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Trimble Geomatics Office

User Guide
Volume 1

Trimble Geomatics Office


User Guide Volume 1

Version 1.5 Part Number 39328-10-ENG Revision A January 2001

Corporate Office Trimble Navigation Limited Technical Publications Group 645 North Mary Avenue Post Office Box 3642 Sunnyvale, CA 94088-3642 U.S.A. Phone: +1-408-481-8940, 1-800-545-7762 Fax: +1-408-481-7744 www.trimble.com Copyright and Trademarks 19992001, Trimble Navigation Limited. All rights reserved. For STL support, the Trimble Geomatics Office software uses the Moscow Center for SPARC Technology adaptation of the SGI Standard Template Library. Copyright 1994 Hewlett-Packard Company, Copyright 1996, 97 Silicon Graphics Computer Systems, Inc., Copyright 1997 Moscow Center for SPARC Technology. Printed in the United States of America, on recycled paper. The Sextant logo with Trimble, and GPS Pathfinder, are trademarks of Trimble Navigation Limited, registered in the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The Globe & Triangle logo with Trimble, Convert to RINEX, Coordinate System Manager, Data Dictionary Editor, DC File Editor, DTMLink, Feature and Attribute Editor, Grid Factory, GPSurvey, Line Type Editor, QuickPlan, RoadLink, Symbol Editor, Trimble Geomatics Office, Trimble Survey Controller, Trimble Survey Office, TRIMMAP, TRIMNET, TSC1, and WAVE are trademarks of Trimble Navigation Limited. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Release Notice This is the January 2001 release (Revision A) of Volume 1 of the Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide, part number 39328-10-ENG. It applies to version 1.5 of the Trimble Geomatics Office software.

Patents The Trimble Geomatics Office software is covered by the following U.S. patents: 5614913, 5969708, 5986604, and other patents pending. The following limited warranties give you specific legal rights. You may have others, which vary from state/jurisdiction to state/jurisdiction. Software and Firmware Limited Warranty Trimble warrants that this Trimble software product (the Software) shall substantially conform to Trimbles applicable published specifications for the Software for a period of ninety (90) days, starting from the date of delivery. Warranty Remedies Trimble's sole liability and your exclusive remedy under the warranties set forth above shall be, at Trimbles option, to repair or replace any Product or Software that fails to conform to such warranty (Nonconforming Product) or refund the purchase price paid by you for any such Nonconforming Product, upon your return of any Nonconforming Product to Trimble.

Warranty Exclusions These warranties shall be applied only in the event and to the extent that: (i) the Products and Software are properly and correctly installed, configured, interfaced, stored, maintained and operated in accordance with Trimbles relevant operators manual and specifications, and; (ii) the Products and Software are not modified or misused. The preceding warranties shall not apply to, and Trimble shall not be responsible for, any claim of warranty infringement is based on (i) defects or performance problems that arise from the combination or utilization of the Product or Software with products, information, systems or devices not made, supplied or specified by Trimble; (ii) the operation of the Product or Software under any specification other than, or in addition to, Trimbles standard specifications for its products; (iii) the unauthorized modification or use of the Product or Software; (iv) damage caused by lightning, other electrical discharge, or fresh or salt water immersion or spray; or (v) normal wear and tear on consumable parts (e.g., batteries).
THE WARRANTIES ABOVE STATE TRIMBLES ENTIRE LIABILITY AND YOUR EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES PERFORMANCE OF THE PRODUCTS AND SOFTWARE. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED IN THIS AGREEMENT, TRIMBLE FURNISHES THE PRODUCTS AND SOFTWARE AS-IS, WITH NO WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, AND THERE IS EXPRESSLY EXCLUDED THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE STATED EXPRESS WARRANTIES ARE IN LIEU OF ALL OBLIGATIONS OR LIABILITIES ON THE PART OF TRIMBLE ARISING OUT OF, OR IN CONNECTION WITH, ANY PRODUCTS OR SOFTWARE. SOME STATES AND JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW LIMITATIONS ON DURATION OF AN IMPLIED WARRANTY, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.

Limitation of Liability
TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, TRIMBLE SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND OR UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCE OR LEGAL THEORY RELATING IN ANY WAY TO THE PRODUCTS OR SOFTWARE, REGARDLESS WHETHER TRIMBLE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF ANY SUCH LOSS AND REGARDLESS OF THE COURSE OF DEALING WHICH DEVELOPS OR HAS DEVELOPED BETWEEN YOU AND TRIMBLE. BECAUSE SOME STATES AND JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, THE ABOVE LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. IN ANY CASE, TRIMBLES SOLE LIABILITY, AND YOUR SOLE REMEDY UNDER OR FOR BREACH OF THIS AGREEMENT, WILL BE LIMITED TO THE REFUND OF THE PURCHASE PRICE OR LICENSE FEE PAID FOR THE PRODUCTS OR SOFTWARE.

Contents
Please See Volume 2 for Chapters 1117 and Appendixes AB About This Manual
Related Information . . Technical Assistance . Your Comments . . . . Document Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx . xxi . xxi .xxii

Introduction
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Key Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Software . . . . . . . . . . Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . Trimble Geomatics Office Help Folder Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 3 6 6 7

Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Starting the Trimble Geomatics Office Software . The Trimble Geomatics Office Window . . . . . The Project Bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Status Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Survey View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Plan View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 10 10 12 14 15 17 19
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ToolTips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shortcut Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exiting the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

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Setting up a Project
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opening an Existing Project . . . . . . . . . Changing the Project Properties . . . . . . . Changing the Project Details . . . . . . Selecting a Coordinate System. . . . . Selecting the Project Units and Format Setting up a Project for Features . . . . Changing the Reporting Options . . . . Changing the Recomputation Settings . Deleting a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Copying a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Project Templates . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a Template for a Project . . . Creating a Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 24 26 27 27 28 29 30 31 32 34 35 36 36 37

Using a Coordinate System


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Coordinate System Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Geoid Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geoid Grid (*.ggf) Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using a Geoid Model to Determine the Elevation for GPS Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting a Geoid Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing the Current Coordinate System Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 41 42 42

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Changing the Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Selecting a Coordinate System from the Coordinate System wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Selecting a Coordinate System in a Survey Controller (*.dc) File 52 Using a Scale Factor-Only Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . 54 Using a Default Transverse Mercator Projection . . . . . . . . 55 Saving the Current Coordinate System as a Site . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Ground Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Entering Project Location Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Setting the Ground Scale Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Importing ASCII Data Files into the Trimble Geomatics Office Software
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importing ASCII Data Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Custom ASCII Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Events That May Occur When Importing Data Files . . . . . . Managing Duplicate Points When Importing Data . . . Resolving Duplicate Points in the Database . . . . . . . Import Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Project Details Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Messages Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Recompute Report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example: Importing a PacSoft File Containing Control Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 64 68 69 70 72 73 74 74 74 75

Transferring Files to the Trimble Survey Controller Software


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transferring Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Survey Controller (*.dc) Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Geoid Grid (*.ggf) Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subgridding a Geoid Grid (*.ggf) File from an Existing Geoid Grid File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transferring an Existing Geoid Grid (*.ggf) File . . . . . . . . 78 79 80 83 83 88
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Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) File . . . . . . . . Transferring an Existing Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) File . Feature and Attribute Library (*.fcl) Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Dictionary (*.ddf) Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Digital Terrain Model (*.dtx) Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Antenna Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UK National Grid Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 89 . 89 . 94 . 96 . 98 . 99 . 101 . 102

Importing Survey Data into the Trimble Geomatics Office Software


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importing Survey Controller (*.dc) Files . . . . . . . . . . . . Importing .dc Files from the Trimble Survey Controller Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importing .dc Files on Your Computer. . . . . . . . . . Events That May Occur When Importing .dc Files . . . . . . . Messages and Dialogs That May Appear During Import Trimble Survey Controller Classes and How They Are Imported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualities Assigned to Coordinates from the Trimble Survey Controller Software . . . . . . . . . . . . Qualities Assigned to Observations from the Trimble Survey Controller Software . . . . . . . . . . . . Managing Duplicate Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importing Trimble GPS Data (*.dat) Files . . . . . . . . . . . Importing .dat Files from the Trimble Survey Controller Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Importing .dat Files from a Trimble GPS Receiver . . . Importing .dat Files from Your Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 . . . . 106 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 . 109 . 112 . 112

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Events That May Occur When Importing .dat Files . . . . . . . . . . 125 Messages and Dialogs That May Appear During Import . . . . 125 How the Trimble Geomatics Office Software Assigns Qualities to Imported Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Managing Points with Duplicate Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Importing RINEX Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Importing NGS Data Sheet Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Importing Digital Level Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Digital Level Import Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Editing Starting Point Elevations Before Importing . . . . . . . 134 Import Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 The Project Details Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 The Messages Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 The Recompute Report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Using the Graphics Window and Selecting Entities


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Graphics Window to View a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Zoom Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Labeling Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using View Filters in the Survey View . . . . . . . Viewing Survey Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing Grid Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Setting the Color Scheme in the Graphics Window . Viewing Background Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting All or None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Entities Using the Mouse . . . . . . . . . Selecting Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Duplicate Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Staked Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 . 141 . 142 . 143 . 146 . 147 . 148 . 150 . 151 . 152 . 152 . 153 . 158 . 161 . 162
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Selecting Calibration Points . . . . Selecting Entities in the Plan View Selecting Entities Using Wildcards Selecting Entities Using Queries . . Using Selection Sets . . . . . . . .

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Viewing and Editing Data


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties Window Overview. . . . . . . . . . . Viewing Survey Data in the Properties window . Using Pages to View Survey Details . . . . Viewing and Editing Points . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing Survey Details . . . . . . . . . . Point Quality Indicators . . . . . . . . . . Viewing the Point Derivation Report . . . Entering Coordinates for a Point . . . . . . Viewing Stakeout Information for a Point . Viewing CAD Details . . . . . . . . . . . Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renaming Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing Observations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPS Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conventional Observations . . . . . . . . Level Observations. . . . . . . . . . . . . Laser Rangefinder Observations . . . . . . Azimuth Observations . . . . . . . . . . . Reduced Observations . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing Erroneous Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPS Loop Closures . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing Survey Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changing the Status of Observations . . . Reversing the Direction of Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 . 172 . 175 . 175 . 176 . 177 . 179 . 180 . 182 . 186 . 188 . 189 . 189 . 191 . 191 . 194 . 196 . 197 . 199 . 200 . 202 . 205 . 206 . 206 . 207

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Editing Multiple Entities at One Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Editing the Survey-Related Properties of Selected Entities Editing the CAD-Related Properties of Selected Entities . Using the Data Analysis Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing the Inverse Between Two Points . . . . . . . . . Measuring Positions Within the Graphics Window . . . . Viewing Note Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing CAD Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linework (Lines, Arcs, Curves) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annotations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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GPS Site Calibration


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selecting the Calibration Components . . . . . Computing a Datum Transformation. . . Updating Default Projection Origin . . . Computing a Horizontal Adjustment. . . Computing a Vertical Adjustment . . . . Selecting the Calibration Point Pairs . . . . . . Selecting Calibration Point Pairs. . . . . Computing the Calibration Parameters . . . . . Analyzing the Calibration Parameters . . . . . Viewing a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calibration Report . . . . . . . . . . . . Applying the Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . Using a GPS Site Calibration in Future Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 . 224 . 226 . 227 . 227 . 228 . 229 . 230 . 232 . 233 . 235 . 235 . 239 . 239

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Feature Code Processing


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature and Attribute Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transferring a Feature and Attribute Library to the Trimble Survey Controller Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transferring the Survey Controller (*.dc) File to a Trimble Geomatics Office Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Processing Feature Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Undoing Feature Code Processing . . . . . . . . . . The Feature Code Processing Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 . . . . . . 315 . . . . . . 315 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 . 316 . 318 . 319

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Using the Plan View


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 Selecting Entities in a Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Creating New Layers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Editing Existing Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Deleting Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Creating Layers Using the Feature and Attribute Editor Utility . 326 CAD Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Creating CAD Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Editing Existing CAD Styles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Deleting CAD Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Creating CAD Styles Using the Feature and Attribute Editor Utility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Annotation Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Creating Annotation Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 Editing Annotation Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Deleting Annotation Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Creating Annotation Templates Using the Feature and Attribute Editor Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

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Adding Entities to the Project


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Points by Coordinates . . . . . . Adding Points by Azimuth and Distance Adding and Editing Azimuth Observations. . . Adding Linework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding Annotations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cutting, or Copying, and Pasting Entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 . 338 . 338 . 341 . 344 . 345 . 345 . 348 . 350 . 352 . 354 . 355

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Reporting on the Project


Introduction . . . . . . . Additional Reports . . . Points Report . . . Stakeout Reports . Level Report . . . . . . Report Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358 . 359 . 359 . 360 . 362 . 363

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Exporting to Third-Party Software Formats


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Export Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exporting to a Third-Party Software Format . . . . . Exporting NGS Bluebook Files . . . . . . . . . . . . Exporting Using the Trimble Data Exchange Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 . 366 . 370 . 372 . 374

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16

Using Attributes in the Trimble Geomatics Office Software


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Defining Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378 Setting up a Project for Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Exporting a Feature and Attribute Library to the Trimble Survey Controller Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Collecting Attribute Information in the Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383 Importing a Data Collector (*.dc) File Containing Attributes . . . . . 384 Using Data Dictionary (*.ddf) Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Using Data Dictionary (*.ddf) Files for Defining Attributes . . 385 Setting up a Project for Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Exporting a Data Dictionary (*.ddf) File to the Trimble Survey Controller Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Managing Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 Viewing Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386 Editing Attribute Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Adding Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Deleting Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 Cutting, or Copying, and Pasting Points with Attributes . . . . . . . . 389 Reporting Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Creating a Custom Report Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Selecting Points to Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Running the Custom Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Exporting Attributes to an ASCII Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Exporting Features and Attributes to a Geographic Information System (GIS) Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 GIS Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Exporting Data to a GIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397

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17

Utilities
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trimble Data Transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Data Transfer Utility from the Trimble Geomatics Office Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Standalone Data Transfer Utility . . . . . . . . . . Setting Up Devices Using the Data Transfer Utility . . . . . . Managing Your Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coordinate System Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . When to Use the Coordinate System Manager Utility . . . . . Using the Coordinate System Manager Utility . . . . . . . . Using the Coordinate System Database . . . . . . . . . . . . Symbol Editor and Line Type Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . When to Use the Symbol Editor or the Line Type Editor Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the Symbol Editor and Line Type Editor Utilities . . . Using Symbols and Line Types in the Trimble Geomatics Office Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feature and Attribute Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . When to Use the Feature and Attribute Editor Utility . . . . . Using the Feature and Attribute Editor Utility . . . . . . . . . Using a Feature and Attribute Library in the Trimble Geomatics Office Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC File Editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . When to Use the DC File Editor Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . QuickPlan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . When to Use the QuickPlan Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Before Using the QuickPlan Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using the QuickPlan Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exiting the QuickPlan Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Convert to RINEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . When to Use the Convert to RINEX Utility . . . . . . . . . . Selecting Folders and Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 . 401 . 401 . 402 . 402 . 409 . 410 . 410 . 411 . 419 . 420 . 420 . 421 . 423 . 425 . 425 . 426 . 443 . 444 . 444 . 446 . 446 . 447 . 448 . 455 . 455 . 455 . 456
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Configuring the RINEX Conversion . . . Using the Header Field Override Dialog Using the Controls Dialog . . . . . . . . Creating the RINEX Conversion File . . A1 Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Files Supported by the A1 Viewer Utility Grid Factory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NGS Antenna Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. 457 . 461 . 463 . 464 . 465 . 465 . 467 . 468

Custom Import, Export, and Report Formats


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Field Codes . . . . . . . . . Custom Formats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Format Header . . . . . . . . . . . Format Body . . . . . . . . . . . . Format Footer . . . . . . . . . . . Custom Format Definition Dialogs Creating an Export Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 . 470 . 471 . 471 . 472 . 472 . 474 . 474 . 474 . 474 . 475 . 477

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Recomputation
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How a Recomputation Determines the Calculated Positions for Observed Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How a Recomputation Determines Potential Starting Points . How a Recomputation Determines the Position and Quality for all Potential Starting Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . How a Recomputation Uses the Component Qualities to Determine the Current Starting Point . . . . . . . . . . How a Recomputation Applies Observations from the Current Starting Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GPS Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conventional and Laser Rangefinder Observations . . . . . . How Delta Elevations are Applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An Example of a Recomputation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How a Recomputation Uses Multiple Observations and Coordinates for a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple Observations to a Point. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple Observations to Sideshot Points . . . . . . . . . . . Multiple Observations and Meaning Coordinates . . . . . . . Multiple Observations to Traverse Points . . . . . . . . . . . Points with Keyed-in Coordinates and Observations . . . . . How a Recomputation Determines the Quality of Observed Points . Autonomous Base Position for Real-Time Kinematic Surveys Points Moved or Adjusted Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 . 485 . 487 . 488 . 492 . 494 . 494 . 496 . 499 . 500 . 502 . 502 . 503 . 504 . 508 . 509 . 510 . 511 . 512 . 513

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Contents

Using the Recompute Report . . . . . . The Project Details Section . . . The Errors and Warnings Section The Point Derivations Section . . The Starting Points Section . . . The Traverse Report Section . . . The Survey Data Section . . . . .

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. 513 . 515 . 515 . 516 . 518 . 519 . 520

Glossary Index

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About This Manual


Welcome to the Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide. This manual describes how to install, set up, and use the Trimble Geomatics Office software. The Trimble Geomatics Office software lets you process the fieldwork from the Trimble Survey Controller software. Even if you have used other Global Positioning System (GPS) products before, Trimble recommends that you spend some time reading this manual to learn about the special features of this product. If you are not familiar with GPS, visit our web site for an interactive look at Trimble and GPS at: www.trimble.com

Trimble assumes that you are familiar with Microsoft Windows and know how to use a mouse, select options from menus and dialogs, make selections from lists, and refer to online help. The following sections provide you with a guide to this manual, as well as to other documentation that you may have received with this product.

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Related Information
Other manuals in this set include: Trimble Geomatics Office DTMLink User Guide This manual describes how to set up and use the DTMLink software. This software is a powerful tool for creating new surfaces and editing previously created surfaces. Trimble Geomatics Office RoadLink User Guide This manual introduces you to the RoadLink software. The RoadLink software is part of the Trimble Geomatics Office software. It is a powerful reduction and processing package that calculates cut and fill volumes for earthworks between the road design and the Contour Surface Model. Trimble Geomatics Office WAVE Baseline Processing User Guide This manual describes how to set up and use the WAVE Baseline Processing module, if you have this module installed. This module lets you process raw GPS field data collected using static, FastStatic, or kinematic survey techniques. Trimble Geomatics Office Network Adjustment User Guide This manual describes how to set up and use the Trimble Network Adjustment module, if you have this module installed. This module lets you adjust your GPS survey data to estimate and reduce the inherent errors. As well as being supplied in hardcopy, these manuals are also available in portable document format (PDF). These are available on the Trimble Geomatics Office CD. Other sources of related information are: Help the software has built-in, context-sensitive help that lets you quickly find the information you need. You can access it from the Help menu, by clicking the Help button in a dialog, or by pressing >)@.

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About This Manual

Release notes the release notes describe new features of the product, information not included in the manuals, and any changes to the manuals. They are provided as a PDF file on the CD. Use Adobe Acrobat Reader to view the contents of the release notes. ftp.trimble.com use the Trimble FTP site to send files or to receive files such as software patches, utilities, service bulletins, and FAQs. Alternatively, access the FTP site from the Trimble web site at www.trimble.com/support/support.htm. Trimble training courses consider a training course to help you use your GPS system to its fullest potential. For more information, visit the Trimble web site at www.trimble.com/support/training.htm.

Technical Assistance
If you have a problem and cannot find the information you need in the product documentation, contact your local Distributor. Alternatively, do one of the following: Request technical support using the Trimble web site at www.trimble.com/support/support.htm Send an e-mail to trimble_support@trimble.com.

Your Comments
Your feedback about the supporting documentation helps us to improve it with each revision. To forward your comments, do one of the following: Send an e-mail to ReaderFeedback@trimble.com. Complete the Reader Comment Form at the back of this manual and mail it according to the instructions at the bottom of the form.
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About This Manual

If the reader comment form is not available, send comments and suggestions to the address in the front of this manual. Please mark it Attention: Technical Publications Group.

Document Conventions
The document conventions are as follows:
Convention Italics Definition Identifies software menus, menu commands, dialog boxes, and the dialog box fields. Represents messages printed on the screen. Identifies a software command button, or represents information that you must type in a software screen or window. Identifies the sequence of menus, commands, or dialog boxes that you must choose in order to reach a given screen. Is an example of a hardware function key that you must press on a personal computer (PC). If you must press more than one of these at the same time, this is represented by a plus sign, for example, >&WUO@+>&@.

Helvetica Narrow Helvetica Bold

Select Italics / Italics

>&WUO@

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CHAPTER

1
1

Introduction
In this chapter:

Q Q Q Q Q

Introduction Key features Using the software Getting started Folder structure

Introduction

1.1

Introduction
Welcome to the Trimble Geomatics Office software from Trimble Navigation Limited. Geomatics is the design, collection, storage, analysis, display, and retrieval of spatial information. The collection of spatial information can be from a variety of sources, including GPS and terrestrial methods. Geomatics integrates traditional surveying with new technology-driven approaches, making geomatics useful for a vast number of applications. The Trimble Geomatics Office software is a link and survey reduction package. It provides a seamless link between your field work and design software. The software includes an extensive feature set which helps you to verify your field work quickly, and easily perform survey-related tasks and export your data to a third-party design package. The Trimble Geomatics Office software integrates the functionality offered in both the Trimble Survey Office and GPSurvey software.

1.2

Key Features
Some of the key features of the Trimble Geomatics Office version 1.5 software are as follows: An integrated WAVE baseline processing module An integrated raw GPS data editor for investigating GPS data A Windows-based network adjustment module for GPS and terrestrial data Two project viewsSurvey and Planfor displaying data A project bar in the main graphics window which provides shortcuts to frequently performed tasks HTML reports for easier review and interpretation of data

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Introduction

Enhanced, seamless transfer of data collected from GPS receivers, conventional total stations, levels, and laser rangefinders. A Properties window with which to view and edit information for points and observation types Extensive project selecting, viewing, and editing functions that allow users to filter out observation types for analysis Layer support to help manage data Extensive import and export formats for transfer of data from a variety of sources GIS data collection support for expanding high-accuracy GIS data collection capabilities, and allowing use of data dictionary files, including files created in the GPS Pathfinder Office software RoadLink and DTMLink modules for viewing and editing third-party road design files, and creating digital terrain models

1.3

Using the Software


Use the Trimble Geomatics Office software for tasks such as: GPS baseline processing (if you have the WAVE Baseline Processing module installed) Survey network adjustment (if you have the Network Adjustment module installed) The processing of GPS and conventional topographic survey data Quality assurance and quality control of data (QA/QC) Road design data import and export Survey data import and export Digital terrain modeling and contouring
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Introduction

Datum transformation and projections GIS data capture and data export Feature code processing Project reporting Survey project management

Warning The Trimble Geomatics Office software stores its data in a Microsoft Access version 9.0 database (filename TGO_V150.mdb in the Project folder). Microsoft Access 2000 uses version 9.0 database. Trimble Navigation Limited reserves the right to modify the structure of the database at any time. This may affect users who develop applications to interact directly with the Access database.

Figure 1.1 on the next page shows the typical workflow for a project, and where in the manual set to find the instructions for each task.

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Introduction

*All chapters refer to the Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide unless otherwise noted.

Set up project and select coordinate system - *chapters 3 & 4

Import data files - chapter 5

Transfer files to the Trimble Survey Controller software for fieldwork - chapter 6

Complete fieldwork

Transfer fieldwork files - chapter 7

Check and edit observations - chapters 8 & 9

Process GPS baselines WAVE Baseline Processing User Guide - chapter 2 Perform a Network Adjustment - Network Adjustment User Guide - chapter 2

View raw GPS data using Timeline WAVE Baseline Processing User Guide - chapter 5

Perform a GPS site calibration - chapter 10

Process feature codes - chapter 11

Edit the project in the Plan view - chapters 12 & 13

Produce database reports - chapter 14

Export to a third-party format - chapter 15

Figure 1.1

Project workflow and manual structure

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1.4

Getting Started
Trimble recommends that, before you get started, you read this chapter. This will help you to get the most out of the Trimble Geomatics Office software. After reading this chapter and installing the software, work through Chapter 2, Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software, and Chapter 3, Setting up a Project. The remaining chapters describe the extended functionality of the Trimble Geomatics Office software.

1.4.1

Trimble Geomatics Office Help


The Trimble Geomatics Office software and its accompanying utilities include extensive online help. Become familiar with the relevant sections in the manual before starting, and then use the Help for indepth answers to any questions. Printing Help topics To print the current Help topic, do one of the following: Click Print. Select File / Print Topic. In the Help window, right-click to access the shortcut menu, and then select Print Topic.

Note You can only print individual topics. To print information in a pop-up window: In the pop-up window, right-click to access the shortcut menu, and then select Print Topic.

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1.5

Folder Structure
During the installation process, all files required by the Trimble Geomatics Office software are copied into the folders listed in Table 1.1.
Table 1.1 Folder \Program Files\Trimble\Trimble Geomatics Office ...\System Location of files What it stores Trimble Geomatics Office Program and Help files System files; including the Feature and Attribute Library software files, Symbol Editor and Line Type Editor utilities, and HTML report templates Project template files Links to Convert to RINEX, Coordinate System Manager, Data Transfer, DC File Editor, Feature and Attribute Editor, Line Type Editor, QuickPlan, and Symbol Editor utilities Program files and associated files for RoadLink and DTMLink Files used by other Trimble products in addition to the Trimble Geomatics Office software Coordinate system information and Geoid files Coordinate System Manager program files Data Transfer program files Convert to RINEX program files DC File Editor program files QuickPlan program files

...\Template ...\Utility

...\RoadLink DTMLink \Program Files\Common Files\ Trimble ...\GeoData ...\GeoDB ...\Data Transfer ...\DatToRinex ...\DCeditor ...\Plan

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CHAPTER

2
2

Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software


In this chapter:

Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

Introduction Starting the Trimble Geomatics Office software The Trimble Geomatics Office window The Survey view The Plan view ToolTips Shortcut menus Pointers Exiting the Trimble Geomatics Office software

Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

2.1

Introduction
This chapter shows you how to start the software and how to use the two views included in the Trimble Geomatics Office graphics windowthe main screen of the software. For information about how to use the various tools and icons in the graphics window, see Chapter 8, Using the Graphics Window and Selecting Entities.

2.2

Starting the Trimble Geomatics Office Software


To start the Trimble Geomatics Office software: Click and then select Programs / Trimble Geomatics Office / Trimble Geomatics Office.

The Trimble Geomatics Office window appears.

2.3

The Trimble Geomatics Office Window


The Trimble Geomatics Office window includes the main graphics window (which displays project data), menus, and toolbars. There are two viewsSurvey and Plan. In each view the available menus, menu commands, and toolbars are different. To switch between the Survey and Plan views, do one of the following: In the toolbar, select the Survey View tool. Select View / Survey or View / Plan. tool or the Plan View

For more information, see The Survey View, page 15 and The Plan View, page 19. For information about the different menus, menu commands, and toolbars, refer to the Help. Figure 2.1 shows the parts of the Trimble Geomatics Office window that are common to both views. The following sections describe the different parts of the Trimble Geomatics Office window.
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Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide Volume 1 11

Menu commands

Project name

System buttons

Toolbars

Project bar

Graphics window

Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

Zoom navigator window Figure 2.1

Status bar

Window corner

Parts of the graphics window common to both views

2
2.3.1

Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

The Project Bar


The project bar is located on the left side of the Trimble Geomatics Office window. It contains named groups (for example, the Trimble Survey group) that list shortcuts to commonly performed tasks. These groups follow a general work flow. Figure 2.2 shows the parts of the project bar. You can click the drop-down arrow to show the rest of the shortcuts in a group. Click a shortcut to perform a task. For example, click the Survey Device shortcut to transfer data from a device to the Trimble Geomatics Office project.

Trimble survey shortcuts

Drop-down arrow

Other groups

Figure 2.2

Items in the project bar

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Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

To show or hide the project bar, do one of the following: In the toolbar, click the Project Bar Select View / Project Bar. icon.

When there is no project open, the Projects and Utilities groups are available. When a project is open, only the Utilities group is unavailable. The zoom navigator The zoom navigator is a small window located at the bottom of the project bar. It reflects the data displayed in the main Trimble Geomatics Office graphics window. If you use any of the zoom tools in the main window, the zoom navigator changes to reflect this. It is a convenient display of the extents of your project. You can show or hide the zoom navigator within the project bar. To do this: In the project bar, right-click to access the shortcut menu and then select Zoom Navigator.

To use the zoom navigator: Click an area of the project in the zoom navigator. This area becomes the center of the main graphics window.

To use the zoom navigator to zoom: In the zoom navigator, drag a box around the area of interest. The main graphics window displays the same data.

When you point to the middle of the box in the zoom navigator, the pointer becomes a . This means that you can drag the box over the project area without changing the zoom. The view of the project in the main graphics window reflects these movements.
Tip If you have a mouse with a wheel, you can use the wheel to change the size of the zoom navigator box.

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2
2.3.2

Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

The Status Bar


The status bar is located at the bottom of the Trimble Geomatics Office graphics window (see Figure 2.1, page 11). It displays icons that show the current status of the project. To perform the action indicated by an icon, double-click it. Table 2.1 shows the icons that are displayed in the status bar.

Table 2.1 Icon Recompute

Icons in the status bar View Both Is displayed when ... a recomputation is required to update the coordinates for points fixed by GPS and terrestrial observations. To perform a recomputation, double-click this icon. there is a misclosure between two or more observations to the same point, or a GPS observation has failed the rejection criteria. To select all of the points and observations which are flagged, double-click this icon. The Properties window opens. You can view the points and observations. If you suppress a flag for a point or an observation, the flag is white. one or more layers have their Visible property set to false. To edit the Visible property of layers, double-click this icon. The Layers dialog appears. one or more layers have their Locked property set to true. To edit the Locked property of layers, double-click this icon. The Layers dialog appears. one or more view filters are applied. To edit the view filters, double-click this icon. The View Filters dialog appears. grid lines are displayed. The grid interval is also shown.

Flag

Survey

Hidden Layers

Plan

Locked Layers

Plan

View Filters

Survey

Grid Line

Both

Graphics Window Both Dimension

the mouse is outside of the graphics window.

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2.4

The Survey View


In the Survey view, GPS and terrestrial observations are displayed as colored lines. Control points and network adjusted points also have special displays. For information about each color and the status it represents, see Setting the Color Scheme in the Graphics Window, page 148. If the Trimble Geomatics Office software finds any problematic observations (for example, a misclosure outside the tolerance specified in the Horizontal or Vertical fields of the Recompute tab in the Project Properties dialog), error flags appear at the point where the misclosure occurs. Use the Survey view to perform survey-related tasks such as: checking GPS and conventional observations correcting erroneous data (for more information, see Chapter 9, Viewing and Editing Data) GPS processing (if you have the WAVE Baseline Processing module installed) GPS site calibration GPS loop closures inverse calculations Network Adjustment (if you have the Network Adjustment module installed)

For more information about these menus, menu commands, and toolbars, refer to the topic Survey View Overview in the Help. Figure 2.3, on the following page, shows a project in the Survey view.

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16 Properties window Error flag A project in the Survey view Terrestrial observations

Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

RTK vectors

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Figure 2.3

Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software


2.4.1

Other Modules
With the Trimble Geomatics Office software you can install the modules discussed in the following sections. WAVE Baseline Processing module Table 2.2 shows the functionality that is available in the Trimble Geomatics Office WAVE Baseline Processing module.
Table 2.2 Name The WAVE Baseline Processing module Use

WAVE Baseline processor To process raw GPS observations, (available from the Survey menu or including kinematic, continuous the project bar) kinematic, static/FastStatic and infill data. WAVE processing styles To specify different processing controls for the WAVE baseline processor, and to save the control sets as named styles. To view and edit raw GPS measurements and survey information. Displays GPS data in a chronological view. The close integration of the Timeline window with the graphics window makes this a powerful quality control tool. To display detailed information about postprocessed baseline solutions. These reports are available both during processing and also later from the Reports menu. For quick access to commonly used baseline processing tasks.

Timeline window

GPS Baseline Processing Report (HTML)

Process group in the project bar

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Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

Network Adjustment module Table 2.3 shows the functionality that is available in the Trimble Geomatics Office Network Adjustment module.
Table 2.3 Name Network Adjustment (available from the Adjustment menu or the project bar). Allowing you to fix points, load observations for Network Adjustment, determine observation outliers, and weight the observation errors. Network Adjustment styles To specify different adjustment controls for the Network Adjustment software, and to save the control sets as named styles. The Network Adjustment module Use To adjust your GPS and terrestrial networks, analyze the results, edit the network parameters, and readjust.

Network Adjustment Report To review the results of the adjustment and (HTML) perform quality control checks. Adjustment group in project For quick access to commonly-used network bar adjustment processing tasks. Ellipse Controls toolbar To configure the appearance of error ellipses in the graphics window after a network adjustment.

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2.5

The Plan View


In the Plan view, entities are displayed according to the style given to them, so use the Plan view to view the topographic features observed during the field survey. You can add entitiespoints, lines, arcs, curves, text styles, and annotationsto the project. You can change the style of an entity by using the Properties window or the Multiple Edit dialog, or by processing feature codes. Any changes that you make do not affect the underlying survey observations. Use the Plan view to prepare a topographic survey for export to your design software package. You can do the following: process feature codes manage layers and styles access the DTMLink and RoadLink software

For more information, refer to the topic Plan View Overview in the Help. Figure 2.4, on the following page, shows a project in the Plan view.

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20 Annotation Layers toolbar CAD toolbar Properties window Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide Volume 1 Line style Point style Figure 2.4 A project in the Plan view

2 Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

2.6

ToolTips
ToolTips are a quick way to learn about, or recall the function of, a button, box, or tool. They also provide useful information about entities in the graphics window. To use ToolTips: Position the pointer over a button, box, or tool in the toolbar; or an entity (observation, point, line, arc, curve, text, or annotation) in the graphics window. After a few seconds, a small pop-up window appears and identifies the item. This is a ToolTip. For example, when you position the pointer over the Import tool in the standard toolbar, the following ToolTip appears:

For more information about what each tool does, refer to the Help.

2.7

Shortcut Menus
Shortcut menus are context-sensitive menus with commands that vary depending on where you position the pointer. You can use shortcut menus for common tasks such as: accessing commonly-used menu commands and dialogs toggling display settings inserting field codes

To access a shortcut menu: 1. 2. In the appropriate area, click the right mouse button (right-click). A shortcut menu appears. Select the appropriate menu command.

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2.8

Pointers
When you use a mouse, you use a pointer to select objects and choose menu commands. This pointer changes shape according to its position, the mode you are in (for example, the Select or Field fill-in modes), or the tool that has been selected. Table 2.4 shows some pointers.
Table 2.4 Pointer Pointer shapes Use When it is in the graphics window in Select mode, or when it is to be used for selecting menu items or toolbar icons. When it is over a text boxused for inserting text.

When it is in Field fill-in mode.

When it is in Pan modeused for shifting the center of the zoom area in the graphics window to display a different area of the screen view. When defining a selection set.

When moving selected entities.

2.9

Exiting the Trimble Geomatics Office Software


When you exit the Trimble Geomatics Office software, you do not need to save your project. The software saves all edits to the project as you complete them. To exit the Trimble Geomatics Office software: Select File / Exit.

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CHAPTER

3
3

Setting up a Project
In this chapter:

Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

Introduction Creating a project Opening an existing project Changing the project properties Deleting a project Copying a project Using project templates

Setting up a Project

3.1

Introduction
The Trimble Geomatics Office software organizes your data in projects. A project usually covers one site and may contain several days data collected using different equipment. When you create a project, you begin by choosing a template for it. This template provides your project with the basic general information necessary for setting it up; that is, the units, coordinate system, and display settings.

3.2

Creating a Project
To create a project: 1. Do one of the following: In the standard toolbar, click the New Project Select File / New Project. In the project bar, click the New Project shortcut. tool.

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The following dialog appears:

2. 3.

In the Name field, enter a name for the project. In the Template list, select a template. This determines the initial state of the project. The details of the selected template are displayed in the details list. For more information, see Selecting a Template for a Project, page 36. In the New group, make sure that the Project option is selected. If you want the project files stored in a particular folder (other than that specified during installation), do the following: a. b. Click Folder. Specify the appropriate folder and then click OK.

4. 5.

The folder name appears in the Details list. 6. Click OK.

The project is created and the Project Properties dialog appears. The settings in this dialog are from the template selected for the project.

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3.3

Opening an Existing Project


To open an existing project, do one of the following: Select File / Open Project. In the standard toolbar, click the Open Project tool.

In the Projects group of the project bar, click a project shortcut. In the Projects group of the project bar, click the Open Project shortcut.

The Open Project dialog that appears displays a preview of the project. The project opens in the Survey view at the size it was when you last had it open. Note When you open a project that was created using software that included different modules (that is, Baseline Processing and Network Adjustment), you can still view all of the survey data, such as error ellipses and processed baselines, because it stays the same. However, you cannot perform any other tasks that require these modules.

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3.4

Changing the Project Properties


The following sections show you how to use the tabs in the Project Properties dialog to change a projects properties, if necessary. To access this dialog: Select File / Project Properties.

3.4.1

Changing the Project Details


Use the Project Details tab to enter the project information that you want included in reports and plots. This tab is shown below:

When the project is created, the following takes place automatically: The Description field is updated with the template name. You can change the description at any time. The Date field is filled in from the computer system date.

All other fields are optional and you can enter values for them at any time.
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3.4.2

Setting up a Project

Selecting a Coordinate System


Use the Coordinate System tab to view the current coordinate system and, if necessary, change the coordinate system for the project. This tab is shown below:

The default coordinate system selected for the project is the coordinate system associated with the project template. For information on viewing and changing the coordinate system for a project, see Chapter 4, Using a Coordinate System.

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3.4.3

Selecting the Project Units and Format


Use the Units and Format tab to set the Trimble Geomatics Office software unit values for the current project. This tab is shown below:

These unit values include the units and format used for onscreen display, importing, exporting, and reporting. For information about each field in this tab, refer to the topic Project Properties dialog Units and Format tab in the Help.

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3.4.4

Setting up a Project

Setting up a Project for Features


Use the Features tab to specify the feature and attribute settings for the Trimble Geomatics Office project. This tab is shown below:

Automatic feature code processing To automatically process feature codes when importing a Trimble Survey Controller (*.dc) file: 1. 2. Select the Feature code on import check box. The Browse button becomes available. Click Browse and locate the feature and attribute library you want to use. You can change this field at any time.

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Setting up a project for attributes If you want to set up a project for attributes: 1. 2. Select the Use Attributes check box. The Browse button becomes available. Click Browse and select a Feature and Attribute Library (*.fcl) file or a Data Dictionary (*.ddf) file.

For more information, see Chapter 16, Using Attributes in the Trimble Geomatics Office Software. For more information about feature and attribute libraries, refer to the Feature and Attribute Editor Help.

3.4.5

Changing the Reporting Options


Use the Reporting tab to control how you are notified when a systemgenerated report has been created. This tab is shown below:

In the View generated report group, select the appropriate option.

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An example of a system-generated report is the Import report. The software creates this report when you import a Survey Controller (*.dc) file to a project. System-generated reports usually inform you of problems or errors in your data that the Trimble Geomatics Office software finds.
Tip You can view reports at any time. They are stored in the Reports folder in their current project folder.

3.4.6

Changing the Recomputation Settings


Use the Recompute tab to specify how the Trimble Geomatics Office software determines the calculated positions for all points in the project. This tab is shown below:

For more information, see Appendix B, Recomputation.

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Multiple sideshot observations To specify how a recomputation determines the position for sideshot points observed multiple times, do one of the following: Select the Use best observation option if you want the recomputation to use the best observation to determine the points calculated position. This method is selected by default. Select the Calculate mean from the same type of observations option if you want the recomputation to determine the points calculated position by meaning the coordinates calculated from each observation to the sideshot point. The software only means observations of the same type.

Tolerance checking The Trimble Geomatics Office software calculates a position for each observation to a point. If there are multiple observations, it uses tolerance values to determine when a misclosure is reported. You can set tolerances for survey, mapping, and unknown quality positions. If the Tolerance checking check boxes are clear, misclosures are not reported. If the Tolerance checking check boxes are selected, the Horizontal and Vertical fields are available. Any observations outside these tolerance values are reported on error. If the Calculate mean from the same type of observations option is selected, the software only uses coordinates that have a position less than the tolerance values from the mean. Changing the sea level correction for terrestrial data If you want all distance recomputations for terrestrial observations (conventional, laser rangefinder, reduced) to be performed and displayed using ellipsoid (sea level) distances: Select the Reduce terrestrial observations to ellipsoid (Sea Level correction) check box.

For more information, refer to the Help.


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Geoid model quality If your projects coordinate system uses a geoid model, the Trimble Geomatics Office software uses the Geoid model quality field to determine the quality of the elevations (for a GPS point) or heights (for a terrestrial point) derived from the geoid model. To specify the geoid model quality: Select the quality of the geoid model from the list.

3.5

Deleting a Project
You can delete any project except the project that is currently open. To delete projects: 1. Select File / Delete. The following dialog appears:

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2.

Select the appropriate project and click Delete.

Note When you delete a project, the whole project folder is removed. However, you can retrieve a deleted project from the Recycle Bin of your Microsoft Windows system.

3.6

Copying a Project
You can copy a project if there is no project open. To do this: 1. Select File / Copy Project. The following dialog appears:

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2.

Select the appropriate project and then click OK. The following dialog appears:

3. 4.

In the Project Title field, enter the name for the project. To navigate to the folder you want to copy the project to, in the Folder field do one of the following: Click the Ellipsis folder. button to locate the appropriate

Enter the path using the keyboard.

5.

Click OK.

The software puts a copy of the project in the new folder.

3.7

Using Project Templates


To configure the initial state of a project, you must select a project template. To reduce the time required to configure new projects, create your own templates with the properties and data that are common to all of your projects.

3.7.1

Selecting a Template for a Project


When you create a new project, you must select a template. Using templates in the Trimble Geomatics Office software is similar to using template documents in Microsoft Word, or prototype drawings in AutoCAD. The Trimble Geomatics Office software templates are stored in C:\Program Files\Trimble\Trimble Geomatics Office\Template.

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When a project is created, the whole templateincluding the template foldersis copied to the new project. For example, if an ASCII file containing control points exists in the template Checkin folder, the same file is copied to the Checkin folder of the project. The template you use stays the same. That is, any edits made to the project are not made to the template.

3.7.2

Creating a Template
To create a project template: 1. 2. Select File / New Project. The New Project dialog appears. In the New group, select the Template option. Project Folder in the Details list changes to Templates Folder, as shown below:

3. 4.

Enter a name for the new template. Select an existing template on which to base the new one and then click OK. The Project Properties dialog appears.

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5.

Use the tabs in the Project Properties dialog to edit the default settings that the Trimble Geomatics Office software uses when creating a project based on the template. For more information on these tabs, see Changing the Project Properties, page 27. Click OK. A message appears. It asks if you want to continue editing the template. Do one of the following: To continue editing the template, click Yes. You can edit the template using parts of the Trimble Geomatics Office software other than the Project Properties dialog, for example, to enter common control points. To close the template, click No.

6. 7.

Note You do not have to manually save a template. All changes to a template are automatically saved as they occur. The new template appears in the Templates list when you create a new project. You can open a template in the same way that you would a project.

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4
4

Using a Coordinate System


In this chapter:

Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

Introduction The coordinate system database Using geoid models Viewing the current coordinate system details Changing the coordinate system Saving the current coordinate system as a site Ground coordinate systems

Using a Coordinate System

4.1

Introduction
In the Trimble Geomatics Office software, every project has a coordinate system. It is important to have the correct coordinate system selected for your project. If you do not, the software computes and displays incorrect coordinate values. When you specify a template for a new project, the software applies the template coordinate system. You can change this coordinate system at any stage. However, Trimble recommends that you select your coordinate system (including the geoid model for the project) before you add points to the project. If you change the coordinate system when points are already in the project, the coordinates of the points change. This chapter introduces the coordinate system database and shows you how to: use the coordinate systems and geoid models provided with the Trimble Geomatics Office software use a coordinate system from a Survey Controller (*.dc) file define your own default Transverse Mercator projection

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4.2

The Coordinate System Database


The coordinate system database is stored as a file called Current.csd. Current.csd contains information about coordinate systems, zones, sites, and geoid models. When you specify the coordinate system for a project, the information comes from this database. To view the database, use the Coordinate System Manager utility. When you want to work with the coordinate system database, use the Coordinate System Manager utility to: view the published coordinate system definitions add new parameters (ellipsoids, datum transformations, coordinate systems, sites, and geoid models) edit user-defined parameters

For more information about this utility, see Chapter 17, Utilities or refer to the Coordinate System Manager Help.

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4.3

Using Geoid Models


Points observed with GPS have heights based on the WGS-84 ellipsoid. These heights are known as ellipsoid heights. To obtain estimated elevations based on these heights, use a geoid model. A geoid model gives the separation between the ellipsoid and the geoid, or the mean sea level surface. By applying this separation to an elevation, you can obtain a height which then provides an elevation.

4.3.1

Geoid Grid (*.ggf) Files


Geoid models are stored as Geoid Grid (*.ggf) files. These files contain geoid-ellipsoid separations (also known as geoid separations) over a defined area. The coordinate system database already contains defined standard geoid models. Each coordinate system has a default geoid model. To use a new .ggf file, use the Coordinate System Manager utility to create a geoid model. A geoid model contains a name and a reference to a .ggf file. If you install the Grid Factory utility, you can use it to view the geoid separation in the .ggf files.

4.3.2

Using a Geoid Model to Determine the Elevation for GPS Points


When you select a geoid model, the Trimble Geomatics Office software uses the .ggf file to interpolate the geoid separation (N) at the position of each GPS point observed. It then adds the value to the observed ellipsoid height (h). This gives an approximate elevation above sea level (e) for the GPS point. Note For accurate elevations, observe points with known elevations and perform a GPS site calibration. For more information, see Chapter 10, GPS Site Calibration.

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Figure 4.1 shows the relationship between the geoid and the local ellipsoid.

e h

N Mean sea level

Ellipsoid Figure 4.1 Geoid-ellipsoid separation

If you do not use a geoid model or perform a GPS site calibration, the elevation of a point will be the same as the ellipsoid height and is not an accurate elevation. Note If you use a geoid model in the project coordinate system, the software uses it to convert between local ellipsoid heights and elevations for all point types, not just GPS.

4.3.3

Selecting a Geoid Model


To use a geoid model for the project coordinate system, use one of the following methods: Use the default geoid model defined for the project coordinate system. In the Coordinate System Manager utility, specify a geoid model as part of the coordinate system definition. For more information, refer to the topic Geoid Model dialog in the Coordinate System Manager Help.

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In the Trimble Geomatics Office software, change the coordinate system for the project. Select a geoid model from the list of available models. For information, see Changing the Coordinate System, page 45.

Note You can only select a geoid model for a coordinate system zone or the default Transverse Mercator projection. If you select a site, you cannot change the geoid model used for the site in the Trimble Geomatics Office software. To change the geoid model for a site, use the Coordinate System Manager utility to edit the site. Selecting the geoid model quality Use the Recompute tab of the Project Properties dialog to select the quality for the geoid model used for the project. A recomputation uses this quality to determine the quality of elevations (for a GPS point) or height (for terrestrial points) derived from the geoid model. For information on selecting the geoid model quality, see Changing the Recomputation Settings, page 32.

4.4

Viewing the Current Coordinate System Details


To view the details of the selected coordinate system for a project: 1. 2. 3. Select File / Project Properties. The Project Properties dialog appears. In the Coordinate System tab, click Details. The Coordinate System Details dialog appears. Use the tabs in the Coordinate System Details dialog to view the coordinate system details.

Note If the coordinate system does not include a GPS site calibration or adjustment transformation parameters, there are no fields in the Adjustment tab.

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4.5

Changing the Coordinate System


You can change the coordinate system for a project by using one of the following: The Coordinate System wizard from the Project Properties dialog A Survey Controller (*.dc) file Data to initialize a default Transverse Mercator projection

Trimble recommends that you select your coordinate system (including the geoid model for the project) before you add points to the project.

4.5.1

Selecting a Coordinate System from the Coordinate System wizard


The Coordinate System wizard lets you select a coordinate system for a project. You can select one of the following: A coordinate system and zone A recently-used coordinate system A site A user-defined default Transverse Mercator projection

To access the Coordinate System wizard and open the Select Coordinate System dialog: 1. Do one of the following: Select File / Project Properties. In the project bar, click the Project group, and then select the Project Properties shortcut. Press >)@.

The Project Properties dialog appears. 2. Select the Coordinate System tab.
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3.

In the Coordinate System Settings group, click Change. The following dialog appears:

Note The first time you use the coordinate system database, the Trimble Geomatics Office software bypasses the Select Coordinate System dialog and displays the Coordinate System Type dialog. This is because there are no recently-used systems to access. You must select a coordinate system for the project. The following sections describe how to use the Coordinate System wizard to select a coordinate system.

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Selecting a coordinate system and zone To select a coordinate system and zone from the coordinate system database: 1. In the Select Coordinate System dialog, select the New System option. For information about opening this dialog, see Selecting a Coordinate System from the Coordinate System wizard, page 45. Click Next. The following dialog appears:

2.

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3.

Select the Coordinate System And Zone option and then click Next. The following dialog appears:

The coordinate system group and zone entries are read from the coordinate system database. 4. Select the appropriate coordinate system group and zone.

Tip To view the properties of the selected coordinate system or zone, right-click to access the shortcut menu, and then select the Properties command.

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5.

Click Next. The following dialog appears:

If the coordinate system has a default geoid model selected in the Trimble Coordinate System Manager utility, this geoid model is selected. 6. In the Select Geoid Model dialog, do one of the following: If you want to specify a different geoid model for the coordinate system, select it from the available list. For more information, see Using Geoid Models, page 42.

Tip To view the properties of the selected geoid model, right-click to access the shortcut menu, and then select the Properties command.

7.

If you do not want to use a geoid model, select the No Geoid Model option.

Click Finish.

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The coordinate system you selected is now the coordinate system for the project. The Project Properties dialog shows the system, zone, datum, and geoid model used. 8. Click OK.

Note If you get an error message saying that the coordinate system cannot be used because the project contains null elevations, enter elevations for these points, or specify a default elevation in the Coordinate System tab of the Project Properties dialog. You can then change the coordinate system. You can select all points with null elevations by choosing Select / By Query, and selecting the Null elevations option. Selecting a recently-used coordinate system The Trimble Geomatics Office software records the last ten defined coordinate systems used. To select from this list of recently-used systems: 1. Open the Select Coordinate System dialog. For information about opening this dialog, see Selecting a Coordinate System from the Coordinate System wizard, page 45. Select the Recently Used System option. Click the arrow buttons to scroll through the system summaries. Select the coordinate system that you want to use and then click
Finish.

2. 3. 4.

The coordinate system you selected is now the coordinate system for the project.

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Selecting a site A site is a set of coordinate system parameters that you name and save for use again in other projects. A site can include horizontal and vertical adjustments from a GPS site calibration. For information on creating a site calibration, see Saving the Current Coordinate System as a Site, page 58. To select a site for the current project: 1. Open the Select Coordinate System dialog. For information about opening this dialog, see Selecting a Coordinate System from the Coordinate System wizard, page 45. Select the New System option and click Next. The Select Coordinate System Type dialog appears. Select the Calibrated Site option and click Next. (If there are no sites, this option is not available.) The following dialog appears, displaying a list of the sites available from the coordinate system database:

2. 3.

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Tip In the Select Calibrated Site dialog, click on a site name to view its details in the Site Details group. To view the full properties of the selected site, right-click to access the shortcut menu, and then select the Properties command.

4.

Select a site and then click Finish. The Project Properties dialog appears. The site you selected is now the coordinate system for the project. It shows the system, zone, datum, and geoid model used. Click OK.

5.

Note When you select a site from the Project Properties dialog, you cannot change the geoid model for the site. To change the geoid model for a site, you must create a new site using the Coordinate System Manager utility.

4.5.2

Selecting a Coordinate System in a Survey Controller (*.dc) File


When you import a Survey Controller (*.dc) file, the Trimble Geomatics Office software checks if the coordinate system in the file is the same as the coordinate system that is selected for the project. If they are different, the Project Coordinate System dialog appears. Do one of the following: Select the Convert to the data collector definition option to use the coordinate system specified in the .dc file. Select the Keep the existing project definition option to use the current coordinate system in the project.

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If you select the Convert to the data collector definition option and the coordinate system in the .dc file is not Scale factor only, the project coordinate system definition changes to the one that is specified in the .dc file. All points in the project are transformed to the new coordinate system. To view the details of the coordinate system, see Viewing the Current Coordinate System Details, page 44. For the Trimble Geomatics Office software to change the coordinate system, one of the following must be true: All points in the database have elevations. The project has a default elevation specified.

If the Trimble Geomatics Office software cannot change coordinate systems, a warning message appears. If the coordinate system in the .dc file is Scale factor only, the steps taken depend on the coordinate system that is defined for the project. For information, see page 54. If you select the Keep the existing project definition option, all points in the .dc file are transformed to the project coordinate system. Note If the project coordinate system is an undefined default Transverse Mercator projection, (that is, it does not have an origin latitude and origin longitude defined) the software automatically changes the project coordinate system to the coordinate system in the .dc file. The Project Coordinate System dialog does not appear. Any existing points in the project do not change. You can view the differences between the coordinate systems before you select the coordinate system definition to be used. Do one of the following: Click the appropriate Details button to view the details of either coordinate system. Click Summary to view a comparison report of the two coordinate systems. Use the report to inspect the full parameters of the coordinate systems and find the differences between them.

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4.5.3

Using a Coordinate System

Using a Scale Factor-Only Coordinate System


The Trimble Survey Controller software lets you select a Scale factoronly coordinate system. To use Scale factor-only .dc files in the Trimble Geomatics Office software: 1. 2. Use arbitrary grid coordinates (for example, 10000, 10000) in your Trimble Survey Controller job. Create a project in the Trimble Geomatics Office software with the default Transverse Mercator projection. For example, use the Metric or US feet project template. Import the Survey Controller (*.dc) file into your project. For more information, see Chapter 7, Importing Survey Data into the Trimble Geomatics Office Software. The Default Projection Definition dialog appears. Use the dialog to specify the false origin values for the coordinate system. The Trimble Geomatics Office software automatically enters the default projection with the scale that is defined in the .dc file. It enters the false northing and false easting of the projection using the first grid position in the imported .dc file. For more information, refer to the topic Scale factor-only Survey Controller (*.dc) Files Overview in the Help. Note The Reduce terrestrial observations to ellipsoid (Sea Level correction) check box in the Recompute tab of the Project Properties dialog is clear. This is because sea level corrections are not applied in the Trimble Survey Controller software (version 7.0 or later) when you are using a Scale factor-only job. Note If you have a defined coordinate system in the project, when you import a .dc file with a Scale factor-only coordinate system a dialog appears stating that a Scale factor-only coordinate system is detected. The existing coordinate system will be used. Make sure that the scale factor in the project coordinate system is the same as the scale factor in the .dc file. If it is not, import the .dc file into a project with a compatible coordinate system.

3.

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4.5.4

Using a Default Transverse Mercator Projection


The default coordinate system for a standard project template is an undefined Transverse Mercator projection. An undefined default projection does not have an origin latitude or origin longitude defined. To use the default Transverse Mercator projection as the coordinate system for the project, select a standard template (for example, the Metric and US Feet templates) when you create the project. When you first enter survey data to a project using an undefined default projection, the Default Projection Definition dialog appears. The dialog suggests using projection parameters suitable for the data that you are entering. Different fields in the dialog are available depending on the type of data being added to the project. The following situations are possible: You import a .dc file with a GPS point to a project (with an undefined default projection) containing grid points. You import a scale-factor only .dc file to a project (with an undefined default projection). You import or key in a WGS-84 point to an empty project (with an undefined default projection). You key in a grid point to an empty project (with an undefined default projection).

Note When you import a .dc file containing GPS points to a project with an undefined default projection, the project coordinate system automatically changes to the coordinate system specified in the .dc file. To specify the projection parameters, from the Default Project Definition dialog, do one of the following: If a GPS or WGS-84 point is added to the database, enter the grid coordinates for the point. If only a grid point is added to the database, accept the false northing and false easting values, or enter new values.

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Using a defined default Transverse Mercator projection If you are using an undefined default Transverse Mercator projection, you can define your own parameters for the default projection. Do this if you require a local projection and know the origin, and false northing and false easting values for the projection. To define a Transverse Mercator projection from within a project: 1. Open the Select Coordinate System dialog. For information about opening this dialog, see Selecting a Coordinate System from the Coordinate System wizard, page 45. Select the New System option and then click Next. The Select Coordinate System Type dialog appears. Select the Default Projection (Transverse Mercator) option and then click Next. The following dialog appears:

2. 3.

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4.
Table 4.1 Detail

Complete the fields in this dialog using the information in Table 4.1.

Default Projection dialog details Description

Automatically calculate Select this check box to automatically update origin values based on projection parameters the first GPS point entered in the database. If you select this, you do not need to enter values in the Central Latitude/Longitude and false Northing/Easting fields. Central Latitude Central Longitude False northing/ False easting Scale factor The latitude at the origin of the projection. The false northing is assigned at the central latitude. The longitude at the origin of the projection. The false easting is assigned at the central longitude. The northing and easting assigned at the origin (central latitude and central longitude) of the default Transverse Mercator projection. The scale factor at the origin. This represents the ratio of distance on the projection (grid distance) to distance on the surface of the earth (ground distance). Select this check box for work in an area that uses south as the azimuth reference (south = 0). Hawaii and South Africa use south azimuth systems. Select the directions in which you want coordinates to increase.

South azimuth system

Positive Coordinate Direction

5. 6.

Click Next. The Select Geoid Model dialog appears. Do one of the following: Select the No Geoid Model option if you do not want to specify a geoid model. Elevations for points will be the same as the ellipsoidal heights. Select the appropriate geoid model from the list to specify a geoid model for the coordinate system. For more information, see Using Geoid Models, page 42. Approximate elevations will be displayed for points using the ellipsoid heights and the geoid model.

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Tip To view the properties of the selected geoid model, right-click to access the shortcut menu and select Properties.

7.

Click Finish. The Project Properties dialog appears. It shows the coordinate system, datum, and geoid model used.

The project now has a defined default Transverse Mercator projection.

4.6

Saving the Current Coordinate System as a Site


A site is a set of coordinate system parameters that can also include GPS site calibration (horizontal adjustment; vertical adjustment) values. If you have applied a GPS site calibration to your project, the software stores the calibration parameters as part of the coordinate system definition. (For more information, see Viewing the Current Coordinate System Details, page 44.) If you want to create Trimble Geomatics Office projects in the same area, save the coordinate system as a site. The site is then available for future projects. This means that you do not have to perform another GPS site calibration. For more information, see Selecting a site, page 51. Note If you perform a network adjustment (if you have the network adjustment module installed) and compute network adjustment transformation parameters for the project, you cannot save the coordinate system as a site. To save the current coordinate system as a site in the coordinate system database: 1. 2. 3. Select File / Project Properties. The Project Properties dialog appears. In the Coordinate System tab, click Save as Site. The Save as Site dialog appears. In the Site Name field, enter a name for the site and click OK.

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The coordinate system is saved in the coordinate system database. You can use this site definition in future projects. It appears in the Sites tab in the Trimble Coordinate System Manager utility. Note Only use a site with GPS site calibration parameters for projects within the area defined by the points that are used to calculate the GPS site calibration. For more information, see Chapter 10, GPS Site Calibration.

4.7

Ground Coordinate Systems


Some regions of the globe have very high elevations, so it is usually better to use coordinates at the ground surface rather than at mean sea level. This lets you stake-out from a plan. To use ground coordinates in the Trimble Geomatics Office software you need to: 1. Define a coordinate system for the project. For information on how to define a coordinate system for the project, see Changing the Coordinate System, page 45. Enter coordinates for the project location. Enter the ground scale factor or compute it using the coordinates for the project location.

2. 3.

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4.7.1

Using a Coordinate System

Entering Project Location Coordinates


To enter project location coordinates: 1. 2. 3. Select File / Project Properties. The Project Properties dialog appears. Select the Coordinate System tab. In the Local Site Settings group, click Change. The following dialog appears:

4. 5.

In the Project location group, enter the coordinates for the project location. Set the ground scale factor. For more information, see the following section.

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4.7.2

Setting the Ground Scale Factor


To set the ground scale factor: In the Local site settings dialog, select the Use ground coordinates check box and do one of the following: Enter the ground scale factor. Select the Compute scale factor from project location check box. The ground scale factor will be computed from the values in the Project Location group.

Note The Use ground coordinates check box can only be selected if a projection has been defined for the project. For more information, refer to the topic Ground Coordinate Systems in the Help.

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5
5

Importing ASCII Data Files into the Trimble Geomatics Office Software
In this chapter:

Q Q Q Q Q Q

Introduction Importing ASCII data files Using custom ASCII formats Events that may occur when importing data files Import report Example: Importing a PacSoft file containing control points

Importing ASCII Data Files into the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

5.1

Introduction
You can import a variety of data file formats into the Trimble Geomatics Office software, as well as define your own custom ASCII formats to import. For example, you may have a data file containing control points that you want to import into the Trimble Geomatics Office software so that you can perform a GPS site calibration or network adjustment (if you have the Network Adjustment module installed). If you have a data file containing design points that you want to stake out using the Trimble Survey Controller software, you need to import the data file into your Trimble Geomatics Office project, then transfer the points in a Survey Controller (*.dc) file to the Trimble Survey Controller software.

5.2

Importing ASCII Data Files


This section describes how to import an ASCII file into a Trimble Geomatics Office project. Using drag-and-drop You can use Windows Explorer and the Microsoft Windows drag-and-drop functionality to import data files from a folder on your computer into a project. To do this: 1. 2. Open Windows Explorer. For more information, refer to your Windows operating system documentation. Locate the folder containing the file that you want to import.

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3.

Use the right mouse button to drag the file onto the Trimble Geomatics Office graphics window. The shortcut menu appears, as shown below:

4.

Select the option that matches the file format that you are importing. If the file format you require does not appear in the list, then the Trimble Geomatics Office software does not recognize the file format. To import a file of this type, do one of the following: Define a custom import format. For information, see Appendix A, Custom Import, Export, and Report Formats. Use an import filter. For more information, refer to the Help.

The software imports the file. For more information, see Events That May Occur When Importing Data Files, page 69.
Tip If you use the left mouse button to drag-and-drop a file, the Trimble Geomatics Office software uses the extension of the file to determine the file that you are importing. If the file extension is used for more than one import format, the software uses the default format. If you do not know what the default format is, use the right mouse button and select the correct file format.

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Using the Trimble Geomatics Office software To import a data file to a project: 1. Do one of the following: Select File / Import. Click the Import tool.

The Import dialog appears. 2. Select the CAD / ASCII or Custom tab that contains the appropriate import format, as shown below:

3.

Select the file format that you want to import. If the format does not contain coordinate system information, click Change to select the coordinate system for the file to be imported. You only need to use this option if you know that the file you want to import is in a different coordinate system than the project.

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4.

In the Quality for Import data field, select the point quality for the points in the file. The quality that you select is assigned to both horizontal and vertical components of the points in the file. You can change the quality of the coordinate components later using the Properties window. For example, if the northings and eastings of points are of control quality, but the elevations are not of control quality, you can import the points as control quality, then use the Properties window to change the elevation qualities. Do one of the following: If the file contains control points for your project, select the Control option. If the file contains survey quality points (for example, centimeter precision), but are not control, select the Surveying option. If the file contains mapping quality points (for example, meter precision), select the Mapping option. If you do not know the quality of the points, select the Unknown option.

For more information, see Appendix B, Recomputation. 5. Click OK. The following dialog appears:

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6. 7.

Navigate to the folder where the file you want to import is stored. Select the file and click Open.

The software imports the file to the Trimble Geomatics Office project. For more information, see Events That May Occur When Importing Data Files, page 69.

5.3

Using Custom ASCII Formats


If you have an ASCII data file in a format that is not supplied with the Trimble Geomatics Office software, you can create a custom ASCII format and use it to import the file. For more information, see Appendix A, Custom Import, Export, and Report Formats. When you have defined a custom format that matches your file(s), you can import the file to a project using drag-and-drop, or from within the Trimble Geomatics Office software. For more information, see Importing ASCII Data Files, page 64.
Tip You can also add a new format by installing an external filter. External filter programs must be written as Dynamically Linked Library (*.dll) files with specific functions created. You can add them to any tab in the Import or Export dialog. When installed, they appear as a normal import or export format. For more information, refer to the topic External Filters Overview in the Help.

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5.4

Events That May Occur When Importing Data Files


When you import a file, the Trimble Geomatics Office software performs several checks on it; depending on the type of the file. Table 5.1 shows the messages that may appear during an ASCII file import.

Table 5.1

Messages or dialogs that may appear during import What it means The coordinate system in the data file is different to the one defined for the project. This message can only appear if the data file contains coordinate system information. What you should do Select the coordinate system that you want to use for the project. Any necessary conversions are performed before the file is imported. For more information, see Selecting a Coordinate System in a Survey Controller (*.dc) File, page 52. For more information, see Managing Duplicate Points When Importing Data, page 70. Click Yes to view the Import Report (located in the Reports folder of the project) to examine the errors. If necessary, correct the errors and reimport the file.

Message or dialog The Project Coordinate system dialog

The Duplicate Points dialog

The import operation has created points with the same name in the project (duplicate points)

The Trimble Geomatics Office One or more messages were software encountered problems importing the file. This message:

generated importing the file

The Default projection definition dialog

The project has an undefined For more information, see Using default (Transverse Mercator) a defined default Transverse projection. Different fields will Mercator projection, page 56. appear in the dialog depending on the data imported. There was an error in importing The file may be open exclusively the file which resulted in the file by another application, or the file not being imported. may be corrupt.

This message:

Unable to import file

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After you import the file(s), the software creates a selection set for each one. To view selection sets: Choose Select / Selection Sets.

The list of selection sets in the project appears. Note If you import a file more than once to the same project, the file is added to the appropriate folder, with a dash and a number at the end of the file name. For example, if you import a .dxf file named MyDXFFile twice, MyDXFFile.dxf and MyDXFFile-1.dxf are stored in the Data Files folder.

5.4.1

Managing Duplicate Points When Importing Data


Points that have the same name are known as duplicate points. If duplicate points are present on import, the Trimble Geomatics Office software can manage them by: always merging duplicate points this is the fastest way to import data and occurs by default merging duplicate points within a specified horizontal and/or vertical tolerance leaving duplicate points unresolved

To specify which way the software manages duplicate points: 1. 2. Select File / Import. The Import dialog appears. Click Options. The Duplicate Point Options dialog appears.

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3.

Do one of the following: Select the Always merge duplicate points option. No duplicate points are created. Select the Merge duplicate points within tolerance option and then enter the appropriate horizontal and/or vertical tolerance values. (The default tolerances are determined from the unknown quality tolerance specified in the Recompute tab of the Project Properties dialog.) Duplicate points are merged if they are within this specified tolerance. Note If both a horizontal and vertical tolerance are specified, for duplicate points to be merged, they must be within both the horizontal and vertical tolerance. To specify that the software does not merge duplicate points on import, select the Merge duplicate points within tolerance option and enter 0.02 (the horizontal survey quality tolerance) and/or 0.05 (the vertical survey quality tolerance) as the tolerance values. Note If a tolerance is not specified (that is, in the tolerances group, the horizontal and vertical check boxes are not selected) the duplicate points will be merged.

4.

Click OK.

Note When importing digital level data, only the vertical tolerance is used. How the software merges points Because a point can only have one keyed-in WGS-84 coordinate and one keyed-in grid/local coordinate, the software uses the following rules to determine which coordinates are used: 1. 2. It uses the highest quality coordinates. If the existing coordinate and the imported coordinate are the same quality, it uses the office-entered coordinate.
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3.

If there are no office-entered coordinates, it uses the last coordinate component entered in the database.

After import, the Import report lists any unused coordinate components. Note If the Always merge duplicate points option overwrites a coordinate that you want to use, undo the import operation, edit the import file, and reimport the data. Alternatively, undo the import operation, specify a horizontal tolerance for merging points (see below), and reimport the data.

5.4.2

Resolving Duplicate Points in the Database


If you do not choose to merge duplicate points on import, duplicate points are created when you import one or more files that contain the same point names. For example, duplicate points are created when you import: a file that contains a point with the same name as an existing point in the database and they are not within tolerance points with the same name from different Survey Controller (*.dc) files

If the Trimble Geomatics Office software creates points with the same name in the project, you can merge the survey data from each point after the points are imported. Note If you have points with duplicate names that are not the same point, rename them. For more information, see Renaming Points, page 189.
Warning Two points with the same name but significantly different data may be the result of an error. Merging the points may produce unexpected results. If a warning flag appears on the point after merging, view the Point Derivation report. For more information, see Viewing the Point Derivation Report, page 180. When you have determined the cause of the error, disable the bad observation or coordinates, or explode the points if they are not the same point.

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To merge the survey data from each point use the Merge duplicate points command: 1. 2. Choose Select / Duplicate Points / By Name. Do one of the following: Select Edit / Merge duplicate points. In the graphics window, right-click to access the shortcut menu, and then select Merge Duplicate Points.

All observations and keyed-in coordinates for the points are merged.

5.5

Import Report
Each time you import a file to a project, the Trimble Geomatics Office software creates an import report for the file imported. These reports are named <file name>.html, where <file name> is the name of the imported file. An imported files report named Import.html is also created. This report lists all of the files that are imported to the project. Any files that are imported in another session are automatically added to this report. The way that you are notified of system-generated reports is controlled by the View generated report option in the General tab of the Project Properties dialog. For more information, see Changing the Reporting Options, page 31. The <file name>.html report includes: Project Details Messages (if any messages occurred on import) Recompute Report

The following sections describe each part of the Import report, and include report samples where appropriate.

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5.5.1

Importing ASCII Data Files into the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

The Project Details Section


Figure 5.1 shows the Project Details section of the Import report. This section shows the project name and coordinate system details.

Figure 5.1

Project details section of an Import report

5.5.2

The Messages Section


This section shows any messages that were generated on import. (For more information, see Messages and Dialogs That May Appear During Import, page 112). If no messages were generated, this section does not appear in the report.

5.5.3

The Recompute Report


The import report includes a link to the Recompute report which is created in the Reports folder. The Recompute report summarizes the results of the recomputation process. For more information, see Appendix B, Recomputation.

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5.6

Example: Importing a PacSoft File Containing Control Points


To import a PacSoft file containing control points into a project: 1. 2. Select File / Import. The Import dialog appears. Select the CAD / ASCII tab, as shown below:

3. 4.

Select PacSoft format. Click Change to select the coordinate system for the file to be imported. You only need to use this option if the coordinates in the file are in a different coordinate system to the project. This option is only available for some formats. In the Quality for Import data field, select the point quality for the points in the file. If the file contains control points, select the Control option. Click OK. The Open dialog appears.

5.

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7. 8.

Navigate to the folder where the file(s) you want to import are stored. Select the file and click Open.

The file is imported into the project. For more information, see Events That May Occur When Importing Data Files, page 69. A selection set is created with the same name as the file. You can now use the control points for a GPS site calibration or a network adjustment (if you have the Network Adjustment module installed). For more information, see Chapter 10, GPS Site Calibration or refer to the Network Adjustment User Guide.

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6
6

Transferring Files to the Trimble Survey Controller Software


In this chapter:

Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

Introduction Transferring files Survey Controller (*.dc) files Geoid Grid (*.ggf) files Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) files Feature and Attribute Library (*.fcl) files Data Dictionary (*.ddf) files Digital Terrain Model (*.dtx) files Antenna files UK National Grid files

Transferring Files to the Trimble Survey Controller Software

6.1

Introduction
You can transfer to the Trimble Survey Controller software any files that you need to complete field work, for example, Trimble Survey Controller (*.dc) files containing points to stake out, Geoid Grid (*.ggf) files, and Feature and Attribute Library (*.fcl) files. Table 6.1 shows the versions of the Trimble Survey Controller software that you can export each file type to.
Table 6.1 Supported file types and versions of the Trimble Survey Controller software File type Antenna.ini Antenna.dat Data Dictionary Datum grid DTM points Feature and Attribute Library .ddf .cdg .dtx .fcl Version 6.0 or later versions earlier than 6.0 7.0 or later 7.0 or later 4.0 or later 4.0 or later (without attribute definitions, including FCLIB??.DAT, where ? stands for any single character in this position) 7.0 or later (with attributes) Geoid Grid .ggf 6.0 or later 1.0 or later 7.5 or later

File description Antenna details

Trimble Survey Controller .dc UK National Grid .pgf

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6.2

Transferring Files
To transfer files to the Trimble Survey Controller software: 1. Do one of the following: Select the Export Select File / Export. tool.

The following dialog appears:

2.

In the Survey tab, select the type of file that you want to export to the Trimble Survey Controller software and click OK.

The following sections discuss each file type.

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6.3

Survey Controller (*.dc) Files


If you want to place points in the Trimble Survey Controller software, transfer them in a Survey Controller (*.dc) fileyou will avoid the data-entry errors that can occur when entering point details directly. Before you transfer the .dc file: 1. 2. 3. In the Export dialog, make sure that the Survey tab is selected. For more information, see Transferring Files, page 79. Select the Survey devices option. Click Options. (This button is only available for some export formats.) The following dialog appears:

4.

Use this dialog to configure the format of the .dc file to be created. For more information, refer to the topic Data Collector Options dialog in the Help. When you have completed your settings, click OK to return to the Export dialog.

5.

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6.

Click OK. The following dialog appears:

Once you have checked that the Trimble Survey Controller software is connected to the correct COM port and is in the appropriate data transfer mode, you can export the data. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation. Note If you do not have a Survey Controller device set up, see Trimble Data Transfer, page 401. To transfer the .dc file: 1. 2. In the Save As dialog, select a Survey Controller device. Click Open. The following dialog appears as the computer connects to the Trimble Survey Controller software:

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When the computer makes a connection, the Save As dialog returns. The Look in field is set to the Survey Controller device that you are connected to, and the Main Memory (C:) option appears in the list. If you have a survey data card in your data collector, the Survey Data Card (A:) option appears as well. 3. Select the Main Memory (C:) option or the Survey Data Card (A:) option (if available) and click Open. The software reads the folder that you selected, and displays all of the Trimble Survey Controller jobs in the folder, as shown below:

4.

In the File name field, enter a name for the new .dc file. The default name comes from the Job name field specified in the Data Collector Options dialog from step 5, page 80. Click Save to create the .dc file and transfer it to the Trimble Survey Controller software.

5.

The Sending dialog appears. It shows the progress of the transfer. When the .dc file has transferred, you return to the graphics window. The .dc file is now in the Trimble Survey Controller software. Note If you are transferring data to or from Trimble Survey Controller version 7.6 software, use the version 7.5 .dc file format.

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6.4

Geoid Grid (*.ggf) Files


To use a geoid model as part of the coordinate system definition in the field, you must transfer a Geoid Grid (*.ggf) file to the Trimble Survey Controller software (version 6.0 or later). Geoid Grid files are stored in the \Program Files\Common Files\ Trimble\Geodata folder. They are large filessome are more than 5 MB. However, you can use the Trimble Geomatics Office software to extract a smaller geoid model from the geoid model specified in the coordinate system definition for the project. This process (known as subgridding) reduces the size of the .ggf file that you transfer to the data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software (version 6.0 or later). Note You can only subgrid from the Geoid Grid (*.ggf) file currently selected for your project. However, you can transfer any .ggf file.

6.4.1

Subgridding a Geoid Grid (*.ggf) File from an Existing Geoid Grid File
You can subgrid an existing Geoid Grid (*.ggf) file and transfer it to the data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software (version 6.0 or later). To subgrid the .ggf file: 1. In the Export dialog, select the Survey tab.

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2.

Select the Geoid files to Survey Controller (*.ggf) option and then click OK. The following dialog appears:

3.

Select the Create a subgrid of a Geoid model for export to the Survey Controller option and click OK. The following dialog appears:

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The yellow box on the globe defines the area covered by the geoid model. The Geoid Grid file field specifies the .ggf file associated with the geoid model. Note If the geoid model covers the world, there is no yellow box. 4. To change the area of the globe in view, use the zoom tools shown in Table 6-2.
Table 6-2 Tool Zoom tools Function Shifts center of zoom area

Zooms in

Zooms out

Zooms to extents

5.

Use the Select tool in the Create Geoid Grid File dialog to drag a smaller box over the area inside the yellow box that you want for the .ggf file. The File size field under the Grid properties group shows the size of the new .ggf file. The Latitude limits and Longitude limits fields show the extents of the .ggf file. Note The geoid model does not apply to areas defined beyond the yellow box.

6.

The Survey Controller name field shows the name of the subgridded geoid model used in the Trimble Survey Controller job. If the Trimble Survey Controller software already uses a geoid model of the same name, add a prefix or suffix to the name. It must contain the name of the original geoid.

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Note During import of the Survey Controller (*.dc) file, the Trimble Geomatics Office software uses the Survey Controller name field to check if the name of the .ggf file used in the field matches the geoid model defined for the Trimble Geomatics Office project. If the name does not contain the original geoid model name, the software does not recognize the geoid model. 7. Click OK. The following dialog appears:

Note The Geoid Grid (*.ggf) file stores the separation between the WGS-84 ellipsoid and the geoid for the defined area. The default file name is the first six characters of the geoid model name. This is not the name used in the Trimble Survey Controller software. It is the name of the .ggf file that will be stored in the \Program Files\Common Files\Trimble\GeoData folder. 8. To enter a different name for the file, edit the File Name field and then click Save.

The Data Transfer Save As dialog appears.

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To transfer the subgridded .ggf file: 1. In the Save As dialog, select a survey controller device. If you do not have a survey controller device set up, see Trimble Data Transfer, page 401. Click Open. The Connecting dialog appears. When a connection is made, the Save As dialog appears. It shows you where you can save the file. Do one of the following: Select the Main Memory (C:) option to save the file to the main memory of the data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software. If you have a survey data card inserted in the data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software, select the Survey Data Card (A:) option.

2.

3.

4.

Click Open. The folder of the location you selected is read. Any .ggf files in the folder are displayed. The File name field is unavailable. It shows the survey controller name of the .ggf file that you will see in the Trimble Survey Controller software.

5.

Click Save. The Sending dialog appears. It shows the progress of the file transfer.

When the file has transferred, you return to the graphics window. You can now use the .ggf file in the Trimble Survey Controller software. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation.

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6.4.2

Transferring Files to the Trimble Survey Controller Software

Transferring an Existing Geoid Grid (*.ggf) File


You can transfer an existing Geoid Grid (*.ggf) file to a data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software (version 6.0 or later). Before you transfer the file: 1. 2. In the Export dialog, select the Survey tab. Select the Geoid files to Trimble Survey Controller (*.ggf) option and then click OK. The Export a Geoid Model dialog appears. Select the Export existing Geoid model to the Survey Controller option and then click OK. The Select dialog appears. Select the file that you want to transfer and then click Open. The Data Transfer Save As dialog appears.

3. 4.

To transfer the .ggf file: Follow step 1 to step 5, page 87.

Once the file has transferred, you return to the graphics window. You can now use the .ggf file in the Trimble Survey Controller software. For information about using the file in the Trimble Survey Controller software, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation.

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6.5

Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) Files


To use a datum grid in the field as part of the coordinate system definition, you must transfer it to the Trimble Survey Controller software as a Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) file. A .cdg file uses a Longitude Grid (*.dgf) file and a matching Latitude Grid (*.dgf) file. These files are stored in the \Program Files\Common Files\ Trimble\Geodata folder. The Trimble Geomatics Office software combines the Latitude and Longitude Grid files associated with the datum grid. This produces a Combined Datum Grid file that you can transfer to a data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software (version 7.0 or later).

6.5.1

Creating a Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) File


You can create and transfer a Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) file to a data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software (version 7.0 or later). For you to create a Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) file, the coordinate system for the current project must use a datum grid as its datum transformation method. For more information, refer to the topic Datum Grid Datum Transformation in the Coordinate System Manager Help.

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To create the .cdg file: 1. 2. In the Export dialog, select the Survey tab. Select the Datum grid to Trimble Survey Controller (*.cdg) option and then click OK. The following dialog appears:

3.

Select the Create a Combined Datum Grid file for export to the Survey Controller option and click OK. The following dialog appears:

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The yellow box on the globe defines the area covered by the Latitude and Longitude Grid files. The Latitude and Longitude files used are shown in the Latitude Grid file and Longitude Grid file fields. 4. 5. To change the area of the globe in view, use the zoom tools. To decrease the size of the file, use the Select tool to drag a smaller box over the area inside the yellow box you want for the .cdg file. The File size field under the Grid properties group shows the size of the new .cdg file that will be created. The Latitude limits and Longitude limits fields show the extents of the .cdg file that will be created. Note The combined datum grid model does not apply to areas defined beyond the yellow box. 6. The Survey Controller name field displays the name of the subgridded combined datum grid used in the Trimble Survey Controller job. Add a suffix or prefix to the name if the Trimble Survey Controller already uses a datum grid of the same name. The name must contain the name of the original datum grid. Note During import of the Survey Controller (*.dc) file, the Trimble Geomatics Office software uses the survey controller name to check if the name of the .cdg file used in the field matches the datum grid defined for the Trimble Geomatics Office project. If the name does not incorporate the original datum grid name, the datum grid will not be recognized. 7. Click OK. Note The Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) file created by the Trimble Geomatics Office software stores datum grid transformations for the defined area.

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The File Name dialog appears. The default file name is the first six characters of the datum grid name. This is not the name used in the Trimble Survey Controllerit is the name of the .cdg file to be stored in the \Program Files\Common Files\Trimble\ GeoData folder. 8. To enter a different name for the file, edit the File Name field and then click Save. The following dialog appears:

To transfer the .cdg file: 1. In the Open dialog, select a survey controller device. For more information, see Setting up a Trimble Survey Controller device, page 403. Click Open. The Connecting dialog appears. When a connection is made, the Save As dialog appears. It shows you where you can save the file.

2.

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3.

Do one of the following: Select the Main Memory (C:) option to save the file to the main memory of the data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software. If you have a survey data card in the data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software, select the Survey Data Card (A:) option.

4.

Click Open. The folder of the location you selected is read. Any .cdg files in the folder are displayed. The File name field is unavailable. It shows the survey controller name of the .cdg file which you will see in the Trimble Survey Controller software.

5.

Click Save. The Sending dialog appears. It shows the progress of the file transfer.

When the file has transferred, you return to the graphics window. You can now use the .cdg file in the Trimble Survey Controller software. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation.

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6.5.2

Transferring Files to the Trimble Survey Controller Software

Transferring an Existing Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) File


You can transfer an existing Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) file to a data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software (version 7.0 or later) at any time. Before you transfer the file: 1. 2. In the Export dialog, select the Survey tab. Select the Datum Grid to Trimble Survey Controller (*.cdg) option and then click OK. The following dialog appears:

3.

Select the Export existing Combined Datum Grid file to the Survey Controller option and then click OK. The Select dialog appears.

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4.

Select the file that you want to transfer and then click Open. The following dialog appears:

To transfer the file: Follow step 1 to step 5, starting on page 92.

When the file has transferred, you return to the graphics window. You can now use the .cdg file in the Trimble Survey Controller software. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation.

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6.6

Feature and Attribute Library (*.fcl) Files


To use a Feature and Attribute Library (*.fcl) file in the field, you must transfer the library to a data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software. You can use a feature and attribute library to select feature codes for points and to store attribute definitions. Before you transfer the library: 1. 2. 3. 4. In the Export dialog, select the Survey tab. Select the Feature and Attribute Library to Survey Controller (*.fcl) option. Click Options. The Feature and Attribute Library Options dialog appears. In the Version field, select the Trimble Survey Controller version that you are exporting to and then click OK to return to the Export dialog. Click OK. The Select feature and attribute library dialog appears. In the File field, do one of the following to select the library you want to export: 7. Enter the path and name of the library. Click Browse to navigate to the library.

5. 6.

Do one of the following: If you want to export attribute definitions in the library, select the Export Attributes check box. If you do not want to export attribute definitions, clear this check box.

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If the Trimble Survey Controller version you selected in the Feature and Attribute Library Options dialog is version 6.5 or older, the Export Attributes check box is unavailable. This is because these versions of the Trimble Survey Controller software do not support attributes from a feature and attribute library. 8. Click OK.

The Data Transfer Save As dialog appears. Once you have checked that the Trimble Survey Controller software is connected to the correct COM port and is in the appropriate data transfer mode, you can export the data. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation. To transfer the feature and attribute library: 1. In the Save As dialog, select a survey controller device. Make sure that it is the same version that is specified in the Feature and Attribute Library Options dialog (see step 4, page 96). Click Open. The Connecting dialog appears as the computer connects to the Trimble Survey Controller software. When a connection is established, the Save As dialog returns. The Look in field is set to the survey controller device that you are connected to, and the Main Memory (C:) option appears in the list. If you have a survey data card inserted in your data collector, the Survey Data Card (A:) option appears as well. 3. Select the Main Memory (C:) or the Survey Data Card (A:) option (if available) and then click Open. The software reads the folder you selected. All of the feature and attribute libraries in the folder appear. In the File name field, the library description of the library appears. (This is the library name unless you have edited it in the Feature and Attribute Editor utility.) You cannot change the name.

2.

4.

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5.

Click Save to transfer the library. The Sending dialog appears. It shows the progress of the transfer.

When the feature and attribute library file has transferred, you return to the graphics window. The Feature and Attribute Library file is now in the Trimble Survey Controller software. Any control codes defined in the feature and attribute library are also transferred. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation.

6.7

Data Dictionary (*.ddf) Files


Transfer a Data Dictionary (*.ddf) file if you want to use it in the field to collect attributes. You can create .ddf files using the Data Dictionary Editor software. This software is available with the GPS Pathfinder Office software. For more information, refer to the topic Data Dictionary Files Overview in the Help. Note You can only transfer Data Dictionary (*.ddf) files to the Trimble Survey Controller software version 7.0 or later. Before you transfer the .ddf file to a data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software: 1. 2. 3. In the Export dialog, select the Survey tab. Select the Data Dictionary to Survey Controller (*.ddf) option and then click OK. The Select dialog appears. Select the .ddf file you want to transfer and then click Open.

The Data Transfer Save As dialog appears. Once you have checked that the Trimble Survey Controller software is connected to the correct COM port and is in the appropriate data transfer mode, you can export the data. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation.

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To transfer the .ddf file: 1. 2. In the Save As dialog, select a survey controller device (version 7.0 or later). Follow step 2 to step 5, page 97.

The .ddf file is now in the Trimble Survey Controller software. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation.

6.8

Digital Terrain Model (*.dtx) Files


You can use the DTMLink module to transfer a regular (North-South and East-West) grid of points interpolated from a Surface Model as a Digital Terrain Model (*.dtx) file for stakeout. To create a gridded DTM file for transfer to the Trimble Survey Controller software: 1. Start the DTMLink software and select the Surface Model that you want to use to define the gridded DTM file. For more information, refer to the DTMLink User Guide. In the DTMLink software, do one of the following: Select File / Export. Click the Export tool.

2.

The Export dialog appears. 3. 4. Select the Gridded DTM to Survey Controller option. The Grid Rectangle dialog appears. To define the grid size, use one of the following methods: Use the Grid Size tab to define the grid by the number of colums and rows Use the Step Size tab to define the grid by the width and height of the grid cells

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5.

Click OK to start transferring the gridded DTM file. The Data Transfer Save As dialog appears.

Once you have checked that the Trimble Survey Controller software is connected to the correct COM port and is in the appropriate data transfer mode, you can export the data. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation. To transfer the DTM file: 1. In the Save As dialog, select a survey controller device and click
Open. The Connecting dialog appears as the computer connects

to the Trimble Survey Controller software. When a connection is established, the Save As dialog returns. The Look in field is set to the survey controller device you are connected to, and the Main Memory (C:) option appears in the list. If you have a survey data card inserted in your data collector, the Survey Data Card (A:) option appears as well. 2. Select the Main Memory (C:) or Survey Data Card (A:) option (if available) and then click Open. The folder you selected is read and any DTM files in the folder are displayed. The File name field displays the name of the file that the DTM points will be transferred to in the Trimble Survey Controller software. The default file name is the name of the project. To enter an alternative name, edit this field. 3. To transfer the data to the Trimble Survey Controller software, click Save. The Sending dialog appears. It shows the progress of the transfer.

When the data has transferred, you return to the graphics window. The DTM file is now in the Trimble Survey Controller software. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation. Note If you have created a Digital Terrain Model (.dtx) file from the DTMLink software, you can import it to a Trimble Geomatics Office project and transfer it to the Trimble Survey Controller software using the DTM points to file (*.dtx) option from the Export dialog.

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6.9

Antenna Files
You can transfer the Antenna.ini file to a data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software version 6.0 or later. Use this option to transfer the antennas from the Survey Controller group in the Antenna.ini file for use in the Trimble Survey Controller software. Once the file has transferred, you can only use the antennas from the Survey Controller group in the Trimble Survey Controller software. Note If you transfer an Antenna file to a data collector running Trimble Survey Controller software older than version 6.0, the Antenna.dat file is used. Before you transfer the file details: 1. 2. In the Export dialog, select the Survey tab. Select the Antenna details to Survey Controller option and then click OK. The Data Transfer Save As dialog appears.

Once you have checked that the Trimble Survey Controller software is connected to the correct COM port and is in the appropriate data transfer mode, you can export the data. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller Reference Manual. To transfer the Antenna file details: 1. In the Save As dialog, select a survey controller device and then click Open. The Connecting dialog appears as the computer connects to the Trimble Survey Controller software. When a connection is established, the Save As dialog returns. The Look in field is set to the survey controller device you are connected to, and the Main Memory (C:) option appears in the list. If you have a survey data card inserted in your data collector, the Survey Data Card (A:) option appears as well. 2. Select the Main Memory (C:) or Survey Data Card (A:) option (if available) and then click Open. The folder you have selected is read. Antenna file appears in the File name field.

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3.

To transfer the file to the Trimble Survey Controller software, click Save. The Sending dialog appears. It shows the progress of the transfer.

When the Antenna file has been transferred, you are returned to the graphics window. The Antenna file is now in the Trimble Survey Controller software. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation.

6.10

UK National Grid Files


Use the standalone Trimble Data Transfer utility to transfer UK National Grid (*.pgf) files to a data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software (version 7.5 or later). You can transfer any of the existing .pgf files located in the \Program Files\Common files\Trimble\GeoData folder. To transfer the .pgf file to the Trimble Survey Controller software: 1. Do one of the following: Click ,and then select Programs / Trimble / Trimble Utilities / Data Transfer. When there is no project open, select Utilities / Data Transfer. When there is no project open, in the project bar, click the Utilities group and then click the Data Transfer shortcut.

The Data Transfer window appears. 2. Make sure that the Trimble Survey Controller software is connected to the correct COM port and is in the appropriate data transfer mode. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation. In the Device field, select the survey controller device (version 7.5 or later).

3.

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The Trimble Data Transfer utility connects to the selected device. When a connection is made, the cable in the icon at top right changes to show that the device is connected, and the status line under the icon at the top right reads Connected to Survey Controller <version>., as shown below:

4. 5. 6. 7.

In the Send tab, click Add. The Open dialog appears. In the Files of Type field, select the UK National Grid Files (*.pgf) option. Use the Look in field to change the selected drive and folder, and to select the files that you want to transfer. In the Destination field, select the Main Memory (C:) or Survey Data Card (A:) option (if available) and then click Select. The Open dialog closes and the Data Transfer window returns. The files you selected appear in the Files to Send list.

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8.

Click Transfer. The Converting dialog appears as the files are converted from the devices file format. When all files have been converted, the Sending dialog appears. It shows the progress of the transfer.

When the transfer is complete, the Transfer Completed dialog displays the results of the transfer. The .pgf file is now in the Trimble Survey Controller software. For information about using the file in this software, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation.

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7
7

Importing Survey Data into the Trimble Geomatics Office Software


In this chapter:

Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

Introduction Importing Survey Controller (*.dc) files Events that may occur when importing .dc files Importing Trimble GPS data (*.dat) files Events that may occur when importing .dat files Importing RINEX files Importing NGS Data Sheet files Importing Digital Level files Import report

Importing Survey Data into the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

7.1

Introduction
After a session of field work, you import the data you have collected into a Trimble Geomatics Office project. This chapter describes how to import each type of file and how to use the Import report. It also describes the messages and dialogs that may appear when you are importing, and how the software assigns qualities to imported points.

7.2

Importing Survey Controller (*.dc) Files


Survey Controller (*.dc) files contain data from the field work you carry out using the Trimble Survey Controller software. They can include the following: GPS data Terrestrial data

There are several ways to import .dc files into a Trimble Geomatics Office project. The following sections show you how to import files from: the Trimble Survey Controller software a computer

You can view .dc files using the DC File Editor utility. For more information, see Chapter 17, Utilities.

7.2.1

Importing .dc Files from the Trimble Survey Controller Software


The Trimble Survey Controller software stores Trimble Survey Controller jobs as .job files. When you import .job files to your computer, they become .dc files. To import these .dc files from the Trimble Survey Controller software, you need to set up a Trimble Survey Controller device in the Trimble Data Transfer utility.

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Note If you do not have a Trimble Survey Controller device set up, see Setting Up Devices Using the Data Transfer Utility, page 402. To import a .dc file from the Trimble Survey Controller software: 1. Do one of the following: Select the Import Select File / Import. tool.

The following dialog appears:

2. 3.

In the Survey tab, select the Survey devices option and then click OK. The Open dialog appears. Select a Trimble Survey Controller device and click Open.

The Connecting dialog appears as the computer connects to the device.

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When the connection is made, the Open dialog returns. The Look in field is set to the Trimble Survey Controller device you are connected to, and the Main Memory (C:) option appears in the list. If you have a survey data card inserted in your data collector, the Survey Data Card (A:) option appears as well. To continue importing the .dc files to the Trimble Geomatics Office software from the Trimble Survey Controller software, using the Data Transfer utility: 1. Do one of the following: If the .dc file that you want to import is located in the Trimble Survey Controller software main memory, select the Main Memory (C:) option. If the .dc file that you want to import is located on the survey data card inserted in the data collector, select the Survey Data Card (A:) option (if available).

2.

Click Open. The software reads the directory you select. It displays all of the Trimble Survey Controller jobs in the directory. Select the file that you want to import. To select multiple files, press >&WUO@. The software adds the selected file to the File Name field. In the File format field, select the format of the .dc file you are importing and click Open. The Downloading dialog appears. It shows the progress of the import.

3.

4.

The software imports the .dc file and stores it in the Data Files\Trimble Files folder for the project. For more information, see Events That May Occur When Importing .dc Files, page 112. Note If a point that you want to import has the same name and coordinates as a point already in the project, the software does not import it.

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7.2.2

Importing .dc Files on Your Computer


When you import .dc files to the Trimble Geomatics Office software, by default they are stored in the Data Files\Trimble Files folder for the project you are importing them toalthough you can store them in any folder. You can then import these .dc files to other Trimble Geomatics Office projects on your computer. Again, by default, the .dc files are stored in the Data Files\Trimble Files folder for the different project. Using the drag-and-drop function to import .dc files To import existing .dc files from a folder on your computer to a project, you can use the Windows Explorer drag-and-drop functionality. Note You cannot drag and drop .job or .raw files from a Survey data card to a Trimble Geomatics Office project. To import these files to a Trimble Geomatics Office project, use the Trimble Geomatics Office software. The Data Transfer utility converts the files to the correct format. To import a .dc file to a Trimble Geomatics Office project, using drag-and-drop: 1. Open the Trimble Geomatics Office project that you want to import the .dc file to. For more information, see Opening an Existing Project, page 26. Open Windows Explorer. For more information, refer to your Microsoft Windows documentation. Locate the folder containing the .dc file that you want to import. Use the right mouse button to drag the file onto the Trimble Geomatics Office graphics window. The shortcut menu appears. Select the Survey Controller files (*.dc) option.

2. 3. 4. 5.

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The software imports the .dc file and stores it in the \Data Files\Trimble Files folder for the project. For more information, see Events That May Occur When Importing .dc Files, page 112. Note If a point that you want to import has the same name and coordinates as a point already in the project, it is not imported.
Tip If you use the left mouse button to drag and drop a file, the Trimble Geomatics Office software uses the file extension to determine the file that you are importing. If the extension is used for more than one import format, the default format is used. If you do not know the default format, use the right mouse button and select the correct file format.

Using the Trimble Geomatics Office software to import .dc files To import .dc files on your computer into a project, using the Trimble Geomatics Office software: 1. Select File / Import. The following dialog appears:

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2.

In the Survey tab, select the Survey Controller files (*.dc) option and click OK. The Open dialog appears. The Look in folder defaults to the projects Checkin folder, as shown below:

3. 4.

Locate the .dc file that you want to import. Select the .dc file and then click Open. (To select multiple files, press >&WUO@.)

The software imports the .dc file and stores it in the Data Files\Trimble Files folder for the project. For more information, see the following section. Note If a point that you want to import has the same name and coordinates as a point already in the project, the software does not import it.

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7.3

Events That May Occur When Importing .dc Files


When you import a .dc file to the Trimble Geomatics Office software, the software performs a number of checks on the file and warns you if the file and the project coordinate system are not the same. The following sections describe what happens when you are importing files, and what to do as a result of any messages or dialogs that may appear.

7.3.1

Messages and Dialogs That May Appear During Import


The messages and dialogs that may appear when you import a .dc file to a project are shown in Table 7.1.

Table 7.1 Message

Messages and dialogs that may appear on import What it means The coordinate system in the .dc file is different to the coordinate system for the Trimble Geomatics Office project. What you should do Select the coordinate system that you want to use for the project. If you choose to keep the project coordinate system, the coordinates in the .dc file change to the project coordinate system. If you select the .dc file coordinate system, the project coordinate system changes. Existing points in the project change to the new system. For more information, see Selecting a Coordinate System in a Survey Controller (*.dc) File, page 52.

The Project Coordinate System dialog appears

The following appears:

One or more messages were generated importing the file


The Duplicate Points dialog appears

The Trimble Geomatics Office Click Yes to view the Import report software had problems (located in the Reports folder of the importing the file. project) and examine the errors. If necessary, correct the errors and reimport the file.

The import operation has created points with the same name in the project (duplicate points).

To manage duplicate points, merge or rename them. For more information, see Managing Points with Duplicate Names, page 127.

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Importing Survey Data into the Trimble Geomatics Office Software Table 7.1 Message The Default projection definition dialog Messages and dialogs that may appear on import (Continued) What it means The project has an undefined default Transverse Mercator projection. Different fields appear in the dialog depending on the data imported. What you should do

For more information, see Using a Default Transverse Mercator Projection, page 55.

Either the library used to set up a project for attributes is The Feature and Attribute file defined different from the one referenced in the .dc file, or for this project is the project is not set up for different attributes.

This message:

To import the attributes common to the .dc file and the project, click Yes. To only import the points, click No. To prevent this message appearing again, make sure that the library you use to set up a project for attributes is the same as the library you use to collect attribute information in the field. For more information, see Chapter 16, Using Attributes in the Trimble Geomatics Office Software. Select the geoid model that you used to create the .ggf file in the Trimble Survey Controller software. Use the Coordinate System Manager utility to add a geoid model with the same name to the coordinate system database used in the survey controller. When you add a geoid model, make sure that you reference the same .ggf file used in the field. Select the datum grid from the list. If it is not in the list, check that you have created the required datum grid in the coordinate system database using the Coordinate System Manager utility. If you have, check that the datum grid is set as the default datum transformation method for the datum transformation group. Check to see if the .dc file is open in another application (for example, the DC File Editor utility). Otherwise, the file may be corrupt.

The Select Geoid The .ggf file referenced in the Model dialog .dc file does not match a geoid model in the coordinate system database. If you use the Trimble Geomatics Office software to subgrid your file, this only occurs when you delete a geoid model from the coordinate system database. The Select Datum The .cdg file (Trimble Survey Grid dialog Controller software version 7.0 or later only) does not match a datum grid in the coordinate system database.

This message:

Unable to import file

An error during import means that the software cannot import the file.

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Once the software imports the files, it performs a recomputation. The recomputation examines all observations to points and shows the best coordinates. It then creates a homogenous data set; that is, it ensures that all data is derived from points in the same coordinate system. If it finds misclosures, the software reports them in the Recompute report. Correct these before you continue. For more information, see Appendix B, Recomputation. The software creates a selection set for each .dc file imported. To view selection sets: Choose Select / Selection Sets.

The list of selection sets in the project appears.

7.3.2

Trimble Survey Controller Classes and How They Are Imported


When you create points in the Trimble Survey Controller software, the software assigns them a point class. Then, when you import points to a project, the Trimble Geomatics Office software uses this class, and the method used to determine the points position, to assign a quality to the point. Recomputations use this quality to determine the calculated position for the point. For more information, see Appendix B, Recomputation. The classes assigned to points in the Trimble Survey Controller software, and how the Trimble Geomatics Office software manages them on import, are shown in Table 7.2.

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Table 7.2 Class Control

Trimble Survey Controller classes Description The highest quality you can assign to points in the Trimble Survey Controller software. What the software does on import Imports as control coordinates for a point.

Normal

Given to all measured points Imports the observations and apart from staked points; coordinates for the point. also keyed-in points. Given to points measured during stakeout. Imports observations and stake details for the point.

Stake Backsight

Given to points defined in the The Trimble Geomatics Office field as backsight points. software treats backsight class as normal class. Given to a check observation Imports observations with or a position keyed in as a enabled as check class. duplicate point and stored as a check point. Given to points overwritten or deleted in the Trimble Survey Controller software. Does not import points into the project. The Import report lists the deleted points in the .dc file.

Check

Deleted

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7.3.3

Importing Survey Data into the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

Qualities Assigned to Coordinates from the Trimble Survey Controller Software


You can use one of several different measurement methods to obtain GPS positions stored in the Trimble Survey Controller software, or you can key them in. The quality of the coordinates of each point depends on the method you use, or the quality you assign to the point when keying it in. The qualities assigned to coordinates from the Trimble Survey Controller software are shown in Table 7.3.
Table 7.3 Qualities assigned to coordinates Quality assigned Control Survey Mapping Unknown Mapping Quality of copied point

Coordinate method Keyed-in control Keyed-in normal L1 Code Autonomous GPS WAAS Copied

Note For Survey Controller (*.dc) files version 7.5 or later, if you use to determine the position of the base, an Autonomous method is written and the software imports the position with an unknown quality. This means that all points measured from the base have an unknown quality. If you perform a GPS site calibration and are confident of the results, increase the quality of the base to survey. For .dc file versions earlier than 7.5, if you use the key to determine the position, the base position has survey quality.

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7.3.4

Qualities Assigned to Observations from the Trimble Survey Controller Software


When you make an observation to a point, the quality of the observed point comes from the quality of: the point observed from the observation used to derive the position of the point

The quality assigned to the observation depends on the observation method used to observe it. Table 7.4 shows the qualities assigned to observations from the Trimble Survey Controller software.
Table 7.4 Qualities assigned to observations Quality assigned Survey Mapping Survey Mapping Mapping

Observation method Conventional Laser rangefinder L1 Fixed L1 Float L1 Code

7.3.5

Managing Duplicate Points


Points that have the same name are known as duplicate points. If duplicate points are detected on import, the Trimble Geomatics Office software can manage them in the following ways. It can: always merge duplicate pointsthis is the fastest way to import data and occurs by default merge duplicate points within a specified horizontal or vertical tolerance, or both leave duplicate points unresolved

For more information about duplicate points, see Managing Duplicate Points When Importing Data, page 70, and Resolving Duplicate Points in the Database, page 72.
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7.4

Importing Trimble GPS Data (*.dat) Files


A GPS Data (*.dat) file contains GPS raw data from a Trimble GPS receiver. These files can include postprocessed kinematic data and static data. GPS .dat files do not contain any coordinate system information, so you should check that the coordinate system defined for the Trimble Geomatics Office project is correct. There are several ways to import a .dat file into a project. The following sections show you how to import .dat files into a project from: the Trimble Survey Controller software a Trimble survey-grade GPS receiver a computer

7.4.1

Importing .dat Files from the Trimble Survey Controller Software


When you perform a GPS postprocessed kinematic or static survey using the Trimble Survey Controller software and a Trimble GPS receiver, and store the data in the data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software (or Survey data card if it is available in your data collector), the GPS raw data file is stored as a .raw file in the Trimble Survey Controller software. When you transfer the data to your computer, the .raw file is converted to a .dat file. To import the data to the software, you need to import the .dc file that is created from the Trimble Survey Controller job. The converted .dat file is linked to the .dc file so that when you import the .dc file, any associated .dat files are also imported to the project. For more information, see Importing .dc Files from the Trimble Survey Controller Software, page 106.

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7.4.2

Importing .dat Files from a Trimble GPS Receiver


If you collect and store GPS data in a Trimble GPS receiver, you can use the Trimble Geomatics Office software to import the .dat file(s) from the receiver into a project. To import .dat file(s) from a Trimble GPS receiver to the Trimble Geomatics Office software: 1. Do one of the following: Select File / Import. Select the Import tool.

The following dialog appears:

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2.

In the Survey tab, select the Survey devices option and then click OK. The following dialog appears:

3.

Select a GPS receiver device and click Open.

Note If you do not have a Trimble GPS receiver device set up, see Setting Up Devices Using the Data Transfer Utility, page 402. The Connecting dialog appears as the computer connects to the GPS receiver. When the connection is finished, the Open dialog returns with the Look in field set to the GPS receiver device you are connected to. The GPS files in the receiver are displayed.

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To import the .dat files into the Trimble Geomatics Office software from the GPS receiver: 1. 2. Select the file that you want to import. (To select multiple files, press >&WUO@.) Click Open. The following dialog appears:

3.

Use this dialog to check the values in the .dat file before you import it. Note If you select more than one .dat file, the DAT Checkin dialog displays the data for all .dat files. The Filename column shows the file that the data is from.

4.

To change the value of a field, do the following: a. b. In the field, enter the correct value using the keyboard. To revert to the original values, click Reset.

To change the value of multiple rows in a field at one time, for example, if you find the antenna heights are incorrect for a number of points, do the following: a. b. Hold down >&WUO@ and select the required Antenna height fields. (To select sequential rows, use >6KLIW@.) Enter the correct antenna height value in the currently selected field.

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Note If you change a value in the DAT Checkin dialog, the value in the DAT file is not changed. However, the new value is the one used in the Trimble Geomatics Office software. Your field data stays the same. 5. Click OK.

The .dat file is imported and stored in the Data Files\Trimble Files folder for the project. For more information, see Events That May Occur When Importing .dat Files, page 125. Note If you import a .dat file more than once to the same project, existing occupations in the project are not selected in the DAT Checkin dialog. You cannot import the same GPS segment more than once.

7.4.3

Importing .dat Files from Your Computer


You can import any .dat files on your computer to a Trimble Geomatics Office project. When you import a .dat file from your computer to a project, the .dat file is stored in the Data Files\Trimble Files folder for the project. Using the drag-and-drop function to import .dat files You can use Windows Explorer to import existing .dat files from a folder on your computer to a project using the Microsoft Windows drag-and-drop functionality. Note You cannot drag-and-drop .job or .raw files from a Survey data card to a Trimble Geomatics Office project. To import these files to a project, use the Trimble Geomatics Office software. The software converts them to the correct format.

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To import .dat files into a project, using the drag-and-drop function: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Open the project that you want to import the .dat file to. For more information, see Opening an Existing Project, page 26. Open Windows Explorer. For more information, refer to your Microsoft Windows operating-system documentation. Locate the folder containing the .dat file you want to import. Use the right mouse button to drag the file onto the graphics window. The shortcut menu appears. Select the GPS data files (*.dat) option. The DAT checkin dialog appears. Follow step 3 to step 5, page 121.

The software imports the .dat file(s) and stores them in the Data Files\Trimble Files folder for the project. For more information, see Events That May Occur When Importing .dat Files, page 125. Note If you use the left mouse button to drag-and-drop a file, the extension of the file is used by the Trimble Geomatics Office software to determine the type of file that you are importing. If the file extension is used for more than one import format, the default format is used. If you are not sure what the default format is, you should use the right mouse button and select the correct file format.

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Using the Trimble Geomatics Office software to import .dat files To import a .dat file on a computer to a Trimble Geomatics Office project: 1. Do one of the following: Select File / Import. Select the Import tool .

The following dialog appears:

2. 3. 4. 5.

In the Survey tab, select the GPS data file (*.dat) option and then click OK. The Import dialog appears. Locate the folder that the .dat file is in. Select the file(s) and click Open. The DAT Checkin dialog appears. Follow step 3 to step 5, page 121.

The software imports the .dat file(s) to your project and stores them in the Data Files\Trimble Files folder for the project.
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7.5

Events That May Occur When Importing .dat Files


The following sections describe what happens when you are importing GPS data (*.dat) files, and what to do as a result of any messages and dialogs that appear.

7.5.1

Messages and Dialogs That May Appear During Import


The messages and dialogs that may appear when a .dat file is imported to a Trimble Geomatics Office project are shown in Table 7.5.

Table 7.5 Message

Messages and dialogs that may appear on import What it means What you should do Specify the northing and easting for the origin point. The software uses this as the projection false northing and false easting. For more information, see Using a Default Transverse Mercator Projection, page 55. Check if the .dat file is open in another application. Otherwise, the file may be corrupt. Click Yes to view the Import report (located in the Reports folder of the project) to examine the errors. If necessary, correct the errors and reimport the file.

The Default projection If you use the default definition dialog Transverse Mercator projection and do not define it, the software uses the first GPS point in the project to update the projection origin. The software has not Unable to Import file(s). imported the file because of an error. This message: This message: The software had problems importing the file.

One or more errors were generated importing the file.

After you import the file(s), the software creates a selection set for each one. (Unless the file is from the Trimble Survey Controller software. In this case, it creates a selection set for the .dc file, which contains the same data.) To view selection sets: Choose Select / Selection Sets.

The list of selection sets in the project appears.

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7.5.2

Importing Survey Data into the Trimble Geomatics Office Software

How the Trimble Geomatics Office Software Assigns Qualities to Imported Points
When you import GPS postprocessed kinematic or static data stored in the Trimble Survey Controller software to the Trimble Geomatics Office software, the software loads the .dat file together with the associated .dc file. This means that point information from the .dc file, such as the class and method used to derive the points position, can link with the points found in the .dat files. The Trimble Geomatics Office software uses this class and method to determine the points position so that it can assign a quality to the point. A recomputation uses the quality to determine the best position for the point. For more information, see Appendix B, Recomputation. If you collect and store the GPS data in the Trimble GPS receiver and import it into the software, there is no information on the class of the point. By default, the Trimble Geomatics Office software treats any points with unassigned classes as points with unknown point quality. Note An exception to this is when the .dat files are logged from the TRS for Windows or URS for Windows software. When you import a point with a user input reference position set as high in the .dat file into the Trimble Geomatics Office software, the software assigns it a control quality. The software assigns an autonomous and averaged quality point set as low in the .dat file an unknown quality.

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7.5.3

Managing Points with Duplicate Names


If you import a .dat file to a Trimble Geomatics Office project and a point in the file has the same name as a point in the software, the points automatically merge. When two or more points with the same name merge, all coordinates and observations combine into one point, but only one position is used for the point. A recomputation determines this position using the highest quality position derived from the observations or coordinates. If the difference between any observed or keyed-in position and the final position of the point is outside the tolerance set for the project, the software reports a misclosure. Note When you import a .dat file containing a point with a control class specified in the .dc file into a project with an existing control point of the same name, the points are automatically merged and only one coordinate will be used for the points position. If you do not want the points to merge, use the Explode Points command to create separate points. You can separate the points by data source, data type, or all observations and keyed-in coordinates. To do this: 1. 2. Click on the merged point. Select Edit / Explode Points. The following dialog appears:

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3.

Do one of the following: To separate the point by data source, select the By data source option. The software creates points by separating survey data by Source type. For information on the available Source types, see Chapter 9, Viewing and Editing Data. To separate points by observations, select the all observations option. The software creates points from all observation and coordinate sources of the point. To separate points by data type, select the by data type option. If you separate points by data type, you can rename the GPS points with a suffix.

Tip The Explode points by data type option is used when both WGS-84 and grid points are required to perform a GPS site calibration in the Trimble Geomatics Office software.

4. 5.

To view the number of points that can be created from the selected option, select Details. Click Explode.

The software creates separate points with the same name in the project.

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7.6

Importing RINEX Files


Receiver INdependent EXchange (RINEX) files contain raw satellite tracking information and navigation, and meteorological data collected by a GPS receiver. They are similar in content to Trimble GPS data (*.dat) files. The RINEX file format is an ASCII representation of data collected by GPS receivers, and is typically obtained from base stations or other manufacturers software. RINEX files can be transferred to a computer and imported into a Trimble Geomatics Office project. Once imported into the project, you can process the survey session and base data, using the GPS baseline processor (if you have the Baseline Processing module installed). To use the RINEX file format, you need the following files on your computer:
Table 7.6 RINEX file Observation Data file Navigation Message file Meterological file (optional) Files necessary for RINEX file format File extension *.obs, *.XXo *.nav, *.XXn *.met or *.XXm file

To import RINEX files on your computer to the Trimble Geomatics Office software: 1. In the Import dialog, select the RINEX files (*.obs,*.??o) option. (Alternatively, use the drag-and-drop functionality.) The Open dialog appears. Select the observation data file(s).

2.

Note If the observation and navigation files do not have the same name, you can match them in the Navigation File Matching dialog. Importing RINEX files is similar to importing .dat files. For more information, see Importing .dat Files from Your Computer, page 122.

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7.7

Importing NGS Data Sheet Files


National Geodetic Survey (NGS) Data Sheet files contain control point information for the United States and territories. The Trimble Geomatics Office software assumes that all NGS data imported into a project is in an NAD-83 datum (that is, it is consistent with a WGS-84 datum).
Warning If the datum specified for the project is not equivalent to NAD-83, an error message appears. If you choose to continue with the import, the NGS coordinates are interpreted using whatever datum is defined for the project. If this datum is not equivalent to NAD-83 this interpretation is incorrect.

To import NGS data sheet files on your computer to the Trimble Geomatics Office software, do one of the following: In the Import dialog, select the NGS Data Sheet file (*.dat,*.dsx,*.htm,*.html,*.prl) option. Use the drag-and-drop functionality.

For more information on using each method, see Importing .dc Files on Your Computer, page 109. Note When you import an NGS Data Sheet file containing a point with the same name as an existing point in the project, the points automatically merge.

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7.8

Importing Digital Level Files


Leveling observations or delta elevations often form part of the terrestrial adjustment network. You can also use them to improve the elevations derived from GPS observations. The Trimble Geomatics Office software supports the import of files from the following digital levels: Leica NA 2002/3000 Zeiss DiNi 11/11T/21

Note The software does not support Leica measurement records recorded outside of the level run; that is, 330 records. To import Digital Level files on your computer into a project, using the Trimble Geomatics Office software: 1. Do one of the following: Select File / Import. Select the Import tool.

The following dialog appears:

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2.

In the Survey tab, select the Digital Level files (*.dat, *.raw) option, and then click Open. The Open dialog appears. The Look in folder defaults to the projects Checkin folder, as shown below:

3. 4.

Locate the .dat or .raw file that you want to import. Select the file and click Open. (To select multiple files, press >&WUO@.) The Digital Level Import dialog appears. For more information about this dialog, see the following section.

7.8.1

Digital Level Import Dialog


Use the Digital Level Import dialog to: display the data from a Digital Level file determine which points are used to compute delta elevations check the elevation of the starting point display misclosures check point names

Use the dialog to check and correct the values in the digital level file(s) before importing the observations into the Trimble Geomatics Office project.

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The dialog is divided into two sections; the Elevation group and the digital level table, as shown below:

The Elevation group shows the starting point information for each level loop. It displays the following information: Starting point name Elevation the starting point elevation can be edited from this field. Elevation quality

The table shows digital level data in chronological order, with each level loop section divided by a bold horizontal line. It shows the following information: Station point name Backsight Intermediate sight Foresight information

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Distance Description Staked delta information shows the difference between the design elevation and the staked elevation at a point.

7.8.2

Editing Starting Point Elevations Before Importing


In the Digital Level Import dialog, enter an elevation for starting points. The software will use this elevation to compute elevations for other points. To edit starting point elevations: 1. 2. Click on any point in the loop. The starting point elevation for the loop is shown in the Elevation group. In the Elevation group, edit the elevation and quality and press >(QWHU@. The elevation will be computed for all station points.

Use these computed elevations to check with known values and validate data. Note The only elevations imported are those with the elevation symbol. All other station points will have delta elevations imported. Their elevations will be computed during a recomputation.
Tip Any changes that you make in the Digital Level Import dialog only affect the data that is imported; they do not affect the Digital Level (*.dat, *.raw) file.

Note When importing digital level data, if you select the Merge Duplicate Points within Tolerance option (in the Duplicate Point Options dialog), only the vertical tolerance is used.

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Selecting digital level observations The following rules apply when selecting level observations to import into the project: An intermediate sight cannot be selected until the preceeding backsight is selected. If there is more than one sight with the same name, it will select all other observations (except for intermediate sights) with the same name.

The level data that is imported is shown in the Point Derivation report and the Recompute report. When the Digital Level Import dialog is open, all observations are selected by default. To select or deselect level observations for import, you can do the following: Select or clear the check box to the left of the observation. Click Select by Filter. When you click this button the following dialog appears:

You can select or deselect observations using the point name or a description. To do this you can also use wildcards. For example, you can specify that only station points with a particular prefix or suffix are selected.

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Tip When you collect digital level data, Trimble recommends that you store the points that you want to import into the Trimble Geomatics Office software with a unique prefix or suffix. For example, store all of the points that you wish to use as station points with the prefix, STN. This makes it easier to select points using the Select by Filter button in the Digital Level Import dialog.

7.9

Import Report
Each time you import a file to a project, the Trimble Geomatics Office software creates an Import report for the imported file. It names these reports <file name>.html, where <file name> is the name of the imported file. It also creates an imported files report named Import.html. This report lists all of the files that are imported to the project. The software automatically adds to this report any files imported in another session. The View generated report option (in the Reporting tab of the Project Properties dialog) controls the way that the software notifies you of system-generated reports. The <file name>.html report includes the following parts: Project Details Messages (if any messages occurred on import) Recompute report

The following sections describe each part of the Import report and include report samples where appropriate.

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7.9.1

The Project Details Section


Figure 7.1 shows the Project Details section. This section summarizes the project name and coordinate system details.

Figure 7.1

Project Details section of an Import report

7.9.2

The Messages Section


Figure 7.2 shows the Messages section. This section lists any messages that have occurred on import (see page 125). If no messages occur on import, this section is not displayed.

Figure 7.2

Messages section of an Import report

7.9.3

The Recompute Report


The Import report includes a link to the Recompute report which is created in the Reports folder. The Recompute report summarizes the results of the recomputation process. For more information, see Appendix B, Recomputation.

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CHAPTER

8
8

Using the Graphics Window and Selecting Entities


In this chapter:

Q Introduction Q Using the Trimble Geomatics Office graphics window to view a project Q Selecting entities

Using the Graphics Window and Selecting Entities

8.1

Introduction
Once you import field work into the Trimble Geomatics Office software, you can view it in the graphics window. You can use a variety of tools to customize the data you see in the graphics window. This helps you to check your data. When you are checking the data, you can select particular entities or groups of entities so that you can edit them or view their details. There are several different selection methods available in the software. You can also use one of the selection methods to find specific data. For example, if your project contains some points observed with GPS using the wrong antenna height, you can easily select the incorrectly observed points for editing. For more information on viewing and editing data, see Chapter 9, Viewing and Editing Data.

8.2

Using the Trimble Geomatics Office Graphics Window to View a Project


When you are viewing a project in the graphics window, you can use the following methods and tools to customize the information that you see on the screen. For more information about each of the tools described, refer to the Help. Note You can also use the zoom navigator to view the contents of a project. For more information, see The zoom navigator, page 13.

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8.2.1

Using the Zoom Tools


You can magnify, reduce, or move the data that is visible in the graphics window. Table 8.1 shows the zoom tools that control the data.
Table 8.1 Tool Zoom tools Menu Command View / Pan Function Shifts the center of the zoom area; changing the current screen view. If you have a mouse with a wheel, hold the wheel down to activate the Pan tool. Magnifies the display by increasing the scale. If you have a mouse with a wheel, you can use the wheel to zoom in and out. Shows a greater area by decreasing the scale. If you have a mouse with a wheel, you can use the wheel to zoom in and out.

View / Zoom / In

View / Zoom / Out

View / Zoom / Extents Changes the scale so that the window displays all of the information in the project. This option is also available from the shortcut menu. View / Previous Returns the display to the previous zoom. If you have a mouse with a wheel, this command will return you to the previous zoom you had before last using the wheel.

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8.2.2

Using the Graphics Window and Selecting Entities

Labeling Points
You can give points labels that show their particular details. These labels are of the same font and size as ToolTips, and make points in a project easier to find. They can show the values of different point fields, for example, point name and elevation. To label points: 1. 2. Select the points that you want to label. If you do not define a selection, the software uses all of the points in the project. Select View / Point Labels. The following dialog appears:

3.

Select the check boxes for the point fields that you want to display. For example, if you only want to display the names of the points, select the Name check box. In the Apply to group, do one of the following: To label a selection, choose the Selection option. To label all of the points in the project, choose the Whole database option.

4.

Note You can only label one selection at a time. 5. Click OK.

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If you close a project between working sessions, the labels settings are restored when you reopen it. However, labels are not stored in the project database, so if you want to store the information that they contain so that you can export or report it, use annotations. For more information, see Chapter 13, Adding Entities to the Project. Note You can create your own label options by editing the projects Options.ini file. For more information, refer to the topic Options.ini file in the Help.

8.2.3

Using View Filters in the Survey View


A view filter is a way to only show the data that you want to see in the graphics windowall other data is hidden. As a result, you can view and edit your work in the Survey view more easily. Note Data that has been hidden by the view filter cannot be selected using any of the commands in the Select menu. To apply a view filter: 1. In the Survey view, do one of the following: Select the View Filters Select View / Filters. tool.

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The following dialog appears:

Use this dialog to hide the groups of data that you do not want to view. 2. Select the types of observations that you want to view. For example, select the Show all observations option to enable all observation types to be selected for viewing. Note The Show only observations marked for adjustment and Show only observations able to be adjusted options are only available if you have the Network Adjustment module installed. The check boxes in the Types of observations to show group vary according to the option selected. The upper group displays the observation types that can be selected for viewing. The lower group displays the properties for the observation types (where applicable).

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3.

In the Types of observations to show group, do the following: a. b. Select the check boxes from the upper group to select the observation types that you want to view. Select the appropriate check boxes from the lower group to display only the observation types (selected in the upper group) with those properties. If you want to display an observation type that has more than one property, to view it you must select all relevant check boxes. For example, if you select the RTK and Sideshot observations check boxes and clear the Check observations check box, you can view RTK sideshot observations in the graphics window, but any RTK sideshot observations that are enabled as check are not shown.

Once a filter is applied to a project, the View Filters are on icon appears in the status bar. You can double-click this icon to access the View Filters dialog and make any changes to the filters.
Tip When the Use Timeline to show dependent GPS baselines check box is selected, only the observations that are shown in the Timeline view are displayed in the graphics window.

View filters remain applied even after you close and reopen a project. Note In the Plan view, use layers to filter data. For more information, refer to the topic Layers Overview in the Help.

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8.2.4

Using the Graphics Window and Selecting Entities

Viewing Survey Data


You can change the way that survey data is displayed in the Survey view of the graphics window. To customize the survey data: 1. In the Survey view, select View / Options. The following dialog appears:

2.

In the Survey Data tab, select one of the following check boxes: Use stub lines for sideshots if you have a large number of observations from a single point, this option is useful for minimizing the number of observations displayed. Show number of observations (where > 1) the labels show the number of observations.

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8.2.5

Viewing Grid Lines


Grid lines can be used in the graphics window to show the scale of the project and to help you to easily find particular coordinate locations. To view grid lines in the graphics window: 1. Select View / Options. The following dialog appears:

2.

In the Grid Lines tab, select the Show grid lines check box. You can display: A fixed number of grid linesthe same number of grid lines will be displayed when you zoom in and out. Grid lines at the interval that you specifythe number of grid lines displayed is increased or decreased depending on whether you zoom out or in.

3.

Select an appropriate line type and color from the Grid line type and Grid line color lists. You can also label the grid lines by selecting the Label grid lines check box.

Tip You can also display the grid lines in the graphics window using the Grid Lines tool in the toolbar.

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Note When grid lines are displayed in the graphics window and you select File / Plot/Print, grid lines are drawn on the plot.

8.2.6

Setting the Color Scheme in the Graphics Window


You can select the colors used to display survey data in the graphics window by setting the legend style. To set the legend style in the graphics window: 1. Select the View / Options.The following dialog appears:

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2.

In the Survey Legend tab, select the color scheme from the drop-down list. Table 8.2 shows the color schemes for both legend styles.

Table 8.2 Item

Color schemes for each legend style Default legend Window text color in Control Panel Window color in Control Panel Selected items color in Control Panel Black legend White Black Red White

Default color for text Trimble Geomatics Office graphics window Color of selected entities

More than one type of observation Black (for example a terrestrial and an RTK observation between two points) RTK vectors Postprocessed static baselines Conventional observations Laser rangefinder observations Reduced observations Potential baselines (overlapping GPS data between two points) Disabled baselines Any observation enabled as a check Flagged observations RTK Continuous vectors Postprocessed Kinematic (PPK) vectors PPK Continuous vectors Normal point Station Blue Orange Dark green Light green Green Grey Dark red

Blue Yellow Dark green Light green Green Grey Dark red

Dashed line in the color set Dashed line in the color set for the observation type for the observation type Red Light blue Blue Light blue Black dot Blue circle Red Light blue Blue Light blue White dot White circle

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Using the Graphics Window and Selecting Entities Color schemes for each legend style (Continued) Default legend Blue triangle with dot Blue single triangle Blue box White solid circle Blue solid circle Black legend White triangle with dot White single triangle White box White solid circle Blue solid circle

Table 8.2 Item

3D control point Horizontal control point Vertical control point Network-adjusted point Event marker

8.2.7

Viewing Background Maps


The Trimble Geomatics Office software can display Background Map files. You can import Drawing exchange format (.dxf), Windows bitmap (.bmp), or Tagged Image File Format (.tif) files to display. To be displayed correctly, these files must be georeferenced, using the ESRI World file format. A World file is an ASCII text file with a .tfw or .wld extension. To be used in the Trimble Geomatics Office software, the World file must: use the same coordinate system as your project have the same units as your project

Note The rotation in the World file is not used in the Trimble Geomatics Office software, so the rotation of files is not supported. To select a Background Map file to display: 1. 2. 3. Select View / Options. The View Options dialog appears. In the Background Map tab, click Add. The Add dialog appears. Locate the file that you want to use as a background map and click Open. The file appears in the list in the File names list in the Background Map tab. Click OK.

4.

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Note Make sure that the World file is stored in the same location as the Background Map file that it relates to. You do not need to select the World file in the list. For more information about Background Map files, refer to the Help.

8.3

Selecting Entities
You can select some or all of the entities in a project. To do this, use one of the following selection methods: The mouse The Select menu

Table 8.3 shows some examples of functions and the selection methods that best suit them.
Table 8.3 Function Feature code processing Selection methods Selection method Choose Select / Selection Sets because the order of the selected entities is important. Select individual baselines to process.

Baseline processing (If you have the Baseline Processing module installed) Managing duplicate points Browsing point information Doing a multi-edit

Choose Select / Duplicate Points menu command. Click on any entity or entities. Choose Select / Points. Choose Select / Observations. Choose Select / By Query.

Staked point enquiries Calibration

Choose Select / Staked Points. Choose Select / Calibration Points.

The number of entities that you select appears in the status bar.

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8.3.1

Using the Graphics Window and Selecting Entities

Selecting All or None


To select all entities in the Survey or Plan views, do one of the following: Choose Select / All.

If you select all entities in the Survey view, the Trimble Geomatics Office software only considers the points that are currently visible in the graphics window. It does not consider data that is hidden by filters. Locking a layer in the Plan view does not affect the data that you can select in the Survey view. If you perform this action from the Plan view, the software only considers the points that are in a layer with the Visibility icon selected and the Unlocked icon selected. Filtering out an observation with a view filter does not affect the data that you can select in the Plan view. To deselect entities, do one of the following: Choose Select / None. Click an area of the graphics window where there are no entities.

Any currently selected entities are no longer selected.

8.3.2

Selecting Entities Using the Mouse


You can use the mouse to randomly select points and observations in the Survey view; and points, lines, arcs, curves, and annotations in the Plan view. To select entities using the mouse, use the Select pointer (click ) to: drag a box around the entities that you want to select click the entity that you want to select

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You can also do the following: To add the entity to the current selection set, hold down >6KLIW@ and click the entity you want to select. To invert the selection, hold down >&WUO@ and drag a box around the selection of entities that you want inverted.

Tip You can use the mouse to browse entities without continually reselecting them. Hold down the mouse button over a point for a few seconds. Keep it held down, and as you drag the mouse over entities, their properties appear in the Properties window for you to view.

8.3.3

Selecting Points
You can select points based on information about them. To do this, use the Select Points dialog. If you specify values for more than one field, the Trimble Geomatics Office software selects points that satisfy all criteria. To select points using information about a point: Choose Select / Points. The following dialog appears:

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Tip If you want points to be added to any entities that you have selected before accessing this dialog, select the Add to the current selection check box. If you want to clear the current selection before applying the new selection, leave this check box clear.

Only points that are currently visible in the graphics window can be selected. If you are in the Plan view you cannot select points in a locked layer. The following sections show you how to use the Select Points dialog to select points. Not all of the options are discussed, so for more information, refer to the Help. Selecting points by name To select points by name, in the Select Points dialog: 1. Select the General tab, as shown below:

2.

In the With name field, enter the names for the points that you want to select and click OK.

The points matching your selection criteria are selected.

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Some rules for selecting points in this way are as follows: Point names are not case-sensitive. When specifying names, you can use wildcards. For more information, see Selecting Entities Using Wildcards, page 165. Separate names with commas. For example, to select points named 1000, 2000, and 3000, enter:
1000, 2000, 3000

The ellipsis (...) or dash () selects every point with the specified name within the range. For example, to select points with names including and between 1000 and 1005, enter:
1000...1005 or 10001005

Note With a range including alphanumeric names, some unexpected entities may be selected since a full alphabetic sort is used. If the start and end range names are numeric, then a numeric range is selected. To select a point name which has a hyphen in the name, put the name between quotes. Otherwise, the software mistakes the entry for a range of points. For example, to select the point name a-2, enter: a-2. Note To select points by feature code, use the same rules as for selecting points by names.

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Selecting points by GPS quality To select GPS points, in the Select Points dialog: 1. Select the GPS tab, as shown below:

2.

Use the Horizontal precision and Vertical precision fields to select points based on the precision values for a GPS baseline. Click the buttons next to these fields to toggle between the Less than or equal and Greater than or equal buttons. These configure how you select points.

3.

Click OK.

The points matching your selection criteria are selected. Note The software assumes that any numbers that you enter in the Select Points dialog are in the same units set for the appropriate field in the Units and Format tab of the Project Properties dialog.

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Selecting points by antenna height To select points by antenna height, in the Select Points dialog: 1. Select the Occupation tab, as shown below:

2.

In the With antenna or target height between fields, enter the range of the antenna heights for the points that you want to select. The software treats the entered values as inclusive. To select points with a specific antenna height, enter the same antenna height value in both fields. Note If you only enter an antenna height in the first field, points with antenna heights greater than or equal to the height specified are selected. Entering an antenna height in the second field will select points with antenna heights less than or equal to the height specified.

3.

Click OK.

The points matching your selection criteria are selected.

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Selecting Observations
You can use the Select Observations dialog to select GPS observations based on information about an observation. You can only access this dialog from the Survey view. If you specify values for more than one field, the Trimble Geomatics Office software selects observations that satisfy all criteria. To select observations using information about an observation, do one of the following: In the Survey view, choose Select / Observations. The following dialog appears:

Tip If you want to add observations to any entities that you selected before accessing this dialog, select the Add to the current selection check box. If you want to clear the current selection before applying the selection resulting from this dialog, leave this check box clear.

The Trimble Geomatics Office software only considers observations that are currently visible in the graphics window. It does not consider data that is hidden by filters.

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The following sections show you how to use the Select Observations dialog. Not all of the options are discussed, so for more information about this dialog, refer to the Help. Selecting observations from a specified point When selecting observations from or to a specified point, the direction of the observation vector is used. To select all observations from a specified point, in the Select Observations dialog: 1. 2. Make sure that the General tab is selected. In the From point field, do one of the following: 3. Enter the name of the point that the observations start from. To select the point that the observations start from, use field fill-in .

Click OK.

The observations matching your selection criteria are selected. Note The same rules for selecting points by name apply when specifying the point names in the From point and To point field. For more information, refer to the Help.

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Selecting GPS observations by baseline precision To select GPS observations by baseline precision, in the Select Observations dialog: 1. Select the GPS tab, as shown below:

2.

Use the Horz prec and Vert prec fields to select observations based on the precision values for a GPS baseline. The software treats the entered values as inclusive. Click the buttons next to these fields to toggle between the Less than and equal and Greater than and equal buttons. These configure how you select the points.

3.

Click OK.

The observations matching your selection criteria are selected. Note You can use the Ratio, Ref variance, and RMS fields if you have the Baseline Processing module installed and you have processed baselines.

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8.3.5

Selecting Duplicate Points


The Trimble Geomatics Office software provides a quick way to select duplicate points in the database. In both views, you can select duplicate points based on the following point fields: Coordinates Name Name and positions within a specified distance

To select duplicate points, do one of the following: Choose Select / Duplicate Points and select the option that you want from the list. Choose Select / By Query and select the option that you want from the list.

Tip Use the above selection methods if you want to merge duplicate points with the same name. For more information on merging points, see Managing Duplicate Points, page 117, or refer to the Help.

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8.3.6

Using the Graphics Window and Selecting Entities

Selecting Staked Points


You can quickly select staked points in your project, based on a series of queries. This function is available in both views. To select staked points: 1. Choose Select / Staked Points, the following dialog appears:

2.

Select the appropriate query from the list. (If you select a query that is followed by an ellipsis, you will be asked to specify parameter values.) If necessary, use options in the Selection group to create specific selections. You can also use these options when creating your own Stakeout report. For more information, see Selecting Entities Using Queries, page 166.

3.

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8.3.7

Selecting Calibration Points


You can select the calibration points that appear in the Point list of the GPS Site Calibration dialog. To select calibration points: Choose Select / Calibration Points.

All of the calibration points that appear in the GPS Site Calibration dialog will be selected in your project. Note If there are no points in the Point list, this option is unavailable.

8.3.8

Selecting Entities in the Plan View


In the Plan view, you can also use the Select menu to select entities based on the following Plan view properties: Layers Styles Point features

For more information about each selection command, refer to the Help.

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Selecting entities by layer You can select all entities in specified layers. This lets you use the Multiple Edit dialog to change a common field for all entities in the layer, or move entities from one layer to another. To select all entities in a layer: 1. In the Plan view, choose Select / By Layer. The following dialog appears:

2. 3.

Select the check boxes for the layers that you want to select and then click OK. The entities in the chosen layers are selected in the graphics window.

Note If a layer has its Locked property selected, or its Visible property not selected, in the Layers dialog, the layer is not available in the Select by Layers dialog. For information about the Layers dialog, see Layers, page 322.

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8.3.9

Selecting Entities Using Wildcards


When using the Select Points dialog or the Select Observations dialog, you can use wildcards to select multiple point names. Table 8.4 shows the wildcards that are available and how they work.
Table 8.4 Wildcard ? Wildcards for selecting entities Description Stands for any single character in the same position as the question mark. For example, Tree? matches Tree1 or TreeA. Another example, 1?00 matches 1000, 1100, 1200, and so forth. Stands for any number of characters in the same position as the asterisk. For example, Tree* matches Tree, Tree1, or Tree007. Stands for any digit in the same position as the number sign. For example, Tree# matches Tree1 or Tree2. Another example, Tree### matches Tree100, Tree101, or Tree200.

You can use multiple wildcards. For example, 1?0*0 matches 1500, 1A0250, or 15020. Table 8.5 shows you how to use different wildcard characters to select ranges of points or observations.
Table 8.5 How to use wildcards for selecting entities Pattern a*a *ab ab* Special character Single character Single digit Range of characters a[*]a a?a a#a [az] Match aa, aBa, aBBBa Xab, BBab abX, abcdefg a*a aaa, a3a, aBa a0a, a1a, a2a f, p, j No match aBC, aabb aZb, abc acb, cab aba aBBa aaa, a10a 2, &

Type of match Multiple characters

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Using the Graphics Window and Selecting Entities Table 8.5 How to use wildcards for selecting entities (Continued) Pattern [!az] [!09] a[!bm]# Match 9, &, % A, a, &, ~ An9, az0, a99 No match b, d 0, 1, 9 abc, aj0

Type of match Outside a range Not a digit Combined

Note The point name 10 is considered to fall between 1 and a. It will not fall in the range 1 to 9 because both names are numeric. Similarly, ab sorts between a and b. Use double quotes to prevent pattern matching in names that contain wild card characters. For example, "TRS#1...TRS#8" selects the range of points with explicit names between TRS#1 and TRS#8.

8.3.10

Selecting Entities Using Queries


A query retrieves data from multiple fields in one or more tables in the database, based on the criteria specified. You can use queries to select entities. The same queries are available in both the Survey and Plan views.

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To access these queries: Choose Select / By Query. The following dialog appears:

If a query has an ellipsis at the end of the name, you must enter one or more parameters to complete the query. For example, if you select the Points by description... query, a dialog appears. You must enter the points description field. If necessary, use the following options in the Selection group to create specific selections: New creates a new selection set Add to current adds the selection set that you create to the current selection set Refine current using the current selection set, the software finds points that are common with the selection set you are about to create

For example, you may have a project in which you want to find all unprocessed baselines that were observed using a GPS receiver with serial number 1234. To do this: 1. 2. Use the query to select all unprocessed baselines. Use the query again to select the Baselines using receiver option.
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3. 4.

In the Selection group, select the Refine current option. In the Select by Query - Parameters dialog that appears, enter 1234.

All unprocessed baselines that were observed with receiver 1234 will be selected. For more information about select queries, refer to the Help. Note You can create your own database queries using the Microsoft Access software. For information, refer to the topic Database Queries Overview in the Help.

8.3.11

Using Selection Sets


A selection set is anything that you currently have selected in the Trimble Geomatics Office software. You can save your current selection set at any time and retrieve it later. These saved selection sets maintain the order of their entities. If you delete entities that are part of the selection set, the selection set still works with the remaining entities. Saving the current selection set To save the current selection set: 1. Choose Select / Selection Sets / Save. The following dialog appears:

2.

In the Name field, enter a unique name for the set and then click OK.

The selection set is saved.

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Note When you import a data file, the software automatically creates a selection set for you. This selection set has the same name as the file you imported. Retrieving a saved selection set You can retrieve a saved selection set at any timethis is useful for reporting on points or for quickly retrieving control points to be used in a GPS site calibration. To retrieve a saved selection set: 1. Choose Select / Selection Sets / Retrieve. The following dialog appears:

Each item in the Selection sets list is either a data file you have imported or a saved selection set. 2. Select the check boxes for the selection sets you want to retrieve and then click OK.

The entities in the selection set(s) chosen are selected.


Tip You can use the Show only data in the selection set option in the View Filters dialog to display data that you have saved in a selection set.

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To access a list of the ten most recently-used selection sets: 1. Choose Select / Selection Sets. This list appears in the menu, as shown below:

2.

Choose the selection set that you require.

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9
9

Viewing and Editing Data


In this chapter:

Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

Introduction Properties window overview Viewing survey data in the Properties window Viewing and editing points Viewing observations Viewing erroneous data Editing survey data Editing multiple entities at one time Using the data analysis tools Viewing note records Viewing CAD entities

Viewing and Editing Data

9.1

Introduction
At various stages in a project you need to verify your data before proceeding with the next task. This chapter shows you how to use the Properties window to: view and edit details for points and other observation types check erroneous data view and edit CAD entities

It also shows ways to correct your survey data and use data analysis tools.

9.2

Properties Window Overview


The Properties window lets you view the details of all entities (points, observations, lines, arcs, curves, text, annotations). Use it whenever you want to view and edit entity details. The software immediately applies any changes that you make to entities in the Properties window. You can keep the Properties window open while you use other parts of the Trimble Geomatics Office software. The Properties window is automatically updated to show the correct information about the currently selected entities. The tree view in the Properties window shows the names and values of the selected item, and the relationship between the entities. For example, to view the from and to points for any observation or linetype entity, click the plus (+) icon and select the point that you want to view and edit.

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You can select one or more entities to view in the Properties window at the same time. When you have defined a current selection set and selected an entity to view from the Properties window selection list, the current selection in the graphics window is updated to include only the entity that you are viewing. The Properties window selection list retains the original selection set. Any entities highlighted in the Properties window selection list become the current selection set in the graphics window. To open the Properties window, do one of the following: Select Edit / Properties. In the standard toolbar, select the Edit Properties Double-click a graphical entity. tool.

Figure 9.1 shows the Properties window, and the table following it describes each part.
5

4 3

Figure 9.1

The Properties window

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Part 1 2 3

Function Shows the number of items selected. The tabs organize data into groups. The availability of the tabs depends on the type of entity selected. Lists the entities in your current selection set. You can only view the details of one entity at a time. If you have more than one entity selected, from the list select the entity you want to look at. Lets you expand and collapse the tree view outline. Selection tools: The Group Survey Data tool groups data by source or type. The Sort tool sorts the selected entities. To do this, select the option you want. The Filter tool only keeps an entity type in the current selection set.

4 5

The information and tabs available on the right side of the Properties window depend on the entity type currently selected. The following sections describe how to use the Properties window to view and edit data for each type.

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9.3

Viewing Survey Data in the Properties window


Use the Survey tab of the Properties window to view and edit the survey-related properties of an entity in the selection. You can view the properties of entities that appear in the Survey view such as: Points GPS observations Conventional observations Level observations Laser rangefinder observations Azimuth observations Reduced observations Staked-out point information Events data

9.3.1

Using Pages to View Survey Details


Survey details in the Properties window are organized into pages. You can only view one page at a time. Access the pages using the available page buttons. They depend on the entity type that is currently selected. Figure 9.2 shows the typical parts of a page in the Survey tab.

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Page name

Page buttons Figure 9.2 The Survey tab

9.4

Viewing and Editing Points


Point details in the Properties window are organized into the following tabs: Use the Survey tab to view and edit the survey-related details of a selected point. Use the Stakeout tab to view details about staked out points. Use the CAD tab to view and edit the CAD-related details of a selected point. If a selected point contains attribute information and you have set up the project for attributes, use the Attributes tab to view this information.

To view and edit the details of a point, select the appropriate tab in the Properties window.

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The following sections describe the details of a point that you can view, using the Properties window.

9.4.1

Viewing Survey Details


Use the Survey tab in the Properties window to view and edit the survey-related details of the selected point (for example, the derived position, warning messages, occupation and setup details, coordinates, and observation statistics). To view the survey details for a point: 1. In the Properties window, do one of the following: 2. From the Properties window selection list, select a point. In the graphics window, select a point.

Select the Survey tab.

To select the types of survey details that you want to view, click a page button.
Tip To view the from and to points for any observation, click the plus (+) icon beside the observation. Then, click the point that you want to view and edit.

The following Properties window shows a typical page for a point:

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Table 9.1 summarizes the pages for points in the Properties window. For more information on each page, refer to the appropriate Help topics.
Table 9.1 Button Pages for points in the Properties window Page name Summary What it shows The point name, the derived position, and qualities for a point. Use this page to view the qualities of the position components or report on how the point was derived. Warning A warning message indicating that a misclosure has been detected on the point, or that a high RMS was detected. Use this page to view the error message and to suppress the warning flags displayed in the graphics window if the error is acceptable for the project. Occupations and Details of any GPS occupation or terrestrial setup from or to Setups the point. Use this page to view and correct the details for the GPS occupation or terrestrial setup details, for example, antenna and target heights. If there is more than one occupation or setup for the point, a shortcut menu appears. As you hold the pointer over different occupations and setups in the shortcut menu, the occupation and setup details are updated in the page. Error Estimate The estimated errors for the points position after a network adjustment, if you have the Network Adjustment module installed. The underlying coordinates and qualities for a point. Use this page to change the coordinate qualities and status of the point. For more information on using this page, see Changing the status of coordinates, page 184. N/A GPS Solution (APC) The position solution of a GPS point including the time of occupation, WGS-84 coordinates, and precisions. Use this page to view the position solution and to change the status of the point.

N/A

Coordinate

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Note If the Summary page is set to display the point as a WGS-84 position, the fields displayed will depend on what is set for the Display WGS-84 as setting in the Units and Format tab of the Project Properties dialog. For example, if the Display WGS-84 as field is set to X,Y,Z, the WGS-84 fields in the Summary page are labeled X,Y,Z. If the Display WGS-84 as field is set to L,L,H, the WGS-84 fields are labeled Latitude, Longitude, and Height.

9.4.2

Point Quality Indicators


The Properties window shows the quality of each coordinate component. Table 9.2 describes these qualities.
Table 9.2 Symbol Point quality indicators Quality Fixed Control (yellow)

Adjusted

Control (blue)

Survey

Mapping

Unknown

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Tip The geoid indicator is used in the Properties window to show if the elevation or height was derived from a geoid. For example, if an RTK point is measured, it will have a height on WGS-84 and an elevation derived from the geoid. Conversely, if a terrestrial point is collected, it will have an elevation and a WGS-84 height derived from the geoid. These indicators are also used in the Point Derivation report and the Recompute report.

9.4.3

Viewing the Point Derivation Report


The Point Derivation report shows how a recomputation determined the calculated position for a point. To generate this report for any point, in the Properties window: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the point that you want to view. To open the Summary page, click the Summary button. Select the Show derivation report tool.

An HTML report is generated and displayed on the default HTML viewer on your computer.

When a Point Derivation report is generated, it is stored in the Reports folder. The existing Point Derivation report is overwritten. The format of the report is the same as the Point Derivations section of the Recompute report. For information on the content of the report, see The Point Derivations Section, page 516.

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Figure 9.3 and Figure 9.4 show parts of the Point Derivation report.

Figure 9.3

The Point Derivations section

Figure 9.4

The Survey Data section

Note Before you can view a Point Derivation report, you must have performed a recomputation since opening the project.

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9.4.4

Viewing and Editing Data

Entering Coordinates for a Point


You can enter control coordinates for a point into the Trimble Geomatics Office software by: importing a Trimble Survey Controller job with keyed-in control coordinates entered in the field. For more information, refer to the Trimble Survey Controller documentation. importing an ASCII file with control points. For more information, see Chapter 5, Importing ASCII Data Files into the Trimble Geomatics Office Software. entering known coordinates for an existing point using the Properties window or the Points dialog (if you have the Network Adjustment module installed). For information on using the Points dialog, refer to the Network Adjustment module Help. entering known coordinates for a new point using the Insert Points dialog. For more information, see Adding Points, page 338.

Any coordinates entered receive an office-entered coordinate source. This is shown in the Properties window. Note Each point in the Trimble Geomatics Office software can only have one keyed-in WGS-84 coordinate and one keyed-in grid/local coordinate. The following section describes how to use the Properties window to enter known coordinates for an existing point. Using the Properties window to enter coordinates for a point You can key in coordinates for a point using the Properties window. However, only do this when you want the software to use your keyed-in coordinate in preference to the coordinates derived from observations. The keyed-in coordinate will have an office-entered source.

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To key in coordinates using the Properties window: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the point that you want to add coordinates for. To open the Properties window, select the Edit Properties tool. To open the Summary page, click the Summary button. Select the Add coordinate tool. page

Select the coordinate type to be added from the drop-down list (WGS-84, Grid or Local). You can only enter one grid/local and one WGS-84 coordinate for each point, so if a WGS-84 coordinate already exists, then you cannot add another. 5. A keyed-in coordinate appears in the point tree, as shown below:

6.

In the coordinate fields, enter the known coordinates. When you add a new coordinate, all of the fields are null (?). Use the Insert Current Value tool to enter the current point position and quality. You must select each field before the Add current value field is available.

7.

To set the quality for the point, select the Quality Selector Control tool and the coordinate(s) that you want to change. Select the quality from the list.

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8.

Use the Coordinate Type option to store the data in the database in the format specified. The software saves the coordinate in the coordinate view selected.

Note You can only edit the coordinates in the display format that is stored in the database. Note If you have a keyed-in grid coordinate and a keyed-in WGS-84 coordinate, you cannot save the keyed-in grid coordinate as a WGS-84 coordinate. Changing the status of coordinates To change the status of an underlying coordinate using the Properties window, in a Coordinate page: 1. In the Status field, select the appropriate option. Do one of the following: If you want the coordinate used to derive the position of the point, select Enabled. If you do not want the coordinate used to derive the position of the point, select Disabled. If you only want the coordinate used if there are no other enabled observations or coordinates that can be used to derive the position of the point, select Enabled as check.

2.

Click OK.

The software performs a recomputation, and you can view the new derived position for the point in the Summary page of the Properties window. Note The Recompute report reports on coordinates enabled as check, but not on disabled coordinates.

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You can also view the source information from which the survey data is derived. This information is shown in any of the pages (except the Summary page) of the Survey tab for a coordinate or observation. Table 9.3 shows some common source types that may appear in the Properties window.
Table 9.3 Source type Imported file Common source types of survey data What it contains All survey data contained from an imported file source, such as observations, GPS occupations, keyed-in coordinates, conventional instrument/target setups, level, and azimuth observations. The Source type heading displays the file format and the file name. For example, .dc file (RTK___co.dc). The position of the point determined by entering coordinates into the software. The position of a point determined after applying an elevation adjustment. The position determined by moving a point or after applying a horizontal coordinate transformation.

Keyed-in Coordinate Elevation adjustment Coordinate transformation

Baseline Processor (If you The observation solution determined after processing the have the Baseline baseline with the WAVE Baseline Processor. Processing module installed) Adjustment (If you have the Network Adjustment module installed) The position of the point that has been determined after a network adjustment.

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9.4.5

Viewing and Editing Data

Viewing Stakeout Information for a Point


Use the Stakeout tab of the Properties window to view information about staked out points. You can view the information related to the following: As-staked deltas Linear details Catch points Story boards Digital Terrain Models

To view the stakeout information for a point: 1. In the Properties window, do one of the following: 2. From the Properties window selection list, select a point. In the graphics window, select a point.

Select the Stakeout tab.

To select the types of stakeout information that you want to view, click a page button. The following Properties window shows a typical page selected for a point:

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Table 9.4 summarizes the pages for stakeout in the Properties window. For more information on each page, refer to the appropriate Help topic.
Table 9.4 Button Pages for stakeout in the Properties window Page name As Staked Deltas What it shows The differences between the location of the design point and the staked out point.

Linear Details

The stakeout details from linear features. For example, a line, curve, or road.

Catch Point Design

The point where a design surface intersects the natural surface is known as the catch point. This page shows details about the catch point and is only available when a point is staked out from a catch point on a road. The distances from the catch point to points on the template.

Story Board

DTM

Details about staked DTM points. For example, DTM name, vertical offset, and cut/fill information.

For more information about the Stakeout tab, refer to the Properties Window Stakeout tab Overview topic in the Help.

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9.4.6

Viewing and Editing Data

Viewing CAD Details


Use the CAD tab in the Properties window to view and edit the CAD-related information of the selected point (for example, CAD style, layer, feature code value, and description). To view the CAD-related details of a point: 1. In the Properties window, do one of the following: 2. From the Properties window selection list, select a point. In the graphics window, select a point.

Select the CAD tab. The following Properties window shows the CAD-related details of a selected point.

3.

To edit the details, enter values in the appropriate fields or select an option from the list. If a layer or point style has not been specified for a point, the software uses the default settings.

Tip To view any CAD entities assigned to the point (for example, lines, curves, arcs, and annotations), click the plus (+) icon beside the point. Then, click the entity that you want to view.

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9.4.7

Attributes
Use the Attributes tab in the Properties window to manage the attributes for a selected point (for example, you can view, edit, add, and delete attributes). To access the Attributes tab: 1. In the Properties window, do one of the following: 2. From the Properties window selection list, select a point. In the graphics window, select a point.

Select the Attributes tab.

Note The Attributes tab is not available until you set up the project for attributes (from the Features tab of Project Properties dialog). For more information, see Setting up a Project for Features, page 30. For more information on using attributes, see Chapter 16, Using Attributes in the Trimble Geomatics Office Software.

9.4.8

Renaming Points
If you have points with duplicate names in a project that are not to the same physical point, you can resolve the duplicate points by renaming them. For example, you may import two Survey Controller (*.dc) files collected by different field crews. One field crew may use point names from 1000 to 2000, while the other crew uses point names from 1000 to 1050. When the files are imported, 51 duplicate points (1000 to 1050) are created in the database.

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To resolve the duplicate points, you can rename the points from the second .dc file: 1. 2. To select the points, choose Select / Points. The Select Points dialog appears. Click the drop-down arrow in the From source(s) field and select the name of the second .dc file from the list. All points from the second .dc file are selected. Select Edit / Rename Points. The following dialog appears:

3.

4.

In the Rename dialog, use one of the available methods to rename the points. For example:, enter 2001 in the Rename from field to rename the points starting from 2001 (the points will be named 2001, 2002,..., 2051).

If the duplicate points are to the same point, then you should resolve them by merging. For information on merging duplicate points, see Managing Points with Duplicate Names, page 127. Note If you enter an alphabetic name in the Replace from field, all points in the selection will be given the same name. Enter a numeric value for the last character of the name to increment point names.

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9.5

Viewing Observations
You can view the survey details of any observation type, such as: GPS observations Conventional observations Level observations Laser rangefinder observations Azimuth observations Reduced observations

The following sections describe how to use the Properties window to view the survey details for each observation type.

9.5.1

GPS Observations
Use the Properties window to view the details of any GPS observation type such as RTK, Static, FastStatic and postprocessed kinematic baselines. To view the survey details of an observation: 1. In the Properties window, do one of the following: 2. From the Properties window selection list, select a GPS observation. In the graphics window, select a GPS observation.

To select the types of survey details that you want to view, click a page button.

Tip To view an observation from or to a point, click the plus (+) icon beside the point. Then, click the observation that you want to view.

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The following Properties window shows a typical page selected for a Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS observation. The page buttons shown are the same for all GPS observation types:

Table 9.5 summarizes the pages for GPS observations in the Properties window. For more information on each page, refer to the appropriate Help topic.
Table 9.5 Button Pages for GPS observations in the Properties window Page name Summary What it shows The observation details, including the from and to points, time of occupation, processor type, GPS field method, and status. Use this page to view the observation details and to disable bad observations (such as when the observation produces a misclosure). If you do not want to use the observation in a network adjustment, but still want to use it in a recomputation, clear the Use in Network Adjustment check box. Warning A warning message indicating that the baseline has failed the rejection criteria. If you decide that the error on the observation is acceptable for the survey, use this page to view the error message and to suppress the warning flags displayed in the graphics window.

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Viewing and Editing Data Table 9.5 Button Pages for GPS observations in the Properties window (Continued) Page name Base Occupation What it shows The base, or from point, occupation details for the observation. This includes the point name, time of occupation, and antenna details.

If the antenna details have been incorrectly entered during the occupation, use this page to correct them for the base/from point. Rover Occupation The rover, or to point, occupation details for the observation. This includes the point name, time of occupation, and antenna details. If the antenna details have been incorrectly entered during the occupation, use this page to correct them for the rover/to point occupation. Observation The observation solution type, and the baseline components from the base point to the rover point. If you have processed the baseline more than once, using different processing styles, the baseline may have more than one solution. Use this page to select the active solution and view the values of the GPS baseline in XYZ, geodetic, and delta NEU views. Observation Statistics The appropriate solution statistics and quality indicators depending on the observation type selected. The statistics are different for an RTK observation than for a static or postprocessed observation Use this page to check the quality of the solution.

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9.5.2

Viewing and Editing Data

Conventional Observations
Use the Properties window to view the details of any terrestrial observation measured in the field using a conventional instrument. To view the survey details of an observation: 1. In the Properties window, do one of the following: 2. From the Properties window selection list, select a conventional observation. In the graphics window, select a conventional observation.

To select the types of survey details that you want to view, click a page button.

Tip To view an observation from or to a point, click the plus (+) icon beside the point. Then, click the observation that you want to view.

The following Properties window shows a typical page selected for a conventional observation:

Table 9.6 summarizes the pages for conventional observations in the Properties window. For more information on each page, refer to the appropriate Help topics.

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Table 9.6 Button

Pages in the Properties window for conventional observations Page name Summary What it shows The instrument setup details including the instrument point name, instrument height and backsight details. The foresight point details are also shown. Use this page to check the backsight details and to correct the instrument setup, such as when the instrument height has been incorrectly entered during the setup. Use this page to disable bad observations when you do not want them used to determine the position of a point. If the observation is a check on a backsight point, enable the observation as a check. This ensures that the software reports a closure, but does not use the observation to determine the coordinate. Target Setup The backsight point name and the target setup details; including the foresight point name, foresight point height, and prism constant. Use this page to correct the setup details, such as when the height has been incorrectly entered during the setup. Observation The observation components between the instrument and target setups. Use this page to view the observation details in either HA,VA,SD or AZ,HD,VD views, and the observation type. The observation type displays the face of the instrument used when the observation was taken. If the face is MTA, the observation is the mean of the turned angles between the backsight point and the observed point in the same setup. Observation Statistics The standard errors for the horizontal angle, vertical angle, and slope distance.

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9.5.3

Viewing and Editing Data

Level Observations
Use the Properties window to view the details of any level observation measured in the field, using a level. To view the survey details of a level observation: 1. In the Properties window, do one of the following: From the Properties window selection list, select a level observation. In the graphics window, select a level observation. Note If your level observations do not have associated horizontal coordinates, you cannot see them in the graphics window. Use one of the selection tools to select level observations. For example, in the Select Observations dialog, select delta elevations from the type field and then open the Properties window. Click a page button to select the types of survey details that you want to view.

Tip To view an observation from or to a point, click the plus (+) icon beside the point. Then, click the observation that you want to view.

The following Properties window shows a typical page selected for a level observation:

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Table 9.7 summarizes the pages for level observations in the Properties window. For more information on each page, refer to the appropriate Help topics.
Table 9.7 Button Pages in the Properties window for level observations Page name Summary What it shows The from and to points, and the delta elevation of the observation. Use this page to disable bad observations when you do not want them used to determine the height of a point. Observation Statistics The observation statistics for the level observation. Use this page to view the standard error, standard error unit, number of turns, and the length of line. The standard error is calculated using the length of the line.

9.5.4

Laser Rangefinder Observations


Use the Properties window to view the details of any terrestrial observation measured in the field using a laser rangefinder. To view the survey details of a laser rangefinder observation: 1. In the Properties window, do one of the following: 2. From the Properties window selection list, select a laser rangefinder observation. In the graphics window, select a laser rangefinder observation.

To select the types of survey details that you want to view, click a page button.

Tip To view an observation from or to a point, click the plus (+) icon beside the point. Then, click the observation that you want to view.

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The following Properties window shows page for a laser observation:

Table 9.8 summarizes the pages for laser observations in the Properties window. For more information on each page, refer to the appropriate Help topic.
Table 9.8 Button Pages in the Properties window for laser observations Page name Summary What it shows The instrument point name and height, the target point name and height, and the status of the observation. Use this page to correct the instrument and target heights if they have been incorrectly entered during the setup. As laser rangefinder observations are of a lower quality than conventional observations, they are only used to coordinate points if there are no other types of observations to the points. Use this page to disable the observation if you do not want it used to determine the position of a point. If you want this observation used to derive the position of a point, (if no other enabled observations can be used) enable it as a check. Observation The observation components between the laser and target setups. If the vertical angle measurement is null, it is assumed that the distance is horizontal. Use this page to view the observation values, and edit the magnetic declination of the observation.

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9.5.5

Azimuth Observations
Use the Properties window to view details of azimuth observations. The azimuth observations can be from the field or keyed in.
Tip Use the Insert Azimuth dialog to insert an azimuth between two points.

To view the survey details of an azimuth observation: 1. In the Properties window, do one of the following: 2. From the Properties window selection list, select an azimuth observation. In the graphics window, select an azimuth observation.

To select the types of survey details that you want to view, click a page button.

The following Properties window shows a typical page selected for an azimuth observation:

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Table 9.9 describes the page buttons for azimuth observations in the Properties window.
Table 9.9 Button Pages in the Properties window for azimuth observations Page Name Summary What it shows The from and to points, and the azimuth. Use this page to disable the observation if you do not want it used to determine the position of a point. If you want this observation used to derive the position of a point (if no other enabled observations can be used), enable it as a check. Warning A warning message indicating that the azimuth observation is out of tolerance. The observation statistics for the level observation. Use this page to view the standard error, standard error unit, number of turns, and the length of line. The standard error is calculated using the length of the line.

Observation Statistics

9.5.6

Reduced Observations
Use the Properties window to view the details of reduced terrestrial observations such as offsets that have been measured in the field using the Trimble Survey Controller software. To view the survey details of a reduced observation: 1. In the Properties window, do one of the following: 2. From the Properties window selection list, select a reduced observation. In the graphics window, select a reduced observation.

To select the types of survey details that you want to view, click a page button.

Tip To view an observation from or to a point, click the plus (+) icon beside the point. Then, click the observation that you want to view.

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The following Properties window shows a typical page selected for a reduced observation:

Table 9.10 describes the page buttons for reduced observations in the Properties window.
Table 9.10 Button Pages in the Properties window for reduced observations Page Name Summary What it shows The from and to points, and the status of the observation. Use this page to disable the observation if you do not want it used to determine the position of a point. If you want this observation used to derive the position of a point, (if no other enabled observations can be used) enable it as a check. Observation The observation components including the azimuth, horizontal distance, and vertical distance.

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9.6

Viewing Erroneous Data


The Trimble Geomatics Office software may find the following errors: A point has been incorrectly observed. There is a misclosure between two or more observations to the same point.

When this happens, the graphics window displays a warning flag on the point or observation, and the Flag icon appears in the status bar. Warning flags only indicate a possible error in the point; they do not disable the point. Note No matter how many suppressed flags a point has, if it has one enabled error flag, it will be shown as a flag in the graphics window. You can view the warning details in the Properties window. To do this: 1. Do one of the following: 2. 3. Click the point or observation with a warning flag that you want to view. To select all entities with warning flags, double-click on the Flag icon in the status bar.

If you have more than one entity selected, in the Properties window select the point or observation that you want to view. To open the Warning page, click the Warning Page button.

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The following Properties window has information about a warning message:

The message describes the type of error that occurred. If you are viewing the warning message for a point, you can view further point derivation details. To do this: In the Warning page, select the Point Derivation tool.

The software generates an HTML report. The report summarizes how the recomputation determined the calculated position for a point. Any misclosure that the recomputation determined was outside the tolerance set for the project appears in red with a Flag icon.

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Resolve or suppress all warning flags before exporting coordinates. When you resolve an out-of-tolerance closure by disabling a bad observation or renaming the point if the observation was to a different physical point, the warning flag disappears. Table 9.11 shows the warning messages that may appear.
Table 9.11 Flag on Point Warning messages that may appear Warning message What it means

Out-of-Tolerance Closure There are multiple observations to a point, where the (Recomputation) difference between the calculated position from each
observation is outside the tolerance set for the project. There is a keyed-in coordinate for the point and an observation. The difference between the coordinate and the position calculated from the observation is outside the tolerance set for the project.

Point

Out-of-Tolerance Observation (Recomputation)

There are multiple observations to a point, where the difference between an observed position and the mean of the observed positions as determined by a recomputation is outside the tolerance set for the project. A high RMS was detected in the field and may have been caused by bad initialization. Therefore, all points measured using this initialization are flagged. The high RMS may also have been caused by obstructions such as tree foliage, so only the points collected near the tree are suspect. If you are confident in the initialization, you can suppress the High RMS flags.

Point

High RMS (RTK)

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Viewing and Editing Data Table 9.11 Flag on Observation Observation Observation Warning messages that may appear (Continued) Warning message What it means One or more of the acceptance criteria specified has not been satisfied. The RMS of the active solution is outside the acceptance criteria. The ratio of the variance of the second best solution with the variance of the best solution is outside the acceptance criteria.

Multiple failures (GPS Postprocessing)1 High RMS (GPS Postprocessing)1 Low ratio (GPS Postprocessing)1 High reference variance (GPS Postprocessing)1

Observation
1

The error in the solution did not compare satisfactorily with the expected error.

After baseline processing, if you have the Baseline Processing module installed.

9.6.1

GPS Loop Closures


You can check the quality of, and identify any errors in, a set of GPS observations within a network by performing loop closures and viewing the Loop Closure report. Use the failed loops sections of the Loop Closure report to identify: loops where the misclosures are outside the specified tolerance values GPS observations that do not fit in the network GPS station occupations for the baselines that do not fit in the network.

To perform loop closures on your GPS network and generate the Loop Closure report: Select Reports / GPS Loop Closures Report.

For information on GPS loop closures, refer to the WAVE Baseline Processing User Guide or the Help.

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9.7

Editing Survey Data


During the inspection of the project, you identify problems with the survey data. The following sections describe the methods you can use to resolve these problems before you continue with the next task.

9.7.1

Changing the Status of Observations


By default, observations are always enabled. However, to determine whether a recomputation will use GPS or terrestrial observations to derive the calculated position of an observed point, change this enabled status. You can do the following: If you do not want an observation used to determine the position of a point, disable it. The Recompute report does not report on disabled observations. If you only want an observation used if there are no other observations or coordinates available, enable it as a check.

To change the status of an observation: 1. 2. Select the observation. For more information, see Selecting Entities, page 151. Do one of the following: Select the Edit Properties window. tool to open the Properties

Click the Summary Page button to access the Summary page, and then select the appropriate option from the Status field. Select Edit / Enable/Disable Observation. Select Edit / Multiple Edit to open the Multiple Edit dialog. In the Survey tab, select the Set observation status to check box, and choose the appropriate option from the field. To enable an observation as a check, use the Properties window or the Multiple Edit dialog.

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The appearance of the observation lines changes. For more information about colors and status of lines, see Changing the Recomputation Settings, page 32. When your edits to the survey data could change the coordinates for a point in the database, the Recompute appears in the status bar. 3. To perform a recomputation, do one of the following: Select Survey / Recompute. Press >)@. In the Survey view, right-click to access the shortcut menu, and then select Recompute. In the status bar, double click the Recompute icon. icon

The recomputation reapplies the observation to determine the new calculated position for the point. Note If the difference between the derived position and the position calculated from an observation enabled as check is outside the tolerance set for the project, then a warning flag is generated on the point and the misclosure reported in the Recompute report.

9.7.2

Reversing the Direction of Observations


GPS and terrestrial observations flow out in the direction in which the baseline was observed. For RTK observations, the direction will be from the base to the rover. The direction of postprocessed Static and FastStatic baselines are based on the positional qualities of the from and to points. The direction is applied from the point with the higher quality to the point with the lower quality. For terrestrial observations, the direction will be from the instrument point to the target point. A recomputation applies the observation in the direction that is stored in the project. For more information, see Appendix B, Recomputation.

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You can reverse the direction of an observation so that a recomputation applies the observation in the opposite directionthis may change the calculated coordinates and qualities of the point.
Warning If the point that you want the observation to flow out from does not have a known position, the observation is not applied.

To reverse the direction of a GPS baseline, do the following: 1. Select the GPS observation. For more information, see Selecting Entities, page 151. 2. Do one of the following: Select Edit / Reverse Observation flowout. Right-click to access the shortcut menu, and select Reverse Observation Flowout.

When the edits to the survey data could change the coordinates for a point in the database, the Recompute icon appears in the status bar. 3. Perform a recomputation, as shown in step 3, page 207.

The recomputation reapplies the observation to flow out from the opposite point.

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9.8

Editing Multiple Entities at One Time


Use the Multiple Edit dialog to edit the survey- and CAD-related properties of more than one entity in your current selection set at the same time. This dialog lets you apply the same edits to a selection of entities. You can correct the antenna or instrument heights for a group of stations if they have been incorrectly entered during setup. You can also add a group of entities to a specific layer. To access the Multiple Edit dialog: 1. 2. Select the entities that you want to edit. For more information, see Selecting Entities, page 151. Select Edit / Multiple Edit. The following dialog appears:

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3.

Do one of the following: Select the Survey tab to edit the survey-related properties of the selected entities. Select the CAD tab to edit the CAD-related properties of the selected entities.

Note You can edit more than one field from either tab at any time.

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The following sections describe how to use the Multiple Edit dialog to edit multiple entities for each property type. Not all options are discussed, so for more information, refer to the Help.

9.8.1

Editing the Survey-Related Properties of Selected Entities


To edit the survey-related properties of the entities in the current selection set, in the Multiple Edit dialog: 1. 2. Make sure that the Survey tab is selected. Select the check boxes to enable the common fields that you want to edit. For example, if you want to change the status of the selected observations, select the Set observation status to check box and then the option that you want.

Note When you select a check box to edit a particular field, the Trimble Geomatics Office software checks the selected entities. If it finds that the fields are not used in the selected entities, it disables the check box option. Editing the antenna heights of the selected entities If the antenna heights for a group of surveyed points have been incorrectly entered in the field, you can select the points (for more information, see Selecting Entities, page 151) and use the Multiple Edit dialog to quickly correct them. To do this, with the current selection set: 1. In the Survey tab, select the Set antenna height to check box. The Change heights of size and New antenna height fields become available. The Change heights of size field lists the current antenna heights of the selected points. You can only change the antenna heights with the selected values.

Warning If you have selected points with different antenna heights, you will get all antenna heights in your selection. Make sure that you change the correct antenna heights.

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2. 3.

From the Change heights of size list, select the antenna height that you want to correct. Enter the corrected antenna height value in the New Antenna height field and click OK. The operation changes all of the antenna heights to the correct values. When the edits to the survey data could change the coordinates for a point in the database, the Recompute icon appears in the status bar.

4.

Perform a recomputation, as shown in step 3, page 207.

The vectors are reapplied to the base and new antenna heights are used to calculate the new position. For more information, see Appendix B, Recomputation. Editing the antenna details of multiple entities To edit the antenna details of the selected points, in the Multiple Edit dialog: 1. In the Survey tab, select the GPS Antenna details to check box. The Antenna type and Measured to fields become available. The Measured to field depends on the antenna type selected. If a new antenna type is selected, this field is cleared. 2. 3. Select the correct antenna type and measurement method from the lists that you want to change. Click OK. The operation changes all of the antenna heights to the correct values. When the edits to the survey data could change the coordinates for a point in the database, the Recompute icon appears in the status bar. 4. Perform a recomputation, as shown in step 3, page 207.

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9.8.2

Editing the CAD-Related Properties of Selected Entities


To edit the CAD-related properties of the entities in the current selection set, in the Multiple Edit dialog: 1. Select the CAD tab, as shown below:

2.

Select the check boxes to enable the common fields that you want to edit. For example, to assign the selected points to a specific layer, select the Set layer to check box from the Perform these edits to the selected points group. Specify the values that you want applied to the selected entities. For example, to add the points to the Utilities layer, select Utilities or enter the layer name in the Set layer to field. Click OK.

3.

4.

The software adds the selected points to the Utilities layer.


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9.9

Using the Data Analysis Tools


The following sections describe the tools that are available to help you analyze your data. For example, you can check the inverse between two points, or determine the extent of the survey area.

9.9.1

Viewing the Inverse Between Two Points


You can display the inverse to determine the difference between any two points in the project. To do this: 1. Do one of the following: Select Survey / Inverse. Press >)@.

The following dialog appears and the pointer changes to Measure mode:

You can use field fill-in to select the points defining the inverse from the graphics window. 2. With the From field selected, click the starting point in the graphics window.

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A dotted line appears to show that the software will compute the inverse as soon as you move the mouse pointer close to another existing database point. 3. With the To field selected, click the end point in the graphics window.

The Grid azimuth, Grid distance, and Delta elevation fields display the inverse details. The dotted line becomes solid to show the line that the inverse details refer to. 4. To view additional details on the inverse, click Detailed.

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The Inverse dialog enlarges to display the Details group. The Details group shows the forward and back geodetic azimuths (computed along the normal section of the ellipsoid), the ellipsoid and ground distances, and the delta ellipsoid height. For information on each component, refer to the Help.

5.

Click Send to report to generate a brief or detailed report of the inverse depending on the display option used. The report is stored as Inverse.html in the Reports folder. To view the report, do one of the following: Click Show report. Select Reports / Inverse Report.

6.

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9.9.2

Measuring Positions Within the Graphics Window


You can measure the distance, azimuth, and any area from the graphics window. This is useful if you want to quickly determine the extent of the survey area. To do this: 1. Select Survey / Measure. The following dialog appears:

The pointer changes to Measure mode. You can use field fill-in to click any position in the graphics window and define the object being measured. 2. Click the positions in succession to define the object being measured.

Note The Measure pointer snaps to any point that it goes near. To avoid this, press >&WUO@ when using the pointer. Once you have selected two or more positions, the cumulative distance from the first selected point is shown in the Distance field. The Azimuth field shows the azimuth between the last two selected positions. The software reports the distances and azimuths according to the display settings in the Units and Format tab of the Project Properties dialog. For more information, see Chapter 3, Setting up a Project. With three or more points selected, the software shows the area of the figure formed by closing back to the first point. The units of the computed area vary depending on the distance display settings. For more information, refer to the Help.

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Tip If you click and drag a box over an area, the dialog fields show the current azimuth, the cumulative distance from the first selected point, and the area enclosed.

9.10

Viewing Note Records


Note records are non-graphical entities in the project. That is, they do not appear, and they cannot be selected in the graphics window. If you import a job from the Trimble Survey Controller containing user-entered notes, you can use the Properties window to view them. To select and view note records: 1. Do one of the following: Choose Select / Selection Sets. Choose the name of the .dc file that you have imported that contains the notes you want to view. Choose Select / By Query. From the list, select Notes.

2. 3.

Open the Properties window. The Properties window displays all note entities with a Pencil icon. Select the note that you want to view.

The following Properties window shows the note details:

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Tip To create a custom report to display all note records, select Note records from the Report on field in the Define Report Format dialog. For more information, see Appendix A, Custom Import, Export, and Report Formats.

9.11

Viewing CAD Entities


Use the Properties window to view and edit the properties of CAD entities in the selection that appear in the Plan view, such as: lines curves arcs text annotations

The following sections describe how to use the Properties window to view each type.

9.11.1

Linework (Lines, Arcs, Curves)


Use the Properties window to view the details of linework entities such as lines, curves and arcs. To view the details of a line, curve, or arc, in the Properties window: 1. Do one of the following: From the Properties window selection list, select an entity. In the graphics window, select an entity. For information, see Selecting Entities, page 151.

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The following Properties window shows the details of a line:

2.

To edit the layer or line style, select an option from the field or enter a new value. If a layer or line style has not been specified for a linetype, the software uses the default settings.

Tip To view the points that the linetype entity connects to, click the plus (+) icon beside the entity. You can then click a point to view.

9.11.2

Text
To view the details of a text entity, in the Properties window: 1. Do one of the following: From the Properties window selection list, select a text entity. In the graphics window, select a text entity. For information, see Selecting Entities, page 151.

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The following Properties window shows the details of a selected text entity:

2.

To edit the properties of a text entity, select an option from the field or enter a new value. If you do not specify a layer or text style for a point, the software uses the default settings.

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9.11.3

Annotations
Use the Properties window to view the details on annotations that are associated with points or line types in the project. To view the details of an annotation, in the Properties window: 1. Do one of the following: From the Properties window selection list, select an annotation. In the graphics window, select an annotation. For information, see Selecting Entities, page 151.

The following Properties window shows annotation details:

The Text expression field shows the definition displayed for the assigned entity. Any expressions enclosed in square brackets are treated as field codes and are used to display information about the entity. For example, [Feature code] will display the feature code value for the point in the project. For more information, see Appendix A, Custom Import, Export, and Report Formats. 2. To edit the properties of an annotation, select an option from the field or enter a new value.

Tip To view the entity associated with the annotation, click the plus (+) icon beside the annotation. Then, click on the entity that you want to view and edit.

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10
10

GPS Site Calibration


In this chapter:

Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

Introduction Selecting the calibration components Selecting the calibration point pairs Computing the calibration parameters Analyzing the calibration parameters Viewing a report Applying the calibration Using a GPS site calibration in future projects

10

GPS Site Calibration

10.1

Introduction
A GPS site calibration establishes the relationship between WGS-84 points collected by GPS receivers, and local grid positions on a local map grid. The local map grid includes elevations above sea level, and the GPS data includes WGS-84 heights. Published coordinate systems and geoid models do not usually allow for local variations in the projection. You can perform a GPS site calibration to reduce these variations and obtain more accurate local grid coordinates. If you use data collected from terrestrial instruments only, you do not need to perform a GPS site calibration.

10.2

Selecting the Calibration Components


To select which calibration parameters to include in the calibration calculations, use the GPS Site Calibration dialog. To access it: Select Survey / GPS Site Calibration. The following dialog appears:

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Note If you perform an adjustment with the Network Adjustment module, and compute adjustment transformation parameters, when you access the dialog the following message appears:
Proceeding with this operation will remove the adjustment transformation parameters.

You can only use one set of parameters derived from either a calibration or an adjustment. Network adjustment transformation parameters cannot be transferred to the Trimble Survey Controller software. If you want to transfer control points and a calibration to the Trimble Survey Controller software and your project coordinate system has network adjustment transformation parameters, you must first perform a GPS site calibration. For more information, refer to the topic Calibration and Adjustment Transformation Parameters in the Help.

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To select the calibration components to be calculated, use the Calibration Components group in the dialog. You can calculate: a datum transformation (seven-parameter or three-parameter) an update of the default Transverse Mercator projection origin (if applicable) a horizontal adjustment a vertical adjustment

10.2.1

Computing a Datum Transformation


If you are using a published coordinate system, a predefined datum transformation is usually specified, for example, a three- or seven-parameter transformation, a multiple regression definition, or a Datum Grid file (NADCON). In these cases, it is unlikely that you will require a different datum transformation, so make sure that the Datum Transformation check box is clear. However, if there is no datum transformation information available, or if you have reason to doubt the available parameters, then compute a datum transformation. To compute a datum transformation: 1. In the GPS Site Calibration dialog, select the Datum transformation check box. The Three parameter and Seven parameter options become available. Select the option for the transformation that you want to compute.

2.

For more information, refer to the topics Three-Parameter Transformation and Seven-Parameter Transformation in the Help. Note This option is not available with projects that have the default projection coordinate system, because the default projection is based directly on the WGS-84 ellipsoid. This means that no datum transformation is required.

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Updating Default Projection Origin


The Update default projection origin check box in the GPS Site Calibration dialog is only available if the current coordinate system is the default Transverse Mercator projection. As the default projection has neither a latitude and longitude origin, nor a false northing and false easting defined, updating the origin ensures that the origin of the projection is local; that is, it is close to the survey data in your project. To update the default projection origin using the first two-dimensional point pair used: Select the Update default projection origin check box.

If you are carrying out a GPS calibration on a project that already has the default projection defined, clear this check box. The default projection definition does not change.

10.2.3

Computing a Horizontal Adjustment


A horizontal adjustment is a plane transformation consisting of: translations in the north/south and east/west directions a rotation around a defined origin a scale factor

The software computes transformation parameters using least-squares methods to find the transformation that gives the adjustment parameters that, when applied to GPS positions, best fit the control grid coordinates. The horizontal adjustment minimizes any residual error between the control grid coordinates and the grid coordinates calculated from the GPS positions.

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To include a horizontal adjustment: 1. In the GPS Site Calibration dialog, select the Horizontal adjustment check box. The Set scale factor to 1 check box becomes available. To force the scale in the computed calibration to one, select this check box.

2.

Tip Initially, compute a horizontal adjustment without the scale factor set to one. This determines if the computed scale factor is close to one. If the computed scale factor is not close to 1, check the selected calibration point pairs.

10.2.4

Computing a Vertical Adjustment


A vertical adjustment is an inclined plane adjustment that consists of: a vertical shift at a defined origin inclinations in the north and east directions.

This requires three 3-dimensional calibration point pairs. The parameters for this adjustment are computed using least squares methods. The least squares calculation finds an adjustment plane that best fits the elevations derived from the GPS heights with the control point elevations. With one 3-dimensional calibration point pair, only the vertical shift parameter can be computed. If there are two 3-dimensional control point pairs available, the system defines a correction plane that exactly fits these pairs. If the project uses a geoid model, then the vertical adjustment is computed and applied on top of the geoid model corrections. To include a vertical adjustment: In the GPS Site Calibration dialog, select the Vertical adjustment check box.

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10.3

Selecting the Calibration Point Pairs


Use the Point List dialog to select the calibration point pairs you want to use to calculate the GPS site calibration parameters. A calibration point pair consists of: a GPS point (a point with a GPS position or derived from GPS data) a grid point (not a GPS derived point), which is normally a control point (or an adjusted point)

Note If a point is derived from a grid position and a GPS vector, it cannot be selected as a GPS or grid point for calibration. As you select or specify points for inclusion in the point list, the Trimble Geomatics Office software checks that each GPS point has a GPS derivation, and that each grid point does not have a GPS derivation. When a point does not conform to these requirements, an error message appears. Trimble recommends that you use at least four 3-dimensional control point pairs. This is because using four or more control point pairs provides redundancy in the results.

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10.3.1

GPS Site Calibration

Selecting Calibration Point Pairs


1. 2. Select Survey / GPS Site Calibration. The GPS Site Calibration dialog appears. Click Point List. The following dialog appears:

Use it to specify the calibration point pairs from which the calibration parameters are computed. 3. In the first GPS Point field, to select the first GPS point you want to use in the calibration, do one of the following: Use field fill-in and click an existing GPS point. Enter the name of the GPS point. Expand the GPS Point field (click the plus sign next to the field) and enter the WGS-84 latitude, WGS-84 longitude, and WGS-84 height in the appropriate fields. The latitude and longitude position is used in the calibration computation, but a GPS point is not added to the database.

A box appears on the GPS point in the graphics window.


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4.

Complete the calibration point pair. To do this, use one of the following methods to select the grid point associated with the GPS point you selected in the previous step: Use field fill-in and click an existing grid point. Enter the name of the grid point. Expand the Grid Point field and enter the northing, easting, and elevation in the appropriate fields. The northing and easting position is used in the calibration computation, but a grid point is not added to the database.

The following occurs: A cross appears on the grid point in the graphics window. A line appears between the GPS point and the grid point. The Type field is filled in. If the calibration point pair is three-dimensional, the Type field is set to Horz and Vert. If you do not want to use the calibration point pair in the vertical adjustment computation, change the type to Horizontal. If you do not want to use the calibration point pair in the horizontal adjustment computation, change the type to Vertical. If the calibration point pair is two-dimensional, the Type field is set to Horizontal. You cannot change this value because all other types are invalid. If the calibration point pair is one-dimensional, the Type field is set to Vertical. You cannot change the Type field as all other options are invalid. Note If you have a point defined with an underlying grid and a WGS-84 point, the point list is populated with the grid point when you include a GPS point. 5. Repeat step 1 to step 4 to select all of the calibration point pairs that you want to use in the calibration.

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Tip The Statistics group shows the scale factor, vertical adjustment inclination, and residuals for the calibration, based on the data entered in the point list. Use these statistics to ensure that the data you have entered is correct.

6.

Once you have entered all of the calibration point pairs you want to use, click Close. The GPS Site Calibration dialog returns.

Tip To select all of the calibration points in the graphics window that are defined in the point list, choose Select / Calibration Points.

10.4

Computing the Calibration Parameters


Once you select the calibration point pairs for the GPS site calibration, the Compute button in the GPS Site Calibration dialog becomes available. When you click this button, the Trimble Geomatics Office software uses the selected calibration point pairs to compute the GPS site calibration parameters. You can perform any number of GPS site calibrations in a project. If you apply a new calibration to a project, the coordinate system is updated with the new calibration parameters, and all points in the database are updated with the new coordinate system values.

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10.5

Analyzing the Calibration Parameters


When GPS site calibration parameters have been computed, a summary of the quality of the calibration parameters appears in the Computation summary group. Use the summary to confirm that the computed calibration is valid. Table 10.1 shows the computation summary parameters:
Table 10.1 Field Horizontal adjustment scale factor Computation summary group parameters Description Shows the computed scale factor for the Horizontal adjustment. If you select the Set scale factor to 1 check box, the field displays one. Use it to confirm that the computed scale factor is close to one. If it is not, there is a problem with one or more of the calibration point pairs. Shows the maximum inclination for the computed height adjustment based on the computed Slope north and Slope east values. Check that this value is consistent with accepted values for your area. Shows the maximum residuals for the last computation carried out. The software warns you if the maximum horizontal residual error is greater than the value specified in the registry settings. Check that these values are within expected ranges; normally in the order of centimeters.

Max vertical adjustment inclination Max horizontal residual and Max vertical residual

Note To change the maximum error and maximum iteration count, use the Windows Registry on your computer. For more information, refer to the topic Changing Calibration Settings Using the Registry in the Help.

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If any of the fields in the Computation summary group of the GPS Site Calibration dialog are not within expected ranges, use one of the following methods to find the problem calibration point pairs: Examine the calibration point pairs. To find an error in a GPS site calibration: Repeat the GPS site calibration procedure but leave out a different point pair each time. When the computation summary values are what you expect, this means that you have found the problem pair.

Check that the grid points have the correct coordinates. Check that you have the best known coordinates for the base point of your GPS survey. If the errors in the calibration are small, they may be caused by errors in the observations. An error in the observation of up to one part per million (1 ppm) can be introduced by each 10 m (33 ft) of error in the base coordinates. If you reobserve with a more accurate base position, you may improve the observations and hence the calibration results.

If you locate an error in one of the calibration point pairs, fix the error and recalibrate. If you cannot fix the error, delete the calibration point pair from the point list and recalibrate.

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10.6

Viewing a Report
To view a report of the last computed GPS site calibration: In the GPS Site Calibration dialog, click Report.

A detailed report of the calibration computation, named Calibration.html, appears in the default HTML viewer on your computer. Use the report to inspect the individual calibration parameters. The report is saved in the projects Reports folder. When you recalibrate, a new report overwrites the old one.

10.6.1

Calibration Report
The Calibration report includes: Project details Datum transformation parameters Updated default projection definition Horizontal adjustment parameters Vertical adjustment parameters Geoid model definition Residual differences between GPS and known coordinates

The following sections describe each part of the Calibration report and include report samples where appropriate.

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The Project Details section Figure 10.1 shows the Project Details section. This section shows the project details, including the project name and the coordinate system used.

Figure 10.1

Project Details section of a Calibration report

The Datum Transformation Parameters section Figure 10.2 shows the Datum Transformation Parameters section. This section shows the datum transformation method used in the calibration and the computed parameters.

Figure 10.2

Datum Transformation section of a Calibration report

The Updated Default Projection (Transverse Mercator) Definition section The Updated Default Project (Transverse Mercator) Definition section shows the updated projection origin values (when the Update default projection origin option has been selected).

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The Horizontal Adjustment Parameters section Figure 10.3 shows the Horizontal Adjustment Parameters section. This section shows the horizontal adjustment parameters computed from the calibration.

Figure 10.3

Horizontal Adjustment Parameters section of a Calibration report

The Vertical Adjustment Parameters section Figure 10.4 shows the Vertical Adjustment Parameters section. This section shows the vertical adjustment parameters computed from the calibration.

Figure 10.4

Vertical Adjustment Parameters section of a Calibration report

The Geoid Model Definition section The Geoid Model Definition section shows the name of the geoid model used for the project.

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The Residual Differences Between GPS and Known Coordinates section The Residual Differences Between GPS and Known Coordinates section shows the residual differences between the point pairs used in the calibration. Use this section to identify suspect point pairs. This section includes: Summary Point residuals

Figure 10.5 shows the Summary subsection. This subsection shows the maximum residuals and the associated GPS points.

Figure 10.5

Residual Differences Between GPS and Known Coordinate Summary section of a Calibration report

The Point Residuals subsection shows all of the point pairs used in the calibration, and the residual differences. Any point pairs that have residuals greater than the value specified in the registry setting on your computer are shown in red.

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10.7

Applying the Calibration


To apply the last computed GPS site calibration: In the GPS Site Calibration dialog, click OK.

The Trimble Geomatics Office software updates the project coordinate system with the calibration parameters. To view the coordinate system details: 1. 2. 3. Select File / Project Properties. The Project Properties dialog appears. In the Coordinate System tab, click Details. The Project Coordinate System Details dialog appears. Select the Adjustment tab to view the horizontal and vertical GPS site calibration parameters.

The software performs a recomputation and updates the database with the new calibration parameters.

10.8

Using a GPS Site Calibration in Future Projects


If you plan to do future fieldwork in the immediate area, save the coordinate system (which includes the calibration parameters) as a site. You can then use the site as the coordinate system for future projects. To do this: 1. 2. In the GPS Site Calibration dialog, click Save as Site. The Save as Site dialog appears. Enter a name for the site and then click OK.

The site is saved to the coordinate system database. To use a saved GPS site calibration (as a site) in another project, make sure that the project area is within the points used in the GPS site calibration.

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If you select the site for a new project that is within the area covered by the points used in the original calibration, you do not need to carry out another GPS site calibration. For example, in Figure 10.6, save the GPS site calibration as a site in project A, then use the site in project B. However, do not use the site in project C because the area is outside the points used in the GPS site calibration.

Points used in calibration in Project A Project C area Project B area

Figure 10.6

Site used for other projects

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Glossary
This section explains some of the terms used in this manual.
1-sigma a posteriori errors

One standard error from the mean. The a priori errors multiplied by the standard error of unit weight (reference factor) resulting from a network adjustment. Errors estimated for observations prior to a network adjustment. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials The closeness of a measurement to the actual (true) value of the quantity being measured. Values derived from observed data (measurement) by applying a process of eliminating errors in that data in a network adjustment. The process of determining and applying corrections to observations for the purpose of reducing errors in a network adjustment. When the network adjustment has met the defined residual tolerance or last ditch residual tolerance within a defined number of iterations.

a priori errors

AASHTO

accuracy

adjusted values

adjustment

adjustment convergence

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adjustment datum

The datum used in the current network adjustment iteration. The Trimble Geomatics Office software lets you select either the project datum or WGS-84. Trimble default and user-defined settings for a network adjustment. The sign (+ or -) associated with a value which designates it as a positive or negative number. A set of rules for solving a problem in a finite number of steps. Data transmitted by a GPS satellite that includes orbit information on all the satellites, clock correction, and atmospheric delay parameters. The almanac facilitates rapid SV acquisition. The orbit information is a subset of the ephemeris data with reduced precision. The unknown integer number of cycles of the reconstructed carrier phase contained in an unbroken set of measurements. The receiver counts the radio waves (from the satellite as they pass the antenna) to a high degree of accuracy. However, it has no information on the number of waves to the satellite at the time it started counting. This unknown number of wavelengths between the satellite and the antenna is the ambiguity. Also known as integer ambiguity or integer bias. A piece of text that describes another database record. To select and edit annotations, use the Properties window. An annotation is liveany fields are re-expanded whenever the parent entity changes.

adjustment styles

algebraic sign

algorithm

almanac

ambiguity

annotation

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antenna height

The height of a GPS antenna phase center above the point being observed. The uncorrected antenna height is measured from the observed point to a designated point on the antenna, then corrected to the true vertical manually or automatically in the software.

antenna phase correction

The phase center for a GPS antenna is neither a physical nor a stable point. The phase center for a GPS antenna changes with respect to the changing direction of the signal from a satellite. Most of the phase center variation depends on satellite elevation. Modeling this variation in antenna phase center location allows a variety of antenna types to be used in a single survey. Antenna phase center corrections are not as critical when two of the same antenna are used since common errors cancel out. A feature that allows the U.S. Department of Defense to transmit an encrypted Y-code in place of P-code. Y-code is intended to be useful only to authorized (primarily military) users. AS is used to deny the full precision of GPS to civilian users. Antenna Phase Center The electronic center of the antenna. It often does not correspond to the physical center of the antenna. The radio signal is measured at the APC. In the Properties window the height of a point may be the elevation of the APC. If the height is specified as APC, it is the height of the APCnot the ground height.

Anti-Spoofing (AS)

APC

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autonomous positioning

A mode of operation in which a GPS receiver computes position fixes in real time from satellite data alone, without reference to data supplied by a base station. Autonomous positioning is the least precise positioning procedure a GPS receiver can perform, yielding position fixes that are precise to 100 meters horizontal RMS when Selective Availability is in effect, and to 1020 meters when it is not. Also known as absolute positioning and point positioning. A surveying observation used to measure the angle formed by a horizontal baseline and geodetic north. When applied to GPS observations, it refers to a normal section azimuth. An antenna and receiver set up on a known location. It is used for real-time kinematic (RTK) or differential surveys. Data can be recorded at the base station for later postprocessing. A Trimble base station consists of a receiver in Base Station mode used with the Trimble Reference Station (TRS) software or the Universal Reference Station (URS) software. In GPS surveying practice, you observe and compute baselines (that is, the position of one receiver relative to another). The base station acts as the position from which all other unknown positions are derived.

azimuth

base station

baseline

The position of a point relative to another point. In GPS surveying, this is the position of one receiver relative to another. When the data from these two receivers is combined, the result is a baseline comprising a three-dimensional vector between the two stations.

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baseline processor

A computer program that computes baseline solutions from satellite measurements. It may run as a postprocessor on a personal computer, or as a real-time processor in a receiver. WAVE (Weighted Ambiguity Vector Estimator) is Trimbles baseline processor. A unit of data transfer speed (from one binary digital device to another) used when describing serial communications. Mathematical function describing the behavior of two-dimensional random errors in error ellipses for: northing/easting latitude/longitude X/Y

baud

bivariate

CAD styles

CAD styles define the appearance of points, lines, arcs, curves, text, and annotations in a project. A style, for example, can be made up of a symbol, line type, color, or font. Style definitions are stored in a project. To have styles available for a number of projects, define the styles in a template project.

calibrated site

A site definition uses an existing coordinate system definition plus correction transformation. This makes the best fit for GPS data in a specific area (or site). The extra correction transformations are required because a coordinate system is designed to apply over a very large area. It does not allow for variations in the local coordinates. You need to have new work fit with the existing control, so the extra correction transformations will correct for these local variations. Extra corrections are only valid over a limited area. This explains the site terminology.

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The Trimble Geomatics Office software can compute the extra transformations required to fit to local control and save these definitions in the coordinate system database.
calibration coordinates

WGS-84 coordinates (latitude/longitude/ellipsoid height) generated from a minimally constrained network adjustment of your GPS observation, then saved for later use in a GPS site calibration. The calibration coordinates are used as the GPS observed coordinates that are associated with the grid coordinates of a particular point when performing a calibration.

Cartesian coordinates chi-square test

See Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed Cartesian coordinates. An overall statistical test of the network adjustment. It is a test of the sum of the weight squares of the residuals, the number of degrees of freedom and a critical probability of 95 percent or greater. The purpose of this test is to reject or to accept the hypothesis that the predicted errors have been accurately estimated.

clock offset

The constant difference in the time reading between two clocks. In GPS, usually refers to offset between SV clocks and the clock in the users receiver. Agreement between measured and known parts of a network. Compact Measurement Record A satellite measurement message that is broadcast by the base receiver and used by real-time kinematic (RTK) surveys to calculate an accurate baseline vector from the base to the rover.

closure

CMR

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Coarse Acquisition (C/A) code

A pseudorandom noise (PRN) code modulated onto an L1 signal. This code helps the receiver compute the distance from the satellite. The GPS code is a pseudorandom noise (PRN) code that is modulated onto the GPS carrier signals. The C/A code is unclassified and is available for use by civilian applications. The P code is also known and unclassified, but may be encrypted for national defense purposes. Code measurements are the basis of GPS navigation and positioning. Code also is used in conjunction with carrier phase measurements to obtain more accurate survey quality baseline solutions.

code

component

One of the three surveying observations used to define a three-dimensional baseline between two control points. The same baseline can be defined by azimuth, delta height, and distance (in ellipsoid coordinates); by delta X, delta Y, and delta Z (in Earth Centered Cartesian coordinates); and by delta north, delta east, and delta up (in local plane coordinates). A specific set of satellites used in calculating positions: three satellites for 2D fixes, four satellites for 3D fixes. All satellites visible to a GPS receiver at one time. The optimum constellation is the constellation with the lowest PDOP. See also PDOP.

constellation

constrained

To hold (fix) a quantity (observation and coordinate) as true in a network adjustment. External limitations imposed upon the adjustable quantities (observations and coordinates) in a network adjustment.

constraint

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control point

A monumented point to which coordinates have been, or are in the process of being, assigned by the use of surveying observations. An observation in the field obtained using a total station or theodolite. A set of transformations that allow GPS positions (in the WGS-84 ellipsoid) to be transformed to projection coordinates with elevations above the Geoid. It consists of a datum transformation, a geoid model allocation, and a coordinate projection definition. The datum transformation is defined in the coordinate system database. It includes the definition of the datum on which the coordinate projection is based. An existing geoid model can be assigned to the coordinate system, but it is also possible to specify a constant geoidal separation rather than using a geoid model. Use the Trimble Coordinate System Manager utility to define geoid models in the coordinate system database. You can allocate some coordinate projection types to a coordinate system (for example, Transverse Mercator or Lambert One Parallel). Different countries and regions use different projection types to achieve optimum results (that is, minimum distortion) in the projection coordinates. The coordinate projection methods project latitude and longitude values on the appropriate datum to Cartesian coordinate values. The elevations for the projection coordinates are achieved using the geoid model assigned to the coordinate system. The Trimble Coordinate System Manager utility lets you view, edit, and add to the coordinate system definitions supplied with the Trimble Geomatics Office software.

conventional observation coordinate system

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correlated

Said of two or more observations (or derived quantities) which have at least one common source of error. A measure of the correlation of errors between two observations or derived quantities. Also refers to an off-diagonal term (that is, not a variance) in a variance-covariance matrix. A matrix that defines the variance and covariance of an observation. The elements of the diagonal are the variance and all elements on either side of the diagonal are the covariance. As used by the Trimble Geomatics Office software, this is the publication of the propagated (computed) a posteriori errors in azimuth, distance, and height between pairs of control points resulting from a network adjustment. The term covariant indicates that this computation involves the use of covariant terms in the variance-covariance matrix of adjusted control points. You can open more than one view onto the database using the Window / New Window command. Each of these views can have different view settings. The current view is the view that has focus and this is identified by the use of the active title bar. An interruption in a receivers lock onto a satellites radio signals. A cycle slip requires the re-estimation of integer ambiguity terms during baseline processing. The process of recording satellite data in a file stored in the receiver, on a data collector running the Trimble Survey Controller software, or on a survey data card.

covariance

covariance matrix

covariant values

current view

cycle slip

data logging

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data message

A message, included in the GPS signal, that reports on the location and health of the satellites as well as any clock correction. It includes information about the health of other satellites as well as their approximate position. A mathematical model of the earth designed to fit part or all of the geoid. It is defined by the relationship between an ellipsoid and a point on the topographic surface established as the origin of the datum. It is usually referred to as a geodetic datum. The size and shape of an ellipsoid, and the location of the center of the ellipsoid with respect to the center of the earth, usually define world geodetic datums.

datum

datum defect

Unknown discrepancies between two sets of coordinates which can only be rectified by the use of a datum transformation as part of a network adjustment. Defines the transformation that is used to transform the coordinates of a point defined in one datum to coordinates in a different datum. There are a number of different datum transformation methods supported by the Trimble Geomatics Office software: Seven-Parameter Three-Parameter (also referred to as Molodensky) Multiple Regression Datum Grid Datum transformations usually convert data collected in the WGS-84 datum (by GPS methods) onto datums used for surveying and mapping purposes in individual regions and countries.

datum transformation

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de-correlate

To remove the covariances between observations. This may be done through elaborate orthogonal transformations, or by computing separate horizontal and vertical adjustments. The angular difference between the upward direction of the plumb line (vertical) and the perpendicular (normal) to the ellipsoid. A measure of the redundancy in a network. The difference in elevation between two points. The vertical component in the Trimble Geomatics Office softwares expression of GPS baselines. It is the difference in height or change of height. Coordinate differences expressed in a Local Geodetic Horizon coordinate system. Coordinate differences expressed in a Cartesian coordinate system. The precise measurement of the relative position of two receivers that are tracking the same satellites simultaneously. Dilution of Precision An indicator of the quality of a GPS position. It takes account of each satellites location relative to the other satellites in the constellation, and their geometry in relation to the GPS receiver. A low DOP value indicates a higher probability of accuracy.

deflection of the vertical

degrees of freedom delta elevation delta height

delta N, delta E, delta U delta X, delta Y, delta Z differential positioning

DOP

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Glossary

Standard DOPs for GPS applications are: PDOP Position (three coordinates) HDOP Horizontal (two horizontal coordinates) RDOP VDOP Vertical (height only) TDOP Time (clock offset only)
Doppler shift

The apparent change in frequency of a signal caused by the relative motion of satellites and the receiver. An arithmetic method of differencing carrier phases simultaneously measured by two receivers tracking the same satellites. This method removes the satellite and receiver clock errors. Digital Terrain Model An electronic representation of terrain in threedimensions.

double differencing

DTM

dual-frequency

A type of receiver that uses both L1 and L2 signals from GPS satellites. A dual-frequency receiver can compute more precise position fixes over longer distances and under more adverse conditions because it compensates for ionospheric delays. A Cartesian coordinate system used by the WGS-84 reference frame. In this coordinate system, the center of the system is at the earth's center of mass. The z axis is coincident with the mean rotational axis of the earth and the x axis passes through 0 N and 0 E. The y axis is perpendicular to the plane of the x and z axes. Eastward reading of grid values. Left to right on a grid (X-axis).

Earth-CenteredEarth-Fixed (ECEF)

easting

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elevation

The height above mean sea level or the vertical distance above the geoid. Elevation is sometimes referred to as the orthometric height. An angle which is normally set to 13 degrees. If you track satellites from above this angle, you usually avoid interference caused by buildings, trees, and multipath errors. Trimble recommends that you do not track satellites from below 13 degrees.

elevation mask

ellipsoid

A mathematical model of the earth formed by rotating an ellipse around its minor axis. For ellipsoids that model the earth, the minor axis is the polar axis, and the major axis is the equatorial axis. You define an ellipsoid by specifying the lengths of both axes, or by specifying the length of the major axis and the flattening. Two quantities define an ellipsoid; these are usually given as the length of the semi-major axis, a, and the flattening,
(a b ) f = --------------a

where b is the length of the semi-minor axis.


ellipsoid distance

As used in the Trimble Geomatics Office software, it is the length of the normal section between two points. Ellipsoid distance is not the same as the geodesic distance.

ellipsoid height

The distance, measured along the normal, from the surface of the ellipsoid to a point.

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entities

Primary graphical elements that you can view and select from the graphics window. Entities available in the Trimble Geomatics Office software are points, lines, arcs, curves, text, and annotations.

ephemeris

A set of data that describes the position of a celestial object as a function of time. Each GPS satellite periodically transmits a broadcast ephemeris describing its predicted positions through the near future, uploaded by the Control Segment. Postprocessing programs can also use a precise ephemeris that describes the exact positions of a satellite in the past. The measurement interval of a GPS receiver. The epoch varies according to the survey type: For real-time surveys it is set at one second. For postprocessed surveys it can be set to a rate of between one second and one minute

epoch

epoch interval

The measurement interval used by a GPS receiver; also called a cycle. The difference between the measured value of a quantity and its true value. Surveying errors are generally divided into three categories: blunders, systematic errors, and random errors. Least squares analysis is used to detect and eliminate blunders and systematic errors, and least squares adjustment is used to measure and properly distribute random error. A coordinate error ellipse is a graphical representation of the magnitude and direction of the error of network adjusted points.

error

error ellipse

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Glossary

events

A record of the occurrence of an event, such as the closing of a photogrammetric cameras shutter. A GPS receiver can log an event mark containing the time of the event and an alphanumeric comment entered through the keypad to describe the event. An event can be triggered through the keypad or by an electrical signal input on one of the receivers ports. A method of GPS surveying using occupations of up to 20 minutes to collect GPS raw data, then postprocessing to achieve sub-centimeter precisions. Typically the occupation times vary based on the number of satellites (SVs) in view: 4 SVs take 20 minutes* 5 SVs take 15 minutes* 6 or more SVs take 8 minutes* (*collected at a 15 second epoch rate)

FastStatic

Feature and Attribute Library (*.fcl) file feature codes

A text file that contains the definitions of feature codes, attributes, CAD styles, and control codes. Descriptive words or abbreviations that describe the features you see. Special instructions that tell the Trimble Geomatics Office software to insert information into reports, files, and annotations. Field codes are used to handle the transfer of database data in ASCII import/export/report operations.

field codes

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final solution

When postprocessing is used to generate GPS vectors, particularly for static solutions, the baseline processor steps through different solutions using a variety of processing techniques and combinations of GPS measurements. In general each subsequent solution is better than the previous one. The final solution provides the best estimate of the GPS vector between two points. See constrained. Point coordinates that do not move when performing a network adjustment. A solution obtained when the baseline processor is able to resolve the integer ambiguity search with enough confidence to select one set of integers over another. It is called a fixed solution because the ambiguities are all fixed from their estimated float values to their proper integer values. A mathematical expression of the relative lengths of the major and minor axes of an ellipsoid. An expression of the flattening that is easier to read and edit. A solution obtained when the baseline processor is unable to resolve the integer ambiguity search with enough confidence to select one set of integers over another. It is called a float solution because the ambiguity includes a fractional part and is non-integer. Performing a network adjustment in which no point (coordinate) is constrained. The network adjustment uses inner constraints. The size and spread of residuals in a data set. Graphically shown in histograms.

fixed fixed coordinates

fixed solution

flattening

flattening inverse

float solution

free adjustment

frequency distribution

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fully constrained

A network adjustment in which all points in the network which are part of a larger control network are held fixed to their published coordinate values. Used to merge smaller with larger control networks and old to newer networks. Geometric Dilution of Precision The relationship between errors in user position and time, and errors in satellite range. See also DOP.

GDOP

geodetic azimuth

The angle between the geodetic meridian and the tangent to the geodesic line of the observer, measured in the plane perpendicular to the ellipsoid normal of the observer. Clockwise from north. A mathematical model designed to fit part or all of the geoid. It is defined by the relationship between an ellipsoid and a point on the topographic surface established as the origin of a datum.The size and shape of an ellipsoid and the location of the center of the ellipsoid with respect to the center of the earth define world geodetic datums. Various datums have been established to suit particular regions. For example, European maps are often based on the European datum of 1950 (ED-50). Maps of the United States are often based on the North American Datum of 1927 or 1983 (NAD-27, NAD-83). All GPS coordinates are based on the WGS-84 datum surface.

geodetic datum

geographic (geodetic) coordinates

Latitude, longitude, and ellipsoid height.

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Glossary

geoid

The surface of gravitational equipotential that closely approximates mean sea level. It is not a uniform mathematical shape, but is an irregular figure with an overall shape similar to an ellipsoid. Generally, the elevations of points are measured with reference to the geoid. However, points fixed by GPS methods have heights established in the WGS-84 datum (a mathematical figure). The relationship between the WGS-84 datum and the geoid must be determined by observation, as there is no single mathematical definition that can describe the relationship. You must use conventional survey methods to observe the elevation above the geoid, then compare the results with the height above the WGS-84 ellipsoid at the same point. By gathering a large number of observations of the separation between the geoid and the WGS-84 datum (geoidal separation), grid files of the separation values can be established. This allows the interpolation of the geoidal separation at intermediate positions. Files containing these grids of geoidal separations are referred to as geoid models. Given a WGS-84 position that falls within the extents of a geoid model, the model can return the interpolated geoidal separation at this position.

geoid model

A mathematical representation of the geoid for a specific area, or for the whole earth. The software uses the geoid model to generate geoid separations for your points in the network.

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geoid observation

A geoid separation, with its associated error, extracted from a geoid model. The Trimble Geomatics Office software network adjustment treats them as in the same way as any observation with an associated error. As the adjustment progresses the observations will become adjusted geoid observations. The distance between the ellipsoid and geoid at a given point. The design, collection, storage, analysis, display, and retrieval of spatial information. The collection of spatial information can be from a variety of sources, including GPS and terrestrial methods. Geomatics integrates traditional surveying with new technology-driven approaches, making geomatics useful for a vast number of applications. Global Positioning System GPS is based on a constellation of 24 satellites orbiting the earth at a very high altitude.

geoid separation

geomatics

GPS

GPS baseline

A three-dimensional measurement between a pair of stations for which simultaneous GPS data has been collected and processed with differencing techniques. Represented as delta X, delta Y, and delta Z; or azimuth, distance, and delta height.

GPS observations

A GPS baseline with its associated errors. As the adjustment progresses the observations become adjusted GPS observations. The data collected by a GPS receiver for the purpose of processing at a later time. It can be in the form of a .dat file (Trimble raw data file format) or a RINEX file.

GPS raw data

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GPS time

A measure of time used by the NAVSTAR GPS system. GPS time is based on Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) but does not add periodic leap seconds to correct for changes in the earths period of rotation. A two-dimensional horizontal rectangular coordinate system, such as a map projection. The conversion between geographic and map projection coordinates. The distance between two points that is expressed in mapping projection coordinates. The distance (horizontal distance with curvature applied) between two ground points. Horizontal Dilution of Precision A measuring tool supplied with an external GPS antenna and used for measuring the height of the antenna above a point. Height of instrument. Synonymous with antenna heights for GPS.

grid

grid conversion

grid distance

ground distance

HDOP height measurement rod

HI

histogram

A graphical display of the size and distribution of residuals in a network adjustment. A point with horizontal coordinate accuracy only. The elevation or ellipsoid height is of a lower order of accuracy or is unknown. The distance between two points, computed horizontally from the elevation of either point. A point with horizontal coordinates only.

horizontal control point

horizontal distance

horizontal position

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independent

Subnetworks, observations, and control points not connected by geometry or errors. This term is the opposite of correlated. A network adjustment computed without fixing any point coordinates. The Trimble Geomatics Office software uses the centroid of the network as an inner constraint. The whole number of cycles in a carrier phase pseudorange between the GPS satellite and the GPS receiver. GPS baseline processing, whether real-time or postprocessed, requires fixed integer solutions for the best possible results. The software which processes the GPS measurements used to derive a baseline does an integer search to obtain a fixed integer solution. The search involves trying various combinations of integer values and selecting the best results. Ionospheric free solution (IonoFree) A solution that uses a combination of GPS measurements to model and remove the effects of the ionosphere on the GPS signals. This solution is often used for high-order control surveying, particularly when observing long baselines.

inner constraint

integer ambiguity

integer search

iono free

ionosphere

The band of charged particles 80 to 120 miles above the earths surface. It affects the accuracy of GPS measurements if you measure long baselines using singlefrequency receivers.

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ionospheric modeling

The time delay caused by the ionosphere varies with respect to the frequency of the GPS signals and affects both the L1 and L2 signals differently. When dual frequency receivers are used the carrier phase observations for both frequencies can be used to model and eliminate most of the ionospheric effects. When dual frequency measurements are not available an ionospheric model broadcast by the GPS satellites can be used to reduce ionospheric affects. The use of the broadcast model, however, is not as effective as the use of dual frequency measurements. A complete set of adjustment computations that includes the formation of the observation equations, normal equations, coordinate adjustments, and computation of residuals. A method of GPS surveying using short Stop and Go occupations, while maintaining lock on at least four satellites. Can be done in real time or postprocessed to centimeter precisions. Known point is used in conjunction with kinematic initialization. If two known points are available, the baseline processor can calculate an inverse between the two points and derive an initialization vector. This initialization vector, with known baseline components, is used to help solve for the integer ambiguity. If the processor is able to successfully resolve this ambiguity a fixed integer solution is possible, yielding the best solutions for kinematic surveys. The primary L-band carrier used by GPS satellites to transmit satellite data. Its frequency is 1575.42 MHz. It is modulated by C/A code, P code, and a Navigation Message.

iteration

kinematic surveying

known point initialization

L1

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L2

The secondary L-band carrier used by GPS satellites to transmit satellite data. Its frequency is 1227.6 MHz. It is modulated by P code and a Navigation Message. Information that you can assign to points in the project. They appear beside points helping you locate them easily. Labels are visible in Survey view and Plan view. You can use the Trimble Geomatics Office softwares predefined label definition to label points (for example, with their names, feature codes, and elevations). Labels use the same font and size as the ToolTips in your Microsoft Windows Appearance settings. To assign labels to points in the database, use View / Point Labels.

label

layers

A place to store data that has been grouped together. Organizing data into layers in this way makes it easier to manage. You can have any number of layers in a project. To assign or reassign an entity to a layer, use the Properties window. A layer name can have up to 100 alphanumeric characters.

least squares

A mathematical method for the adjustment of observations, based on the theory of probability. In this adjustment method, the sum of the squares of all the weighted residuals is minimized. A level observation is an observation in the field using a digital level. A measure of the confidence in our results, expressed in a percentage or sigma.

level observation

level of confidence

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level of significance

An expression of probability. A one-sigma (standard) error is said to have a level of significance of 68 percent. For one-dimensional errors, a 95 percent level of significance is expressed by 1.96 sigma, and a 99 percent level of significance is expressed by 2.576 sigma. The ellipsoid specified by a coordinate system. The WGS-84 coordinates are first transformed onto this ellipsoid, then converted to grid coordinates. The latitude, longitude, and height of a point. The coordinates are expressed in terms of the local ellipsoid. At any point, a plane at the ellipsoid height of a given point which is parallel to the tangent plane to the ellipsoid at that point. Coordinate values for the local geodetic horizon are expressed as North, East, and Up. The LGH is used for rotating EC Cartesian Coordinate differences, before modeling a baseline on the ellipsoid. Azimuth values computed from LGH components must be corrected for skew normals as part of modeling on the ellipsoid. Loop closures provide an indication as to the amount of error in a set of observations within a network. A loop closure is calculated by selecting a point from which one or more observations were taken, adding one of those observations to the points coordinates, and calculating coordinates of the second point based on that observation. This process is repeated one or more times around a loop, finally ending at the original starting point. If there were no errors in the observations, the final calculated coordinate would be exactly the same as the original starting coordinate. By subtracting the calculated coordinate from the original coordinate a misclosure is determined. Dividing this error by the length of the line allows the error to be expressed in parts per million.

local ellipsoid

local geodetic coordinates local geodetic horizon

loop closure

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Glossary

This technique can also be used between two different points when both points are known with a high degree of accuracy. This is also known as a traverse closure.
major axis mapping angle

See ellipsoid. The angle between grid north on a mapping projection and the meridian of longitude at a given point. Also know as convergence. A rigorous mathematical expression of the curved surface of the ellipsoid on a rectangular coordinate grid. The mean height of the surface of the ocean for all stages of the tide. Used as a reference for elevations. A network adjustment in which only enough constraints to define the coordinate system are employed. Used to measure internal consistency in observations. See ellipsoid. Expressing an observation and its related errors mathematically and geometrically on some defined coordinate system, such as an ellipsoid. Interference (similar to ghosts on a television screen) that occurs when GPS signals arrive at an antenna after traveling different paths. The signal traveling the longer path yields a larger pseudorange estimate and increases the error. Multiple paths may arise from reflections from structures near the antenna. A linear combination of L1 and L2 carrier phase observations (L1 + L2) that is useful for canceling out ionospheric effects in collected baseline data. The effective wavelength of the narrow-lane is 10.7 cm.

mapping projection

mean sea level

minimally constrained

minor axis modeling

multipath

narrow-lane

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NAVDATA

NAVDATA is the 1500-bit navigation message broadcast by each satellite. This message contains system time, clock correction parameters, ionospheric delay model parameters, and details of the satellites ephemeris and health. The information is used to process GPS signals to obtain user position and velocity. A set of baselines. See also subnetwork. Solution of simultaneous equations designed to achieve closure in a survey network by minimizing the sum of the weighted squares of the residuals of the observations. The adjustment technique employed by the Trimble Geomatics Office software is sometimes called variation of coordinates, and at other times the method of indirect observations.

network network adjustment

network status

An indication that a particular observation will be included in the adjustment. Network means that it is included in the adjustment Non-network means that it is excluded from the adjustment.

NMEA

National Marine Electronics Association The NMEA 0183 Standard defines the interface for marine electronic navigational devices. This standard defines a number of strings referred to as NMEA strings that contain navigational details such as positions. Most Trimble GPS receivers can output positions as NMEA strings.

normal

In geodesy, the straight line perpendicular to the surface of the ellipsoid.

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normal distribution curve

A graphical illustration of the theoretical distribution of random variables around an expected value according to probability theory. Used with histograms. Northward reading of a grid value. The correction applied to an observation, as determined by the adjustment. See surveying observations. The amount of time required on a station, or point, to achieve successful process of a GPS baseline. The amount of time will vary depending on the surveying technique, the type of GPS receiver used, and the precision required for the final results. Occupation times can vary from a couple of seconds (kinematic surveys) to several hours (control or deformation surveys that require the highest levels of precision and repeatability). The intersection of axes in a coordinate system. The point of beginning. The distance between a point and the surface of the geoid. It is usually called the elevation. GPS baseline processing, whether real-time or postprocessed, requires fixed integer solutions for the best possible results. (See integer search.) Historically, this search was done using measurements collected while two or more receivers were stationary on their respective points. Modern receivers and software can use the measurements collected while the roving receiver is moving. Because the receiver is moving, the data is described as collected On-the-fly (OTF) and the integer search using this data is an OTF search.

northing observation residual

observations occupation time

origin

orthometric height

OTF search method

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outlier

An observation which is identified by statistical analysis as having a residual too large for its estimated error. The term derives from the graphical position of an observation in a histogram. A network for which more measurements have been made than are necessary to compute the coordinates of the network. Related to redundancy. The precise code transmitted by the GPS satellites. Each satellite has a unique code that is modulated onto both the L1 and L2 carrier waves. The P-code is replaced by a Y-code when Anti-Spoofing is active. An independent variable in terms of which the coordinates of points on a line or surface are given. See unknowns. A form of error checking used in binary digital data storage and transfer. Options for parity-checking include Even, Odd, or None. Position Dilution of Precision A unitless figure of merit expressing the relationship between the error in user position, and the error in satellite position. Geometrically, PDOP is proportional to 1 divided by the volume of the pyramid formed by lines running from the receiver to four satellites that are observed. Values considered good for positioning are small, for example 3. Values greater than 7 are considered poor. Thus, small PDOP is associated with widely separated satellites. PDOP is related to horizontal and vertical DOP by:
PDOP = HDOP + VDOP
2 2 2

over-determined

P-code

parameter

parity

PDOP

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PDOP cutoff

A receiver parameter specifying a maximum PDOP value for positioning. When the geometric orientation of the satellites yields a PDOP greater than the mask value, the receiver stops computing position fixes. The highest PDOP value at which a receiver will compute positions. See antenna phase correction. A model used to apply a correction to a GPS signal based on a specific antenna type. The correction is based on the elevation of the satellite above the horizon and models electrical variations in the antenna phase center location. These models are useful for eliminating errors introduced when identical antennas are not used at both the base and rover points. See also antenna phase correction. The act of aligning the antenna or instrument along a vertical line (plumb line) perpendicular to the equipotential surface of earths gravity field. See autonomous positioning. To process satellite data on a computer after it has been collected. Parts per million A standardized representation of a scale error in distance measurements. A 1 PPM error would result in 1 millimeter of measurement error for every 1000 meters of distance traveled.

PDOP mask

phase center phase center models

plumbing

point positions postprocess

PPM

precise ephemeris

See ephemeris.

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precision

A measure of how closely random variables tend to cluster around a computed value. High precision implies small residuals. Usually expressed as one part in, or alternatively, as parts per million. Pseudorandom number A sequence of digital 1s and 0s that appear to be randomly distributed like noise, but that can be exactly reproduced. PRN codes have a low autocorrelation value for all delays or lags except when they are exactly coincident. Each NAVSTAR satellite can be identified by its unique C/A and P pseudorandom noise codes, so the term PRN is sometimes used as another name for GPS satellite or SV.

PRN

probability

A statistical percentage expressing what portion of a hypothetical number of observations will fall within the defined limits. Sometimes called level of significance. The adjusted value for observations and other quantities, assuming that the adjustment has been done correctly. The closest approximation to true value that is possible. The Trimble Geomatics Office software operates on data in projects. You can consider a project to be the workspace you are working in. New projects are always created from existing templates and inherit all the elements of the template. From this point on, all new work is saved only in the new project. A project contains all of the raw observations, computed points, coordinate system definition, line work, text, and CAD styles.

probable value

project

project datum

The datum associated with a project in the Trimble Geomatics Office software. All local coordinates are displayed using the project datum.

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projection

Used to create flat maps that represent the surface of the earth or parts of that surface. Computed errors derived from estimated observational errors and expressed in terms of coordinate positions. Propagated coordinate errors may, in turn, be propagated into relative errors in azimuth, distance, and delta height between points. One or more software evaluation tests performed on raw GPS measurement data to determine if the data passes or fails a set of tolerance values that you define. These tests either remove data from further processing or mark data requiring quality improvements. Quality Control records QC records contain information about the quality of the measured GPS position. They are stored with the point record.

propagated error

Quality Acceptance test

QC records

ratio

During initialization, the receiver determines the integer number of wavelengths for each satellite. For a particular set of integers, it works out the probability that it is the correct set. Ratio is the ratio of the probability of correctness of the currently best set of integers to the probability of correctness of the next-best set. Thus, a high ratio indicates that the best set of integers is much better than any other set. This gives us confidence that it is correct. The ratio must be above 5 for new point and OTF initializations.

RDOP

Relative Dilution of Precision

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Glossary

Real-Time kinematic

A method of GPS surveying in real-time using short (Stop and Go) occupation, while maintaining lock on at least 4 satellites. This method requires a wireless data link between the base and rover receivers. Coordinates in any system in which the axes of reference intersect at right angles. An abbreviated version of the normal equations in which the equations are reordered to minimize the computer memory required to store all nonzero elements. The amount by which a control network is overdetermined, or has more observations than are needed to strictly compute its parts. A measure of the degrees of freedom in a portion, rather than the entirety, of a control network. A baseline observed to a point that has already been connected to the network by other observations. A redundant baseline can be either an independent reobservation of a previous measurement, or an observation to a point from another base. It is redundant because it provides more information than is necessary to uniquely determine a point. Redundant observations are very useful, however, in that they provide a check on the quality of previous measurements. A repeated observation, or an observation which contributes to over-determining a network. See standard error of unit weight. The coordinate system of a datum. A base station.

rectangular coordinates reduced column profile

redundancy

redundancy number

redundant baselines

redundant observation reference factor reference frame reference station

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reference variance relative errors

The square of the reference factor. Errors and precisions expressed for and between pairs of network-adjusted control points. The correction, or adjustment, of an observation to achieve overall closure in a control network. Also, any difference between an observed quantity and a computed value for that quantity. Receiver INdependent EXchange format A standard GPS raw data file format used to exchange files from multiple receiver manufacturers.

residual

RINEX

RMS

Root Mean Square RMS expresses the accuracy of point measurement. It is the radius of the error circle within which approximately 70% of position fixes are found. It can be expressed in distance units or in wavelength cycles.

rotated meridian

A zone constant for the oblique Mercator mapping projection. In transformations, an angle through which a coordinate axis is moved around the coordinate system origin. Any mobile GPS receiver and field computer that is collecting data in the field. The position of a roving receiver can be differentially-corrected relative to a stationary base GPS receiver. Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services A Commission established to define a differential data link for the real-time differential correction of roving GPS receivers. There are two types of RTCM differential correction messages, but all Trimble GPS receivers use the newer Type 2 RTCM protocol.
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rotation

rover

RTCM

Glossary

RTK

Real-time kinematic A type of GPS survey.

satellite geometry

Position and movement of GPS satellites during a GPS survey. In least squares, a value applied to the variances (errors) based on the required level of confidence. A process of applying a scalar to the estimated errors to achieve proper weighting of the observation. The three types of scalars available in a network adjustment in the Trimble Geomatics Office software are: Default means that scalar is set to 1.00, initial estimated error remains the same Alternative means that scalar is set to the Reference Factor of the previous adjustment User-defined means that you can enter a value for the scalar The scalar is applied to the observation errors using one of the following methods: All Observations Each Observation Variance Component Groups

scalar

scalar weighting

scale

A multiplier used on coordinate and other linear variables, such as for map projections and transformations. Survey Data Management System A set of format definitions for the storage of survey data. AASHTO maintains this system.

SDMS

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Selective Availability (S/A)

Artificial degradation of the GPS satellite signal by the U.S. Department of Defense. Since 1st May 2000, Selective Availability has been turned off. One-half of the major axis. One-half of the minor axis. A period during which one or more GPS receivers log satellite measure data. Errors in tribrach centering or height of instrument at a control point. An observed baseline with no redundancy. A mathematical symbol or term for standard error. A type of receiver that only uses the L1 GPS signal. There is no compensation for ionospheric effects. A process of computing parameters which establishing the relationship between WGS-84 positions (latitude, longitude and ellipsoid height) determined by GPS observations and local known coordinates defined by a map projection and elevations above mean sea level. The parameters are used to generate local grid coordinates from WGS-84 (and vice-versa) real-time in the field when using RTK surveying methods. A polar plot that shows the paths of visible satellites for the time interval selected for the graph. The elevation of the satellite is represented in the radial dimension and the azimuth is shown in the angular dimension. The result depicts the satellites path as it appears to an observer looking down from a place directly above the survey point.

semi-major axis semi-minor axis session

set-up error

sideshot sigma single-frequency

site calibration

skyplot

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solution types

A description of both the data and techniques used to obtain baseline solutions from GPS measurements. Typical solution types include descriptions such as code, float, and fixed. These describe techniques used by the baseline processor to obtain a baseline solution. Solution types also may include descriptions such as L1, L2, widelane, narrow-lane, or ionospheric free. These describe the way the GPS measurements are combined to achieve particular results. For more information, see the references on GPS processing for a more in depth discussion of these terms and techniques. The distance in the plane parallel to the vertical difference (slope) between the points. Signal-to-Noise Ratio A measure of the strength of a satellite signal. SNR ranges from 0 (no signal) to around 35.

slope distance

SNR

standard error

A statistical estimate of error, according to which 68 percent of an infinite number of observations will theoretically have absolute errors less than or equal to this value. A measure of the magnitude of observational residuals in an adjusted network as compared to estimated preadjustment observational errors. Special definitions of Transverse Mercator and Lambert conformal mapping projections adopted by statute in the USA. There is one set of such zones for NAD-27, and another for NAD-83. A method of GPS surveying using long occupations (hours in some cases) to collect GPS raw data, then postprocessing to achieve sub-centimeter precisions.

standard error of unit weight

State Plane Coordinates

static (surveying)

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static network

The static network describes the geometry and order in which GPS baselines collected using static and fast static techniques are organized and processed. The baseline processor first examines the project for points with the highest quality coordinates, and then builds the processing network from those points. The result is a set of static baselines that are derived using accurate initial coordinates. Every observation and set of keyed-in coordinates for a point has a status field (available in the Summary page of the Properties window). The status can be Enabled, Enabled as check, or Disabled: Enabled observations and coordinates are always used by recomputation in determining the calculated position for the point. Enabled as check observations and coordinates are only used if there are no Enabled ones Disabled observations and coordinates are never used.

status

stochastic model

A general reference to the techniques used to estimate errors in a network adjustment. A set of baselines connected together by common control points, and independent of (separate from) any other baselines. As used by the Trimble Geomatics Office software, a network may consist of one or more subnetworks, and any one subnetwork may consist of as few as one baseline and two control points. A Trimble proprietary method of processing the L2 signal when the P-code is encrypted.

subnetwork

Super-trak

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surveying observations

Measurements made at or between control points using surveying equipment, including GPS receivers and conventional equipment. Satellite Vehicle (or Space Vehicle) Symbols and line types are maintained using the Trimble Symbol and Line Type Editor utilities. Use these editors to create new symbols and line types as well as to edit existing ones. Symbols are stored in symbol libraries and line types are stored in line type libraries. The Trimble Geomatics Office software uses the current system symbol and line type libraries. When saving an edited library you can make this the system library (if it is not already the current system library).

SV symbols and line types

systematic errors

An error that occurs with the same sign, and often the same magnitude, in a number of related observations. A value computed from an internal frequency distribution based upon the number of observations, degrees of freedom, and a given probability percentage (95%). This value is used to determine if an observation is not fitting with the others in the adjustment. If an observations residual exceeds the tau, it is flagged as an outlier. Known as tau lines in the histogram of standardized residuals, vertical lines left and right of the center vertical line. Allen Popes statistical technique for detecting observation outliers. For more information, see Pope (1976). Time Dilution of Precision A terrestrial observation is an observation in the field using a laser rangefinder or conventional instrument.

tau (value)

tau criterion

TDOP terrestrial observation

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TOW

Time of Week TOW in seconds, from midnight Saturday night/Sunday morning GPS time.

tracking

The process of receiving and recognizing signals from a satellite. The rotation, shift, and scaling of a network to move it from one coordinate system to another. A selected group of observations used to compute transformation parameters unique to that group of observations. Typically, the observations within the group are the same type with similar errors and measured using a common method. A set of parameters derived for a network adjustment or user-defined, that transform one datum to another. Typically with GPS the parameters are generated to transform WGS-84 to the local datum. Centering device used for mounting GPS antennas and other survey instruments on survey tripods. The errors associated with centering (plumbing) the tribrach over the observed point. These errors are estimated. The estimate is based on surveying the quality of surveying methods and should be conservative. Tropospheric correction The correction applied to a satellite measurement to correct for tropospheric delay.

transformation

transformation group

transformation parameters

tribrach

tribrach centering errors

tropo correction

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tropo model

tropospheric model GPS signals are delayed by the troposphere. The amount of the delay will vary with the temperature, humidity, pressure, height of the station above sea level, and the elevation of the GPS satellites above the horizon. Corrections to the code and phase measurements can be made using a tropo model to account for these delays.

univariate

A mathematical function describing the behavior of one-dimensional random errors, in: angle distance difference in height elevation ellipsoid height

URA

User Range Accuracy A measure of the errors that may be introduced by satellite problems and Selective Availability (S/A) if a particular satellite vehicle (SV) is used. A URA of 32 meters indicates that S/A is enabled. The URA value is set by the Control Segment and is broadcast by the satellites.

unknowns

The computed adjustments to coordinates and transformation parameters. Also used to compute observation residuals. United States government agency that maintains the national geodetic datum and all geodetic survey control networks within the US and its territories. 1200/3937 meter. The official unit of linear measure for NAD-27.

US National

US Survey Foot

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UTC

Universal Time Coordinated A time standard based on local solar mean time at the Greenwich meridian. See also GPS time.

variance variance component estimation variance group

The square of the standard error. A least-squares technique for estimating the relative error of different portions of a network. One of the groups of observations for which variance component estimation is being used in a network adjustment. The set of numbers expressing the variances and covariances in a group of observations. Vertical Dilution of Precision A three-dimensional line between two points. Similar to the normal, except that it is computed from the tangent plane to the geoid instead of the ellipsoid. A network adjustment of vertical observations and coordinates only. A point with vertical coordinate accuracy only. The horizontal position is of a lower order of accuracy or is unknown. Weighted Ambiguity Vector Estimator WAVE is the Trimble baseline processor. It computes GPS vectors from field observations made using static, FastStatic, or kinematic data collection procedures.

variance-covariance matrix VDOP vector vertical

vertical adjustment

vertical control point

WAVE

weight

The inverse of the variance of an observation.

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Glossary

weighting strategy

The collection of values used to augment variance-covariance matrices in the Trimble Geomatics Office software. The set of weights, or the inverse of the variancecovariance matrix of correlated observations. World Geodetic System (1984) The mathematical ellipsoid used by GPS since January 1987.

weights

WGS-84

wide-lane

A linear combination of L1 and L2 carrier phase observations (L1 - L2). This is useful for its low effective wavelength (86.2 cm) and for finding integer ambiguities on long baselines. In the Earth Centered Cartesian system, X refers to the direction of the coordinate axis running from the system origin to the Greenwich Meridian; Y to the axis running from the origin through the 90 east longitude meridian, and Z to the polar ice cap. In rectangular coordinate systems, X refers to the east-west axis, Y to the north-south axis, and Z to the height axis. Y-code is an encrypted form of the information contained in the P-code. Satellites transmit Y-code in place of Pcode when Anti-Spoofing is in effect. The delay, caused by the troposphere, of a GPS signal observed from a satellite directly overhead. As a satellite approaches the horizon, the signal path through the troposphere becomes longer and the delay increases.

X, Y and Z

Y-code

zenith delay

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Index
Symbols
#, wildcard 165 *, wildcard 165 .html 384 ?, wildcard 165 datum transformations 411, 414 descriptions for points 341 ellipsoids 411, 413 entities 338 entities, selecting layers 322 entities, using feature code processing 319 feature codes to points 340 field codes 476 geoid models 411 lines 345 lines, using feature code processing 319 linework between points 345 linework for observations 347 points 338 points with attributes 382 points, by azimuth and distance 341 points, manually by coordinates 338 points, using feature code processing 319 site definitions 411 symbols, to .sym file 437 text to projects 352 adjusted quality recomputation 179, 490 adjustment horizontal 51 adjustments horizontal, computing 227 inclined plane 228

Numerics
3D control points color of 150

A
A1 Viewer utility. See Trimble A1 Viewer utility 465 add 348 adding annotations 354 annotations, using feature code processing 319 arcs 348 attributes to feature codes 390 attributes to points 388 attributes to projects 381 azimuths, manually 344 CAD properties to a point 340 coordinate systems 411, 417 coordinate systems to .csd file 417 curves 350

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Index using a calibration in a site vertical 51 vertical, computing 228 vertical, including 228 vertical, maximum inclination 233 annotation templates 322, 331, 426 adding layers 326 creating 332, 336, 426, 431 deleting 335 editing 335 field codes in 331 for lines and arcs 434 for points, example 431 from feature code processing 431 predefined 331, 431 specifying layers for 432 viewing, how to 332, 431 annotations Also see entities adding 354 adding using feature code processing 319 amount of text 334 and labels 143 default position 334 defining 331 field codes 470 floating 334 moving 334 orientation of 333 position of 331, 433 specifying layers 334 viewing 222 viewing properties of 355 antenna details editing 212 Antenna files transferring to the Trimble Survey Controller software 101 version of Trimble Survey Controller software to transfer to 78 antenna heights editing 211 selecting points by 157 antenna models, NGS 468 applying, GPS site calibrations 239 arcs Also see entities adding 348 viewing properties of 350 ArcView (*.dbf/*.shp/*.shw) Shapefiles 397 ArcView, export format 368 ASCII data files custom formats, importing 68 importing 64 ASCII formats exporting data to 367 ASCII formats, custom exporting data 367 attributes 378 .ddf files for projects 31 .fcl files for projects 31 adding to points 388 adding to projects 381 collecting 383 collecting, .ddf files 98, 383, 385 collecting, .fcl files 96 creating 426 creating custom reports 391 cutting, or copying, and pasting points with 389 date recorded 398 defining 378 defining sets to collect 438 deleting 389 for feature codes 425 horizontal precision 398 importing with .dc files 381 managing 189, 386

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Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide Volume 1

Index point elevation 398 setting up projects for 381, 388, 425, 427, 443 setting up projects for, how to 31 setting up projects, .ddf files 381, 385 time recorded 398 types of 439 using new feature codes in a project 389 viewing 386 AutoCAD files 366 exporting 366 AutoCAD With Attributes (*.dxf) files 397 AutoCAD with attributes, export format 368 AutoCAD, export format 368 Autodesk fieldbook, export format 369 automatic feature code processing 30 autonomous, method of measuring coordinates 116 azimuth adding points by 341 azimuth observations 199 survey details of 199 viewing details 175 azimuth system, south 57 azimuths adding, manually 344 baselines, GPS disabled, color of 149 postprocessed, color of 149 potential, color of 149 blocks, for symbols 371

C
C&G standard, export format 368 CAD details adding to a point 340 of a point, viewing 188 CAD formats exporting data to 367 CAD styles 322, 327 assigning to entities 327 creating 327, 331 defining 327 deleting 327 deleting, how to 330 editing 327, 330 viewing 331 calculated positions for GPS baselines or points 33 of points, recomputation 505 calibration point pairs 229 one-dimensional 231 selecting 229 three-dimensional 228, 231 two-dimensional 231 Calibration Report Also see system-generated reports Calibration Report, sections of 235 Calibration.html. See Calibration Report calibrations. See GPS site calibrations changing .fcl files 382 coordinate systems 28, 40, 45 coordinate systems, automatically 53

B
background maps 150 backsight class, points 115 Base Occupation page, for GPS observations 193 baseline processing selection method for 151 Baseline Processing module. See WAVE Baseline Processing module 17

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Index geoid models 44 geoid models for sites 52 maximum error and iteration count 233 project properties 27 status of observations 206 view filters 145 check class, points 115 Checkin folder 37, 445 checking data 140 tolerance 33 tolerances 33 classes, points Trimble Survey Controller software 114 CMM files, export format 368 codes, field. See field codes collecting attributes, .ddf files 98 feature codes in the field 314 color settings for a project 148 colors of flags 14 of stations 149 of symbols 329, 429 Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) files 89 creating 89 transferring 89 version of Trimble Survey Controller software to transfer to commas between point names 155 components (NE,e,h) quality of, recomputation 489 computation summary, GPS site calibrations 233 computing datum transformations 226 datum transformations, how to 226 GPS site calibration parameters 232 horizontal adjustment 227 vertical adjustment 228 context field codes 471 control class points 115 control codes 426 assigning to points 442 creating 427, 442 defining 442 control points 3D, color of 150 horizontal, color of 150 importing 64 vertical, color of 150 control quality recomputation 179, 490 control quality, fixed recomputation 179 conventional observations recomputation 496 viewing details 175, 191, 194 Convert to RINEX utility. See Trimble Convert to RINEX utility 455 Coordinate page, for points 178 coordinate system database 40, 41, 45, 411, 419 accessing 410 selecting coordinate systems 45 viewing 41 coordinate system definitions using datum grids in the field 89 using geoid models in the field 83 coordinate system field codes 473 coordinate system groups 417

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Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide Volume 1

Index coordinate systems (and zones) 39 .csd file, using 419 adding 411, 417 changing 28, 40, 45 changing automatically 53 creating 410, 411 default for projects 28 defined 54 defining 411, 417 duplicating 417 editing 411, 417 from .dc files 40 imported .dc file different to project 112 predefined 410 recently-used, selecting 50 saving as sites 58 Scale factor-only 54 selecting 28, 40, 43, 45, 47, 411 selecting from the .csd file 45 selecting geoid models for 44 selecting sites 51 using datum grids 89 viewing 28 viewing details 44, 48 coordinate systems, published 226 coordinate systems, viewing details 239 coordinates adding points manually by 338 and observations used for points 178 entering for project location 60 entering into the Trimble Geomatics Office software 182 entering, using Properties window 182 meaning and multiple observations, recomputation 504 methods used to measure 116 qualities 116 seeding, recomputation 495 status (enabled/disabled), recomputation 489 coordinates, keyed-in 485 more than one set for a point, recomputation 489 quality, recomputation 488 recomputation 484, 509 coordinates, multiple and observations, recomputation 502 copied, method of measuring coordinates 116 copying Also see cutting, or copying, and pasting projects 35 correction planes, for control point pairs 228 corrections sea level 54 creating .cdg files 89 .ddf files 98 .fcl files 316 annotation styles 336 annotation templates 332, 426, 431 attributes 426 CAD styles 327, 331 control codes 427, 442 coordinate systems 410, 411 custom report formats 391 custom reports 391 datum transformations 411 export formats 477 feature and attribute libraries, example 426 feature codes 427 feature codes with attributes 434 GPS site calibration 51, 58 layers 324, 326 line styles 423, 431 point styles 423, 426, 427

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Index point styles, example 327 projects 24, 36 selection sets, on import 125 symbols 420, 421, 423 symbols, example 421 templates 36, 37 creating reports 358 Current.csd. See coordinate system database curves Also see entities adding 350 viewing properties of 351 custom format definitions items in dialogs 475 custom formats 470 ASCII data files, importing 68 body 474 footer 474 header 474 overview 474 custom reports 359 creating 391 creating for points with attributes 391 creating formats 391 running 391 selecting points to report 391, 395 cutting, or copying, and pasting entities 355 points with attributes 389 organizing. See layers tools for analysis 214 data collector, exporting survey data to 367 Data Dictionary (*.ddf) files 385 collecting attributes 383, 385 creating 98 exporting to Trimble Survey Controller software 385 for projects with attributes 31 line features 385 setting up projects for attributes 381, 385, 444 transferring 98 version of Trimble Survey Controller software to transfer to 78 Data Dictionary Editor software 378, 381, 385 creating .ddf files 98 data files importing 338 Data Transfer utility. See Trimble Data Transfer utility data, postprocessed kinematic 126 Also see GPS Data (*.dat) files data, static 126 data, survey exporting to a file or data collector 367 database coordinate system 40, 41, 45 tables 382 date, attributes 439 Datum Grid (*.cdg) files Also see Combined Datum Grid (*.cdg) files Datum Grid (*.dgf) files creating 467 datum grids importing .dc files, wrong for .cdg file 113

D
dashes between point names 155 data adding to database, recomputation 484 checking 140 displaying in zoom navigator 13 editing, recomputation 484
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Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide Volume 1

Index using in a coordinate system 89 using in the field in coordinate system definition 89 Datum Transformation Parameters section, Calibration Report 236 datum transformations adding 411, 414 computing 226 computing, how to 226 creating 411 editing 411 predefined 226 DC File Editor utility. See <DefaultParaFont>Trimble DC File Editor utility default .fcl files 423, 424, 427, 436 coordinate system selected for projects 28 elevations 53 geoid models 49 layer 322 projections. See default Transverse Mercator projection default elevation recomputation 513 default Transverse Mercator projection 40, 45, 55 creating projects 54 defining 56 importing .dat files, undefined 125 importing .dc files, undefined 113 selecting geoid models 44 undefined 53 defining annotations 331 attributes 378 coordinate systems 411, 417 line styles 420 deleted class, points 115 deleting annotation templates 335 attributes 389 CAD styles 327 CAD styles, how to 330 layers 326 projects 34 projects, retrieving 35 delta elevation 343 descriptions, for points adding 341 Design Points As Staked report 361 devices 401 deleting 409 managing 409 setting up for Trimble Data Transfer 402 transferring data to 401 types for the Data Transfer utility 402 viewing properties of 409 dialogs, appearing when importing 69 digital level files, importing 131 digital levels, supported by the software 131 Digital Terrain Model (*.dtx) files transferring 99 distance adding points by 341 units to use 342 distance recomputations 33 drag-and-drop importing .dat files from computer to project 122 importing .dc files from computer to project 109 importing files to a project 64 drawing palette 421 size 421 symbols 421 tools 421

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Index DTM points version of Trimble Survey Controller software to transfer to 78 duplicate points. See points, duplicate duplicating records 411, 412 Dynamically Linked Library (*.dll) files 68 editing antenna heights 211 elevation delta 343 elevations 224 determining for GPS points 42 null 50 specifying default for projects 53 elevations, default. See default elevation Ellipse Controls toolbar 18 ellipses between point names 155 ellipsoid heights 42, 43 ellipsoid records editing 411 ellipsoid, WGS-84 86 ellipsoids adding 411, 413 creating 412 editing 411 entering project location coordinates 60 entities adding 338 adding using feature code processing 319 adding, selecting layers 322 assigning CAD styles 327 changing styles of 19 cutting, or copying, and pasting 355 deselecting 152 editing CAD-related properties 213 editing multiple, selection method for 151 editing survey-related properties 211 hiding, in layers 325 multiple, editing 209 viewing 173 entities, how displayed 322 entities, linework viewing 219

E
easting and northing used in calibration computation 231 editing .dc files 444 .fcl files 425 annotation templates 335 antenna heights 212 CAD styles 327, 330 CAD-related properties of entities 213 coordinate systems 411, 417 data, recomputation 484 datum transformations 411 ellipsoid records 411 ellipsoids 411 geoid models 411 layers 325 Locked property of layers 14 multiple entities 209 multiple entities, selection method for 151 point details 176 point details, survey 177 site definitions 411 survey data 206 survey-related properties of an entity 211 symbols and line types 420 view filters 14 Visible property of layers 14
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Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide Volume 1

Index entities, selected exporting 367 entities, selecting 140 entities, selecting all 152 entities, selecting, in layers 324 entities, selecting, in specified layers 164 entities, selecting, in the Plan view 163 entities, selecting, methods 151 entities, selecting, using queries 166 entities, selecting, with the mouse 152 Error Estimate page, for points 178, 187 error flags 15 error messages importing .dat files 125 importing .dc files 112, 113 errors in data, viewing 202 reported in system-generated reports 32 Errors and Warning section, Recompute Report 515 errors, estimated 178 event marker, color of 150 events data viewing details 175 exiting, the Trimble Geomatics Office software 22 exploding merged points 127 Export folder 445 export formats 366 Also see custom formats creating 477 GIS 397 exporting .ddf files to Trimble Survey Controller software 385 .fcl files to survey controller 383 AutoCAD files 366 data to ASCII and CAD formats 367 NGS Bluebook files 372 points and attributes to GIS formats 367 project database 367 selected entities 367 survey data to a file or data collector 367 to data in a custom ASCII format 367 to third party software formats 365

F
false northings and eastings 57 updated 54 FastStatic baselines direction of 207 FastStatic baselines, viewing details 191 FCpro.htm. See feature code-processing report Feature and Attribute Editor utility. See Trimble Feature and Attribute Editor utility feature and attribute libraries 378 changing 382 creating 316 creating, example 426 default 423, 424, 427, 436 defining CAD styles 327 exporting to survey controller 383 for collecting feature codes and attributes 96 for processing feature codes 314, 315, 316 for projects with attributes 31 from TRIMMAP 315 importing .dc files, different to project 113 in the field 382 processing 423

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Index processing feature codes 427 projects, setting up for attributes 425 saving 427, 443 selecting 381, 382 transferring to Trimble Survey Controller software 96, 314, 315, 383, 443 using in Trimble Geomatics Office software 443 Feature and Attribute Library (*.fcl) files Also see feature and attribute libraries version of Trimble Survey Controller software to transfer to 78 feature code processing 316, 425, 443, 444 .fcl files 314, 315, 427 adding annotation templates 431 assigning styles to points and lines 425 automatically 30 by selection 319 feature and attribute libraries 316 layers, selecting 322 selection method for 151 selection set 316, 317 undoing 318 feature code-processing report (FCpro.html) 319 choosing the way you are notified 319 locating and opening 320 feature codes 385, 425, 426, 427 adding layers 326 adding to points 340 attributes 425 collecting in the field 314 collecting, .fcl files 96 creating 427, 434 descriptions of 434 entering in the Properties window 314, 315 layers for 437 procedures for points 425 processing 316 processing automatically 30 processing. See feature code processing feature codes with attributes using new in a project 389 features 385 lines, in .ddf files 385 points 385 setting up projects for 30 field codes accessing 470 adding 476 context 471 coordinate system 473 elements of syntax 470 in annotation templates 331 modifiers 472 name 471 options 472 overview 470 project 473 field codes, system 473 field fill-in, how to use 339 files AutoCAD 366 AutoCAD, exporting 366 Background Map 150 digital level, importing 131 Dynamically Linked Library (*.dll). See Dynamically Linked Library (*.ddl) files exporting survey data to 367 Geoid Grid (*.ggf). See Geoid Grid (*.ggf) files importing to a project more than once 70 importing to a project, example 75

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Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide Volume 1

Index Latitude Grid (*.cdg). See Latitude Grid (*.dgf) files Linetype.ltp 327 Longitude Grid (*.dgf). See Longitude Grid (*.dgf) files Meterological 129 National Geodetic Survey (NGS) Data Sheet. See National Geodetic Survey (NGS) Data Sheet files Navigation Message 129 NGS Bluebook 372 Observation Data 129 RINEX. See RINEX files RINEX. See Trimble Convert to RINEX utility 455 Survey Controller (*.dc). See Survey Controller (*.dc) files Symbols.dxf 371 Symbols.sym 327, 371 transferring to the Trimble Survey Controller software 78, 79 transferring to the Trimble Survey Controller software, how to 79 TRIMMAP graphics 366 World 150 files, ASCII data custom formats, importing 68 importing 64 files, project stored in specified folder 25 files, rotation of 150 filters, view 143 Flag icon, in status bar 14 flagged observations color of 149 flags colors of 14 error 15 suppressing 14 flags, warning 202 floating annotations 334 folder structure 7 folders Checkin 37, 445 Export 445 for projects 445 Reports 32, 317, 320 format of .dc file to be created 80 formats export 366 RINEX file 129 selecting 29 formats, custom Also see custom formats body 474 footer 474 header 474 FTP site xvii, xxi

G
geographic information system (GIS) export formats 397 formats, exporting points and attributes to 367 Geoid Grid (*.ggf) files 42, 83 creating 467 importing .dc files, wrong geoid model for 113 size of file to be created 85 transferring to Trimble Survey Controller software 83, 88 version of Trimble Survey Controller software to transfer to 78 geoid indicator, Properties window 180 Geoid Model Definition section, Calibration Report 237 geoid models 40, 42

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Index adding 411 area defined by 85 changing 44 changing for sites 52 choosing default for a coordinate system 419 converting between heights and elevations 43 default 49 determining elevation for GPS points 42 editing 411 for a default Transverse Mercator projection 44 for coordinate systems 44 importing .dc files, wrong .ggf file 113 selecting 43 subgridding 83 using as part of the coordinate system definition in the field 83 viewing properties 49, 58 geoid models, quality 34 geoid separations 86 viewing 42 geoid-ellipsoid separations. See geoid separations geomatics, definition 2 GPS Baseline Processing Report 17 GPS baselines calculated positions for 33 direction of, recomputation 495 multiple 33 selecting by baseline precision 160 GPS Data (*.dat) files importing from the Trimble Survey Controller software 118 importing from your computer 122 GPS Data (*.dat) files, importing 118 drag-and-drop 122 from a GPS receiver 119 messages and dialogs 125 points with duplicate names 127 GPS loop closures 205 GPS observations determining positions for, recomputation 494 disabling 192 pages in Properties window for using for a recomputation 206 using in a network adjustment 192 viewing details 175, 191, 192 GPS occupations 178 viewing details 193 GPS points 229 determining elevation using a geoid model 42 GPS positions collecting 426 GPS receiver device Also see devices setting up 405 GPS receiver. See Trimble GPS receiver GPS site calibration, recomputation 512 GPS site calibrations 42, 43, 58, 224, 232 analyzing parameters 232 applying 239 computation summary 233 computation summary parameters 233 computing parameters 232 creating 51, 58 example 240 finding problem point pairs 234 performing 58 point pairs, errors 234 report 235 selecting calibration components 224 using in future projects 239 using saved 239

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Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide Volume 1

Index GPS site calibrations, parameters analyzing 233 GPS Solution (APC) page, for points 178 GPS vectors. See GPS baselines GPS WAAS, method of measuring coordinates 116 graphics window 1014 color of 149 Grid Factory utility. See Trimble Grid Factory utility 467 grid lines viewing 147 grid points 229 ground scale factor, setting 61 horizontal control points color of 150 horizontal residual, maximum 233 HTML viewer 358 hyphens in point names 155

I
icons, in the status bar 14 import formats See custom formats import reports 73, 136 Messages section 137 parts of 136 Project Details section 137 Recompute Report 137 Import.html. See imported files report imported files reports 73, 136 importing .dc files 52 .dc files containing attributes 384 ASCII data files 64 attributes, with .dc files 381 control points 64 data files 338 data files, selection sets 169 digital level files 131 files to a project 66 files to a project, drag-and-drop 64 files to a project, more than once 70 files to a project, Pacsoft example 75 messages and dialogs that may appear 69 National Geodetic Survey (NGS) Data Sheet files quality of points 67 selection sets created 70 importing, .dat files 118 drag-and-drop 122

H
heights, ellipsoid 42, 43 heights, WGS-84 224 Help 6 printing topics 6 utilities 400 Help, context-sensitive xvi, xx Hidden Layers icon, in the status bar 14 High reference variance (GPS Post Processing), warning message 205 High RMS (GPS Post Processing), warning message 205 HighRMS (RTK), warning message 204 horizontal adjustment computing 227 including 228 scale factor 233 Horizontal Adjustment Parameters section, Calibration Report 237 horizontal adjustments, GPS site calibration 51 horizontal components, quality for recomputation 509

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Index error messages 125 from a GPS receiver 119 from the Trimble Survey Controller software 118 from your computer 122 messages and dialogs 125 points with duplicate names 127 undefined default Transverse Mercator projection 125 importing, .dc files different coordinate systems 112 different feature and attribute libraries 113 error messages 112, 113 from computer to project 110 from computer to project, drag-anddrop 109 from the Trimble Survey Controller software 106 into the Trimble Geomatics Office software 106 messages and dialogs that appear 112 undefined default Transverse Mercator projection 113 wrong .cdg file for datum grid 113 wrong geoid model for .ggf file 113 installing Trimble Grid Factory utility, how to 467 inverse, between two points displaying 214 Inverse.html report 216 iteration count, changing 233 kinematic baselines, postprocessed viewing details 191

L
L1 Code, method of measuring coordinates 116 labels and annotations 143 field codes 470 for points 142 laser rangefinder observations color of 149 details of 197 disabling 198 recomputations 496 status of 198 values 198 viewing details of 175, 191 Latitude Grid (*.dgf) files 89 Layer Selection tool 322 layer, default 322 layers 322 adding in annotation templates 326 adding in feature codes 326 creating 324, 326 deleting 326 editing 325 editing Locked property of 14 editing visible property of 14 hiding entities 325 locking 325 managing 323 selecting 322 selecting all entities in 164 selecting entities in 324 specifying for annotation templates 432 specifying for annotations 334 layers, for feature codes 437

K
keyed-in control, method of measuring coordinates 116 keyed-in normal, method of measuring coordinates 116
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Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide Volume 1

Index least squares method 227, 228 level observations viewing details 175, 191 Level report 362 line features in .ddf files 385 line styles 426, 427 Also see CAD styles assigning to lines, arcs, curves 425 creating 423, 431 defining 420 line types 420, 423 editing 420 line types, predefined 427 lines Also see entities Also see linework adding 345 adding using feature code processing 319 how displayed 442 viewing properties of 347 Linetype.ltp files 327 Linetype.ltp See feature and attribute libraries, default linework Also see arcs Also see curves Also see lines adding between points 345 adding for observations 347 viewing properties of 346 Locked Layers icon, in the status bar 14 Longitude Grid (*.dgf) files 89 Loop Closure Report loop closures, GPS. See GPS loop closures Low ratio (GPS Post Processing), warning message 205

M
MapInfo (*.mif/*.mid) files 397 MapInfo, export format 368 mapping quality recomputation 179, 490 marker, event, color of 150 maximum error, changing 233 mean sea level 42 meaning position of sideshot points, rules 504 menu, attributes 439 menus shortcut 21 merging duplicate points, warning flags 72 messages received on import 69 warning 53, 204, 384 Messages section, import reports 137 Meterological file 129 Microstation (*.dgn) files 397 Microstation, export format 368 misclosure warning message, viewing 178 misclosures 14, 15 mouse pointers. See pointers, shapes 22 moving points, recomputation 512 multiple GPS baselines 33 observations 33 Multiple failures (GPS Post Processing), warning message 205 multiple sideshot observations, recomputations 33

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Index

N
name field codes 471 National Geodetic Survey (NGS) Data Sheet files, importing 130 Navigation Message file 129 Network Adjustment module 18 opening a project created with 26 Network Adjustment Report 18 network adjustment styles 18 network-adjusted points color of 150 New Project shortcut, in the project bar 24 New Project tool 24 NGS antenna models 468 NGS Bluebook Export, format 368 NGS Bluebook files 372 normal class, points 115 northing and easting used in calibration computation 231 note records viewing 218 null elevations 50 numeric, attributes 439

O
Observation Data file 129 Observation page for conventional observations 195, 197, 200 for GPS observations 193 for laser rangefinder observations 198 for reduced observations 201 Observation Statistics page for GPS observations 193, 195 observations Also see conventional observations Also see GPS observations
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Also see laser rangefinder observations Also see reduced observations adding linework for 347 and coordinates used for points 178 changing status 206 disabling 195, 197 enabled as a check, color of 149 misclosures 14, 15 multiple 33 multiple sideshot, recomputations 33 quality 117 recomputation 484, 509 selecting 158 selecting from or to a specified point 159 viewing details 175 viewing details of 191 observations, azimuth. See azimuth observations observations, multiple and coordinates, recomputation 502 and meaning coordinates, recomputation 504 to sideshot points, recomputation 503 observations, raw GPS processing 17 Occupations and Setups pages, for points 178 occupations, GPS 178 viewing details 193 online Help xvi, xx Open Project shortcut, in the project bar 26 Open Project tool 26 opening projects, how to 26 Properties window 173 Summary page in Properties window 180 system-generated reports 320

Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide Volume 1

Index templates 38 utilities 400 options field codes 472 origin updating default Transverse Mercator projection 227 Out-of-Tolerance Closure (recomputation), warning message 204 Out-of-Tolerance Observation (recomputation), warning message 204 Point Derivation Report, example 181 Point Derivations section, Recompute Report 516 point features 385 point pairs, calibration 229 errors 234 finding problem pairs 234 problem with 233 selecting 229, 230 three-dimensional 228, 231 Point Residuals, Calibration Report 238 point styles 426, 427 Also see CAD styles assigning to points 420, 425 creating 423, 426, 427 creating, example 327 defining settings for 428 selecting 437 point styles, size 429 point symbols 327, 420 pointers, shapes 22 points Also see entities Also see recomputation #, wildcard 165 *, wildcard 165 ?, wildcard 165 adding 338 adding by azimuth and distance 341 adding descriptions for 341 adding feature codes to 340 adding using feature code processing 319 adding, manually by coordinates 338 alphanumeric names 155 arcs between, adding 348 assigning qualities to 126 backsight class 115 CAD properties, adding to 340 calculated positions for 33

P
Pacsoft export format 369 Pacsoft files importing to a project, example 75 pages, Properties window. See Properties window Pan mode, pointer 22 Pan tool 141 parameters, calibration analyzing 232, 233 computation summary 233 computing 232 for vertical adjustment 228 parameters, vertical shift 228 pasting. See cutting, or copying, and pasting PC cards, Trimble Survey Controller 401 Plan view 10, 19 selecting entities 163 using 321 plane adjustment, inclined 228 plane transformations 227 planes, correction for control point pairs 228 plot scale, specified 329 Point Derivation Report generating 180 viewing 180

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Index calculating position 505 check class 115 classes, Trimble Survey Controller software 114 color of 149 commas between names 155 control class 115 control codes for 442 coordinates, methods used to measure 116 dashes between names 155 deleted class 115 details of, Properties window 176 details, survey 177 determining quality of, recomputation 510 displaying inverse between two 214 ellipses between names 155 entering coordinates for using Properties window 182 entering coordinates into the Trimble Geomatics Office software 182 entering traverses 343 exploding merged 127 exporting to GIS formats 367 how displayed 442 hyphens in names 155 labels for 142 lines between, adding 345 linework between, adding 345 managing attributes for 189 more than one set of keyed-in coordinates, recomputation 489 moving, recomputation 512 normal class 115 pages in Properties window for 178 procedures for feature codes 425 quality of coordinates 116 quality, selecting for import 67 selecting 153 selecting by antenna height 157 selecting by GPS quality 156 selecting by name 154 selecting by name, rules for 155 selecting by name, wildcards 165 stake class 115 stakeout information 187 stakeout information, viewing 186 viewing CAD details 188 viewing details of 175 viewing details, selection method for 151 viewing observations and coordinates used for 178 viewing qualities 178 Points Report 359 points with attributes adding to projects 382 creating custom reports for 391 cutting, or copying, and pasting 389 points, calculating position, determining criteria for 489 points, calibration selecting 163 points, duplicate managing 117 merging 73 merging, warning flags 72 renaming 72, 189 selecting 161 selection method for 151 points, GPS 229 determining elevation using a geoid model 42 points, grid 229 points, network adjusted color of 150 points, sideshot multiple observations to, recomputation 503

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Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide Volume 1

Index rules for meaning position of, recomputation 504 points, staked selecting 162 points, starting. See starting points points, traverse recomputations 508 points, WGS-84 relationship with grid points 224 positions calculated for GPS baselines or points 33 GPS, collecting 426 Postprocessed Kinematic (PPK) vectors color of 149 postprocessed kinematic data Also see GPS Data (*.dat) files importing 126 PPK Continuous vectors color of 149 processing raw GPS observations 17 processing feature codes. See feature code processing project properties of 27 project bar 12 Also see zoom navigator 12 groups 12 New Project shortcut 24 Open Project shortcut 26 opening a project 26 parts of 12 shortcuts 12 showing or hiding 13 utilities, opening 400 project bar, creating a project 24 project databases exporting 367 Project Details section, Calibration Report 236 Project Details section, import reports 137 Project Details section, Recompute Report 515 project field codes 473 project files in specified folder 25 projection parameters calculated 57 projections default. See default Transverse Mercator projection projects 24 adding attributes 381 adding points with attributes 382 changing .fcl files 424 changing coordinate systems 28 changing properties 27 color settings 148 coordinate systems for 39 copying 35 creating 24, 36 default coordinate system for 28 default elevation, recomputation 513 defining CAD styles 327 deleting 34 entering location coordinates 60 geoid models for 40 importing files to 66 importing files to, using drag-anddrop 64 opening, how to 26 retrieving deleted 35 selecting a template for 36 selecting coordinate systems 43 selecting unit values and format 29 setting up 23 setting up for attributes 381, 388, 425, 427, 443

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Index setting up for attributes, .ddf files 381, 385 setting up for attributes, how to 31 setting up for features 30 templates 40 using new feature codes with attributes in a project 389 viewing, coordinate systems 28 projects, background colour of 429 projects, folders 445 projects, templates 36 properties coordinate system, viewing 48 viewing geoid model 49 Properties window 172, 386 assigning styles to points and lines 425 azimuth observations 199 entering coordinates 182 entering feature codes 314, 315 geoid indicator 180 layers, selecting 322 opening 173 opening Summary page 180 pages 175 pages for conventional observations in 194, 197 pages for GPS observations in 192 pages for points in 178 parts of 173 point descriptions, viewing 436 point details 176 point details, survey 177 Stakeout page 187 properties, attributes 441

Q
qualities assigning to points 126 for points, viewing 178 observations 117 quality geoid models 34 hierarchy table, recomputation 492 hierarchy, recomputation 490 keyed-in coordinate, recomputation 488 keyed-in coordinates and observations, recomputation 509 of component (NE,e,h), recomputation 489 of coordinates 116 of observed points, determining 510 of points for importing 67 selecting points by 156 queries selecting entities 166 QuickPlan. See Trimble QuickPlan

R
Real Time Kinematic (RTK) base position recomputation 511 recomputations adjusted quality 179, 490 calculating position of points 505 control quality 179, 490 criteria for determining calculated position 489 default elevation 513 determining calculated positions for points 485 determining observations to be used. 206

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Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide Volume 1

Index determining positions for GPS observations 494 determining quality of observed points 510 direction of GPS baselines 495 example 500 fixed control quality 179 flowchart 485 GPS site calibration 512 horizontal and vertical component qualities 509 keyed in coordinates and observations 509 keyed-in coordinates and observations, quality 509 keyed-in coordinates, quality 488 mapping quality 179, 490 meaning position of sideshot points 504 more than one set of keyed-in coordinates 489 moving points 512 multiple observations and coordinates 502 multiple observations and meaning coordinates 504 multiple observations to sideshot points 503 multiple sideshot observations 33 performing 14, 207, 484 potential starting points, determining 487 potential starting points, position and quality of 488 quality hierarchy 490 quality hierarchy table 492 quality of component 489 reversing GPS baselines 208 RTK base positions 511 seeding coordinates 495 settings 32 status of coordinates 489 survey quality 179, 490 tolerance distance 505 traverse points 508 unknown quality 179, 490 warning flags 513 recomputations, distance 33 Recompute icon, in the status bar 14 Recompute Report 206, 484, 513 Errors and Warnings section 515 import reports 137 parts of 514 Point Derivations section 516 Project Details section 515 Traverse Report section 519 Recompute Report, Survey Data section 520 recomputing overview 484 records duplicating 411, 412 user-defined 416, 419 reduced observations 191 viewing details of 175, 200 release notes xvii, xxi renaming duplicate points report formats Also see custom reports reports Also see custom reports Also see Point Derivation Report Also see system-generated report additional 359 creating 358 Design Points /= As Staked report 361 header 358 header, changing information 27 import 73, 136

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Index imported files 73, 136 Inverse.html 216 Level report 362 links in 363 Loop Closure. See Loop Closure Report modifying 359 point derivation details following warning message 203 Points 359 Stakeout report 360 Reports folder 32, 317, 320 Residual Differences Between GPS And Known Coordinates section, Calibration Report 238 residuals maximum horizontal 233 maximum vertical 233 RINEX file format 129 RINEX files 129 Also see Trimble Convert to RINEX utility 458 importing 129 RMS, high warning message, viewing 178 rotation of symbols 329 rotation of files 150 rotations 227 Rover Occupation page, for GPS observations 193 RTK Continuous vectors color of 149 RTK GPS baselines color of 149 direction of 207 viewing details 191

S
saving .fcl files 427, 443 a template 38 selection sets 168 symbols, new 422 scale factor 57, 227 horizontal adjustment 233 Scale factor only, coordinate system 54 importing a .dc file 54 scale factor, ground 61 scale, plot 329 SDMS, export format 369 SDR files, export format 369 SDRMap coordinates, export format 369 sea level elevations 224 sea level corrections 54 changing for terrestrial data 33 sea level, mean 42 seeding coordinates, recomputation 495 selected entities color of 149 selecting .fcl files 381, 382 a template for a project 36 calibration components 224 calibration point pairs 229, 230 calibration points 163 coordinate systems 28, 40, 43, 45, 411 coordinate systems and zones 47 coordinate systems from the .csd file 45 coordinate systems in .dc files 52 duplicate points 161 entities 140 entities in specified layers 164 entities using queries 166 entities with the mouse 152

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Index entities, all 152 entities, in layers 324 entities, in the Plan view 163 entities, methods 151 flagged observations 14 geoid model 43 GPS observations by baseline precision 160 layer 322 observations 158 observations, from or to a specified point 159 point styles 437 points 153 points by antenna height 157 points by GPS quality 156 points by name 154 points by name, rules for 155 points to report 391, 395 recently-used coordinate systems 50 sites 51 sites as coordinate systems 51 staked points 162 symbols 428 unit values and format 29 using wildcards to select multiple point names 165 selection methods 140 selection set feature code processing 316, 317 selection sets 168 created on import 70, 125 importing data files 169 saved, retrieving 169 saving 168 viewing 114, 125 separations, geoid 86 separators, between attributes 439 sets, selection. See selection sets setting up projects 23 projects for attributes 381, 388 projects for attributes, .ddf files 385 projects for features 30 settings recomputations 32 shortcut menus 21 shortcuts, in project bar New Project 24 Open Project 26 site calibrations, GPS. See GPS site calibrations site definitions adding 411 editing 411 sites changing geoid model 44 details, viewing 52 saving coordinate systems as 58 selecting 51 selecting as coordinate systems 51 Sokkia SDR data collectors viewing and editing files of 444 stake class, points 115 Stakeout report 360 STAR*NET 2D control points, export formats 369 STAR*NET 3D control points, export formats 369 STAR*NET observations, export formats 369 starting points potential, determining for recomputations potential, position and quality of 488 starting, Trimble Geomatics Office software 10 Static baselines direction of 207

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Index static baselines viewing details 191 static data 126 stations color of 149 status (enabled/disabled) of coordinates, recomputation 489 status bar 14 icons in 14 styles, CAD. See CAD styles subgridding .ggf files 83 Summary page, Properties window for conventional observations 195, 197 for GPS observations 192 for laser rangefinder observations 198 for points 178 for reduced observations 200, 201 opening 180 WGS-84 points 179 Summary, Calibration Report 238 Survey Controller (*.dc) files 45, 106, 444 avoiding errors by transferring 80 containing attributes, importing 384 coordinate systems 40 editing 444 formatting of files to be created 80 importing 52 importing attributes 381 importing with a Scale factor-only coordinate system 54 locating 445 selecting coordinate systems from 52 setting up project for attributes 444 transferring to projects 314, 316 version of Trimble Survey Controller software to transfer to 78 viewing 444 Survey Controller (*.dc) files, importing from computer to project 110 from computer to project, drag-anddrop 109 from the Trimble Survey Controller software 106 into the Trimble Geomatics Office software 106 messages and dialogs that appear 112 survey data editing 206 source types 185 viewing 146, 175 Survey Data Management System See SDMS Survey Data section, Recompute Report 520 survey quality recomputation 179, 490 Survey view 10, 15 on opening a project 26 symbol files 422 as system library files 422, 423 symbols 423 adding to .sym file 437 blocks for 371 color of 329, 429 creating 420, 421, 423 creating, example 421 drawing 421 editing 420 orientation of 329, 430 saving new 422 selecting 428 size 429 size of 329 symbols, point. See point symbols symbols, predefined 427 Symbols.dxf files 371 Symbols.sym. See feature and attribute libraries, default

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Index system field codes 473 system library files symbol files 422, 423 system-generated reports <filename>.html 384 Calibration 235 Calibration, sections of 235 choosing how you are notified of 31 choosing the way you are notified 319 feature code-processing report (FCpro.html) 317, 319 GPS Baseline Processing Report 17 informing of errors 32 locating and opening 320 Network Adjustment 18 collecting 426 terrestrial setup, from or to the point 178 text Also see entities adding to a project 352 in project, orientation of 353 viewing properties of 354 text styles Also see CAD styles selecting for annotations 333 text, associated with entities. See annotations text, attributes 439 text, color of 149 text, entity viewing details 220 time, attributes 439 Timeline window 17 tolerance checking 33 tolerance distance, recomputation 505 tolerance values 33 toolbars Ellipse Controls 18 tools Arc 421 drawing 421 for data analysis 214 Layer Selection 322 Line 421 New Project 24 Open Project 26 zoom 13, 85, 141 ToolTips 21 TPLANE, export format 369 transferring .cdg files 89 .dc files to projects 314, 316 .dc files, avoiding errors by 80 .ddf files 98 .dtx files 99

T
tables in the database 382 Target Setup page, for conventional observations 195 templates annotation. See annotation templates creating 36, 37 for a project 36, 40 opening 38 project, defining CAD styles 327 saving 38 selecting for a project 36 templates, for a project 24 TERRAMODEL, export format 369 terrestrial data changing sea level correction for 33 terrestrial observations color of 149 using for a recomputation 206 terrestrial positions

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Index .fcl files to Trimble Survey Controller software 96, 314, 383, 443 .ggf files 83 Antenna files 101 data to devices 401 files to the Trimble Survey Controller software 78 Survey Controller (*.dc) files 80 transferring files to the Trimble Survey Controller software 79 to the Trimble Survey Controller software, how to 79 transformations, plane 227 translations 227 Transverse Mercator projection, default 40, 45, 55, 226 creating projects 54 defining 56 selecting geoid models 44 undefined 53 updating origin 227 traverse points more than one observation, recomputation 508 Traverse Report section Recompute Report 519 traverses entering for a point 343 Trimble Convert to RINEX utility Configuration dialog 457 configuring antenna information 459 controls 463 header information 461 output files 458 the RINEX conversion 457 creating conversion file 464 defining header fields 461 editing antenna information 460 files creating conversion 464 input 456 output 455, 458 types 455 Header Field Override dialog 462 selecting folders and files 456 input files 456 output folder 457 Trimble Coordinate System Manager utility .csd 411 coordinate system groups 417 coordinate systems 411 adding 417 adding to .csd file 417 creating 411 duplicating 417 editing 417 datum transformations adding 414 creating 411 ellipsoids adding 413 creating 412 geoid models for coordinate systems, choosing 419 records duplicating 411 records, ellipsoid editing 411 records, user-defined 416, 419 viewing .csd 41 Trimble Data Exchange Format 369 Trimble Data Transfer devices deleting 409 managing 409 viewing properties of 409 GPS receiver device setting up 405

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Index setting up devices 402 transferring data to devices 401 Trimble Survey Controller device setting up 403 types of devices 402 Trimble Data Transfer utility 401 Trimble DC File Editor utility 444 .dc files 444 editing 444 locating 445 viewing 444, 445 Sokkia SDR data collectors, viewing and editing files of 444 Trimble DC File Editor window 445 Trimble Feature and Attribute Editor utility 425 Annotation Template-Properties Dialog 432 annotation templates 426 creating 336, 426, 431 for lines and arcs 434 for points example 431 from feature code processing 431 predefined 431 specifying layers for 432 viewing, how to 431 annotations, position of 433 attributes creating 426 defining sets to collect 438 attributes, properties 441 attributes, types of 439 CAD styles creating 331 color settings 429 control codes 426 assigning to points 442 creating 427, 442 feature and attribute libraries creating, example 426 editing 425 processing 423 saving 427, 443 transferring to Trimble Survey Controller software 443 viewing 425 feature code processing, .fcl files 427 Feature Code Properties dialog, Attributes tab 440 feature codes 426, 427 creating 427, 434 descriptions of 434 layers for 437 layers creating 326 line styles 426, 427 creating 423, 431 line types, predefined 427 point descriptions, viewing 436 point styles 426, 427 creating 423, 426, 427 defining settings for 428 selecting 437 point styles, size 429 projects, setting up for attributes 427 separators, between attributes 439 symbol files, as system library files 422, 423 symbols adding to .sym file 437 creating 423 selecting 428 symbols, orientation of 430 symbols, predefined 427 symbols, size 429 Trimble Geomatics Office software, linking 426 using, example 426

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Index when and why to use 425 Trimble GDM, export format 368 Trimble Geomatics Office software exiting 22 folder structure 7 getting started 6 key features 2 overview 2 starting 10 using 3 workflow 4 Trimble Geomatics Office window 1014 Also see project bar 12 Also see status bar 14 Also see zoom navigator 13 Trimble GPS receiver 401 importing .dat files from 119 Trimble Grid Factory utility .ggf, creating 467 installing, how to 467 viewing geoid separations 42 Trimble Line Type Editor utility 420 line styles, defining 420 line types 420 editing 420 projects, changing .fcl files 424 Trimble Pathfinder Office software 98 Trimble QuickPlan almanac, current ephemeris file 447 creating sessions and defining points 448 defining a point 450 defining the session 449 displaying graphs 454 exiting 455 setting Auto Time parameters 452 viewing reports 453 viewing the Status Window 451 when and why use 446 Trimble Survey Controller (*.dc) files transferring 80 Trimble Survey Controller device Also see devices setting up 403 Trimble Survey Controller software collecting attributes 383 exporting .ddf files 385 exporting .fcl files to 383 importing .dc files from 106 PC card 401 transferring .fcl files 383 transferring .fcl files to 96, 315 transferring Antenna files to 101 transferring files to 78 transferring Geoid Grid (*.ggf) files to 88 versions to transfer files to 78 Trimble Symbol Editor utility 420 drawing size 421 tools 421 drawing palette 421 point styles assigning to points 420 point symbols 420 projects, changing libraries 424 symbol file 422 symbols creating 420, 421 creating, example 421 drawing 421 editing 420 saving new 422 tools Arc 421 Line 421 TRIMMAP .fcl files 315 TRIMMAP files 366 TRIMMAP, export format 369

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Index

U
UK National Grid version of Trimble Survey Controller software to transfer to 78 undefined default Transverse Mercator projection 53 unit values selecting 29 units of measurement for distance 342 unknown quality recomputation 179, 490 Updated Default Projection (Transverse Mercator) Definition section, Calibration Report 236 Utilities QuickPlan 446 utilities 400 A1 Viewer. See Trimble A1 Viewer utility 465 Convert to RINEX. See Trimble Convert to RINEX utility 455 Coordinate System Manager. See Trimble Coordinate System Manager Data Transfer. See Trimble Data Transfer utility DC File Editor. See <DefaultParaFont>Trimble DC File Editor utility Feature and Attribute Editor. See Trimble Feature and Attribute Editor Feature and Attribute Editor. See Trimble Feature and Attribute Editor utility Grid Factory. See Trimble Grid Factory utility 467 utilities, Help 400 utilities, opening 400

V
values laser rangefinder observations 198 tolerance 33 vectors, GPS. See GPS baselines vertical adjustment computing 228 including 228 maximum inclination 233 parameters for 228 Vertical Adjustment Parameters section, Calibration Report 237 vertical adjustment, GPS site calibration 51 vertical components, quality for recomputation 509 vertical control point color of 150 vertical residual, maximum 233 vertical shift parameters 228 view annotation details 222 properties of text 354 view filters 143 changing 145 editing 14 View Filters icon, in the status bar 14 viewing .csd 41 .dc files 444, 445 .fcl files 425 annotation templates, how to 332, 431 attributes 386 CAD details of a point 188 CAD styles 331 coordinate system details 44, 48, 239 coordinate systems 28 entities 173 erroneous data 202

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Index geoid model properties 49, 58 geoid separations 42 GPS observation details 192 grid lines 147 linework entities 219 note records 218 observations 14 observations and coordinates used for points 178 observations, details 175, 191 Point Derivation Report 180 point descriptions 436 point details 175, 176 point details, survey 177 point qualities 178 points 14 reduced observation details selection sets 114, 125 selection sets created on import 70 site details 52 survey data 146, 175 text entity details 220 warning messages 178, 202 viewing, properties of lines 347 viewing, properties of annotations 355 arcs 350 curves 351 linework 346 views Plan 10, 19 Survey 10, 15 switching between Plan and Survey 10 warning messages 53, 204, 384 viewing 178, 192, 200, 202 Warning page, for GPS observations 192, 200 Warning page, for points 178 WAVE Baseline Processing module 17 opening a project created with 26 WAVE GPS baseline processing module RINEX files 129 WAVE processing styles 17 WGS-84 ellipsoid 86 heights 224 points, relationship with grid points 224 WGS-84 points, in Summary page of Properties window 179 wildcards # 165 * 165 ? 165 selecting multiple point names 165 WILDsoft, export format 369 window graphics 1014 Properties 172 Trimble Geomatics Office 1014 World files 150 world wide web site xv, xix

Z
Zeiss Rec E/M5, export format 369 zoom navigator 13 showing or hiding 13 using 13 using a mouse with a wheel 13 zoom tools 13, 85, 141

W
warning flags 202 warning flags, recomputation 513
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Reader Comment Form


Trimble Geomatics Office User Guide Volume 1 January 2001 Part Number 39328-10-ENG Revision A

We appreciate your comments and suggestions for improving this publication. I use the following Trimble product______________________________________________ for ________________________________________________________________________ Please circle a response for each of the statements below: 1 = Strongly Agree 2 = Agree 3 = Neutral 4 = Disagree 5 = Strongly Disagree The manual is well organized. 1 2 3 4 5 I can find the information I want. 1 2 3 4 5 The information in the manual is accurate. 1 2 3 4 5 I can easily understand the instructions. 1 2 3 4 5 The manual contains enough examples. 1 2 3 4 5 The examples are appropriate and helpful. 1 2 3 4 5 The layout and format are attractive and useful. 1 2 3 4 5 The illustrations are clear and helpful. 1 2 3 4 5 The manual is: too long just right too short Please answer the following questions: Which sections do you use the most? ____________________________________________ What do you like best about the manual? _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ What do you like least about the manual? _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Optional Name _____________________________________________________________________ Company __________________________________________________________________ Address____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Telephone ____________________________ Fax ____________________________________ Please mail to the local office listed on the back cover or to Trimble Navigation Limited, 645 North Mary Avenue, P.O. Box 3642, Sunnyvale, CA 94088-3642. Alternatively, e-mail your comments and suggestions to ReaderFeedback@trimble.com. All comments and suggestions become the property of Trimble Navigation Limited.