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APPARATUS : Cube and cylinder mould for casting , weighing machine , sulpher bucket , capping mould and mechanical mixer

MATERIALS USED

THEORY : In order to determine the compressive strength ,concrete cubes and cylinders are to be prepared for testing of its compressive strength . It is very important because the compressive strength is criteria for its quality. The strength is expressed in kg / cm2 . At least three specimens should be used for Testing.

PROCEDURE :

Take out material all fine and coarse aggregates and cement and weight them accordingly Use Mechanical mixer to mix all these together rigidly. Now take out the fresh concrete from the mixer and fill the required moulds Using Vibrating table to stabilize the concrete easily Regular compaction is required in this process Leave the moulds filled with concrete for 7 days as to attain their strength and shape By using melted suplher , capping is provided . Now cubes are ready for testing

09CE37 1

PRC- Practical

Practical # 2 : To determine the compressive strength of concrete cubes and cylinders of 1:2:4 ratio.

AIM:- To Perform compression test on UTM. APPARATUS :- A UTM or A compression testing m/c, cylindrical or cube shaped concrete block , mixing machine and balance. Materials : Concrete cube dimensions : Concrete cylinder dimensions:

THEORY :- Several structures components such as columns and struts are subjected to compressive load in applications. These components are made of high compressive strength materials. Not all the materials are strong in compression. Several materials, which are good in tension, are poor in compression. Contrary to this, many materials poor in tension but very strong in compression. Cast iron is one such example. That is why determine of ultimate compressive strength is essential before using a material. This strength is determined by conduct of a compression test. Compression test is just opposite in nature to tensile test. Nature of deformation and fracture is quite different from that in tensile test. Compressive load tends to squeeze the specimen. Brittle materials are generally weak in tension but strong in compression. Hence this test is normally performed on cast iron, cement concrete etc. But ductile materials like aluminium and mild steel which are strong in tension, are also tested in compression. TEST SET-UP, SPECIFICATION OF M/C AND SPECIMEN DETAILS : A compression test can be performed on UTM by keeping the test-piece on base block and moving down the central grip to apply load. It can also be performed on a compression testing machine. A compression testing machine . it has two compression plates/heads. The upper head moveable while the lower head is stationary. One of the two heads is equipped with a hemispherical bearing to obtain. Uniform distribution of load over the test- piece ends. UTM tells the load applied on a body. SPECIMEN :- In cylindrical specimen, it is essential to keep h/d < 2 to avoid lateral instability due to bucking action. Specimen size = h < 2d.

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PRC- Practical

PROCEDURE :1. Dimension of test piece is measured at three different places along its height/length to determine the average cross-section area. 2. Ends of the specimen should be plane . for that the ends are tested on a bearing plate. 3. The specimen is placed centrally between the two compression plates, such that the centre of moving head is vertically above the centre of specimen. 4. Load is applied on the specimen by moving the movable head. 5. The load and corresponding contraction are measured at different intervals. The load interval may be as 500 kg. 6. Load is applied until the specimen fails. OBSERVATION FOR RATIO Size of Cube = Area of Cube =

1:2:4 Cubes

:-

S.No.

1 2 3 CALCULATION :Compressive Strength for 1st Cube = Load / Area = Compressive Strength for 2nd Cube = Compressive Strength for 3rd Cube=

09CE37 3

PRC- Practical

1:2:4 Cylinders

:-

S.No.

1 2 3 CALCULATION :Compressive Strength for 1st Cylinder = Load / Area = Compressive Strength for 2nd Cylinder = Compressive Strength for 3rd Cylinder =

RESULT :- Compressive strength of given specimens(cubes) =____ Nmm2, ____ Nmm2, _____ Nmm2

Compressive strength of given specimens(cylinders) =____ Nmm2, ____ Nmm2, _____ Nmm2

09CE37 4

PRC- Practical

APPARATUS : Cube and cylinder mould for casting , weighing machine , sulpher bucket , capping mould and mechanical mixer

MATERIALS USED

THEORY : In order to determine the compressive strength ,concrete cubes and cylinders are to be prepared for testing of its compressive strength . It is very important because the compressive strength is criteria for its quality. The strength is expressed in kg / cm2 . At least three specimens should be used for Testing.

PROCEDURE :

Take out material all fine and coarse aggregates and cement and weight them accordingly Use Mechanical mixer to mix all these together rigidly. Now take out the fresh concrete from the mixer and fill the required moulds Using Vibrating table to stabilize the concrete easily Regular compaction is required in this process Leave the moulds filled with concrete for 7 days as to attain their strength and shape By using melted suplher , capping is provided . Now cubes are ready for testing

09CE37 5

PRC- Practical

Practical # 4 : To Perform Compression test to the concrete cubes and cylinders of 1:1:2 ratio.

AIM:- To Perform compression test on UTM. APPARATUS :- A UTM or A compression testing m/c, cylindrical or cube shaped concrete block , mixing machine and balance. Materials : Concrete cube dimensions : Concrete cylinder dimensions:

1:1:2 Cubes

:-

S.No.

1 2 3

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PRC- Practical

CALCULATION :Compressive Strength for 1st Cube = Load / Area = Compressive Strength for 2nd Cube = Compressive Strength for 3rd Cube=

RESULT :- Compressive strength of given specimens(cubes) =____ Nmm2, ____ Nmm2, _____ Nmm2

Which will have a higher strength : a small specimen or a full size member made of the same material ? What is column action ? how does the h/d ratio of specimen affect the test result ? How do ductile and brittle materials in their behaviour in compression test ? What are bi-modulus materials ? Give examples.

09CE37 7

PRC- Practical

Practical # 5 : To Prepare and determine the tensile strength of concrete cylinders of ratio 1:1:2 .

APPARATUS :- A UTM, and concrete cylinders. MATERIALS: F.A = C.A= Cement = Water = Cement * w/c ration = THOERY :- Concrete has low tensile strength . An average value of 10% of compressive strength concrete posses tensile strength. Due to uniform tensile stress acting horizontally along the length of cylinders , the cylinder splits vertically into two halves and because of this the test is also known as Spilt test The Tensile strength of concrete is given by formula

St = 2 P / D L

PROCEDURE :- Once the cylinders are casted in the lab and after 7 days it is taken for the test after that 1. Put the concrete cylinder in UTM

2. Before starting of test , put the load option to zero which means you are testing a fresh cylinder 3. Also switch on the machine in Max peak hold position , sp that maximum load reading must be recorded otherwise you will loose the maximum peak load once cylinders breaks 4. Close the safety guards to avoid any accidents 5. Apply the load into small increaments 6. Cylinder will spilt into two halves when test is successful Observations For Ratio 1:1:2 :-

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PRC- Practical Load on 1st Cylinder : Area = Diameter = Length = Load on 2nd Cylinder: Area: Diameter: Length:

St = 2 P / D L =

Applying Formula =

St = 2 P / D L =

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PRC- Practical

Practical # 6 : To determine the tensile strength and elongation of the given steel rods.

To study the UTM and perform the tensile test. APPARATUS :- A UTM, mild steel specimen, vernier caliper/micrometer. MATERIALS : Weight of Bar 1 = Weight of Bar 2 = THEORY :- Various m/c and structure components are subjected to tensile loading in numerous application. For safe design of these components, there ultimate tensile strength and ductility one to be determine before actual use. Tensile test can be conducted on UTM. A material when subjected to a tensile load resists the applied load by developing internal resisting force. These resistances come due to atomic bonding between atoms of the material. The resisting force for unit normal cross-section area is known as stress. The value of stress in material goes on increasing with an increase in applied tensile load, but it has a certain maximum (finite) limit too. The minimum stress, at which a material fails, is called ultimate tensile strength. The end of elastic limit is indicated by the yield point (load). This can be sen during experiment as explained later in procedure with increase in loading beyond elastic limit original crosssection area (Ao) goes on decreasing and finally reduces to its minimum value when the specimen breaks. PROCEDURE :1. The load pointer is set at zero by adjusting the initial setting knob. 2. The dial gauge is fixed and the specimen for measuring elongation of small amounts. 3. Measuring the diameter of the test piece by vernier caliper at least at three places and determine the mean value also mark the gauge length. 4. Now the specimen is gripped between upper and middle cross head jaws of the m/c. 5. Start the m/c and take the reading. 6. The specimen is loaded gradually and the elongation is noted until the specimen breaks.

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PRC- Practical

OBSEVATION FOR 1ST ROD:(I) Initial diameter of specimen d1 = _________________________ (II) Initial gauge length of specimen L1 =________________________ (III) Initial cross-section area of specimen A1 = ___________________________ (IV) Ultimate load after specimen breaking F = ____________________________ (V) Final length after specimen breaking L2 = ______________________________ (VI) Dia. Of specimen at breaking place d2 = ______________________________

(VII) Cross section area at breaking place A2 = __________________________________ CALCULATION :(i) Ultimate tensile strength =

(ii) Percentage elongation % = RESULT :CONCLUSION :OBSEVATION FOR 2ND ROD:(I) Initial diameter of specimen d1 = _________________________ (II) Initial gauge length of specimen L1 =________________________ (III) Initial cross-section area of specimen A1 = ___________________________ (IV) Ultimate load after specimen breaking F = ____________________________ (V) Final length after specimen breaking L2 = ______________________________ (VI) Dia. Of specimen at breaking place d2 = ______________________________ (VII) Cross section area at breaking place A2 = __________________________________

09CE37 11

PRC- Practical

CALCULATION :(i) Ultimate tensile strength =

PRECAUTIONS :1. The specimen should be prepared in proper dimensions. 2. The specimen should be properly to get between the jaws. 3. Take reading carefully. 4. After breaking specimen stop to m/c.

VIVA-QUESTIONS : Which steel have you tested ? what is its carbon content ? What general information are obtained from tensile test regarding the properties of a material ? Which stress have you calculated : nominal stress or true stress ? What kind of fracture has occurred in the tensile specimen and why ? Which is the most ductile metal ?How much is its elongation ?

09CE37 12

PRC- Practical

THEORY : Concrete mixes have high resistance to compressive stresses however any appreciable tension ( e.g due to bending ) will break the microscopic rigid lattice resulting in cracking and separation of the concrete.

If a material with high strength in tension such as steel is placed in concrete , then the composite material, reinforced concrete , resist compression but also bending , and other direct tensile actions. A reinforced concrete section where the concrete resist the compression and steel resists the tension .So it is necessary to use the steel bars of different diameter for different type of work.

PROCEDURE :

Take the steel bars of different sizes Weigh the steel bars in kilograms Measure the length of steel bars with scale Calculate the weight per unit area Apply the formula and get the result

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PRC- Practical

CALCULATIONS FOR 1ST ROD :

d=

d=

RESULTS :

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PRC- Practical

APPARATUS : beam mould for casting , weighing machine , sulpher bucket , capping mould and mechanical mixer

MATERIALS USED

THEORY : In order to determine the compressive strength ,beams are to be prepared for testing of its compressive strength . It is very important because the compressive strength is criteria for its quality. The strength is expressed in kg / cm2 . At least three specimens should be used for Testing.

PROCEDURE :

Take out material all fine and coarse aggregates and cement and weight them accordingly Use Mechanical mixer to mix all these together rigidly. Now take out the fresh concrete from the mixer and fill the required moulds Using Vibrating table to stabilize the concrete easily Regular compaction is required in this process Leave the moulds filled with concrete for 7 days as to attain their strength and shape By using melted suplher , capping is provided . Now cubes are ready for testing

09CE37 15

PRC- Practical

Apparatus : Plain concrete beams, UTM Theory:

This test method is used to determine the flexural strength of specimens prepared and cured in accordance with Test Methods C42/C42M or Practices C31/C31M or C192/C192M. Results are calculated and reported as the modulus of rupture. The strength determined will vary where there are differences in specimen size, preparation, moisture condition, curing, or where the beam has been molded or sawed to size. The results of this test method may be used to determine compliance with specifications or as a basis for proportioning, mixing and placement operations. It is used in testing concrete for the construction of slabs and pavements.

The flexural strength can be determined by the formula

FR= My / I

Procedure:

Observations: Load = L= Width = Height = Calculations: Bending Moment = load * L /3 = Y=D/2= Moment of Inertia = I = bd3 / 12 = =

09CE37 16

PRC- Practical

APPARATUS : UTM , Steel bars

THEORY:

A practical using the method of slices has been developed to calculate the ultimate bending capacity of reinforced concrete beams and slabs subjected to high bending force.

PROCEDURE:

Based on the analysis of reinforced concrete beams under biaxial bending, an equivalent crosssection method is proposed to calculate the shear capacity of the beams. According to the two basic equivalence principles, a biaxial flexural beam is changed into a uniaxial flexural member, and the shear strength of biaxial flexural beam is calculated as a uniaxial flexural member. Furthermore, the interrelationships among the equivalent cross-section and the neutral axis inclination as well as the ratio of depth to width of the cross-section are deduced in advance. The ratios of some typical cross-sections equivalent dimensions to its original ones are pointed also. In order to verify the availability of the equivalent cross-section method, some academic references about the ultimate strength of biaxial flexural beams are consulted in this paper, and the shear capacity computing methods by literatures for uniaxial flexural beams are adopted in the strength calculation of biaxial flexural reinforced concrete simply supported beams with stirrups or without stirrups. The comparison between the calculation results and experimental results shows that the presented equivalent cross-section method is feasible and practical which can be used as a reference in practice design.

RESULT = The bars are elastic in nature and capable of being bent without any fracture and can be used

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PRC- Practical

Apparatus: Mechanical sieve, shaker , Standard sieves of required size in aggregate , balance . Thoery:

Sieve analysis helps to determine the particle size distribution of the coarse and fine aggregates.This is done by sieving the aggregates as per IS: 2386 (Part I) 1963. In this we use different sieves as standardized by the IS code and then pass aggregates through them and thus collect different sized particles left over different sieves. The apparatus used are i) A set of IS Sieves of sizes 80mm, 63mm, 50mm, 40mm,31.5mm, 25mm, 20mm, 16mm, 12.5mm, 10mm, 6.3mm,4.75mm, 3.35mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 600m, 300m, 150m and 75m.

ii) Balance or scale with an accuracy to measure 0.1 percent of the weight of the test sample. The weight of sample available should not be less than the weight given below:-

The sample for sieving should be prepared from the larger sample either by quartering or by means of a sample divider.

09CE37 18

PRC- Practical

Procedure to determine particle size distribution of Aggregates. i) The test sample is dried to a constant weight at a temperature of 110 + 5oC and weighed.

iv) Cumulative weight passing through each sieve is calculated as a percentage of the total sample weight.

v) Fineness modulus is obtained by adding cumulative percentage of aggregates retained on each sieve and dividing the sum by 100.

09CE37 19

PRC- Practical Observations : S.No Sieve Size (mm) Wt. Retained (gms) Wt. passing (gms) % Retained

% passing

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ENVELOP: S.No Sieve Size (mm) Wt. Retained (gms) Wt. passing (gms) % Retained % passing

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

09CE37 20

PRC- Practical

Practical # 12 : To perform a grading of Fine Aggregates and develop its grading limit artificially ( zone 1 , zone 2 , zone 3, zone 4)

Apparatus : Mechanical sieve shaker , balance, oven ,bowl , sieves of required size

Thoery: To describe an aggregate by its max and minimum size is not enough it has to grade from its minimum maximum limit. The maximum limit 40 , minimum limit of various types of aggregates in limit. The different satisfactions by the standard provided limit are known as grading zones.

Procedure: Take the sample of fine aggregates about 3 kg . Put it on the top of mechanical sieve shaker and shake it for one minute . This aggregate will pass through different sieves provided in mechanical sieve shaker. The criteria for sieving is that after completion not more then 1% of the residue on any individual sieve will pass the sieve during 1 min of with hand sieveing . At end of smaller departure sized with fine brush. Find the % passing and record it in the table

09CE37 21

S.No

% Retained

% passing

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

09CE37 22

PRC- Practical

APPARATUS : Coarse aggregates

THEORY :

per IS: 2386 (Part III) 1963. For this test a sample not less than 2000g should be used

PROCEDURE :

i) The sample should be thoroughly washed to remove finer particles and dust, drained and then placed in the wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a temperature between 22 and 32oC.

ii) After immersion, the entrapped air should be removed by lifting the basket and allowing it to drop 25 times in 25 seconds. The basket and sample should remain immersed for a period of 24 + hrs afterwards

iii) The basket and aggregates should then be removed from the water, allowed to drain for a few minutes, after which the aggregates should be gently emptied from the basket on to one of the dry clothes and gently surface-dried with the cloth,transferring it to a second dry cloth when the first would remove no further moisture.The aggregates should be spread on the second cloth and exposed to the atmosphere away from direct sunlight till it appears to be completely surfacedry.The aggregates should be weighed (Weight A). iv) The aggregates should then be placed in an oven at a temperature of 100 to 110oC for 24hrs. It should then be removed from the oven, cooled and weighed (Weight B).

09CE37 23

PRC- Practical

OBSERVATIONS: Weight of Aggregates ( Moisture Content ) = SSD weight of Aggregates : Over dried Weight of aggregates: CALCULATIONS: Using formula = Water absorption = { SSD weight Over dried weight } / Oven dried weight * 100

Water Absorption =

09CE37 24

PRC- Practical

APPARATUS : Fine Aggregates

THEORY :

OBSERVATIONS:

CALCULATIONS

Using formula = Water absorption = { SSD weight Over dried weight } / Oven dried weight * 100

Water Absorption =

RESULT:

09CE37 25

PRC- Practical

APPARATUS

THEORY:

There are two types of bars namely Plain and Rebar bars. Those bars which are smooth in the surface and have no any cuts is said to be Plain bars and they are almost not used where heavy load is there. Rebar bars are further divied into 2 types Circular and Zigzag which are also known as deformed bar . further picture tell the full story of bars. A rebar (short for reinforcing bar), also known as reinforcing steel, reinforcement steel, or a deformed bar, is a common steel bar, and is commonly used as a tensioning device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures holding the concrete in compression. It is usually formed from carbon steel, and is given ridges for better mechanical anchoring into the concrete

09CE37 26

PRC- Practical

Practical # 16 : To perform a Concrete Slump test on 1:2:4 Ratio and 1:1:2 Ratio

APPARATUS :

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Standard slump cone (100 mm top diameter x 200 mm bottom diameter x 300 mm high) Small scoop Bullet-nosed rod (600 mm long x 16 mm diameter) Rule Slump plate (500 mm x 500 mm) Concrete of 1:2:4 and 1:1:2

THEORY:

In construction and civil engineering, the Concrete slump test (or simply the slump test) is an in situ test or a laboratory test used to determine and measure how hard and consistent a given sample of concrete is before curing. The concrete slump test is, in essence, a method of quality control. For a particular mix, the slump should be consistent. A change in slump height would demonstrate an undesired change in the ratio of the concrete ingredients; the proportions of the ingredients are then adjusted to keep a concrete batch consistent. This homogeneity improves the quality and structural integrity of the cured concrete.

09CE37 27

PRC- Practical

PROCEDURE:

1. Clean the cone. Dampen with water and place on the slump plate. The slump plate should be clean, firm, level and non-absorbent. Collect a sample of concrete to perform the slum test. 2. Stand firmly on the footpieces and fill 1/3 the volume of the cone with the sample. Compact the concrete by 'rodding' 25 times. Rodding means to push a steel rod in and out of the concrete to compact it into the cylinder, or slump cone. Always rod in a definite pattern, working from outside into the middle. 3. Now fill to 2/3 and again rod 25 times, just into the top of the first layer. 4. Fill to overflowing, rodding again this time just into the top of the second layer. Top up the cone till it overflows. 5. Level off the surface with the steel rod using a rolling action. Clean any concrete from around the base and top of the cone, push down on the handles and step off the footpieces. 6. Carefully lift the cone straight up making sure not to move the sample. 7. Turn the cone upside down and place the rod across the up-turned cone. 8. Take several measurements and report the average distance to the top of the sample.If the sample fails by being outside the tolerance (ie the slump is too high or too low), another must be taken. If this also fails the remainder of the batch should be rejected.

CALCULATIONS FOR 1 :2 : 4 :

CALCULATIONS FOR 1 :1 : 2 :

09CE37 28

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