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' HOW TO BUILD \) 11'0¥Y\ THE FAMOUS ...... ·. .• ... ... ''DEMOISELLE'} SANTOS-DUMONT'S MONOPLANE Dy ARTHUR E. JOERIN AND A. CROSS, A. lVI. ( l'aris) F . ROM time vague descriptions of the manner of constructing aeroplanes have been given to the public. All over the United States there are thousands of persons who are intensely interested in the subject of aerial flight, but until now nothing of a tangible nature has been presented on which work could be started with a reasonable prospect of success. It is a great satisfaction therefore, to be able to present the working drawings of the wonderful monoplane invented by M. Santos-Dumont. As the authors point 'out, however, it would be useless for anyone not possessed of some mechanical skill, and plenty of common sense, to attempt to construct a copy of the famous flyer, even with such detailed workings and instructions.- THE EDITOR. F OLLO\VING the announcement, mosphere as it applies to aeronautics, made some motJths ago by Alberto to have a good general knowledge of Santos-Dumont that he intended to gasoline motors, and to study the prop- give the plans of his latest aeroplane, erties and qualities of the different ma- the "Demoiselle,". to the world in the terials which enter into the construe- interest of aeronautics, intet:cst tion of the monoplane. has been centered in tl1e wonderful It is clearly impossible to go into monoplane. It is the lightEst and small- these subjects at any great length here, est of all heavier-than-air machines, yet but the one who is ambitious to become is thoroughly practical. It was with thoroughly_ conversant with the sub- • this monoplane that the renowned avi- ject of aerial navigation, will not fail ator made a flight from St. Cyr to Buc, to consult suitable books on these sub- on the 1:3th of September last at a speed jects. Of course the possession of plans of [)() miles an hour. is the basis without which it would This machine is better than any be impossible to set about building the other which has ever been built, for airship, but at the same time it is neces- those who wish to reach results with sary to possess some mechanical skill the least possible expense and with a and ability, and plenty of common minimum of experimenting. The plans· sense. which accompany this article are idcn- In prec::enting· the plans through tical with those, from which the ma- Popular Mechanics Magazine we trust chines are now being bttilt in France. that no one of our readers will start As it would lead us too far from the to build unless he possesses these quali- purpose of this artide if we were to ties, especially the latter, without take up at length such questions which he will never be able to ac- the strength, flexibility, and resistance complish anything. and other properties of materials we That .the monoplane is the superior shall restrict ourselves to a descrip- form of heavier-than-air machine is· 1 ion of the manner of constructing- the the opinion of a majority of the avia- fh·er. It would he well, of course. for tion experts. Biplanes and even tri- prospective· aviator to make him- planes have made wonderful flights, self acquainted with the subject of at- but no flying-machine ever built has "J V V\ ..i(_, Copyright, 1910, by H. H. Windsor ~ - ~ - - ~ - ~ - - ~ - ~ - - ~ - - -- -- POPULAH :t\IECHANICS 779 proven so easy to balance as the mono- plane. The principal objection to it tlp to within a short time has been the difficulty of bracing the plane. vVith the biplane the trussing was of great service in this connection. But with the g-uide wires firmly fixed from the fram-e to the wings there is little prob- ability of any difficulty with the San- tos-Dumont type. At the very beginning it might be well to state that the greatest items of expense in the construction of the machine will be the motor and the propeller. Santos-Dumont used a Dar- racq motor of 30 hp. in his record- breaking flight, although he had previ- ously made some fine flights with a 1'1- hp. motor. There are American motors which will do just as well, probably, and will undoubtedly be n1t1ch cheaper, as the importation of one from France •. involves the expense of freight and customs duties. The construction of the propeller is vitally important, and we would advise that this be purchased. A good place at which to start would be the vertical rudder, Plate III. The thickness of the bamboo there given is the maximum one. The stronger and hea\·ier portions are used for the r.en- ters where the joints are formed and the strain is heaviest. The detailed drawing Con this plate shows the man- ner in which the cloth is attached to the framework by gauge No. 21 piano wire. As it is done at this point so it ' should be done on all parts of the mon- oplane. After having Se\VI1 the piano wire into the outer edge of the cloth, taking care to leave open the part where the wire is to be attached to the frame- work, the wire should be stretched to get it to the extremity. and then dropped into the slot made for it to rest in on the outer end of the bamboo. Thus the planes of cloth are well stretched, ahd ··are held firmly in place, adding to the strength of the machine. The same end could not be accomplished -nearly as well by first attaching the wire and then sewing the cloth thereon. This applies to the wings also v·:here every added bit of strength and firmness adds to the successful completion. Slots are made at the end of the bamboos for the M. Santos-Dumont about to Start Flight in the "Demoiselle" wires to slip into and be held fast. It is a good idea to put a cork into the hollow ends of the rods, and to cut the slots in both at .the same time. The brass wire, gauge No. 25, should also b-e wound around the rod just below the end of the slot. This prevents the piano wire on which the cloth is sewn from splitting the rods. It may seem that this arrangement is crude, yet it is the way that Santos-Dumont made the ends when he flew from St. Cyr to Due. Later o n ~ h e had a number of "Dem- oiselles," and small breaks happe11ed now and t h e n ~ h e put a little metal cap over the ends of the rods. Slots \vere made in these caps to receive the wires. \Ve have described the former because it is by far the easier way for amateur airship builders. The cloth t1sed by Santos-Dumont was a very finely woven silk. Silk doec not rot as easily as cotton and is con siderably stronger. Silk has the great objection of expense, however, and it would probably be as well to use per- cale or strong muslin, care being taken to secure the best grade of closely wo- Yen and unbleached goods. ( .. ' r-- .... \ POPULAH MECHANICS 781 The- methQd of making the joint at B is well shown in the drawing. The use of steel or aluminum plates is very important for it would be impossible to secure the necessary strength without them. The clever idea adopted by the inventor of the machine practically the vertical rudder or1 both sides. If this is done properly no rods will be visible, all being covered by the cloth. The manner in which the cloth - covers the rods is shown at C on Plate III. The of attaching the rudders Rear View of"Demoiselle" makes this joint in one piece, and he to the frame is shown on Plate IV. This experienced little or no trouble at this is practically a universal joint, allow- point. The ends of the two smaller ing the steering device to be turned in pieces are inserted for about a quarter any direction by the controlling wires of an inch into the vertical piece as is shown on Plate I, and also in the shown. If one viishes to finish the work smaller illustration of the monoplane. particularly well, cabinetmaker's mus- These wires should be carefully se- cilage or several coats of varnish may lected and tested for a great deal de- be put on at these joints. It serves to pends upon their strength. It would be retard decay in the bamboo. very imprudent to use ordinary piano Plate IV shows the details of the string or wire. Santos-Dumont uses a horizontal rudder which governs the flexible metallic wire, gauge No. 13, altitude of the machine. "Gouvenail de with a flaxen cord in the center. This Profendeur" is the French term for it. wire will withstand the constant bend- It should be constructed in the same ing without danger of breaking. The general way as the vertical rudder. At joint should be made of the best steel the point where the rudders join it is tubing procurable as it performs a very necessary to cut the cloth of the hori- important function. Good bicycle tub 4 zontal rudder and sew it to the cloth of ing is excellent. (Concluded in the July Issue of . Popular 11-1 eclzanics.) PAULHAN WINS $50,000 PRIZE IN WORLD'S GREATEST AERIAL RACE Louis Paulhan, the daring French aviator, broke the long-distance record for aeroplane flights on April 28th, and captured the prize of $50,000 offered by Lord Northcliffe, the English publisher, when he flew from London to Manches- ter, a distance of lRG miles. A1though the prize has for some time " been awaiting the accomplishment of this trip, the fact that Graham vVhite, an English pilot, undertook to start at about the same time, added to the event the excitement of a race. -·White, much less experienced than Paulhan, met difficulty in the heavy winds. • Paulhan made the trip in 12 hours and \ \ \ \ ... I. I . .. .. !'• -· 8 I 782 I POPULAR MECHANICS 10 minutes, the last. 24 miles being cov- ered in 24 minutes, according to an un- official record. Both aviators used Far- man biplan'es. " During a part of his flight Paulhan followed the railroad line closely, and used an express train as a pace maker. At times he outdistanced the train. It was White's intention to start about the same time as Paulhan. Both arrived at London on the 27th with their machines and began making final preparations for the flight. It was un- derstood that they would start out on the morning of the 28th. White went to his hotel to rest, but Paulhan made an ascension during the late afternoon and headed northward toward Man- chester and the $50,000. Friends of the English aviator learned of it and im- mediately roused him. Soon he was in pursuit of Paulhan, using every ounce of power in the motor in an effort to make up for the hour which he had lost. For hours the rivals flew northward at a terrific pace, through the dusk and the bitter cold of the great altitude at which they flew. · Paulhan made one stop at Lichfield where spent the night. White was o_bliged to come to the ground at Polesworth, having cov- ered more than half the distance be- tween London and Manchester. · The provisions of the prize offer pro- vided that only two stops should be made and that the trip should be made in less than 24 hours. Paulhan made only one stop and made the distance in little more than half the time allowed, including the rest at Lichfield. FOURTH OF JULY PAGEANTS How to Prepare for a Sane Celebration of Our National Holiday and to Make Attractive Floats and Decorations By H. T. McCONNELL A LL over the country, just at this time, the anticipation of the Fourth of July is felt in schools and homes as well as in business. The "sane Fourth" idea has made a deep impression in every state and in every city, and it is safe to say that pageants and parades and rational public celebra- tions of the day will be more general this year than ever before. To the community which has never been able to boast of having had a pageant with floats aild costumes, a floral parade, or even the time-honored "civic and military" parade, there is often a confusion of ideas as to how to go about getting up such an affair. · It looks like a big undertaking to prepare for a score of floats, with brass bands, and turnouts of fraternal societies and clubs, but if the matter is taken up in a systematic manner, by a competent committee of ·public-spirited citizens, there should be no difficulty about ar- ranging a demonstration that will not only distract the attention of the small boy from the death-dealing firecracker, but will permeate the day with real pa- triotic sentimenr and increase the gen- eral enjoyment of our national holiday. Some suggestions which .might be taken up are: The playittg of the national airs with the church chimes. • A lavish display of flags and bunting on every building. Home reunions. Family picnic parties. Patriotic exercises in public places _with singing of the national airs by school children. Water fetes. Athletic sports. The illumination of the city or town at. night by stringing electric lights across the main streets and on the public buildings. Street-car parades at night, with il- luminated floats. There is no limit to the variety of ideas for getting up floats. Every com· munity has its traditions and its his '",.) .I /