciudad) 3. Nosotros somos __________________________________________________________ (estudiantes inteligentes universidad) 4. T eres _________________________________________________________________ (persona amable que conozco) 5. Tenemos ________________________________________________________________ (auto rpido barrio)

Exercise 4. Answer the question according to the hint below. Use one of the
following words: cualquier/a, ningun/a, nada, nadie, or siempre. Ex. Cul camisa preeres? (Todas las camisas son buenas.

Cualquiera.
_____________________________________________

1. Quin est en el bao? (El bao est vacio.)

2. Ves mucha televisin? (todo el tiempo)

_____________________________________________

3. Qu tienes en la maleta? (La maleta est vacia.)

_____________________________________________

4. Cul pasaporte es tuyo? _____________________________________________ (Mi pasaporte no est en el grupo.)

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Exercise 5. Look at the picture and express whether Pepe y Felipa have more, less, or
the same as one another.

Ex.

Felipa tiene ms lpic que Pepe.

1. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

2. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

3. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

4. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

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Conclusion
Youve done it! Youve just mastered nearly 200 pages of material. What can you say now in Spanish that you couldnt before? This book has given you an insight into a completely different world. There is so, so much more to learn like how to discuss what will happen in the future, how to talk about what you want or desire, how to tell someone to do something, and how to talk about what youre certain about or what you doubt. All those topics and more are coming up in the Rocket Spanish Advanced Book. Now, dont forget to keep practicing what you have learned. You can use the topics and exercises in the Beginners Vocabulary Supplement to learn the vocabulary that you need to know for whatever situation you nd yourself in. Now, get out there and start speaking some Spanish!

Sincerely yours

Mauricio

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Appendix 1. Grammatical Concepts in English


Because you may not be familiar with many of the grammatical concepts Ive used in this book, I am including a handy glossary of grammatical terms. accent mark adjective A slanted line above a letter, such as . Means that you should stress that sound. A word that modies or describes a noun. In Spanish, adjectives come before the nouns they described, as in cat black or sh cold. See also possessive adjectives and demonstrative adjectives. A word that modies or describes an action. Comes after the verb is describes, as in, We did it quickly. see denite article or indenite article When one thing is compared to another thing, such as better, worse, and older. When you take a Spanish verb from its innitive form and combine it with a subject. Joining words that combine two sentences or clauses, such as and, or, but, if, and because. When two words are combined to create one for ease of pronunciation, such as del (de + el) and al (a + el). the el, la, los, las Such as this thing, that thing, that thing over there. Such as this (one), that (one), that (one) over there. The person or thing that an action is being done to. See also direct object pronouns. Pronouns used when a person (like me, you, him, her, us, or them) is the direct object of a sentence. For example, I called you.
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adverb article comparative conjugation conjunctions contraction denite article demonstrative adjectives demonstrative pronouns direct object direct object pronouns

double negative gender indenite article indenite words indirect object indirect object pronouns innitive interrogative word irregular verb

When two negatives are used in a row, such as, I aint got nothing, or, We dont never do it. A characteristic of nouns in Spanish. May be masculine or feminine. a or an un, una, unos, unas Words such as something, anything, someone, sometime, some, any, whichever, and whatever. The person or thing that an action is being done for. See also indirect object pronouns. Pronouns used when a person is the indirect object of a sentence. For example, I gave her the money. The timeless form of a verb that begins with to, such as to be, to want, ser, or querer. A word that is used to ask a question, like Where? or When? A verb that does not follow the normal pattern of verb endings for a specic tense. Verbs can be regular in one tense but irregular in another. Words such as nothing, no one, nobody, not any, never, and neither. A person, place, thing, or idea Referring to more than one thing. An adjective used to describe whose something is, like my, your, their, his, her, its, and our. Words like above, by, for, with, on, in, between. Pronouns used when a person is the object of a preposition. Examples include between you and me and written by him. In Spanish, two unique prepositional pronouns are conmigo and contigo.

negative words noun plural possessive adjective preposition prepositional pronouns

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present participle

A verb form used to create the present progressive tense. In English, present participles are distinguished by their ing ending (like doing, running, eating). In Spanish, present participles are distinguished by their ando or iendo endings. A tense used to describe action in process, such as I am doing it. Characterized by a form of verb to be followed by a present participle. For example, Lo estoy haciendo. An action that is occurring right now. Words that refer to people, such as I, me, you, he, him, them, us. See also subject pronouns, direct/indirect object pronouns, reexive pronouns, prepositional pronouns, and demonstrative pronouns. These are similar to the English myself, himself, herself, yourself, ourselves. These pronouns indicate when an action is being performed by the subject on him/herself. In Spanish, they include me, te, se, nos, and os. A type of verb in which the subject of the sentence performs the action on him/herself. Distinguished in Spanish by the se tacked onto its innitive form, like peinarse or cortarse. A verb that follows the normal pattern of verb endings for a specic tense. Referring to one thing. The part of the verb that is left when you take away the verb ending. When the stem of a verb changes when it is conjugated. Some common stem changes in Spanish include -e to -ie, -e to -i, and -o to ue. The person or thing that performs the action in a sentence. Pronouns that function as the subject of a sentence, such as I, you, he, she, it, we, and they.

present progressive

present tense pronouns

reexive pronoun

reexive verbs

regular verb singular stem stem change

subject subject pronouns

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superlative verb

When one thing is compared to two or more things, such as best, worst, or the most of all. An action word, like ran or lived. See also irregular verbs, regular verbs, verb endings, conjugations, stem, stem changing, and reexive verbs. The ending of a verb, grouped into three main categories: -AR (hablar), -ER (comer), and IR (vivir).

verb ending

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Appendix 2. Answer Key


PART 1
Exercise 1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. La El El La Los Las Los Las 9. Los 10. La 11. El 12. El 13. El 14. La 15. Los 16. El 17. El 9. Unos 10. Unos 11. Un / una 12. Unos / unas 13. Unos / unas 14. Una 15. Una

Exercise 2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Una Unos / unas Una Una Un Un / una Una Un

Exercise 3
1. somos 2. son 3. soy 4. sois 5. eres

Exercise 4
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. veintin dlares cien dlares cuarenta y seis dlares sesenta y cinco dlares y cincuenta centavos tres cientos noventa y nueve dlares y noventa y nueve centavos mil setecientos cincuenta dlares seis mil ciento noventa y nueve dlares

Exercise 5
1. 2. 3. 4. tres y media dos y veinte cuarto para las nueve cinco para las cuatro 5. la una y cuarto 6. siete y cinco 7. cuarto para las once

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PART 2
Exercise 1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. preguntamos estudian trabaja dibuja descansis nadamos 7. sacan 8. esperas 9. necesitan 10. toman 11. gusta

Exercise 2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. escribimos bebes comparte describe comen corre 7. sals 8. ve 9. escribes 10. leemos 11. corro

Exercise 3
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Voy a estudiar por una hora. Vais a caminar al parque. Vamos a tener una esta. Gloria y Juana van a comer pescado. La mujer va a cortar el pan. Vas a manejar el carro. Los nios van a preguntar por su amigo. Voy a terminar los ejercicios.

Exercise 4
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. La maleta negra es de Pablo. Elena llega a la estacin a las tres y media de la tarde. Soy de Brasil. Manuel est en la casa. Tenemos doce naranjas.

Exercise 5
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. sobre encima del al lado del alrededor del detrs del debajo de la en el

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PART 3
Exercise 1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. fuerte, grande fro, mojado enojado, sucio bajo, rpido feliz, hermosa

Exercise 2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. es est est estoy soy est 7. est 8. No tiene su cartera. 9. Pilar se siente nerviosa. 10. El chofer es un hombre muy amable. 11. Se siente muy cansada.

Exercise 3
1. 2. 3. 4. Est despejado. Est nevando. Hace sol. Est nublado. 5. Hace viento. 6. Hace fro. 7. Hace calor.

Exercise 4
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. su sus tus mi su su nuestro 8. su 9. mi 10. vuestra 11. tu 12. su 13. nuestros 14. sus

PART 4
Exercise 1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Javier los tiene. El profesor la quiere. Mi padres los compra. Los estudiantes los estudian. Nosotros la ganamos. Yo la s.

Exercise 2
1. Les describo el concierto. 2. Le compras pan. 3. Les escribo una carta.
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4. Sara me invita a la esta. 5. Felipe nos da unos regalos. 6. Te espero.

Exercise 3
1. Se los compro. 2. Esperanza se lo pide. 3. El hotel nos la tiene. 4. Ustedes se lo muestran. 5. Ellos nos la comparten. 6. T se la enseas a la clase.

Exercise 4
1. en frente de ellos (los estudiantes) 2. con nosotras (Mercedes, Lola y yo) 3. con ellas (las mujeres del futuro)

Exercise 5
1. 2. 3. 4. esa Esta esa sa 5. sa 6. aqulla 7. Aquella

PART 5
Exercise 1
1. tiene 2. Vienen 3. Tenemos 4. Vengo 5. Tienes 6. Tienen

Exercise 2
1. Venimos 2. duermo 3. Mido

Exercise 3
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

4. Comienzo 5. inquieren 6. juegan

Sara est haciendo su maleta. Sara pone sus pantalones, camisas, zapatos, y un vestido en la maleta. Tiene un vestido para bailar. Sale a Paris a las ocho de la maana. Va a dormir en un hotel muy caro. Sara espera que sea un buen viaje.

Exercise 4
1. Los nios estn durmiendo. 2. Qu me ests diciendo? 3. T ests bebiendo caf. 4. Estela est esperando el autobs. 5. Ramiro y yo estamos comiendo hamburguesas. 6. Ustedes estn viviendo en Quito. 7. Pepe est abriendo la puerta para m. 8. Carla est corriendo rpidamente. 9. Nuestra madre est comprando regalos para nosotros. 10. Vosotros estis estudiando en la universidad.
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PART 6
Exercise 1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. S, me gustan las hamburguesas. / No, no me gustan las hamburguesas. S, me gusta nadar en el mar. / No, no me gusta nadar en el mar. S, a m me gusta hablar. / No, a m no me gusta hablar. S, a m me gusta la msica latina. / No, a m no me gusta la msica latina. S, me gustan los carros japoneses. / No, no me gustan los carros japoneses. S, me gusta jugar ftbol. / No, no me gusta jugar ftbol. S, me gusta manejar rpidamente. / No, no me gusta manejar rpidamente. S, me gustan las clases de espaol. / No, no me gustan las clases de espaol.

Exercise 2
1. S, me falta un sombrero. / No, no me falta un sombrero. 2. S, me falta dinero para comprar almuerzo. / No, no me falta dinero para comprar almuerzo. 3. S, me falta una computadora para trabajar. / No, no me falta una computadora para trabajar. 4. S, me falta un lpiz para escribir. / No, no me falta un lpiz para escribir. 5. S, me hace falta mi familia. / No, no me hace falta mi familia. 6. S, me falta un carro. / No, no me falta un carro. 7. S, me hace falta un esposo/a. / No, no me hace falta un esposo/a. 8. S, me hace falta un reloj. / No, no me hace falta un reloj.

Exercise 3
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A las siete y cuarto, Tia se ducha. A las siete y media, Tia se cepilla los dientes. A las siete y treinta y cinco, Tia se cepilla el pelo. A cuarto para las ocho, Tia come (el desayuno). A las ocho, Tia espera el bus.

Exercise 4
1. reexive 2. not reexive 3. reexive 4. reexive 5. not reexive 6. reexive 7. not reexive 8. reexive 9. reexive 10. reexive 11. reexive 12. reexive 13. not reexive
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PART 7
Exercise 1
Your answers need not follow this format. The following is an example only. 1. Los caballos son buenos. Los gatos son mejores que los caballos. Los perros son los mejores. 2. El autobs es bueno. El avin es mejor que el autobs. El automvil es el mejor. 3. El museo es bueno. El parque es mejor que el museo. La piscina es la mejor. 4. Las manzanas son buenas. Las naranjas son mejores que las manzanas. Las pias son las mejores.

Exercise 2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ricardo es el menor. S, Maricruz es mayor que Diego. No, Carlos no es menor que Lorena. Ricardo es menor que Dolores. Francisco es el hijo mayor.

Exercise 3
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Jos es el hijo ms alto de la familia. Emilia es la chica ms bonita de la ciudad. Nosotros somos los estudiantes ms inteligentes de la universidad. T eres la persona ms amable que conozco. Tenemos el auto ms rpido del barrio.

Exercise 4
1. 2. 3. 4. nadie / Nadie est en el bao. siempre / Siempre veo la televisin. nada / Nada est en la maleta. ningno / Ningn pasaporte es mo.

Exercise 5
1. 2. 3. 4. Pepe tiene ms manzanas que Felipa. / Felipa tiene menos manzanas que Pepe. Felipa tiene ms ores que Pepe. / Pepe tiene menos ores que Felipa. Pepe tiene tantos libros como Felipa. / Felipa tiene tantos libros como Pepe. Pepe tiene tantos peces como Felipa. / Felipa tiene tantas peces como Pepe.

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Appendix 3. Complete Beginners Book Vocabulary (Spanish to English)


VOCABULARY
Spanish
SUSTANTIVOS abuela (la) abuelo (el) actor (el) agua (el) aire (el) ajo (el) altura (la) artista (el, la) asiento (el) atleta (el, la) auto (el) autobs (el) automvil (el) avin (el) baile (el) banco (el) banda (la) bao (el) barco (el) barrio (el) basura (la) bebida (la) biblioteca (la) boleto de avin (el) bolso (el) bus (el) caballo (el) caf (el) calcetnes (los) calle (la) calle principal (la) calor (el) cama (la) camisa (la) cantante (el, la) cara (la) caracol (el) carrera (la) carreras de caballo (las) carretera (la) carro (el) carta (la) cartera (la) casa (la) cepillo de dientes (el) NOUNS grandmother grandfather actor water air garlic height, altitude artist seat athlete car bus automobile airplane dance bank band bathroom boat neighborhood garbage, trash drink library airplane ticket bag bus horse coffee socks street principal street heat bed shirt singer face snail race horse races highway car card, letter handbag house toothbrush
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English

certicado (el) cerveza (la) chica (la) chico (el) chiste (el) chocolate (el) cine (el) ciudad (la) clase (la) cliente (el, la) clima (el) colegio (el) color (el) comida (la) comida espaola (la) compaa (la) competencia (la) compras (las) computadora (la) concierto (el) contribucin (la) conversacin (la) cosa (la) costo (el) cuarto (el) cuchillo (el) destruccin (la) da (el) dinero (el) doctor (el) doctora (la) edad (la) equipo (el) escritorio (el) escuela (la) Espaa estacin (la) estacin del tren (la) estudiante (el, la) familia (la) esta (la) n (el) n de semana (el) or (la) orero (el) ftbol (el) futuro (el) gasolina (la) gata (la) gato (el) geografa (la) gracias (las) grupo (el) guantes (los)

certicate beer girl boy joke chocolate theater, cinema city class client climate, weather high school color food Spanish food company competition shopping computer concert contribution conversation thing cost room knife destruction day money doctor doctor (female) age team desk school Spain season, station train station student family party end, ending weekend ower vase soccer future gas cat (female) cat (male) geography thanks group gloves
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guitarra (la) habitacin (la) habitante (el, la) hambre (el) hermana (la) hermano (el) hija (la) hombre (el) hora (la) hotel (el) huerta botnica (la) idea (la) invitacin (la) jardn (el) juego (el) juegos pirotcnicos (los) jugador (el) juguete (el) lpiz (el) librera (la) libro (el) luchador (el) madre (la) maleta (la) maana (la) mano (la) manzana (la) mar (el) matador (el) mercado (el) metro (el) modelo (el) montaa (la) mosquito (el) mujer (la) mundo (el) museo nacional (el) msica (la) msica latina (la) naranja (la) nia (la) nio (el) nios (los) noche (la) novia (la) Nueva Zelanda ocina (la) opcin (la) oveja (la) padre (el) padres (los) pas (el) pjaro (el) pan (el)

guitar room inhabitant hunger sister brother daughter man hour hotel botanic garden idea invitation garden game reworks player toy pencil bookstore book ghter mother bag, suitcase tomorrow, morning hand apple sea bullghter market meter model mountain mosquito woman world national museum music Latin music orange girl child, boy children night girlfriend New Zealand ofce option sheep father parents country bird bread
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pantalones (los) papel (el) pared (la) parque (el) partido (el) pasaje (el) pasaje de tren (el) pasaporte (el) pelcula (la) pelo (el) perra (la) perro (el) pesa (la) pescador (el) pez (el) pianista (el, la) piloto (el) piloto de aviones (el) pia (la) piscina (la) playa (la) poltica (la) primavera (la) primo (el) problema (el) profesor (el) profesora (la) prueba (la) puerta (la) puerta de salida (la) rancho (el) refrigerador (el) regalo (el) regin (la) revista (la) sbado (el) semana (la) seor (el) seora (la) sistema (el) sitio (el) situacin (la) sociedad (la) sombrero (el) tarde (la) televisin (la) tiempo (el) tienda (la) to (el) toro (el) trabajadora (la) tren (el) universidad (la) vaca (la)

pants paper wall park game fare train fare passport movie, lm hair dog (female) dog (male) weight sherman sh pianist pilot airplane pilot pineapple swimming pool beach politics spring cousin problem professor professor (female) test door exit door ranch refrigerator gift region magazine Saturday week gentleman, Mr. lady, Mrs. system site situation society hat afternoon television time, also weather shop, store uncle bull female worker train university cow
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vaso (el) ventana (la) verano (el) verdad (la) vestido (el) viaje (el) vida (la) viento (el) voz (la) zapato (el) VERBOS abrir acampar adquirir alegrarse arreglar beber caminar cepillarse cocinar comenzar comer compartir comprar correr cortar cortarse costar cruzar dar decir descansar describir despertarse dibujar dormir elegir encantar enfermarse enojarse ensear entretener escribir esperar estar estudiar explicar faltar fascinar gustar hablar hacer falta importar

glass window summer truth dress trip life wind voice shoe VERBS to open to camp to acquire to be happy to arrange to drink to walk to brush (yourself) to cook to start to eat to share to buy to run to cut to cut yourself to cost to cross to give to say, to tell to rest to describe to wake up to draw to dream to select, to elect to enchant (love) to get sick to get angry to teach to entertain to write to wait, to hope to be (health, feelings, location) to study to explain to be lacking, to be missing, to be needed to fascinate to be pleasing to (to like) to talk to miss something, to lack something to be important
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inquirir intentar interesar invitar ir jugar juntarse lavarse leer levantar levantarse llamar llevar llorar llover manejar medir meterse mojarse molestar mostrar necesitar nevar or oler pasar pedir peinarse pensar pescar poder poner ponerse triste preferir preguntar quedar quemarse querer reparar saber sacar salir sentarse sentir ser servir tener tener calor tener cuidado tener ganas de tener hambre tener X aos de edad terminar tocar

to inquire to try to be interesting to invite to go to play to get together, to join to wash (yourself) to read to lift to get up to call to take, to carry to cry to rain to manage, to drive to measure to put (yourself) to get wet to annoy, to bother to show to need (to) to snow to hear to smell to happen, to stroll, to pass to ask for, to request to comb (yourself) to think to sh to be able to, can, may to put to become sad to prefer to ask to t, to suit, to be remaining, to be left to burn yourself to want to repair to know (information) to take out to leave, to go out to sit down, to seat oneself to feel to be (permanent condition) to serve to have to be hot to be careful to feel like to be hungry to be X years old to nish to touch, to play (an instrument)
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tomar trabajar traer valer ver viajar volar ADJECTIVOS aburrido adolorido alemn/a alto amable australiano azul bajo bella (bellsima) blanco bonito borracho brillante bueno caliente caluroso canadiense cansado caro cerrado chico chileno/a claro contento dbil demasiado desordenado despejado enfermo enojado espaol/a estadounidense feliz francs/a fresco fro fuerte gordo helado (heladsimo) hermoso igual indio/a ingls inteligente joven

to drink, to take to work to bring to be worth to see to travel to y ADJECTIVES boring sore German tall nice Australian blue short beautiful (extremely beautiful) white pretty drunk bright good hot hot Canadian tired expensive closed small Chilean clear content, happy weak too much disorganized clear sick angry Spanish American (US) happy French fresh cold strong fat icy cold (extremely icy cold) beautiful, handsome same Indian English intelligent young
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lento limpio lleno lluvioso malo mojado mucho negro nervioso nublado ocupado ordenado oscuro pequeo peruano podrido preocupado profesional rpido (rapidsimo) raro rica (riqusima) rojo rubia saludable seco sucio suciente triste vaco verde viejo EXPRESIONES COMUNES adelante adnde? al lado algo alguien alguna vez alguno/a algunos / algunas alrededor de anteriormente antes de aquel / aquellos / aquella aqul / aqullos / aqulla aqu ayer bien casi cerca chvere como cmo?

slow clean full rainy bad wet many, a lot, much black nervous cloudy busy tidy dark small Peruvian rotten worried professional fast (extremely fast) strange delicious (extremely delicious) red blond healthy dry dirty sufcient; enough sad empty green old OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH in front where to? beside something, anything someone, somebody once, sometime some, any some around previously before that over there (adjective) that over there (noun) here yesterday well almost near cool, great, amazing how how? what?
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conmigo contigo cualquier/a cundo? cunto/a? cuntos/as? cuarto de de dnde? debajo delante de derecha detrs dnde? en en caso de emergencia encima entre se esta ste este (esta, estos, estas) hay hay que hecho hoy inmediatamente izquierda jams la las le lejos les lo los maana ms ms o menos mayor mayor (el, la) me me cae bien. me cae mal. media mejor mejor (el, la) menor menor (el, la) mi / mis mo nada nadie ni

with me with you whichever, whatever when? how much? how many? quarter in, of from where? underneath in front of right behind where? in, on in case of emergency on top between that one (masculine singular) this (adj., singular feminine) this one (masculine singular) this (adj) there is, there are one must done now, today immediately left never direct object: you (Ud), her direct object: you (Uds.), them (feminine) indirect object: you (Ud), him, her, it far indirect object: you (Uds), them direct object: you (Ud), him, it direct object: you (Uds), them (masculine) tomorrow more, else more or less older the oldest me I like (in the context of liking someone) I dont like(someone) half better the best younger the youngest my mine nothing no one, nobody neither, nor
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nunca para peor (el, la) peor que poco por favor por ti primera pronto propio que quin? rpidamente segunda siempre sobre tampoco ti todos todos los das t tu / tus tuyo unos / unas vale 140 MOST COMMON WORDS a, al ac ahora algn, alguno/a all all amigo antes ao (el) aqu ayudar bajo bien bueno cada como cmo? con conocer corto cual (el, la) cul? cules? cuando cundo? cunto? cuntos? dar

never for the worst worse little please for you rst soon own that, which who? rapidly second always about, over neither / not either prepositional pronoun: you (t) every, everyone, all every day you (familiar) your (t) yours some colloquial phrase (Spain) meaning okay IN SPANISH to, to the (masculine singular) over here now some, any over there there friend before, earlier year here to help under, below well good each as, like, how how? with to know (a person, place, or thing) short which which? which ones? when when? how much? how many? to give
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de decir del despus da (el) diferente donde dnde? dos l el, la, los, las ella ellas ellos en encontrar entonces entre ese / esos / esa / esas se / sos / sa / sas estar este / estos / esta / estas ste / stos / sta / stas feliz gran grande gustar haber hacer hola ir largo leer llamar mal malo ms me menos m mi, mis mo mirar mismo mucho muy ningn ninguno/a no nos nosotros/as nuestro, nuestros nuevo nmero (el)

of, from to say, tell in the, of the (masculine singular) after, later day different where where? two he the she they (female) they (all male or mixed gender) in to nd then between that (adjective) that (noun) to be this (adjective) this (noun) happy great big to be pleasing to (like) to have (only as a helping verb) to make, to do hello to go long to read to call badly, wrongly bad more myself (reexive) less, fewer prepositional pronoun: me my mine to look, to watch same much, a lot very not any neither one no, not ourselves we our new number
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o os otro (el) para parecer pequeo pero poco poder por por qu? porque primero que qu? querer quien, quienes quin? quines? saber se se ser si s siempre signicar sin sobre solo, solamente su, sus suyo tambin tan como tanto como te todava todo todos/todas tomar t tu, tus tuyo ltimo un, uno, una unos, unas usar usted (Ud.) ustedes (Uds.) venir ver vez (una) viejo vivir vosotros

or yourselves (vosotros) other for, in order to to seem small but few to be able to, can, may through, for, along, by why? because rst that, which, who, than what? to want who, whom who? to know (knowledge, an idea) himself, herself, yourselves (Ud) themselves, yourselves (Uds) to be (permanent characteristic) if yes always to mean, to signify without about, above, on top of only his, her, your (Ud), their, your (Uds) his, hers, yours (Ud), theirs, yours (Uds) also, too as as as many as, as much as yourself (t) still, yet all all to take, to drink you (familiar singular) your (t) yours (t) last a, an, one some, few to use you (polite singular) you (polite plural) to come to see once old to live you (familiar plural, used in Spain)
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vuestro, vuestros y yo

your (vosotros) and I

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Appendix 4. Complete Beginners Book Vocabulary (English to Spanish)


VOCABULARY
English
NOUNS actor afternoon age air airplane airplane pilot airplane ticket apple artist athlete automobile bag band bank bathroom beach bed beer bird boat book bookstore botanic garden boy bread brother bull bullghter bus car card, letter cat (female) cat (male) certicate child children chocolate city class client climate, weather coffee color company competition computer

Spanish
SUSTANTIVOS actor (el) tarde (la) edad (la) aire (el) avin (el) piloto de aviones (el) boleto de avin (el) manzana (la) artista (el, la) atleta (el, la) automvil (el) bolso (el), maleta (la) banda (la) banco (el) bao (el) playa (la) cama (la) cerveza (la) pjaro (el) barco (el) libro (el) librera (la) huerta botnica (la) chico (el) pan (el) hermano (el) toro (el) matador (el) autobs (el), bus (el) carro (el), auto (el) carta (la) gata (la) gato (el) certicado (el) nio (el) nios (los) chocolate (el) ciudad (la) clase (la) cliente (el, la) clima (el) caf (el) color (el) compaa (la) competencia (la) computadora (la)
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concert contribution conversation cost country cousin cow dance daughter day desk destruction doctor (female) doctor (male) dog (female) dog (male) door dress drink end, ending exit door face family fare father ghter reworks sh sherman ower food future game garbage garden garlic gas gentleman, Mr. geography gift girl girlfriend glass gloves grandfather grandmother group guitar hair hand handbag hat heat height

concierto (el) contribucin (la) conversacin (la) costo (el) pas (el) primo (el) vaca (la) baile (el) hija (la) da (el) escritorio (el) destruccin (la) doctora (la) doctor (el) perra (la) perro (el) puerta (la) vestido (el) bebida (la) n (el) puerta de salida (la) cara (la) familia (la) pasaje (el) padre (el) luchador (el) juegos pirotcnicos (los) pez (el) pescador (el) or (la) comida (la) futuro (el) partido (el), juego (el) basura (la) jardn (el) ajo (el) gasolina (la) seor (el) geografa (la) regalo (el) nia (la), chica (la) novia (la) vaso (el) guantes (los) abuelo (el) abuela (la) grupo (el) guitarra (la) pelo (el) mano (la) cartera (la) sombrero (el) calor (el) altura (la)
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high school highway horse horse races hotel hour house hunger idea inhabitant invitation joke knife lady, Mrs. Latin music library life magazine man market meter model money morning mosquito mother mountain movie music national museum neighborhood New Zealand night ofce option orange (fruit) pants paper parents park party passport pencil pianist pilot pineapple player politics principal street problem professor (female) professor (male) race ranch

colegio (el) carretera (la) caballo (el) carreras de caballo (las) hotel (el) hora (la) casa (la) hambre (el) idea (la) habitante (el, la) invitacin (la) chiste (el) cuchillo (el) seora (la) msica latina (la) biblioteca (la) vida (la) revista (la) hombre (el) mercado (el) metro (el) modelo (el) dinero (el) maana (la) mosquito (el) madre (la) montaa (la) pelcula (la) msica (la) museo nacional (el) barrio (el) Nueva Zelanda noche (la) ocina (la) opcin (la) naranja (la) pantalones (los) papel (el) padres (los) parque (el) esta (la) pasaporte (el) lpiz (el) pianista (el, la) piloto (el) pia (la) jugador (el) poltica (la) calle principal (la) problema (el) profesora (la) profesor (el) carrera (la) rancho (el)
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refrigerator region room Saturday school sea season seat sheep shirt shoe shop, store shopping singer sister site situation snail soccer society socks Spain Spanish food spring (season) station street student suitcase summer swimming pool system team television test thanks theater thing time tomorrow toothbrush toy train train fare train station trip truth uncle university vase voice wall water weather week

refrigerador (el) regin (la) habitacin (la), cuarto (el) sbado (el) escuela (la) mar (el) estacin (la) asiento (el) oveja (la) camisa (la) zapato (el) tienda (la) compras (las) cantante (el, la) hermana (la) sitio (el) situacin (la) caracol (el) ftbol (el) sociedad (la) calcetines (los) Espaa comida espaola (la) primavera (la) estacin (la) calle (la) estudiante (el, la) maleta (la) verano (el) piscina (la) sistema (el) equipo (el) televisin (la) prueba (la) gracias (las) cine (el) cosa (la) tiempo (el) maana (la) cepillo de dientes (el) juguete (el) tren (el) pasaje de tren (el) estacin del tren (la) viaje (el) verdad (la) to (el) universidad (la) orero (el) voz (la) pared (la) agua (el) tiempo (el), clima (el) semana (la)
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weekend weight wind window woman worker (female) world VERBS can (to be able to) may (to be able to) to acquire to annoy to arrange to ask to ask for to be (health, feelings, location) to be (permanent condition) to be able to to be careful to be happy to be hot to be hungry to be important to be interesting to be lacking to be left to be missing to be needed to be pleasing to (to like) to be remaining to be worth to be X years old to become sad to bother to bring to brush (yourself) to burn (yourself) to buy to call to camp to carry to comb (yourself) to cook to cost to cross to cry to cut to cut yourself to describe to draw to dream to drink to drink

n de semana (el) pesa (la) viento (el) ventana (la) mujer (la) trabajadora (la) mundo (el) VERBOS poder poder adquirir molestar arreglar preguntar pedir estar ser poder tener cuidado alegrarse tener calor tener hambre importar interesar faltar quedar faltar faltar gustar quedar valer tener X aos de edad ponerse triste molestar traer cepillarse quemarse comprar llamar acampar llevar peinarse cocinar costar cruzar llorar cortar cortarse describir dibujar dormir beber tomar
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to drive to eat to elect to enchant (to love a thing) to entertain to explain to fascinate to feel to feel like to nish to sh to t to y to get angry to get into to get sick to get together to get up to get wet to give to go to go out to happen to have to hear to hope to inquire to invite to join to know (information) to lack something to leave to lift to like (to be pleasing to) to love (a thing) to manage to measure to miss something to need (to) to open to pass to play to play (an instrument) to prefer to put to rain to read to repair to request to rest to run to say to seat oneself to see

manejar comer elegir encantar entretener explicar fascinar sentir tener ganas de terminar pescar quedar volar enojarse meterse enfermarse juntarse levantarse mojarse dar ir salir pasar tener or esperar inquirir invitar juntarse saber hacer falta salir levantar gustar encantar manejar medir hacer falta necesitar abrir pasar jugar tocar preferir poner llover leer reparar pedir descansar correr decir sentarse ver
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to select to serve to share to show to sit down to smell to snow to start to stroll to study to suit to take to take to take out to talk to teach to tell to think to touch to travel to try to wait to wake up to walk to want to wash (yourself) to work to write ADJECTIVES American (US) angry Australian bad beautiful (extremely beautiful) black blond blue boring bright busy Canadian Chilean clean clear clear (without clouds) closed cloudy cold content dark delicious (extremely delicious) dirty disorganized

elegir servir compartir mostrar sentarse oler nevar comenzar pasar estudiar quedar tomar llevar sacar hablar ensear decir pensar tocar viajar intentar esperar despertarse caminar querer lavarse trabajar escribir ADJECTIVOS estadounidense enojado australiano malo bella (bellsima) negro rubia azul aburrido brillante ocupado canadiense chileno/a limpio claro despejado cerrado nublado fro contento oscuro rica (riqusima) sucio desordenado
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drunk dry empty English expensive fast (extremely fast) fat French fresh full German good green handsome happy healthy hot icy cold (extremely icy cold) Indian intelligent many, a lot, much nervous nice old Peruvian pretty professional rainy red rotten sad same short sick slow small sore Spanish strange strong sufcient, enough tall tidy tired too much weak wet white worried young OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH about almost

borracho seco vaco ingls caro rpido (rapidsimo) gordo francs/a fresco lleno alemn/a bueno verde hermoso feliz, contento saludable caliente, caluroso helado (heladsimo) indio/a inteligente mucho nervioso amable viejo peruano bonito profesional lluvioso rojo podrido triste igual bajo enfermo lento chico, pequeo adolorido espaol/a raro fuerte suciente alto ordenado cansado demasiado dbil mojado blanco preocupado joven EXPRESIONES COMUNES sobre casi
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always any, some around before behind beside best (the) better between colloquial phrase (Spain) meaning okay cool, great, amazing direct object: you (Ud), her direct object: you (Ud), him, it direct object: you (Uds), them (masculine) direct object: you (Uds.), them (feminine) done every day every, everyone, all far rst for for you from where? half here how how many? how much? how? what? I dont like(someone) I like (someone) immediately in in case of emergency in front in front of indirect object: you (Ud), him, her, it indirect object: you (Uds), them left little me mine more or less more, else my near neither, nor neither, not either never no one, nobody nothing of older oldest (the)

siempre alguno/a alrededor de antes de detrs al lado mejor (el, la) mejor entre vale chvere la lo los las hecho todos los das todos lejos primera para, por por ti de dnde? media aqu como cuntos/as? cunto/a? cmo? me cae mal. me cae bien. inmediatamente en en caso de emergencia adelante delante de le les izquierda poco me mo ms o menos ms mi / mis cerca ni tampoco nunca, jams nadie nada de mayor mayor (el, la)

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on on top once, sometime one must over own (as in my own) please prepositional pronoun: you (t) previously quarter rapidly right second some someone, somebody something, anything soon that one (masculine singular) that over there (adjective) that over there (noun) that, which there is, there are this (adj) this one (masculine singular) today tomorrow underneath well when? where to? where? whichever, whatever who? with me with you worse worst (the) yesterday you (familiar) younger youngest (the) your (t) yours 140 MOST COMMON WORDS a, an, one about, above, on top of after, later all also always and as as as many as, as much as

en encima alguna vez hay que sobre propio por favor ti anteriormente cuarto rpidamente derecha segunda algunos / algunas, unos / unas alguien algo pronto se aquel / aquellos / aquella aqul / aqullos / aqulla que hay este (esta, estos, estas) ste hoy maana debajo bien cundo? adnde? dnde? cualquier/a quin? conmigo contigo peor que peor (el, la) ayer t menor menor (el, la) tu / tus tuyo IN SPANISH un, uno, una sobre despus todo, todos/todas tambin siempre y tan como tanto como
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as, like, how bad badly, wrongly because before, earlier below between big but day different each few rst for, in order to friend good great happy he hello here himself, herself, yourselves (Ud) his, her, your (Ud), their, your (Uds) his, hers, yours (Ud), theirs, yours (Uds) how much? how many? how? I if in last less, fewer long mine more much, a lot my myself (reexive) neither one new no, not not any now number of the, in the (masculine singular) of, from old once only or other our ourselves over here

como malo mal porque antes bajo entre grande pero da (el) diferente cada poco primero para amigo bueno gran feliz l hola aqu se su, sus suyo cunto? cuntos? cmo? yo si en ltimo menos largo mo ms mucho mi, mis me ninguno/a nuevo no ningn ahora nmero (el) del de viejo una vez solo, solamente o otro (el) nuestro, nuestros nos ac

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over there prepositional pronoun: me same she short (height) short (length) small some, any some, few still, yet that (adjective) that (noun) that, which, who, than the themselves, yourselves (Uds) then there they (all male or mixed gender) they (female) this (adjective) this (noun) through, for, along, by to be (health, location, feelings) to be (permanent characteristic) to be able to, can, may to be pleasing to (like) to call to come to do to drink to nd to give to go to have (only as a helping verb) to help to know (a person, place, or thing) to know (knowledge, an idea) to live to look to make to mean (to signify) to read to say to see to seem to take to use to want to watch to, to the (masculine singular) too two under very

all m mismo, igual ella bajo corto pequeo algn, alguno/a unos, unas todava ese / esos / esa / esas se / sos / sa / sas que el, la, los, las se entonces all ellos ellas este / estos / esta / estas ste / stos / sta / stas por estar ser poder gustar llamar venir hacer tomar encontrar dar ir haber ayudar conocer saber vivir mirar hacer signicar leer decir ver parecer tomar usar querer mirar a, al tambin dos bajo muy
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we well what? when when? where where? which which ones? which? who, whom who? why? with without year yes you (familiar plural, used in Spain) you (familiar singular) you (polite plural) you (polite singular) your (t) your (vosotros) yours (t) yourself (t) yourselves (vosotros)

nosotros/as bien qu? cuando cundo? donde dnde? cual (el, la) cules? cul? quien, quienes quin? quines? por qu? con sin ao (el) s vosotros t ustedes (Uds.) usted (Ud.) tu, tus vuestro, vuestros tuyo te os

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