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Modeling Coal Combustion : Effect of Combustion Kinetic Parameters

V.Saravanan*+ , S.Jayanti+ , R.K.Kumar* & S.Seetharamu*


+

*Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai
Abstract

The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models to describe the combustion of coal in utility combustion chambers has become an important aid in the design process, but increasing demands are being placed on the technique to give quantitative results rather than qualitative trends. In order to make reliable quantitative predictions about combustion behaviour of coal particles, it is imperative that the underlying processes of coal devolatilisation and char oxidation are accurately described. The coal combustion models used in the commercial CFD codes are based on the empirical relations involving the combustion kinetic parameters viz. activation energy (E), frequency factor (A), total volatile (V), diffusion coefficient (D), etc., experimentally obtained from bench/ pilot scale studies for typical coal. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of Indian coals shows that the combustion behaviour of Indian coals are significantly different. This paper presents the sensitivity analysis of combustion kinetic parameters viz. E, A, V and diffusion coefficient, on the combustion behaviour of coal particles in IFRF No.1 furnace. The efforts underway to obtain these parameters experimentally using TGA and Drop Tube Furnace (DTF) are also described 1.0 Introduction

The increased demand for fossil fuels in recent years has resulted in a greater interest to improve energy utilization and reduce pollutant emissions from fossil fuel combustion systems. Computer simulations of combustion systems can give insights into the phenomena occurring inside combustion and flow systems and can be used as design and analysis tools to improve efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions. However, these simulations are very complex, not only due to the numerical issues associated with solving the necessary equations but also because of the problems associated with mathematically describing the important chemical and physical processes occurring in these systems. Coal combustion models use four well-defined steps: heating up, devolatilisation, volatile combustion and the combustion of the char; as well as sub models to describe pollutant formation, slagging and the physical steps such as fluid flow and heat transfer. In order to make reliable quantitative predictions about combustion behavior of coal particles, it is imperative that the coal devolatilisation and char oxidation parameters are needed to be accurately described in the model input. A brief description about the processes governing coal combustion and the widely applied models used to define them are given under. 1.1 Devolatilisation of coals Moisture present in the coal will evolve early as the temperature rises. As the temperature continues to increase, gases and heavy tarry substances are emitted. The extent of this pyrolysis can vary from a few percent up to 70-80% of the total particle weight and can take place in a few milliseconds or several minutes depending on coal size and type, and on temperature conditions [1]. The heating rate of the particle is one of the important factor, which decides the extent of pyrolysis. The rapid heating rates (104-105oC) give rise to the maximum yield of volatiles than under slow heating conditions or in proximate analysis.

Among the many proposed models for devolatilisation, the most used models in the commercial CFD codes are single-step devolatilisation model proposed by Badzioch and Hawksley [2] and the two competing reactions model proposed by Kobayashi et.al. [3] In single-step devolatilisation model, the devolatilisation is assumed to be a first-order reaction process, with the reaction rate being proportional to the amount of volatile matter still remaining in the coal. The correlation used is;

dV = kV (V V ) --------------------(1) dt
Where, dV/dt is the rate of devolatilisation, kv is rate constant, V is the maximum volatile yield and V is the lost volatile matter at any instant t. The dependence of kv on the temperature is given by the Arrhenius relationship;

E kV = AV exp V -------------------------(2) T P
Where, Av is the frequency factor, Ev , the activation temperature and Tp is the particle temperature in absolute scale. The change of volatile fraction with respect to time is obtained from

t V = 1 exp kV dt ------------------------------(3) V 0
In this case, the parameters viz. Av, Ev and Vf are the input for the model and they have to be evaluated for the specific coal dust under consideration. The two competing reaction model suggests that the pyrolysis could be modeled with the following pair of parallel, first order, irreversible reactions

C k1 (1 Y1 ) S1 + Y1V1 C k 2 (1 Y2 ) S 2 + Y2V2
With the rate equations

--------------------(4)

dc = (k1 + k 2 )c ----------------(5) dt
And

dv dv1 + dv 2 = = (Y1k1 + Y2 k 2 )c --------------------(6) dt dt


Here, k1 and k2 are Arrhenius-type rate coefficients and the important feature of this model is that, it is assumed that E1<E2. This approach satisfactorily correlates the data of single devolatilisation model. Here again the Y1, Y2, A1, A2, E1 and E2 are the dependent parameters of the specific coal dust. 1.2 Char Oxidation of coals Char combustion is a much slower process than devolatilisation, and it therefore determines the burnout time of the pulverised coal in the furnace. The burnout time is usually of the order of several seconds for typical large-scale furnace conditions. The most used char oxidation models are the models proposed by Field et al. and Gibb [4] In the Field model, the char particle is considered to be a spherical one surrounded by a stagnant boundary layer through which oxygen must diffuse before it reacts with the char. The oxidation rate of the char is calculated on the assumption that the process is limited by the diffusion of oxygen to the external surface of the char particle and by the effective char reactivity. The rate of diffusion of

oxygen is given by kd (Pg-Ps), where Pg is the partial pressure of oxygen in the furnace gases far from the particle boundary layer and Ps is the oxygen pressure at the particle surface. The value of Kd is given by:

2.53 10 7 kd = RP

TP + T g 2

0.75

PA -------------(7) P

Where, Rp is the particle radius, TP is the particle temperature and Tg is the far-field gas temperature. Further P is the local pressure and PA is atmospheric pressure. The char oxidation rate per unit area of particle surface is given by kc;

T k C = AC TP exp C T P

---------------(8)

Where, the parameters Ac and Tc depend on the type of coal, and are specified as input parameters. For this model, kd and kc are in units of kg/m2/atm/s, and recommended values for Ac and Tc are 497 s-1 and 8540oK. The overall char reaction rate of a particle is given by:

(k

1 d

+ kC

)P 4 R
g

2 P

P ------------------(9) PA

And is controlled by the smaller of the rates kd and kc. The alternative char oxidation model, the Gibb model, takes into account the diffusion of oxygen within the pores of the char particle. The oxidation mechanism of carbon can be characterized by the parameter so that oxides are produced according to the equation C + O2 2( 1)CO + (2 )CO2 ----------(10) The value of is assumed to depend on the particle temperature TP A number of commercial CFD codes have been developed and those widely used for modeling coal combustion are CFX, FLUENT, PHOENICS and STAR CD. The CFD codes are dependent on the accuracy of the sub-models contained within them and most have common characteristics such as the mathematical methods of solution, the fluid flow and heat transfer sub-models that are of great importance. These codes provide generalized values for the combustion kinetic parameters (Ev, Av, V, Ac, etc) and other empirical constants derived for certain coals. These default values may not be suitable for all the coal types viz. Lignite, sub-bituminous coals, low and high volatile bituminous coals and anthracite. These parameters are to be evaluated for a specific coal under consideration. The estimation of these parameters needs comprehensive experimental methodologies closely simulating the actual process. This paper presents the numerical analysis of the sensitivity of the combustion kinetic parameters viz. E, A, V and diffusion coefficient, on the combustion behaviour of pulverized coal particles which is modeled in IFRF No.1 furnace. The application of various experimental methodologies viz. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Drop Tube Furnace (DTF) in determining these parameters has also been brought out in this paper 2.0 Results and Discussion The present simulation is carried out using the commercial code CFX-10 on the geometry of IFRF No.1 furnace with the geometrical details given by Visser et al [5]. A high ash Indian coal has been taken for assessing the effect of devolatilisation kinetic parameters. The coal properties are given in Table -1. The effect of diffusion coefficient on the char oxidation process presented in this paper was

obtained from the studies made by S.Jayanti et al [6]. Single-step devolatilisation model proposed by Badzioch and Hawksely and Field char oxidation model have been used in the present study. The coal combustion model considered here suggests that the particle, at any time in the reaction process, is composed of moisture, raw coal, char and ash [1]. The raw coal is the maximum volatile matter content of the coal particles (assumed to be in solid form). The raw coal is released out of the particle as fuel (gaseous combustible matter) when devolatilisation is taking place. The fuel will further undergo combustion in the gaseous phase to form gaseous products. The left out solid residue after devolatilisation contains char and ash. The char will further get oxidized to form gaseous products and ash. The final constituent of the solid particle is only ash if the combustion is complete. The turbulence and radiation were treated by the k- and discrete transfer sub-models respectively. The particle heat transfer was treated by the Rans-Marshal model and the gaseous combustion was by mixed is burnt probability density function approach. The default values given for the activation temperature (Ev), frequency factor (Av) and the total volatile yield (V) in CFX-10 are 8850oK, 134000s-1 and 1.25 (Q-factor) times that of the proximate volatile matter respectively. These are close to the values obtained by Badzioch and Hawksley [2], from the devolatilisation kinetics of coal samples studied in a drop tube furnace. In the present work, values of these parameters were varied systematically, and the sensitivity of this variation on the combustion behaviour of coal was studied. 2.1 Effect of devolatilisation activation temperature:

The activation temperature is given by the ratio between the activation energy and the universal gas constant in the Arrhenius relation. The activation temperature value reported by Badzioch and Hawksley is 8800oK [2] for the coal samples with proximate volatile matter content 11.5 to 42.0% (dry ash free basis). The calculated activation energy in this case was 73.163kJ/kg (75kJ/kg). In order to assess the sensitivity of this parameter towards the combustion behaviour, three different values viz. the default value (73.163kJ/kg), a lower value of activation energy (50kJ/kg) and a higher value of activation energy (100kJ/kg) than the default value were considered. The respective activation temperatures would be 8850oK, 6014oK and 12027oK. The pre-exponential value was assumed to be constant and assigned the default value, 134000s-1 as given in the CFX-10 code. The results obtained for the simulations are given in Fig.1-1-Fig1-12. The profiles obtained in the IFRF No.1 geometry show significant difference in respect of the volatile evolution and gaseous volatile combustion for different activation temperature values. The increase of the magnitude of activation temperature significantly delayed the volatile evolution (Fig1.1-1.3) and made the gaseous volatile combustion more and more diffusive (Fig 1.4-1.6). This lead to the dilution of heat energy released from volatile combustion. The delay in char oxidation (Fig1.7-1.9) was due to the diffusive profile of volatile combustion, as the char ignition needs minimum threshold energy that is normally derived from volatile combustion. The XY plots of the variation of volatile evolution, volatile combustion and char oxidation with the axial distance of the furnace are given in Fig. 1.101.12 respectively. It is apparent from the XY plots that, the volatile evolution (Fig. 1.10) was completed at the maximum axial distance of 0.45m from the burner inlet for 6014oK activation temperature and this was delayed to the distance of 0.55m and 0.80m for 8850oK and 12027oK activation temperatures respectively. Similarly the volatile combustion (Fig.1.11) profiles show the increase of diffusivities when the activation temperature is increased from 6014oK to 12027oK. The increase of delay in char

oxidation with the increase in activation temperature is shown in Fig.1.12. The delay of the complete oxidation of char particles is about 5m to 7m for the increase of activation temperature from 6014oK to 12027oK respectively. 2.2 Effect of devolatilisation pre-exponential/frequency factor:

The frequency factor value reported by Badzioch and Hawksley was 115000s-1 [2] for the coal samples with proximate volatile matter content 11.5 to 42.0% (dry ash free basis). This has been approximately taken as the default value (134000s-1) in CFX-10. The effect of frequency factor in the single step devolatilisation model towards the combustion behaviour of coal particles is assessed by increasing the default value (134000s-1), by two fold (268000s-1) and decreasing by two fold (67000 s-1). The default activation temperature 8850 oK value in the CFX-10 code is assumed to be the same for all these cases. The results are given in Fig.1.13-1.24. As the frequency factor is only the multiplication factor in the Arrhenius relationship, the change in the values, has not significantly affected the combustion profiles though there is a slight systematic variation is observed. As the frequency factor is increased the rate of the kinetics is also increased. The diffusivity in volatile combustion (Fig 1.16-1.18 & Fig.1.23) and delay in char oxidation (Fig 1.19-1.21 & Fig 1.24) due to the variation of frequency factor are found subtle. 2.3 Effect of maximum volatile yield

In the present study, the total volatile yield is assumed to vary between 1.25 (default value) to 2.25 times that of the proximate volatile matter. All other default values (activation temperature - 8852 oK and frequency factor-134000s-1) were assumed to be constant. Badzioch and Hawksley [2], established that the Q-factor (The factor of increase in volatile at high heating rates with respect to proximate volatile matter) is ranging from 1.30 to 1.51 for weakly swelling coals and 1.43 to 1.83 for highly swelling coals. The increase in maximum volatile yield decreases the char mass fraction by the same amount since the coal is assumed to be composed of raw coal, char and ash on dry basis. The increase of raw coal mass fraction due to the increase of Q-factor is explicit in the Fig. 1.34. This profile does not show significant variation in the rate of volatile release. But, surprisingly, the volatile combustion (Fig 1.35) and the char oxidation (Fig.1.36) profiles in the case of where the Q-factor is 2.25, are quite diffusive and some of the particles escape the domain with partial combustion. 2.4 Effect of char oxidation diffusion coefficient

In the classical shrinking core model of char combustion, the effect of ash is taken into account by considering a thin ash layer surrounding the char particle through which oxygen has to diffuse. Accordingly, the diffusion rate of oxygen is reduced in the presence of ash [7]. If the ash content increases significantly, it is possible that the thickness of the hypothetical ash layer surrounding the char particle may also increase. This would have the effect of further decreasing the rate of diffusion of oxygen to the surface of the combusting char particle. Thus, kd will be reduced as the ash content of the coal increases. In order to see if this would have a significant effect on the overall furnace parameters, calculations would have to be made with reduced values of kd. This can be done for example by reducing the coefficient 2.53 10-7 in equation (10). The effect of reducing kd by a factor of 2.5 are shown in Fig.3, where, for the sake of comparison, the reference case and the case for a 2.5 times increase in the value of kd are also shown. The variation of the particle temperature and the particle mass (due to

devolatilization and char burnout) are shown along the length of the furnace. The particle mass variation with length has four distinct phases: (i) the initial heating up stage where the mass does not change, (ii) the rapid devolatilization stage its mass decreases rapidly, (iii) the slower char burnout stage and (iv) the heating or cooling stage of the particle containing only ash. The effect of changing the oxygen diffusion rate for char burnout has a significant effect only on the third stage. Reducing the oxygen diffusion rate slows down the char burnout rate while increasing it marginally increases it. Examination of the particle temperature variation (Fig. 3a) shows that this has a strong effect on the peak particle temperature. In all the cases, the peak temperature occurs in the char burnout stage (see Fig. 3b). When the oxygen diffusion rate is increased, the faster burnout rate increases the maximum temperature to nearly 3000K while with the decreased diffusion rate, the peak particle temperature is about 1000oK less. The peak gas temperatures also occur later in the furnace in the latter case although the peak value is nearly unchanged. The gas outlet temperatures are nearly the same. These results show once again that the overall furnace parameters are dependent on the heat transfer characteristics rather than on the combustion characteristics. The presence of excess ash and the consequent decrease in oxygen diffusion rate may lead to substantial reduction in char combustion without significantly affecting the overall combustion parameters. Similar insensitivity of the peak and outlet temperatures to the increase in ash content has been reported by Kurose et al (2001), [8] when investigating combustion of coals with ash content in the range of 36% to 53%. 3. Experimental methodologies for determining combustion kinetic parameters There are many experimental methodologies established for assessing the combustion kinetic parameters which include, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) / Derivative Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, Heated Wire Grid (HWG), Drop Tube Furnace (DTF), etc. The details of TGA/DTG and DTF are discussed in brief. 3.1 TGA/DTG In TGA, a small quantity of the powdered sample is heated on a highly sensitive microbalance in a given atmosphere, either in an isothermal mode or non isothermal mode with a pre-set rate of temperature rise. The change in weight of the sample is measured and plotted as a function of furnace temperature (non-isothermal) or time (isothermal). TGA is mainly used for compositional analysis of coal, to determine the temperature ranges of weight changes and to investigate the char burnout [9]. DTG is similar to TGA except that a continuous plot of the rate of weight loss with time as a function of furnace temperature produced. When the coal is heated in an atmosphere of flowing air, the graphical plot produced is generally known as the burning profile curve. If an inert gas such as nitrogen is used instead, the profile obtained is known as the volatile release profile. DTG analysis provides a finger print of the complete combustion process of coal, giving an assessment of its relative combustion characteristics including ignition, flame stability, burnout and reactivity. The standard interpretation of the burning profile curve of a coal produced is given in Fig.4. The point where the curve crosses the base line is termed as the initiation temperature (ITvm), from where the volatile loss commences . The balance of the burning profile represents devolatilisation and oxidation of the coal, with a small effect due to the decomposition of minerals. The order of reactivity of coal is assessed primarily on the peak temperature (PT, the temperature of the maximum rate of weight loss); the higher this temperature the less reactive the coal. Coals with greater weight profiles, which extend into very high temperature ranges indicate slow burning coals for which longer combustion times or higher temperatures are require for complete combustion. The coals with higher weight loss rates at lower temperatures are easier to ignite and burn. The burnout temperature (BT) is the temperature at which combustion ceases.

Assuming the combustion process in the TG/DTG tests follow first order kinetics, the following equations are emploued for calculating the rate constant;

k=

1 dW W dt

Where, k is the reaction rate coefficient, W is the weight of unburned combustible and dW/dt is the instantaneous rate of weight loss. The reaction rate coefficient (k) can be related to temperature by the Arrhenius equation:

E k = A exp RT
Where A is the frequency factor, E the activation energy, R the universal gas constant and T is the temperature in absolute scale. The value of rate constant k for various temperatures T can be obtained from the burning profile of the DTG plot. The plot of log k vs. 1/T yields the value of A (intercept) and E (slope). If the burning profile contains multiple peaks, that leads to different activation energy values, in which case weighted mean activation energy can be taken for calculations. It is derived from Em = F1.E1+F2.E2+.Fn.En Where, F1 to Fn are the combustible content of the samples burned during each region of Arrhenius linearity, and E1 to En are the individual values of apparent activation energy obtained over each corresponding period of Arrhenius linearity. These results are dependent on the test conditions and apparatus (as well as coal characteristics). The maximum heating rate achieved in TGA/DTG is 102K/s. This cannot simulate the conditions as prevailing in the utility boilers where the heating rate is about 105-106K/s. As the devolatilisation process is sensitive to heating rate, the maximum volatile yield (V) obtained in this technique will be lesser than the actual volatile yield at high heating rates. However, TGA/DTG methodology is highly useful in determining the relative reactivity of different coals and which can give preliminary ideas about the comparative reactivities of different coals. 3.2 Drop Tube Furnace ( DTF ) These are the reactors that closely simulate the combustion conditions in industrial PF combustors. The essential characteristics of these types of reactors are: high heating rates (104 to 105 K/s), high temperature (up to 1800oC), dynamic dilute particle phase and atmosphere simulating conditions. In most widely used versions of a DTF system, size graded coal/char/mineral matter particles (typically <100m diameter) are introduced, from a feeder, along the axis of a reactor tube which is heated by a vertical furnace, into a flowing preheated gas stream under strictly controlled operating conditions. The coal is fed into the reactor in a controlled manner so that a dilute particle phase is achieved within the reactor. The coal feed rate is usually small, ranging from around 0.025 to 0.2g/min [10]. The main reactor is normally heated electrically to produce and maintain isothermal conditions along the length of the reaction zone. The residence time of the sample within the reaction zone of the reactor is controlled by the positions of the sample injector and product collector along the axis of the reactor tube, gas velocity and gas flow pipe. The devolatilisation studies can be conducted using inert atmosphere (N2). The activation temperature (Ev), frequency factor (Av) and other related combustion kinetic parameters could be obtained for a specific coal under consideration by adjusting the residence time of the coal particles and the temperature of the reactor. The maximum volatile yield obtained in drop tube furnace has the close

agreement with that of the utility boilers, since the heating rate of this system is almost same as that of the utility boilers. Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore has developed an instrumented drop tube furnace (Fig.5) for the systematic way of assessing the combustion kinetic parameters viz E, A, k, etc. in respect of devolatilisation and char oxidation for a specific solid fuel. This facility can also be used for assessing the combustion behaviour of blended coals and biomass fuels. This system closely simulates the conditions as prevailing in the industrial pulverized fuel combustors. 4.0 Conclusion It is observed that the combustion kinetic parameters are having significant effect towards the combustion behaviour of coal particles. As these are the input parameters for the coal combustion modeling, these values should be precisely described to get a reliable output. As these parameters are dependent upon a specific coal type, they have to be evaluated through the experimental methodologies closely simulating the actual process. There are various experimental methodologies in assessing the combustion reactivity of coal. TGA/DTG gives burning profile of coal samples, however, the heating rate employed is not comparable with the industrial pulverized fuel combustors. Considering the modeling of coal combustion, drop tube furnace appears to be a reliable methodology, which simulates the conditions as near to the conditions in the industrial PF combustors. This can be used to evaluate the combustion kinetic parameters required for coal combustion modeling for a specific coal under consideration. 5.0 References 1. Smoot, L.D. & Smith, J.P., Coal Combustion and Gasification, The Plenum Chemical Engineering Series, Plenum Press New York. (1985), 2. Badzioch,S. & Hawksley, P.G.W., Kinetics of Thermal Decomposition of Pulverised Coal particles, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 9, 521(1970) 3. Kobayashi, H., Howard, J.B., & Sarofim, A.F, Coal Devolatilization at High Temperatures, 18th Symposium (International) on Combustion, The combustion Institute, Pittsburg, PA, 411 (1977) 4. Field D.W., Gill B.B. & Hawksley The Combustion of Pulverized Coal, British Coal Utilization Research Association, Leatherhead, Surrey, UK. (1967) 5. Visser B. M. Mathematical odeling of swirling pulverized coal flames, Dissertation, Technische Universiteit Delft, the Netherlands. (1991) 6. Jayanti,S., Maheswaran, K., & Saravanan, V., Assessment of the effect of high ash content in pulverized coal combustion Article in press, Applied Mathematical Modeling Journal (2006). 7. Puri I.K. Environmental Implications of Combustion Processes, edited by I.K. Puri, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.(1993) 8. Kurose R., Ikeda M. & Makino H. Combustion characteristics of high ash coal in pulverized coal combustion, J. Fuel, Vol. 80, pp. 1447-1455. (2001) 9. Carpenter, A.M. & Skorupska, N.M. Coal combustion-analysis and testing, IEA Coal Research, London, (1993) 10. Sorensen, L.H., Clausen, S., Astrup, P., Jensen, P.A., Porsdal & H., Oslen, A., Fundamentals in combustion. Pyrolysis and reactivity measurements with a new atmosphereic entrained flow reactor, and description of a burning particle in a controlled atmosphere EFP-85-project Em jr.nr. 1323/85-4, Roskilde, Denmark, Riso National Laboratory, 140pp (May 1991)

Table-1: Coal properties taken for combustion modeling (Effect of Ev, Av and V) Properties of coal
Proximate analysis (As analyzed basis, %) Moiture Volatile matter (%) Char (%) Ash (%) Ultimate analysis (As analyzed basis, %) Carbon (%) Hydrogen (%) Nitrogen (%) Sulphur (%) Oxygen (%) Properties of coal Particle size (m) Density of char (kg/m3) Density of volatiles (kg/m3) Density of ash (kg/m3) LCV of volatiles (MJ/kg) LCV of char (MJ/kg) Molecular weight of coal Emissivity of coal Emissivity of char Mass flow rate (kg/s)

Values
7.20 27.60 24.80 40.40 41.90 2.78 0.94 0.26 6.52 60 2000 1560 1000 2.623 3.29 93 1.0 0.6 0.163

Table 2: Coal properties taken for combustion modeling (Effect of diffusion coeff.)[6]
Properties of coal
Proximate analysis (% w/w dry basis) Volatile matter (%) Char (%) Ash (%) Ultimate analysis (% w/w dry ash free basis) Carbon (%) Hydrogen (%) Nitrogen (%) Oxygen (%) Properties of coal Particle size (m) Density of char (kg/m3) Density of volatiles (kg/m3) Density of ash (kg/m3) LCV of volatiles (MJ/kg) LCV of char (MJ/kg) Molecular weight of coal Emissivity of coal Emissivity of char Mass flow rate (kg/s)

Values
36.3 52.9 10.8

75.37 4.47 1.15 18.94 60 2000 1560 1000 2.623 3.29 93 1.0 0.6 0.124

Fig. 1.1 Fig.1.2 Fig.1.3 Volatile evolution for three different values of activation temperatures -, 6014oK , 8850oK and 12027oK

Fig. 1.4 Fig.1.5 Fig.1.6 Volatile combustion for three different values of activation energies -, 6014oK , 8850oK and 12027oK

Fig. 1.7 Fig.1.8 Fig.1.9 Char combustion for three different values of activation temperatures-, 6014oK , 8850oK and 12027oK

Fig. 1.10 Fig.1.11 Fig.1.12 Variation of Volatile evolution, volatile combustion and char combustion along the axial distance for different activation temperatures, 6014oK , 8850oK and 12027oK

Fig. 1.13 Fig.1.14 Fig.1.15 Volatile evolution for three different values of pre-exponential factor 67000 s-1, 134000 s-1 & 268000 s-1

Fig. 1.16 Fig.1.17 Fig.1.18 Volatile combustion for three different values of pre-exponential factor 67000 s-1, 134000 s-1 & 268000 s-1

Fig. 1.19 Fig.1.20 Fig.1.21 Char combustion for three different values of pre-exponential factor 67000 s-1, 134000 s-1 & 268000 s-1

Fig. 1.22 Fig.1.23 Fig.1.24 Variation of volatile evolution, volatile combustion and Char combustion for three different values of preexponential factor 67000 s-1, 134000 s-1 & 268000 s-1

Fig. 1.25

Fig.1.26 Fig.1.27 Volatile evolution for three different values Q- factor -1.25,1.75 & 2.25

Fig. 1.28

Fig.1.29 Volatile combustion for three different values Q- factor -1.25,1.75 & 2.25

Fig.1.30

Fig. 1.31

Fig.1.32 Char combustion for three different values Q- factor -1.25,1.75 & 2.25

Fig.1.33

Fig. 1.34 Fig.1.35 Fig.1.3 Variation of volatile evolution, volatile combustion and char combustion along axial distance form inlet for different values Q- factor -1.25,1.75 & 2.25

Fig.3 Computed variation with axial position of (a) particle mass and (b) particle temperature for the reference case and for a decrease/ increase in the oxygen diffusion rate by a factor of 2.5. Ref-[6]

Temperature of max. rate of weight loss due to moisture evaporation ITVM, initial temperature of volatile matter ( weight loss first begins to fall ) ITFC, initial temperature of fixed carbon (rate of weight loss accelerates) PT, Peak Temperature ( max. rate of weight loss) BT, burn out temperature (combustion ceases) Fig.5. Instrumented Drop Tube system at CPRI

Fig.4 Burning profile of Typical coals