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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

OFDM/OFDMA AnD LTE COnCEpTs

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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

ThE LTE RADiO inTERFACE


InTroducTIon To oFdM/oFdMA
requirements of Modern communication Systems channel Bandwidth and Fading Flat Fading and Frequency Selective Fading defining narrowband and Wideband channels coherence Bandwidth Multi-carrier Solution oFdM Basic Principles Sub carrier orthogonality doppler Shift in radio channels coherence Time cyclic Prefix/Guard Time Peak-to-Average Power ratio (PAPr) Single carrier Frequency division Multiple Access (Sc-FdMA) LTE PHY Layer Parameters LTE Sub-carrier Spacing LTE Timing and Framing Frame Type 2, Tdd The resource Block comparison of resource Blocks, channel Size and Sampling rate LTE channels and channel Mapping LTE Logical channels LTE Transport channels LTE Physical channels 4 4 6 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 18 20 22 24 28 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44

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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

channel Mapping Mapping channels to the resource Block channel Mapping on a 10MHz channel uplink Mapping of Physical channels uplink Mapping of the control channel overall Picture of uL Mapping Physical channels and Modulation Schemes Synchronisation and reference Signals Primary and Secondary Synch Sequences PSS and SS in the Frame Structure reference Signals LTE reference Signals dL cell Specific rS dL uE Specific rS uL uE Specific rS demodulation reference Signals (dM rS) Sounding reference Signals (SrS) Modulation, channel coding and Link Adaptation channel coding HArQ (Hybrid Automatic request) reporting of uE Feedback Power control in LTE The user Plane and control Plane Protocols

46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 68 70 72 74 76 76 78 80 84 86 88 90 92

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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

inTRODuCTiOn TO OFDM/OFDMA
Requirements of Modern Communication systems
recent fixed and mobile broadband statistics suggest that the demand for data is increasing at an ever accelerating rate. Services such as Facebook, Youtube and other Web 2.0 type applications have traditionally been accessed from fixed broadband connections, however with the rising popularity of the smart phone, these applications are moving swiftly in to the mobile domain. This puts pressure on the operators of mobile networks to ensure there is sufficient capacity for the existing voice traffic as well as all the new multimedia and social networking applications. The demand for high capacity makes the radio engineer look to the radio channel to find additional capacity. In recent years the bandwidth of the channel has grown significantly from 200KHz GSM to 5MHz uMTS/HSPA and the modulation and coding schemes have grown steadily more complex and efficient. Given the current bandwidth and complexity of systems like HSPA it would be difficult to gain more capacity by simply increasing the channel bandwidth without making the technology prohibitively complex.

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Fig. 1 Web 2.0 A Driver for higher Communication speeds?


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Channel Bandwidth and Fading


The figure opposite illustrates a typical urban environment through which radio signals propagate. The transmission of the signal from the source to the destination is carried over multiple paths. The main reason for this is the existence of the buildings, vehicles, and other obstacles which can reflect and scatter the transmitted signal. The received signal is a summation of all these signals from different paths. It is apparent that any receiver will be subject to multiple, time shifted copies of the same signal.

Flat Fading and Frequency selective Fading


Each of these paths experiences a different doppler shift and degree of attenuation. The frequency response is the representation in the frequency domain of the superposition of all these paths. With the multipath scenario, where the transmitted signals take place over different paths, the signals received from each path will add up at the receiver input The power of the received signal will vary as it is dependent upon the relationship between the phases of each received component; whether the result is constructive or destructive addition of the phase values. This is generally known as fading If the transmitted channel is sufficiently narrow then all the frequency components transmitted in the channel will be attenuated by the same amount, this is known as flat fading The principle problem with increasing the bandwidth of the channel to accommodate higher capacity is that the channel becomes increasingly likely to suffer from frequency selective fading. This is where only a part of the overall transmitted spectrum suffers from the attenuation due to multipath fading.

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a) Typical Multipath Environment


Transmitter

Receiver

b) Flat Fading
Power Expected signal Actual signal

Frequency

c) Frequency selective Fading


Power Expected signal Actual signal

Frequency
Fig. 2
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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Defining narrowband and Wideband Channels


Whether a channel is determined to be wide or narrow band depends on the relative magnitude of the symbol time and the delay spread characteristic of the channel environment. Temporal distortion of the signal is an effect of the multipath environment causing the same symbol to be received multiple times over a period of time. The time differences are due to the differing propagation delays experienced on different paths. Typical delay spreads for indoor and outdoor environments are shown below. Indoor 40nS 20nS; 12m 60m outdoor 1uS 20uS; 300m 6Km A channel can be said to be narrow band when the symbol time (Ts) is significantly larger than any delay spread present (Td) narrow band Ts > Td However if the delay spread is significantly larger than the symbol time then the channel may be considered wideband. Wideband Td > Ts Following on from the discussion above, regarding flat and frequency selective fading, it can be said that a channel that is defined as wideband, it is more likely to suffer from frequency selective fading. consider now, that the symbol time is a function of the channel bandwidth. Ts = 1/Bw Therefore as the channel bandwidth increases the symbol time will decrease. e.g. Bw = 1MHz; Ts = 1uS Bw = 10MHz; Ts = 0.1uS It is more probable therefore that high capacity, high bandwidth radio channels will experience frequency selective fading.

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indoor Delay spread


Transmitter

Receiver

RMs Delay spread


t0 t1

Power

t2 t3

t4 t5

RMS delay spread

Time

narrowband or WideBand?
Ts

Td

Narrow band ~ Ts > Td Wideband ~ Td > Ts

Fig. 3
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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Coherence Bandwidth
coherence bandwidth is a statistical measure of the range of frequencies over which the channel can be considered flat (i.e., a channel which passes all spectral components with approximately equal gain and linear phase). In other words, coherence bandwidth is the range of frequencies over which two frequency components have a strong potential for amplitude correlation. coherence bandwidth is a function of the delay spread environment and can be calculated using the following expression; Bc = 1 2rms

Where; rms is the rms delay spread of the channel. The table below shows typical delay spreads for various environments and their coherence bandwidth. Knowing the coherence bandwidth for typical deployment environments allows an estimation of the probability that frequency selective fading will occur if the channel bandwidth of the system is know.

Environment
Hilly area urban Suburban open area Indoors

Typical rms Delay


3-10 sec 1-3 sec < 1 sec < 200 nsec 10-50 nsec

Coherence Bandwidth
53KHz-16KHz 160KHz-53KHz > 160KHz > 795KHz 16MHz-3.2MHz

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Coherence bandwidth is a statistical measure of the range of frequencies over which the channel can be considered flat (i.e., a channel which passes all spectral components with approximately equal gain and linear phase) 1 2rms
Coherence Bandwidth
53KHz-16KHz 160KHz-53KHz > 160KHz > 795KHz 16MHz-3.2MHz

Bc =

Environment
Hilly area urban Suburban open area Indoors

Typical rms Delay


3-10 sec 1-3 sec < 1 sec < 200 nsec 10-50 nsec

Fig. 4 Coherence Bandwidth


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Multi-Carrier solution
Given the problems outlined above the solution for todays broadband wireless systems is to utilise multi-carrier systems known as oFdM (orthogonal Frequency division Multiplexing) or oFdMA (orthogonal Frequency division Multiple Access). FDM (Frequency Division Multiple Access) Multi-carrier systems split the high speed stream of serial baseband data in to lower speed parallel streams. The lower bit rate on each sub-carrier results in a narrower radio channel that is resistant to the frequency selective fade. OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) However, these multi-carrier systems need to exhibit good spectral efficiency, each sub carrier must be placed close to its adjacent carrier with out causing interference. The channel spacing is 1/Ts where Ts is the symbol time of information modulated onto the carrier. Spacing the channels in this manner ensures that the centre of each carrier corresponds with a zero crossing point for each of the neighbouring sub-carriers. This means that the centre of the sub-carriers can be sampled, free from interference of the adjacent sub-carriers.

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Traditionally spaced FDM Channels


t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6

Orthogonally spaced FDM Channels (sub-carriers)

1/Ts

Fig. 5
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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

OFDM Basic principles


The block diagram opposite shows the basic principle of an oFdM transmitter/receiver. The incoming data stream is first converted from serial data to parallel data, the number of parallel data stream will depend on the bandwidth of the overall channel and the number of sub-carriers available to carry the data. Each of the parallel streams of data is then modulated on to each sub carrier which then undergoes an IFFT (Inverse Fast Fourier Transform) which transforms the frequency domain signal into a tome domain signal. The complex time domain signal is then added to produce a composite and complex waveform. In receiver the signal must be sampled with sufficient frequency to ensure all the composite frequency components are captured. Where there are more sub-carriers the received signal must be sampled more frequently. The term FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) points or samples, refers to the number of samples that must take place during a singe FFT symbol, hence the larger number of FFT points for higher bandwidth channels. The FFT symbol has a time equivalent to the baseband symbol time but is the composite of all the modulated sub-carriers. The captured and sampled signal is transformed to the frequency domain by applying an FFT. This effectively separates the sub-carriers so they may be demodulated independently.

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Fig. 6 simple OFDM Block Diagram


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

sub Carrier Orthogonality


Given the very tight spacing of the sub-carriers of the oFdM channel it is very important that the sub-carriers remain orthogonal from each other. disturbances in the time and frequency domain can reduced the orthogonality of the carriers resulting in an increase in BEr and generally poorer performance. distortion in the frequency domain can come from doppler shift due to uE movement or from poor synchronisation of the uE sub systems to the system clock. The latter problem can be resolved by having the enB broadcast synchronisation signals on a regular basis, allowing the uE to adjust and maintain its synchronisation with the enB. This can also reduce the effect of doppler shift, however the coherence time of the channel will provide an indication of how likely the received signals will be affected by doppler shift.

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Demodulated signal without frequency offset (zero ICI)

Demodulated signal with frequency offset causing ICI

Fig. 7 sub Carrier Orthogonality


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Doppler shift in Radio Channels


Frequency offset is an important consideration, particularly in oFdM systems. In mobile radio systems the velocity of the uE will cause an apparent offset from the centre carrier of the radio channel, yielding poorer performance and higher BEr. In oFdM systems it will also cause inter sub-carrier interference. The following expression may be used to determine the frequency offset due to doppler shift. f. fd = cos. c Where; f is the frequency of operation v is the velocity of the receiver c is the speed of light

Coherence Time
An important performance attribute when considering the systems sensitivity to effects of frequency offset is the coherence time. The coherence time is a function of the amount of frequency offset present in the channel and is defined as; The time over which a channel can be assumed to be constant. 9 Tc = 2 16.fd2 Therefore a system that uses a symbol time which is less than the coherence time will not be distorted by the effects of doppler shift.

e.g. Find the coherence time for a radio channel operating at 2.6GHz and a mobile travelling at 140kph. The angle of arrival is 0o 140kph = 38 m/s fd = cos. 2.6 x 109 . 3.8 3 x 108

fd = 329.33 Hz Tc = 2

9 16.329.332

fc = 1.28 x 10-3 seconds

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Coherence Time
The time over which a channel can be assumed to be constant

Doppler shift in Radio Channels

Fig. 8
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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Cyclic prefix/Guard Time


The multi-path environment through which the radio signals are transmitted create temporal distortions in the data carried by the radio channel. The differing propagation duration for each of the multi-path components create inter-symbol interference (ISI). Inter-symbol interference in oFdM systems cannot be tolerated since it reduces the orthogonality between the sub-carriers and increases the BEr and reduces performance of the channel. All of the information important to the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) is contained within the symbol time therefore it is critical that there is no distortion during this period. Since the ISI cannot be eliminated from the channel, the information must be protected from its effect. The solution in oFdM systems is to extend the length of each symbol by a factor equivalent to the likely delay spread in the channel. This extension to the symbol is known as the cyclic prefix (cP) or guard time. The cP, which appears at the beginning of each symbol and is actually a copy of the last part of that symbol. The inclusion of the guard period eliminates the effects of multi-path ISI at the expense of through put, since the cP carries no actual information and is discarded at the receiver once the rF signal has been successfully digitised.

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Creation of the Cyclic prefix

T cp= 4.7 S

Symbo l = 66.7S T otal T ransmi tted Symbo l = 71.3S

Cyclic prefix Operation


CPA CPA
Td

CPB A CPB

CPC B CPC

Compete Sy mbol FF T Sampli ng T i me

Fig. 9
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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

peak-to-Average power Ratio (pApR)


oFdM does present some technical challenges. The resulting composite waveform displays large variations in amplitude caused by the combination of a number of individual signals. This is illustrated in Figure 11. The effect is similar to that caused by the multipath environment a resultant signal fluctuating in amplitude as a result of the combining of so many signals with discrete phase and amplitude differences. This resultant composite signal has implications for A to d convertor and rF amplifier design. The dynamic range of the amplifier must be able to cope with the smallest and largest signal amplitudes particularly the largest amplitude as it this that could cause over-driving of the amplifier. over driving an amplifier causes non-linear behaviour resulting in the generation of harmonics and Intermodulation Products (IPs) which will reside within the wanted spectrum, but will cause unwanted effects. The FFT process will be degraded as it attempts to deal with frequency components that should not be there, resulting in lost packets.

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Symbol time 2

Symbol time 3

Symbol time 4

Carrier 1

Carrier 2

Carrier 3

Carrier 4

Composite signal

Fig. 10 peak to Average power (pApR)


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (sC-FDMA)


3GPP has chosen Sc-FdMA for the uplink. not surprisingly, power consumption is a key consideration for uE terminals. The high PAPr and related loss of efficiency associated with oFdMA are major concerns. As a result, an alternative to oFdM was sought for use in the LTE uplink. Sc-FdMA is well suited to the LTE uplink requirements. The basic transmitter and receiver architecture is very similar (nearly identical) to oFdMA, and it offers the same degree of multipath protection. Most important though is that the underlying waveform is essentially single-carrier, and therefore the PAPr is lower. The figure opposite compares the oFdMA and Sc-FdMA structures. For clarity this example uses only four (M) subcarriers over two symbol periods with the payload data represented by quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation. data symbols in the time domain are converted to the frequency domain using a discrete Fourier transform (dFT); then in the frequency domain they are mapped to the desired location in the overall channel bandwidth before being converted back to the time domain using an inverse FFT (IFFT). Finally, the cP is inserted. Because Sc-FdMA uses this technique, it is sometimes called discrete Fourier transform spread oFdM or (dFT-SoFdM). The most obvious difference between the two schemes is that oFdMA transmits the four QPSK data symbols in parallel, one per subcarrier, while Sc-FdMA transmits the four QPSK data symbols in series at four times the rate, with each data symbol occupying M x 15 kHz bandwidth.

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Q -1,1 1,1 I -1,-1 1,-1 1,1 -1,-1 -1,1 1,-1 -1,-1 1,1 1,-1 -1,1
Sequence of QPSK data symbols to be transmitted

QPSK modulating data symbols


Constant subcarrier power during each SC-FDMA symbol period V
O sy FD m MA bo l

V
SC sy -FD m M bo A l
25

CP
e m O sy FD m MA bo l Ti

CP
e SC sy -FD m M bo A l Ti m

fc

15kHz

Frequency

fc

60kHz

Frequency

Data symbols occupy 15kHz for one OFDMA symbol period

OFDMA

Data symbols occupy M*15kHz for 1/M SC-FDMA symbol periods

SC-FDMA

Fig. 11 single Carrier FDMA


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Sc-FdMA signal generation begins with a special pre-coding process. The diagram opposite shows the first steps, which create a time-domain waveform of the QPSK data sub-symbols. using the four colour-coded QPSK data symbols from the previous diagram, the process creates one Sc-FdMA symbol in the time domain by computing the trajectory traced by moving from one QPSK data symbol to the next. This is done at M times the rate of the Sc-FdMA symbol such that one Sc-FdMA symbol contains M consecutive QPSK data symbols. once an IQ representation of one Sc-FdMA symbol has been created in the time domain, the next step is to represent that symbol in the frequency domain using a dFT. To complete Sc-FdMA signal generation, the process follows the same steps as for oFdMA. Performing an IdFT converts the frequency-shifted signal to the time domain and inserting the cP provides the fundamental robustness of oFdMA against multipath. The diagram opposite shows the stages in common with oFdM.

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Generating the sC-FDMA signal


Q -1,1 1,1 I -1,-1 1,-1 V(I)
+1

V(I)
+1

One SC-FDMA symbol period

One SC-FDMA symbol period

The sC-FDMA Block Diagram


Unique to SC-FDMA Common with OFDMA

M data bits in

Map data to constellation

Generate time domain waveform

Perform M-point DFT (time to freq)

Map symbols to subcarriers

Perform N-point IFFT N>M

Upconvert and transmit

Time domain

Frequency domain

Time domain

M data bits out

De-map constellation to data

Generate constellation

Perform M-point IDFT (time to freq)

De-map subcarriers to symbols

Perform N-point DFT N>M

Receive and downconvert

Fig. 12
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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

LTE phY Layer parameters


LTE is designed to meet many differing requirements including urban, suburban, indoor and outdoor environments as well as coping with many different mobility conditions from stationary to high speed mobility up to 500Kph. cell sizes may also very from femto to large rural macro. The range of spectrum that LTE may be potentially deploy across is also very wide, 400MHz 4GHz, the deployed system bandwidths that may be support also ranges from 1.4MHz to 20MHz. Given the deployment flexibility of LTE the range of channel conditions that it is expected to perform under is extremely wide and varied. The critical parameters required to support this diversity are the sub-carrier spacing and the cyclic prefix.

LTE sub-Carrier spacing


The sub-carrier spacing is 15KHz. consider the previous discussions on coherence bandwidth and resilience to doppler effects, selection of sub carrier spacing of 15KHz for LTE radio interface is a compromise based on the expected operational environment and expected levels of performance.

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Channel spacing = 1/Ts Ts = 66.7S Fs = 1/66.7S = 15KHz

Fig. 13 LTE sub-Carrier spacing


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

LTE Timing and Framing


The basic unit of time in LTE is Ts, this is defined as 1/(15000*2408) = 32.56nS, where 15000 is the bandwidth of the sub-carrier and 2048 is the maximum number of FFTs supported. Every element of time is some multiple of this value. The figure opposite shows the type 1 frame, or Frame Structure 1 (FS1), this is the timing structure used on the uplink and downlink of the Fdd (Frequency division duplex) channels. one slot is a 0.5mS period of time which contains 7 symbols of 66.67 S. 2 slots make up one 1mS Sub-Frame, the sub-frame is sometimes referred to as the transmission time interval (TTI) particularly by the higher layers. There a 10 sub-frames or 20 slots in one 10mS frame. This structure is used in the time domain to map the physical channels. note that the physical channels also require a frequency domain component for complete mapping.

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One radio frame, Tf = 307200, Ts = 10 ms One slot, Tslot = 15360, Ts = 0.5 ms #0 #1 #2 #3 #18 #19

One subframe

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 66.67S Symbols

Fig. 14 Frame Type 1 FDD


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Frame Type 2, TDD


The figure opposite shows the frame structure used on a Tdd (Time division duplex) channel. It has similar overall timing i.e. the overall frame length is 10mS and 10 sub-frames of 1mS each. However the structure of the sub-frames is different. In the FS2 the sub-frame allows both an uplink and downlink transmission/reception opportunity. These are referred to as the dwPTS (downlink Pilot Time Slot) and upPTS (uplink Pilot Time Slot), these are separated in the sub-frame by a guard period (GP). The frame has two different switch points i.e. the point at which a defined slot configuration begins to repeat, these are at 5mS and 10mS. In addition there are 7 different frame configurations. In any of these configurations sub-frame 0 and 6 carry downlink information only, and sub-frame carries uplink only. The table opposite shows the frame configurations.

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Configuration switch-point periodicity


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 ms 5 ms 5 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms 10 ms

sub-frame number 0
d d d d d d d

1
S S S S S S S

2
u u u u u u u

3
u u d u u d u

4
u d d u d d u

5
d d d d d d d

6
S S S d d d S

7
u u u d d d u

8
u u d d d d u

9
u d d d d d d

Fig. 15 Frame Type 2 TDD


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

The Resource Block


Mapping of channels takes place in the time and frequency domains in LTE. The primary element that support the mapping process is the resource Block (rB). The rB has a fixed size and is common to all channel bandwidths/FFT sizes. In the time domain the rB is one slot ( 7 x 66.67S symbols). In the frequency domain there are 12 x 15KHz sub-carriers. 1 symbol and 1 sub-carrier is known as a resource element. From the figure opposite it can bee seen that the rB occupies 12 x 15KHz = 180KHz of band width. In a 5MHz radio channel there will be 300 rB occupying 4.5MHz of spectrum. The number of FFTs required to process this is 512, assuming sub-carrier size of 15KHz, 512 x 15KHz = 7.68MHz. 7.68MHz if the space occupied by 512 FFT points and is not the transmitted bandwidth, 7.68MHz is also the sampling frequency required to recover information from the carrier to drive the FFT (time domain to frequency domain) in the receiver.

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1 slot Zeros NRB x Nsc = 300 (4.5 MHz) Zeros Time


*5 MHz system with frame structure type 1

DL or UL symbol

Resource block
RB Nsc = 12 (180 kHz)

Fig. 16 Defining a Resource Block


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M = 512 (7.68 MHz)


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Frequency

RB

OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Comparison of Resource Blocks, Channel size and sampling Rate


The table opposite shows the number of rB required for channel bandwidths supported by LTE, it should be noted that the definition of channel bandwidth in this table refers to the nominal channel size defined by the spectrum regulating body, it is not necessarily the transmission bandwidth. Since each rB contains 12 sub-carriers the number of occupied sub-carriers can be determined, multiplying the number of occupied sub-carriers by 15KHz will more accurately describe the transmission bandwidth of the various options. The IdFT/dFT (Inverse discreet Fourier Transform) describes the number of FFT points required to successfully recover information from the carrier, it is always a value of 2n and determines the number of steps of processes required to construct/de-construct the composite oFdMA signal. The sampling rate and samples per slot are determined from the FFT number and the sub-carrier bandwidth. E.g. in the 5MHz channel the sampling rate of 7.68MHz would result in 3840 samples every 1mS.

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channel bandwidth (MHz) number of resource blocks (nrB) number of occupied subcarriers IdFT(Tx)/dFT(rx) size Sample rate (MHz) Samples per shot

1.4 6 72 128 1.92 960

3 15 180 256 3.84 1920

5 25 300 512 7.68 3840

10 50 600 1024 15.36 7680

15 75 900 1536 23.04 11520

20 100 1200 2048 30.72 15360

Fig. 17 Table of Resource Block sizes and Channel Bandwidth


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

LTE Channels and Channel Mapping


Information, both signalling and user, is transmitted through the protocol stack and over air using channels. There are 3 basic types of channel defined, Logical, Transport and Physical channels. Each channel is defined by a set of functions or attributes which determines the handling of the data over the radio interface. Logical Channels Logical channels exist between the PdcP layer and MAc, they are principally defined by the type of information that they carry. There are logical channels that carry control data, and logical channels that carry user traffic. Transport Channels Transport channels exist between the MAc layer and the Physical Layer and are define the manner in which the data will be transferred, i.e. the type of channel coding, whether the data is protected from errors, size of data packets, etc. The attributes of data transfer applied to the data in the transport channel is otherwise known as the transport format. physical Channels Physical channels are the actual implementation of the transport channels in the physical layer. The only exist in the physical layer and depend on the physical layer characteristics, i.e. channel bandwidth, FFT size, etc.

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Trafc channel

Control channel

MAC

Logical channels Dened by Type of information i.e. trafc, control, e.g. BCCH, PCCH, CCCH, MCCH, DCCH

PHY

Transport channels Dened by Transport attribute i.e. channel coding, CRC, interleaving, size of radio data packets, e.g. BCH, PCH, DL-SCH, MCH

Physical channels Dened by actual physical layer characteristics, bandwidth, FFT size, e.g. PDSCH, PDCCH, PMCH, PBCH

Fig. 18 LTE Channels


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

LTE Logical Channels


There are two types of logical channel, control channels and traffic channels, they are described below. Control Channels control channels are used for transfer of control plane information only. The control channels offered by MAc are: Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) A downlink channel for broadcasting system control information. Information broadcast on this channel is shared by all the users in the cell, the information broadcast relates to the operator identity, cell configuration, access information etc Paging Control Channel (PCCH) A downlink channel that transfers paging information. This channel is used when the network does not know the location cell of the uE. Common Control Channel (CCCH) channel for transmitting control information between uEs and network. This channel is used for uEs having no rrc connection with the network. It would be used during the earliest phases of communication establishment. Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) A point-to-multipoint downlink channel used for transmitting MBMS control information from the network to the uE, for one or several MTcHs. This channel is only used by uEs that receive MBMS. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) A point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits dedicated control information between a uE and the network. uEs having an rrc connection will exchange rrc and nAS signalling, it should be noted that application level signalling (SIP messages from the IMS) is not handled by the dccH. Traffic Channels Traffic channels are used for the transfer of user plane information only. The traffic channels offered by MAc are: Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) A dedicated Traffic channel (dTcH) is a point-to-point channel, dedicated to one uE, for the transfer of user information. The dTcH will also carry signalling from the application layers, this may be SIP and rTSP signalling if the EPc supports IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH) A point-to-multipoint downlink channel for transmitting traffic data from the network to the uE. This channel is only used by uEs that receive MBMS.

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LTE Logical Channels

Logical Control Channels

Logical Traf c Channels

Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) System Information Messages Paging Control Channel (PCCH) Paging Messages, UE Location not known Common Control Channel (CCCH) Early communication, no RRC connection Multicast Control Channel (MCCH) Multicast control signalling Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) Bi-Directional signalling, RRC connection, RRC and NAS Signalling

Dedicated Trafc Channel (DTCH) Point-Point bi-directional channel, User data and application level signalling (SIP) Multicast Trafc Channel (MTCH) Point-Multi-point channel supporting data transfer for the MMBS service

Fig. 19 LTE Logical Channels


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

LTE Transport Channels


Transport channels are classified in to uplink and downlink channels and are described below. Broadcast Channel (BCh) The BcH has a fixed and pre-defined transport format largely defined by the requirement to be broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell since the information carried by this channel contains system information. Downlink shared Channel (DL-sCh) This channel will carry downlink signalling and traffic and may have to be broadcast in the entire cell, given the nature of the data in this channel it will also support for both dynamic and semi-static resource allocation with the option to support for uE discontinuous reception (drX) to enable uE power saving, Error control is supported in this channel by means of HArQ and dynamic link adaptation by varying the modulation, coding and transmit power. Spectral efficiency can also be increased due to the possibility of using beamforming antenna techniques. The channel also supports MBMS transmissions. paging Channel (pCh) This channel is associated with the PccH and will carry paging message to uEs not currently connected to the network. The PcH supports discontinuous reception (drX) to enable uE power saving where the sleep cycle is indicated by the network to the uE. The PcH may also have to be broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell. The PcH is also mapped to physical resources which can be used dynamically also for traffic/other control channels. Multicast Channel (MCh) The channel is associated with the multicast services from the upper layers and as such there is a requirement to broadcast both control and user data over the entire coverage area of the cell. It also support the Single Frequency network as semi-static resource allocation uplink shared Channel (uL-sCh) The uL_ScH carries common and dedicated signalling as well as dedicated traffic information. It supports the same features as the dL-ScH. Random Access Channel (RACh) The rAcH is a very specific transport channel, it carries limited control information during the very earliest stages of connection establishment. This a common uplink channel therefore there is the risk of collisions during uE transmission.

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LTE Transport Channels

Downlink Transport Channels

Uplink Transport Channels

Broadcast Channel (BCH) xed, pre-de ned transport format; broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell. Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH) HARQ; dynamic link adaptation by varying the modulation, coding and transmit power; broadcast in the entire cell; beamforming; dynamic and semi-static resource allocation; UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving; MBMS transmission. Paging Channel (PCH) UE discontinuous reception (DRX) to enable UE power saving broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell; mapped to physical resources which can be used dynamically also for traf c/other control channels. Multicast Channel (MCH) broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell; MBSFN combining of MBMS transmission on multiple cells; support for semi-static resource allocation e.g. with a time frame of a long cyclic

Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH) beamforming dynamic link adaptation by varying the transmit power and potentially modulation and coding; HARQ; dynamic and semi-static resource allocation. Random Access Channel (RACH) limited control information; collision risk;

Fig. 20 LTE Transport Channels


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

LTE physical Channels


The physical channels are the actual implementations of the transport channels on the radio interface. They only exist within the physical layer and are highly dependant on the actual capabilities of the physical layer itself. The physical channels are: physical broadcast channel (pBCh) The system information is transmitted cyclically within BcH transport block and mapped to four subframes over a 40 ms interval, there is minimal synchronisation from the uE perspective since the 40 ms timing is blindly detected, i.e. there is no explicit signalling indicating 40 ms timing. Each subframe is assumed to be self-decodable, i.e. the BcH can be decoded from a single reception, assuming sufficiently good channel conditions. physical control format indicator channel (pCFiCh) This channel informs the uE about the number of oFdM symbols used for the PdccHs and is transmitted in every subframe. physical downlink control channel (pDCCh) This channel informs the uE about the resource allocation of PcH and dL-ScH, and Hybrid ArQ information related to dL-ScH and also carries the uplink scheduling grant. physical hybrid ARQ indicator Channel (phiCh) carries Hybrid ArQ AcK/nAKs in response to uplink transmissions. physical downlink shared channel (pDsCh) carries the dL-ScH and PcH. physical multicast channel (pMCh) carries the McH, Mulitcast/Broadcast information physical uplink control channel (puCCh) This channel carries uplink control information such as Hybrid ArQ AcK/nAKs in response to downlink transmission, carries Scheduling request (Sr) and, cQI reports. physical uplink shared channel (pusCh) carries the uL-ScH, user data and application level signalling physical random access channel (pRACh) carries the random access preamble sent by the uE to initiate and rrc connection. There are also physical signals which are sent on the downlink but are not given any channel designation, they include; reference signals one signal transmitted per downlink antenna port Synchronisation signals primary and secondary synchronisation signals.

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LTE Physical Channels

Downlink Physical Channels

Uplink Physical Channels

Physical broadcast channel (PBCH) BCH transport block is mapped to four subframes within a 40 ms blindly detected, there is no explicit signalling indicating 40 ms timing; the BCH can be decoded from a single reception. Physical control format indicator channel (PCFICH) Informs the UE about the number of OFDM symbols used for the PDCCHs; Transmitted in every subframe. Physical downlink control channel (PDCCH) resource allocation of PCH and DL-SCH, and Hybrid ARQ information related to DL-SCH; Carries the uplink scheduling grant. Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) Carries Hybrid ARQ ACK/NAKs Physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH) Carries the DL-SCH and PCH. Physical multicast channel (PMCH) Carries the MCH. also for traf c/other control channels. Multicast Channel (MCH) - broadcast in the entire coverage area of the cell; - MBSFN combining of MBMS transmission on multiple cells; - support for semi-static resource allocation e.g. with a time frame of a long cyclic

Physical uplink control channel (PUCCH) Carries Hybrid ARQ ACK/NAKs ; Carries Scheduling Request (SR); Carries CQI reports. Physical uplink shared channel (PUSCH) Carries the UL-SCH. Physical random access channel (PRACH) Carries the random access preamble.

Fig. 21 LTE physical Channels


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Channel Mapping
The diagram opposite shows the possible mapping of channels between logical, transport and physical channels. It can be noted that, whilst the logical channels carry specific types of information, they can be mapped to common transport channels and in the case of the multicast control and traffic channels different transport channels can be used to carry the data. In the case of the BccH logical channel, it will be noted that both the BcH and dL-ScH may be used to carry the system information. This depends on the type of system information being transmitted. critical system information messages such as those that carry scheduling information and need to be transmitted on a regular basis are transmitted as a fixed format message via the BcH and PBcH. Mapping system information to the dL_ScH allows some flexibility and additional capacity for less time dependant information. The rAcH channel carries only the access preamble and has no instance above the MAc layer, therefore the channel is not mapped to a logical channel. once an rrc connection has been granted the rAcH is no longer used. Some physical channels do not carry information above the physical layer therefore have no transport channel equivalents. Examples include PuccH, PdccH, PcFIcH, PHIcH, these carry information related to the coding of the physical blocks and HArQ mechanism.

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Logical
PCCH BCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH MCCH MTCH

Transport
PCH BCH UL-SCH DL-SCH MCH RACH

PUCCH PCFICH PDCCH PHICH PBCH PUSCH PDSCH PMCH

Physical
PRACH

Fig. 22 Logical to Transport Channel Mapping


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47

OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Mapping Channels to the Resource Block


The figure opposite shows the process of mapping the downlink control and shared channels to a resource block. The synchronisation and reference signals are also included. note the PdccH occurs in the first few symbols of each sub-frame, the number of symbols is signalled by the PHFIcH. Also note the arrangement of the primary and secondary synchronisation signals and the PBcH. When this information is mapped to the 10mS frame it can be seen that the P-ScH, S-ScH and PBcH are transmitted in sub-frame 1 and the P-ScH, S-ScH is transmitted again in sub-frame 5. This means that primary and secondary synchronisation signals are retransmitted every 5mS. The PBcH is transmitted with 40mS periodicity.

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Fig. 23 Mapping of Downlink Control and sCh physical Channels to a Resource Block
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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Channel Mapping on a 10Mhz Channel


The figure opposite shows the downlink mapping on a 10MHz channel. The synch and broadcast data is located in the centre of the band to aid the uE cell search process.

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One radio frame = 10 ms One subframe = 1 ms Slot 0 Slot 1 Slot 2 Slot 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Slot 19 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 RB Ant 0/Ant 1 reference channel estimation channel quality measurement 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306

PDCCH DL scheduling decision UL scheduling grants ACK/NACK information

P-/S-SCH cell search frequency and timing acquisition

PBCH broadcasting channel cell specic information

595 596 597 598 599 600

Fig. 24 Detailed physical Channel Mapping for 5Mhz Channel


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

uplink Mapping of physical Channels


The uplink channels are mapped in a similar fashion to the downlink, the biggest difference here being the absence of sub-carriers since Sc-FdMA is used the resource block contains 7 time domain symbols (1 slot) and a single Sc-FdMA channel. The mapping of the uplink shared channel is shown in the figure opposite. note the presence of the uplink reference signal in symbol 3 of every slot.

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Fig. 25 Mapping of uL shared Channel to Resource Block and Frame


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

uplink Mapping of the Control Channel


The figure opposite shows the mapping arrangement for the PuccH and its reference signals. The PrAcH channel is also mapped into this sub-frame format although its presence and location must be signalled by the network.

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Fig. 26 Mapping of uL Control Channel to Resource Block


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Overall picture of uL Mapping


The figure opposite shows the general arrangement for mapping uplink control and shared channels over time and frequency domains.

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Time

Frequency n PUSCH n PUCCH n Demodulation reference signal (for PUSCH) n Demodulation reference signal for PUCCH format 0 & 1

Fig. 27 Detailed Mapping of uL Data and Control Channels


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

physical Channels and Modulation schemes


There are generally 3 different types of information transmitted over the radio link, signalling, data and special reference signals. Physical layer signalling has the primary requirement of reliability therefore the modulation schemes supported by the signalling channels are low level robust schemes. QPSK is the modulation scheme used in most cases although the PuccH has the option of using BPSK in circumstance where interference is very high. datas main requirement is one of speed and spectral efficiency. Most applications benefit from high data transfer rates and the network benefits from high spectral efficiency, therefore the highest order modulation scheme would generally be selected, 64QAM, however there are times when interference is high and the high order schemes cannot be maintained, therefore the shared channels also support 16QAM and QPSK. The special signals dont transmit explicit information, instead, complex signals which imply a channel condition or position in complex sequence generation are transmitted. The signals are used by the uE and the enB to determine channel conditions for MIMo processing and network synchronisation. The rS, P-ScH and S-ScH all transmit complex data sequences.

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The physical Layer Channels of LTE


DL channels
PBcH PMcH PdccH PdScH PcFIcH PHIcH

Full name
Physical broadcast channel Physical multicast channel Physical downlink control channel Physical downlink shared channel Physical control format indicator channel Physical hybrid ArQ indicator channel

purpose
carries cell-specific information carries the McH transport channel Scheduling, AcK/nAcK Payload defines number of PdccH oFdMA symbols per sub-frame (up to 4) carries HArQ AcK/nAcK

uL channels
PrAcH PuccH PuScH

Full name
Physical random access channel Physical uplink control channel Physical uplink shared channel

purpose
call setup Scheduling, AcK/nAcK Payload

The physical Layer signals of LTE


DL signals
P-ScH*

Full name
Primary synchronisation signal

purpose
used for cell search and identification by the uE. carries part of the cell Id (one of three orthogonal sequences) used for cell search and identification by the uE. carries the remainder of the cell Id (one of 168 binary sequences) used for dL channel estimation. Exact sequence derived from cell Id (one of 3 x 168 = 504) pseudo random sequences)

S-ScH*

Secondary synchronisation signal

rS

reference signal (pilot)

uL signals
rS

Full name
reference signal (demodulation and sounding)

purpose
used for synchronisation to the uE and uL channel estimation

Fig. 28
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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

synchronisation and Reference signals


synch sequence and Cell search A uE entering a cell for the fist time must discover the time and frequency parameters that are required to successfully communicate with the enB. In other words the uE must synchronise with the enB. Synchronisation signals are broadcast from the enB on a frequent basis that enable the time domain and frequency domain parameters to be read by the uE, in addition this information can impart cell identification. The requirements for synchronisation can be decomposed into three main functions. 1. Symbol timing acquisition, where the correct symbol start position is identified, to set the correct FFT window position. 2. carrier frequency synchronisation, which is needed to reduce or eliminate the effect of frequency errors arising from the mismatch of local oscillator to the transmitter and receiver, also other frequency distortions arising from temperature drift, ageing and doppler effects. 3. It is also necessary to have the sampling clock synchronised. The uE is required to perform cell search either initially when entering the system after switch on and identifying a new cell (i.e. neighbour cell) once connected to the system.

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1. 2. 3.

Symbol timing acquisition Carrier frequency synchronisation Synchronised sampling clock

Fig. 29 synchronisation Requirements


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

primary and secondary synch sequences


There are 2 synch signals transmitted from the enB, the Primary Synch Signal (PSS) and the Secondary Synch Signal (SSS) The PSS enables the uE to detect the slot timing and also provides a physical layer identity for the cell. The SSS provides the radio frame timing, the cell Id, cyclic Prefix (cP) detection and an ndication of Tdd or Fdd. If the cell search is for initial entry in to the system the uE will detect PSS followed by SSS then go on to find and decode the Broadcast information in the cell, information broadcast will deliver other important cell parameters allowing the uE to modify its behaviour according to the selected cell. If the uE has already entered the network the detection of adjacent cell PSS and SSS will be followed by the detection and measurement of the neighbour cell signal strength and quality.

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PSS Detection Slot Timing PHY Layer ID

Initial synchronisation

SSS Detection Radio Frame Timing Cell ID CP Length Detection TDD/FDD Detection

New cell identication


RS Detection Measure and Report Signal Quality Signal Strength

PBCH Decode PBCH Timing Detection System Information Access

RS Detection Measure and Report Signal Quality Signal Strength

Fig. 30 synch sequences and synch Activity


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

pss and ss in the Frame structure


The structure of the PSS and SSS is shown in the figure opposite. In both the Tdd and Fdd frame structure the PSS and SSS are transmitted periodically, twice in every 10mS frame. However the actual structure of the PSS and SSS as applied to the frame is slightly different depending on whether the frame is Tdd of Fdd and whether the long or short cP is used. The Fdd frame locates the PSS and SSS in the last 2 symbols of the 1st and 11th slots of the radio frame. Allowing the uE to obtain slot boundary timing independently of cP length. In the Tdd frame the PSS is located in the third symbol of the 3rd and 13th slots of the radio frame, the SSS is transmitted 3 symbols earlier.

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pss and sss Frame and slot structure in Time Domain in the FDD Case
10 ms radio frame 2 3 4 5 7 8 SSS 9 10 PSS

1 ms subframe 0.5 ms 1 slot 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 5 7 6

Normal CP Extended CP

pss and sss Frame and slot structure in Time Domain in the TDD Case
10 ms radio frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SSS 9 10 PSS

1 ms subframe 0.5 ms 1 slot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

Normal CP Extended CP

Fig. 31
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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

66

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pss and sss Frame structure in Frequency and Time Domain for an FDD Cell
10 ms radio frame 6 RB

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

SSS PSS RS Unused RE

1 ms subframe

Fig. 31
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67

OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Reference signals
Any information transmitted in to a radio channel will experience attenuation and distortion of the information as well as the additive accumulation of noise and ISI caused by the multipath radio environment. Therefore any information transmitted from A B will require some decoding or equalisation to be applied to it. The detection processes can either be coherent or non-coherent. coherent processes use explicit knowledge of the channel measured from known information passed through the channel. This advantage of this detection process is the simplicity of implementation at the expense of overhead data, which reduces the spectral efficiency of the channel. non-coherent detection relies on some prior knowledge of a parametric model of the channel, exploiting the correlation properties of the channel or using blind estimation. Whilst these techniques may be more spectral efficient they are generally complex to implement. LTE uses a coherent detection method by passing, so called, reference Signals (rS) through the channel at specific time and frequency intervals.

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Noise

Channel, H
Attenuation, distortion, ISI, fading

Fig. 32 using Reference signals in the Channel


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

LTE Reference signals


There are a number of different reference signals used in LTE. cell specific rS or common rS, these are available to al the uEs in a cell to perform basic channel estimation functions. uE specific rS, embedded in the data structure for uL and dL for specific uE. The uL and dL structures are different. In the uL there are 2 different types of uL rS, demodulation rS (dM rS) which are used to take channel estimates for coherent demodulation and Sounding rS (SrS) which are not directly associated with uL data or control. The SrS is used primarily for channel quality determination to enable frequency-selective scheduling on the uplink. There are also rS that are specific signals transmitted which are only used for the Multimedia Broadcast Single Frequency network.

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R0

R0

Frequency

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

Time

Fig. 33 General Arrangement of Rs in the LTE RB


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

DL Cell specific Rs
The figure opposite shows how the reference signals are arrange in the frequency and time domain. The actual separation of the rS in the time domain is determined from the maximum doppler spread expected in the channel. LTE is designed to work up to 500Kph, assuming 2GHz spectrum the maximum doppler shift would be ~950Hz, according to the nyquist sampling theorem the signal should be sampled with an interval no less than twice the inverse of the frequency shift. Therefore there should be at least 2 rS per slot (where a slot in 0.5mS) in the time domain. The separation of the rS in the frequency domain is related to the amount of delay spread present in the channel. The rMS delay spread is assumed to be no worse that 991nS therefore the coherence bandwidth for 90% and 50% of the rMS spread expected is somewhere between 20KHz and 200KHz. The rS are distributed every 3rd sub-carrier (over 2 symbols), therefore the expected frequency variations may be resolved. The LTE dL has been designed to work with multiple antennas, therefore there are different rS patterns for each antenna ports that may be in use. The position of the rS in the time and frequency domains is carefully chosen to ensure there is no overlap between the antenna ports. This allows the receiver to take up to 4 separate dL channel estimates. The rS its self is a pseudo random sequence from a length 31 Gold sequence with different initialisation values depending on the type of rS. The rS can also carry one of 501 different cell identities and each rS has a cell specific frequency shift applied to it, to reduce the time-frequency collisions that may occur in a frequency re-used system.

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R0

R0

R1

R1

Frequency

R0

R0

R1

R1

R0

R0

R1

R1

R0

R0

R1

R1

Antenna port (0)

(a) Time

Antenna port (1)

Pattern of RS Depends on the Antenna Port used Time and Freq separation determined from Doppler and Delay Spread RS is formed from a length-31 Gold sequence

Fig. 34 DL Rs Freq-Time Locations for 2 port Tx Antenna


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73

OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

DL uE specific Rs
rS which are specific to uE may also be used, they are embedded in the resource Blocks (rB) which are transmitted to a specific uE. More accurately they occur in the rB to which the PdScH is mapped for uE which are configured to operate in this mode. The mode is configured by higher layer rrc signalling. uE specific rS may be used to enable the application of beam-forming antennas, where a single beam is formed to transmit data to the uE. Where beam-forming antennas are used the channel response for different uEs will be different there for the use of Eu specific rS is very useful. The position of the uE specific rS in the rB is shown in the diagram opposite, the location of the rS in the frequency and time domain is chosen so as not to collide with the cell specific rS.

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R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5

R5

Frequency

R5

R5

Time

Specific to a UE Used to assist DL Beam-forming UE RS position orthogonal to cell specific RS

Fig. 35 uE specific DL Rs positions


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75

OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

uL uE specific Rs
As with the downlink (dL), the uplink (uL) specifies the use of reference signals to enable the coherent detection of the channel. The rS can be used to support channel estimation, channel quality estimation for uL scheduling, power control, timing estimation and direction-of-arrival estimation for downlink beam-forming. There are two types of rS: demodulation rS (dM rS) associated with transmission of data on the PuScH and control data on the PuccH. Primarily used to derive the channel estimate for coherent demodulation Sounding rS (SrS) used to determine the uL channel quality and derive the frequency selective scheduling on the uL

Demodulation Reference signals (DM Rs)


The uL rS are once again based on the Zadoff-chu sequences, similar to those used in the PSS and SSS. There are 30 base-sequences available whose length is determined by the number of rBs allocated to a uE. Within a base-sequence there are 12 possible orthogonal (good cross correlation) time shifted versions of the sequence. A cell will be allocated on of the 30 base sequences and the BS will allocate one of the 12 possible time shifts to the uEs. In a non-MIMo case the same time-shifted sequence could be used for all uEs since there transmissions are separated in the frequency and time domains. Where MIMo is used in the channel then further means are required to separate the uE transmissions. In this case the uEs sharing the MIMo channel will be allocated different time shifted sequences from the same base-sequence in the cell. The dM rS appear on the uL channel in the 4th symbol of each allocated slot and span the entire allocated bandwidth. This is true for allocations of PuScH and PuccH.

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DM Rs sequence Generation and Allocation


Cell allocation
ZC Seq Group U29 ZC Seq Group U29 ZC Seq Group U29 ZC Seq U12

UE allocation
ZC Seq U0 ZC Seq U1 ZC Seq U2

ZC Seq Group U29

Mapping DM Rs to the physical Channels

PUSCH

PUSCH

PUSCH

Frequency

Resource block

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Symbol

Time
Fig. 36
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PUSCH

DMRS

DMRS

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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

sounding Reference signals (sRs)


The SrS have nothing to do with the specific transmission of data they allow the channel quality to be estimated and enables frequency selective scheduling. In addition the measured information may be used to enhance power control, or to support various start up functions for uE with new uL allocations. E.g. initial McS, initial power control, timing advance and frequency selective allocations for the first sub-frame slot. The SrS occupies the last symbol of the sub-frame, and may occupy a bandwidth greater than that used by the data transmission, depending on specific control data sent to the uE. The transmission of the SrS may be aperiodic where a specific request is made for SrS or periodic, where the period may be any value 2,5,10,20,40,80,160 or 320mS. The structure of the SrS signal is such that it can allow allocations of SrS sounding that overlap in the frequency domain. This is necessary to allow frequency selective scheduling between uEs.

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PUSCH

PUSCH
4 5

DMRS

Frequency

Resource block

3 Symbol

2nd slot of a sub-frame Time

Fig. 37 Allocation of pusCh showing sRs Location


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SRS
6

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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Modulation, Channel Coding and Link Adaptation


The LTE radio interface supports several modulation and coding schemes and allows the schemes to be adapted according to the quality of the radio link. The LTE radio link is developed primarily for the transmission of packet data therefore the link rate is allowed to rise and fall as the quality of the link rises and falls. For constant bit rate services such as voice, methods such as power control can be used to adapt the power output to keep link quality and therefore the link rate constant. LTE supports QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM with various code rates depending on the quality of the channel.

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Modulation schemes supported by LTE

QPSK 2 bits/Baud

16QAM 4 bits/Baud

64QAM 6 bits/Baud

Typical snR performance of LTE Modulation and Coding


Typical SNR Performance of LTE Modulation and Coding
BLER

10-1

10-2

10

SNR

15

20

25

QPSK, r = QPSK, r = 45 16QAM, r = 64QAM, r =

QPSK, r = 16QAM, r = 16QAM, r = 45 64QAM, r =

QPSK, r = 16QAM, r = 64QAM, r = 64QAM, r = 45

Fig. 38
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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

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Modulation and Coding Rate with spectral Efficiency


CQi index
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Modulation
no transmission QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM

Approximate code rate


0.076 0.12 0.19 0.3 0.44 0.59 0.37 0.48 0.6 0.45 0.55 0.65 0.75 0.85 0.93

Efficiency (information bits per symbol)


0.1523 0.2344 0.3770 0.6016 0.8770 1.1758 1.4766 1.9141 2.4063 2.7305 3.3223 3.9023 4.5234 5.1152 5.5547

Fig. 38
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83

OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Channel Coding
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) A crc coding process is applied to each Transport Block (TB) 24-bit crc applied to dLScH, PcH, and McH transport blocks and 16-bit crc applied to BcH and dcI code blocks. segmentation code block segmentation is applied to dL-ScH, PcH, and McH transport blocks (i.e., data that are turbo encoded), with an additional 24-bit crc computed on each code-block (in cases where segmentation produces more than one code-block). Encoding A Turbo code is applied to dL-ScH, PcH, and McH data to be carried over a downlink physical channel is scrambled prior to modulation. convolutional code is applied to BcH and dcI data (single code block). channel coding used over the LTE air interface is based on the uTrAn release 6 turbo-coding schemes. other schemes are under consideration with the main drivers being Improvement in power efficiency (low Eb/no) Lower complexity decoder in the uE code rates lower than 1/3. Extension of maximum code block size removal of tail

All the above objectives are in pursuit of a reduction in overhead, an improvement in rF performance, and reduction in equipment costs. coding schemes being studied by 3GPP include: duo-binary turbo codes Inter-block permutation turbo code (IBPTc) rate-compatible/quasi cyclic LdPc code (rc/QcLdPc) concatenated zigzag LdPc code Turbo single parity check (SPc) low-density parity check (LdPc) code Shortened turbo code by insertion of temporary bits

Rate Matching rate matching is applied on a code-block basis to dL-ScH, PcH, McH, BcH, and dcI data. This function performs appropriate puncturing according to the AMc parameters. Figure 39 is a schematic diagram of the above processes.

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UE UE1 TB2 PDSCH Transport block (TB) processing TB CRC Codeblock (CB) Segmentation #CB #CB CB CRC Turbo encoder (internal interleaver) #CB Subblock interleaver Subblock interleaver Subblock interleaver #CB Rate matching HARQ functionality Layer Mapping Scrambling Modulation # layers Precoding

TB1

No. of antennas

RF Front-End

CP Insertion

IFFT

Resource Element Mapper (Subframe builder)

PBCH, Ref. Signals, P-SCH, S-SCH, PCFICH, PDCCH, PHICH, PMCH

Fig. 39 Channel Coding process in LTE


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

hARQ (hybrid Automatic Request)


HArQ is commonly used in emerging communication systems to provide a high reliability over wireless channels. HArQ is essentially a combination of Automatic request (Arc) and Forward Error correction (FEc) techniques. Among two different types of HArQ are chase combining and incremental redundancy (Ir), which are also known as HArQ Type-I and HArQ Type-II (or Type-III), respectively. In the chase combining scheme the receiver sends a retransmission to the transmitter if the initial packet fails to be successfully decoded. Then the transmitter resends the same packet again so that the receiver combines the previously received packet with the new packet. In the Ir scheme instead of resending the same packet, the transmitters in general add more redundancy than the previous packet and recreate a different packet delivering the same information. The receiver needs to keep the previous erroneous packet (packet with bad crc) in the memory and combine it with the newly received packet for achieving a higher coding gain.

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normal ARQ Operation


CRC Data #2 CRC Data #1 CRC Data #1

ARQ data #1
CRC Data #1

x Discard data

hybrid-ARQ Operation
CRC Data #2 CRC Data #1 CRC Data #1

ARQ data #1
CRC Data #1

x Buffer data
CRC Data #1 buffered

CRC

Data #1 combined

UL-SCH, DL-SCH support HARQ 1 Bit HARQ Field Downlink Asynchronous ACK/NACK on PUCCH and PUSCH uplink Synchronous ACK/NACK on PHICH
Fig. 40 LTE hARQ
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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

Reporting of uE Feedback
The uE can be configured to report the quality of the channel to assist the enB with selecting the most appropriate modulation and coding scheme. The reports are derived from the downlink signal quality based o the downlink reference signals. The report signal quality is not a direct indication of the SInr in the channel, instead the chanel Quality Indicator (cQI) refers to the highest level of modulation and coding it can decode with an error rate not exceeding 10%. This method of reporting allows any advanced signal processing and channel decoding techniques to be employed. The reporting may consist of the following elements: cQI(channel quality indicator) is an indication of the downlink mobile radio channel quality as experienced by this uE. Essentially, the uE is proposing to the enB an optimum modulation scheme and coding rate to use for a given radio link quality, so that the resulting transport block error rate would not exceed 10%. 16 combinations of modulation scheme and coding rate are specified as possible cQI values. The uE may report different types of cQI. A so-called wideband cQI refers to the complete system bandwidth. Alternatively, the uE may evaluate a sub-band cQI value per sub-band of a certain number of resource blocks which is configured by higher layers. The full set of sub-bands would cover the entire system bandwidth. In case of spatial multiplexing, a cQI per code word needs to be reported. PMI(precoding matrix indicator) is an indication of the optimum precoding matrix to be used in the base station for a given radio condition. The PMI value refers to the codebook table. The network configures the number of resource blocks that are represented by a PMI report. Thus to cover the full bandwidth, multiple PMI reports may be needed. PMI reports are needed for closed loop spatial multiplexing, multi-user MIMo and closed-loop rank 1 precoding MIMo modes. rI(rank indication) is the number of useful transmission layers when spatial multiplexing is used. For transmit diversity the rank is equal to 1. The reporting may be periodic or aperiodic and is configured by the radio network. Aperiodic reporting is triggered by a cQI request contained in the uplink scheduling grant. The uE would send the report on PuScH. In the case of periodic reporting, PuccH is used if no PuScH is available.

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CQi Channel Quality indicator


DL channel quality as experienced by UE UE proposes optimum modulation and coding scheme Wideband CQI complete system bandwidth Sub-band CQI number or resource blocks

pMi precoding Matrix indicator


Indicates optimum precoding matrix Refers to codebook table Closed loop, MU-MIMO, Closed loop rank 1

Ri Rank indication
Number of useful transmission layers for spatial multiplexing TX diversity Rank is 1 Periodic or aperiodic CQI request on DL UE reports on PUSCH UE reports on PUCCH if no PUSCH available

Fig. 41 Channel Reporting


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

power Control in LTE


Like many mobile radio systems LTE supports dynamic or adaptive power control. The reason for power control systems is to reduce the power emissions from devices and therefore reduce the overall interference across the network. The system for LTE power control is shown on the opposite page. The scheme basically involves parameters that are determined by the current occupied bandwidth, network determined components for the cell and uE, the radio link pathloss and a power control command from the network. The uE will read this information from the system information blocks or in dedicated messages during connection setup. Many of the parameters are determined by the upper layers and signalled during resource allocation. Some parameters such as the power control command are dynamic and can by modified on a regular basis.

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PMAX is the maximum allowed power that depends on the UE power class MPUSCH(i) is the bandwidth of the PUSCH resource assignment expressed
in number of resource blocks valid for subframe i

PO_PUSCH(j) = PO_NOMINAL_PUSCH(j) + PO_UE_PUSCH(j)


where

PO_NOMINAL_PUSCH(j) is a 8-bit cell specic signalled from higher layers PO_UE_PUSCH(j) is a 4-bit UE specic component PPUSCH(i) = min {PMAX, 10log10 (MPUSCH(i)) + PO_PUSCH(j) + (j).PL + TF(i) +(i)}

(j) = 0, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1


depending on certain congurations

PL is the downlink pathloss


estimate calculated in the UE

TF is related to the Transport Block Size (TBS)


and the number of resource elements

where PUSCH is a UE specic correction value, also referred to as a TPC command

(i) = (i1) + PUSCH(iKPUSCH)

Fig. 42 power Control in LTE


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OFDM/OFDMA and LTE Concepts

The user plane and Control plane protocols


The user plane Figure 43 show the user Plane protocols, Packet data convergence Protocol (PdcP), radio Link control (rLc) and Medium Access control (MAc). These protocols will originate and terminate in the enB and uE PDCP Layer The PdcP will receive user data from the nAS and forward it to the rLc layer, and vice versa. It also provides retransmission, sequencing, and duplicate packet detection for handover when rLc operates in acknowledged mode. ciphering, header de/compression and timer based packet discard are some of the other functions that this layer provides. RLC Layer The principal function of rLc is to provide a layer 2 datalink-like function. The rLc layer will receive data user data from the PdcP and forward it for scheduled transmission to the MAc layer and vice versa. This layer can provide ArQ based error detection/correction, segmentation and reassembly of packets, sequenced delivery of upper layer information (not during handover) and duplicate detection. rLc supports 3 modes of data transfer acknowledged mode, un-acknowledged mode, and transparent mode (AM, uM, TM). Each transfer mode will be selected depending on the required QoS of the upper later services. MAC Layer The MAc layer is primarily responsible for ensuring user data is mapped to the correct channels for transmission on the physical layer, this process is known as logical to physical channel mapping. other functions include multiplexing/de-multiplexing of information from multiple radio bearers, HArQ error correction, priority handling and scheduling, transport format selection and padding. The MAc layer can also report traffic volume measurements to upper layers.

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User plane APPs

Control plane NAS (ESM, EMM)

TCP/UDP IP

RRC
36.331 RRC Protocol Speci cation

PDCP-user
36.323 PDCP Protocol Speci cation

PDCP-control

Radio bearers RLC


36.322 RLC Protocol Speci cation

Logical channels MAC


36.321 MAC Protocol Speci cation

Transport channels
36.201 PHY General 36.211 PHY Channel and Modulation 36.212 Multiplexing and Channel Coding 36.213 PHY Procedures 36.214 Measurements

PHY

Physical channels
Fig. 43 LTE protocol stack
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