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Space Vector PWM

E/2 q1 0 E/2 q4 q5 q6 a q2 b q3 c

V2

V1

V3

Each power switch can be on or off On = 1 off = 0 q1 = 1 q4 = 1 - q1 q5 = 1 - q2 q6 = 1 - q3 q4 = 1

state 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

voltage V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8

q1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0

q2 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0

q3 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0

q4 ( q 1 ) 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1

q5 ( q 2 ) 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1

q6 ( q 3 ) 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1

V 1=V 10+Von V 2=V 20+Von V 3=V 30+Von when q1 = conducts = 1

V 10=

E q1 2

q4 = 0

when q4 = conducts = 1 V 10= E q4 2


q1 = 0

V 10=

E E q1 q 4 2 2

q 4 = 1 q1

V 10=

E E E q1 (1 q1 ) = (2q1 1) 2 2 2 E + Von 2

V 1= (2q1 1) similarly, V 2= (2q 2 1) V 3= (2q3 1)

E + Von 2 E + Von 2

f abc = T f 012

1 1 T = 1 a 2 1 a

1 a a2 1 a2 a

1 + j 2 1 a2 = j 2 a=

3 = 1120 o 2 3 = 1240 o 2

f 012 = T

f abc

1 1 1 = 1 a 3 1 a 2

S 3 = [Vabc ] [I abc ]
t t t t *

* * *

= [[T ]V012 ] [[T ]I 012 ]

= [V012 ] [T ] [T ] [I 012 ]

1 0 0 [T ] [T ] = 30 1 0 0 0 1
t

* S 3 = 3V012 I 012 = [Vabc ] [I abc ]


t

Vref = (V1 + aV2 + a 2V3 )

write it in terms of peak line-to-line voltage:


Vref = 3 ~ ~ ~ (V1 + aV2 + a 2V3 ) 2 ~ ~ ~ V V V = 3( 1 + a 2 + a 2 3 ) 2 2 2

~ where V1 = 3V1 = peak line-to-line voltage

d-q Transformation
fd f = q f0 cos 2 sin 3 1 2 cos( + 2 / 3) f a sin( 2 / 3) sin( + 2 / 3) f b 1 1 fc 2 2 cos( 2 / 3)

Pabc = va ia + vbib + vc ic Pdq 0 = vd id + vq iq + v0i0

Conservative transformation or power invariant

cos fd 2 f = sin q 3 1 f0 2

cos( + 2 / 3) f a sin( 2 / 3) sin( + 2 / 3) f b f 1 1 2 2 c cos( 2 / 3)

Pabc = va ia + vb ib + vc ic Pdq 0 = 3 (vd id + vq iq + v0i0 ) 2

power variant transformation

sq Vrefq Vref

sd os Vrefd

Vref = Vrefd + jVrefq


Vrefd = 2 Re V1 + aV2 + a 2V3 3 2 Im V1 + aV2 + a 2V3 3

Vrefq =

substituting
Vrefd = 2 (q1 q2 / 2 q3 / 2) E 3

Vrefq =

1 (q2 q3 ) E 2

q1 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0

q2 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 sq

q3 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Vref = 2 E 3 Vref = E + jE 6 2 Vref = E + jE 6 2 Vref = 2 E 3 Vref = E jE 6 2 Vref = E jE 6 2 Vref = 0 Vref = 0

V3 II III V4 IV V V5 7 8 I

V2

Vref rotates with s. = s t 6 switches x 60o = 360o V1

sd

VI

V6

Sector I II III IV V VI

Switching sequence 8, 1,2, 7, 2, 1, 8 8, 3, 2, 7, 2, 3, 8 8, 3, 4, 7, 4, 3, 8 8, 4, 5, 7, 5, 4, 8 8, 5, 6, 7, 6, 5, 8 8, 1, 6, 7, 6, 1, 8

Note: One power switch is switching with each change of state.

Ts = 1/f V8 T0/2 V1 T1 V2 T2 V7 T0/2

Select T0, T1, and T2, s.t. the change in load current from the fundamental component is minimized. Assume a simple machine,

Vref Vref

I =

1 L

t2

t1

(Vref Vref )dt

t1: beginning time of a switching state t2: end time of a switching state Vref : voltage phasor of SVPWM
Vref : reference voltage phasor

Vref =

Ts

0 0 [V8 (t ) + V1 (t ) + V2 (t ) + V7 (t )]dt
V1 (t )dt + V2 (t )dt
T1 T2

Vref =

T1

T0 / 2

I = Vref (1)T1 + Vref ( 2 )T2 Vref Ts

to make I = 0 , then
Vref (1)T1 + Vref ( 2)T2 = Vref Ts

Recall a c a b c = = sin sin sin b

Vref(2)

Vref(2)T2 is parallel with Vref(2)

VrefTs Vref(2)T2 60 Vref(1)T1


o

Vref(1)

VrefTs Vref(2)T2 Vref(1)T1 120o

Vref ( 2 ) T2 sin Vref (1) T1

Vref Ts sin 120 = Vref Ts sin 120

sin(60 )

= s t = 2ft

T1 and T2 can be computed as

T1 = Ts a T2 = Ts a where
a= Vref

sin(60 ) sin 60 sin sin 60

Vref (1)

Vref Vref ( 2 )

a : depth of modulation or index of modulation


T0 = Ts (T1 + T2 )

The phase of requested voltage vector identifies two nonzero voltage vectors The requested voltage vector can be synthesized by using fractions of the two nearest voltage vectors, which amounts to applying these two vectors one at a time, for a fraction of the switching period. The nearest zero voltage vector to the two voltage vectors is applied for the remaining switching period. Say, 1. 2. 3. 4. Apply V0 for T0/2 Apply Vref1 for T1 Apply Vref2 for T2 Apply V0 for T0/2