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In the modern age mans life is full of physical and mental stresses which can be relieved by doing physical

exercises and keeping fit. Physical Education has emphasized the need of physical education at all levels. It is so because the subject of Physical Education studies the human behavior in society. It is a process of acquiring social, mental and physical skills necessary for the survival of culture. Games and sports are the pride of the nation. They develop positive attitude and promote qualities of leadership. Some of the main sports are: HOCKEY HANDBALL BADMINTON KABADDI KHO-KHO SWIMMING, WATERPOLO AND DIVING GYMNASTICS YOGA BASKET BALL CRICKET VOLLEYBALL TENNIS TABLE TENNIS FOOTBALL ATHLETICS

I acknowledge the contribution of my Physical Education teacher Mr. V.M.Dahiphale, my family, and friends and to the school library. I also gratefully acknowledge school Principal Mr. S Sundaram.

Abhishek Kumar XII-B

This is to certify that Master Abhishek Kumar of class XII, K.D. Ambani Vidyamandir, Jamnagar has satisfactorily completed the project in Physical Education for the AISSCE as prescribed by CBSE in the year 2009-2010.

Date :

Seal of the school _________________

Teacher Incharge:

Principal _______________

PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CONENTS HISTORY OF FOOTBALL RULES OF THE MATCH IMPORTANT PERSONALITIES IMPROVING FOOTBALL SKILLS A HISTORY OF INTENATIONAL FOOTBALL FOOTBALL FORMATION

Advancing the ball with kicks, running with it, passing to other team mates, trying to forward it to the opponents end of the field, shooting in between the goal posts and scoring a point, this is football. The winning team is the one that has scored more number of points (goals) when a specified length of time has elapsed. The origin of the game Football predates the recorded history. Documented evidence, a manual of Chinese military during the Han Dynasty in about 2nd century BC, describes an organized activity resembling football. It was known as Cuju (Tsu Chu), which involved kicking a leather ball through a hole in a piece of silk cloth strung between two 30 foot poles. The game was re-invented, after over a thousand years by the English. But the name Football was used by number of different related team sports, such as Rugby football, American football, Australian rules football, Gelic football and Canadian football. Association football goes by the name Soccer. However, many believe that Walter Camp adapted rugby into the sport of football. He contributed many changes from Rugby and Soccer to American football. Few of them are given below: One side retained undisputed possession of the ball, until that side gives up the ball as a result of its own violations. The line of scrimmage. 11 on a team instead of 15. Created the quarter-back and center positions. Forward pass. Standardized the scoring system, numerical scoring. Created the safety, interference, penalties, and the neutral zone. Tackling as low as the knee was permitted - 1888. A touchdown increased in value to six points and field goals went down to three points - 1912. Today, the laws of football are determined by the International Football Association Board (IFAB) that was formed in 1886. Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the international organizing body for football adheres to the rules laid down by the IFAB and it organizes the most prestigious international football competition, FIFA World Cup, most widelyviewed sporting event in the world.

Fairplay in football Alongside the laws of the game, FIFA advocates a Fair Play programme. Based around a number of rules, typically involving abstract ideas, they are intended to inform footballers and spectators on proper behaviour on and off the field:

Play fair on the field. Play to win but accept defeat properly. Observe the Laws of the Game. Respect everyone involved in the game. Promote footballs interests. Honour those who defend footballs reputation. Reject any corruption, drugs, racism, violence and other harmful vices. Help others to do exactly the same. Denounce any who discredits the integrity of football. Use football to make a better world.

Basics of football At its core, football is a game with two teams of eleven players, played over the course of 90 minutes. This period is split into two 45-minute halves. The objective of the game is to score more goals than the opposition. The term goal refers to two areas either side of the pitch, each one defended by one of the teams. A goal is scored by depositing the ball into the opponents area.

The Laws of the Game

Field of play Football can be played on a natural or artificial (e.g. Astroturf) surface. However, the shape of the field must be rectangular, with the dimensions of 90-120 metres long by 45-90 metres wide. Notably, the guidelines for international matches are stricter (100-110 metres x 64-75 metres). 6

Goal Area: Starts 5.5 metres from each goalpost and extends 5.5 metres out, with the two lines joining vertically Penalty Area: Starts 16.5 metres from each goalpost and extends 16.5 metres out, with the two lines joining vertically. Flagpost: Placed at each corner, with a quarter-circle on the field (1 metre in radius). Goals: 7.32 metre area between the posts, and 2.44 metres high. The posts cannot exceed 5 inches in width.

The ball Naturally spherical, with a circumference of 27-28 inches.

Number of players One of the eleven is classified as the goalkeeper and permitted to handle the ball in his teams penalty area. The eleven players are supplemented by the option to bring on a maximum of three substitutes from a pre-decided list of three to seven players (the number of substitutes permitted is slightly higher for international friendly matches). In order to bring on a substitute, the referee must first be informed and then there has to be a break in the play (for example, a free-kick or a throw-in). The substitute then comes on as a replacement for one of the 11 current players. 7

Equipment Basic equipment is the team jersey, shorts, shin guards with socks and studded boots or trainers depending on the surface. The goalkeeper is also permitted gloves and a different coloured jersey for identification purposes.

Referee The referee adjudicates the match in collaboration with two linesmen (properly referred to as referees assistants) and a fourth official, situated on the touchline, if necessary. The referees tasks include acting as a timekeeper (although with advice on the amount of injury time to be added on to the 45 minutes each half to compensate for injuries and other stoppages), awarding free kicks and penalties and generally dealing with anything requiring a ruling. Can also choose to allow play to proceed in case of a foul, providing there is an advantage to be gained by the team against which the foul has been committed.

Assistant referees Follow play from their respective touch lines and help to decide on throw-ins, corner kicks and goal kicks along with offside decisions (although naturally the referee has the final say). Can also draw the referees attention and advise on or alert him/her to any on-field activity, which can influence all manner of decisions. To signify their decision or grab the referees attention, they wave a brightly coloured small flag, which they keep at all times.

Duration of the match The match officially lasts 90 minutes, split into two 45-minute halves with a halftime interval of no longer than 15 minutes. In the knock-out stages of competitions, extra-time is used if there is no winner after 90 minutes. This extra period is 30 minutes, split into two 15 minute halves. If extra-time does not find a winner, then a penalty shoot-out takes place, where five players from each team are selected and alternate shots on goal from the penalty spot against the opposition goalkeeper. In that instance, the team with the most successful penalties is declared the winner. If they are still tied then they will move on to sudden-death penalties, where each team will take one penalty until one of the two sides has scored move than the other after the side amount of spot kicks.

Start and restart of play A coin toss takes place just before the game starts, the winner of which will get the choice of choosing which end to attack or whether to kick-off. Should they choose to kick-off then the other captain will be allowed elect which end to attack in the first half. Should the winner decide to choose which end to attack then the loser can choose whether to kick-off in the first or second half. The kick-off is also used after a goal has been scored, the task befalling the team who has conceded, and for both halves of extra-time. At the kick-off, players from each side must all be in their half of the field. The actual kick-off takes place on the centre spot in the centre circle. The player who kicks off cannot touch it again until another player has made contact. 9

Scoring A team can only score if the whole ball crosses the goal line between the goalposts. The winner is the team who scores more goals, except in a competition where the away goals rule applies. The away goals rule means that, if a team scores a goal away from their home stadium, the goal counts extra (therefore, a 11 score line would mean the away team wins).

Offside The perennial problem for newcomers to football is understanding the offside rule. This is made somewhat harder by the fact there are two elements to offside in football; being in an offside position, and committing an offside offence. To be in an offside position is to be closer to the opponents goal than the last opposition outfield player (therefore excluding the goalkeeper) and the ball. However, to commit an offside offence is to have the ball played forward towards you while in that position. As such, you can be in an offside position and not commit an offside offence.

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The rule is further complicated by the fact the referee or his assistant must adjudge you to be active in the play before giving an offside decision against you. This can be obvious, for example if you touch the ball in an offside position, but it can be extremely nebulous. The official rule states active as meaning interfering with play or an opponent or gaining an advantage by being in that position. However, as you will find as you watch more and more games, what one referee or linesman considers to be active can be very different to another individuals interpretation, and the offside rule is generally a major debating point. There are other factors to consider which can exempt you from the offside rule. You cannot be offside in your own-half of the pitch, for example, and you cannot be penalised for being in an offside position when a goal kick, throw-in, indirect free kick or corner kick is taken.

Fouls and misconduct A foul can take place anywhere on the pitch, and a free kick is awarded where that foul takes place (excepting fouls in the penalty area, which result in a penalty kick). The referee can choose simply to award the foul, speak to the player about his conduct or take matters further.

Punishment for offences If the single infraction is deemed serious enough or the culprit persistently offends during a match, the referee can choose to take extra action against a particular individual: 11

Yellow Card - A caution given to a player. If two of these cards are shown to the same player, it means a Red Card - Showing a red card to a player means he/she is expelled from the match. A straight red card (no previous caution) can be shown for extreme offences such as serious foul play, violent conduct, spitting, deliberate handball to prevent a goal, a professional foul (denying a goal scoring opportunity) and insulting language and/or gestures.

Free kicks Whenever a free kick is taken, the opposition must be at least 10 yards away from the ball until it is delivered. If this rule is not adhered to, the kick is retaken. There are two types of free kick awarded, depending on the nature of the offence:

Direct free kick - Allows the team to take a direct shot at the opponents goal. Awarded as a result of fouls with evidence intent to harm or reckless/excessive force (e.g. a sliding tackle which takes the player first, shirt-pulling and a deliberate hand-ball). Indirect free kick - A direct strike on goal is not permitted, meaning any shot must come from the second player to touch the ball after the kick is taken. If a direct strike is successfully made on goal, a goal kick to the opposition is given. An indirect free kick is awarded for any foul which is dangerous or impedes an opponent.

An indirect free kick can be awarded in the case of a passback offence, a fairly uncommon foul in the game. This is given if one teams player passes the ball to the keeper, who immediately picks it up rather than taking a touch with his feet. The free kick is subsequently taken wherever the goalkeeper picked the ball up.

Penalty kick A penalty kick is awarded for offences taking place in the penalty and goal area. A nominated member of the team awarded the penalty is allowed a strike at goal from the penalty spot (see the image in the field of play section), with only the goalkeeper to beat. The goalkeeper must remain on his line until the ball has been kicked, and all other players must be outside the area behind the penalty spot. 12

After he has taken the kick, he cannot strike the ball again without another player touching the ball.

Throw-in A throw-in is awarded when the whole ball crosses the touch line (conceded by the team who last touched the ball). It is delivered off the field of play with both hands and from behind and over the deliverers head. Otherwise it is deemed to be a foul throw and a throw-in is given to the opposition. It cannot go direct to the goalkeepers hands (if on the same team) and you cannot score directly from a throw-in.

Goal kick Awarded once the whole ball crosses the goal line if it last touched an opposition player. The ball is kicked from anywhere in the goal area outfield, but must cross the penalty area line.

Corner kick Awarded once the whole ball crosses the goal line of the opposition, after last touching one of their players. Taken from the corner of whichever side the ball exited the field, in the prescribed quarter-circle space. Opponents must be 10 yards from the corner arc and the kicker cannot touch the ball a second time 13

without contact from someone else beforehand (or the opponent receives an indirect free kick).

Arjuna Awards Winners: P.K. Benerjee (1961), T Balaram (1962), S. Chuni Goswami (1963), Jarnail Singh (1964), Arun Lal Ghosh (1965), Yousuf Khan (1966), Peter Thangaraj (1967), Inder Singh (1969), S. Naeemuddin (1970), C.P. Singh (1971), M.S. Ragiv (1974), Gurdev Singh (1978), Prasun Banerjee (1979), Mohammed Habib (1980), Sudhir Karmakar (1981), Km Shanti Malik (1983), S. Bhattacharjee (1989), Baichung Bhutia (1999), Bruno Coutinho (2002). Dronacharya Award Winner: Saeed Mohammuddin . International Personalities: Diego Maradona, Mexi Rai deiga, Crespo (ARG), Michel Platini, Zadaine (FRA), Franz Beckenbnauer, Oliver Khan (GER), Luicus Pooloski , Klose (GER), Pele, Ronalado, Ronaldino (BRZ), Gala (ENG), David Beckham (ENG), C. Ronaldo (ARG) and other players. Important Tournaments: FIFA World Cup, Euro Cup, Olympic Games, EPL, National League etc.

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Conventional wisdom in the old days stated that God-given talent was the be all and end all for a successful career in football. Training was only a necessary supplement to what was already imbued within a particular individual. Today, while the term talent is still bandied about, developments in coaching have allowed youngsters to emulate the greats with increasing ease. Indeed, such is the importance of coaching at both amateur and professional level, you can even utilize hypnosis to supposedly improve your ability on the field, and the top clubs all make use of sports psychologists to help the star players perform. A decisive moment in coaching was the rise of the Coerver Method in the 1970s, named after Wiel Coerver, the Dutch former manager of Feyenoord. Coerver claimed that by analysing tapes of great players in action, you could break down their technique and trademark skills and use this knowledge to teach young players. The fundamentals of this method are enshrined in coaching today, and certain moves are still referred to as Coerver moves. The depth and complexity of football coaching is such that any guide will fall short. However, here are a few notable maneuvers to get you started, a number of which are identified with footballing greats: The Cruyff Turn 15

1. Facing your opponent with the ball, position your body to feign a cross or shot. 2. Then drag the ball with your foot behind your standing leg. 3. Turn and be on your way while the opponent is left flat-footed.

The Zidane Roulette/Maradonas 360 Spin Move 1. While dribbling with the ball close to your body, turn to shield the ball as you reach an opponent face-to-face. 2. With your back to the player, in the same movement, put your foot on the ball and delicately bring it around with you. 3. Leave the opponent trailing as you turn around his body.

The Shoulder Feint 1. Feign to go one way by dropping one shoulder as if moving in that direction. 2. Then quickly go the other way and wrong-foot your marker. This is best achieved with your back to the opponent.

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Stepover Popularised initially by Pel, this move is extremely popular in modern football and expertly utilised by individuals like Cristiano Ronaldo and Ronaldinho: 1. Feign to move on way by flicking your foot fully over the ball in that direction, but without actually touching the ball at any point. 2. Then push the ball in the opposite direction and skip past your marker.

The Matthews Move Named after one of the most influential wingers in football, Stanley Matthews, who was pivotal in establishing wing play as a vital part of attacking. The Matthews move is today a fundamental weapon in any wingers arsenal: 1. When facing a defender, push the ball slightly forward to his standing foot. 2. Then instantly flick it horizontally down the wing and, as hes wrong-footed, use your speed to waltz past him.

The Nutmeg 17

The nutmeg is the ultimate insult to an opponent and a great, easy trick for beginners to learn: 1. When facing your opponent, allow him to set himself to cover your attack. 2. Then take advantage of the gap between his legs, pass the ball through them and skip around his body.

The Pusks Move/The V-Move Associated with the famous Hungarian forward Ferenc Pusks, the v-move is perfect for improving your dribbling and close control, as well as a great way for evading tackles: 1. While in possession of the ball, drag the ball back with your foot. 2. In the same movement, flick it forward at a 45 degree angle (works particularly well if your opponent dives in for a tackle). The Elastico/Flip-Flap Actually invented in the 1970s by the Brazilian Rivelino, the move today is popularly associated with his countryman Ronaldinho. The trick requires incredible speed and flexibility, so dont expect to pick it up quickly! 1. Facing an opponent, flick the ball up to one side. 2. In mid-air, cushion the ball with the inside of your ball, taking it the other way past your marker.

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Attacking Header Attacking headers make for some of the most spectacular goals in football. Legends from George Best to Wayne Rooney have known how to take advantage of defensive weakness by redirecting a high, fast-moving shot into the bottom corner of the net. An attacking header involves getting above the ball and using power from your neck and back to change its course and stop it going over the bar. Diego Maradona and Peter Crouch are famous for their lethal attacking headers, but it was Sunderland goalkeeper Mart Poom who made the headlines when he scored off an attacking header in last seasons match against his old club Derby County

Attacking Header

If you want to avoid injuring yourself, youll need to keep your head and body taut but not rigid, like Pooms. Its important to be confident: youre much more likely to make an accurate judgement and gain control of the ball if you make a decisive move. The most important thing of all, though, is to get above the ball. This is the only way youll be able to send the ball down into the net. Not only this, it also means you are less likely to injure yourself by hitting your head or nose with the ball, or 19

against a defender who might also be making a play for a defensive header. Jump high and make a decisive move. This move is very easy to practice on your own or with a friend. Throw the ball up into the air, or bounce it against a wall, or get a friend to throw it for you, and when you header it, try to redirect its downwards path towards a low target. And remember: as always, always keep your eye on the ball. The Glancing Header The glancing header is an important addition to any footballers arsenal of techniques, and works by slightly deflecting the ball, altering its trajectory only a little. A glancing header can be useful anywhere on the field, particularly where a player wants to disguise his or her intentions, or when they are unable to face the direction in which they want to head the ball. If an attacking player is close to the keeper in front of the goal, a header can be used to direct the ball into the net without giving away the players intentions.

Glancing Header

Glancing headers do not require a great deal of force - usually they are used when a cross already has sufficient power but requires redirection towards the target. To execute the technique effectively, the player must strike the ball with the centre of the forehead, turning the head just before contact is made. Trying to deflect the ball off the side of the head or allowing the head to tilt to one side will usually result in a failed header! The angle of deflection is controlled by the degree to which the player turns his or her head. It can be difficult to use a glancing header effectively if the ball is curling, or in wet conditions.

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Volleying Volleying is the art of striking the ball while it is still in mid-air. A professional player will be able to anticipate where and when the ball will arrive near him and quickly position himself to connect with it. It is one of the hardest skills to master. Because everything happens much faster in the air, a player attempting to volley needs to be even more focused on timing and accuracy that in ordinary play. He can use the momentum the ball already has to create a very powerful strike, but if its not on target he will probably lose control and the mistake could cost him and his team dearly.

Volleying

Not having time to think is one problem for the volleyist. Another is that a ball spinning through the air will behave very differently to one that has come rolling along the ground. The strike must be decisive and clean. There is no opportunity to calm the balls movement down, and little chance to judge the amount of strength required to put it where you want. For these reasons, volleys are notoriously difficult to aim. Technically, the key elements of volleying are that the strike is decisive, the player is well-anchored to absorb the shock of the balls impact, and he follows through. Without these in place the ball will behave unpredictably. As well as keeping up the pace of play, volleys can be used to seize control from the opposition. An intercepted pass can be turned to great advantage by a wellplaced volley. Along with headers, volleys are a vital skill for players at the front of the field, being key to picking up crosses and delivering them into the goal. 21

Dribbling Dribbling means traveling with the ball. It is the name used to refer to a whole set of ball-control skills, including using the chest, knees and head as well as the feet. Good dribbling is a fundamental discipline of football and a successful dribbler is always an asset to his team. Dribbling is most often used in offensive situations. One player keeps control of the ball and, as long as he does so, he has control of the game. He uses his agility to set up passes and buy time for his teammates to position themselves for attack. He must fend off tackles, plan his movements, and keep an eye firmly on the rest of the field.

Dribbling

The basic dribble in football involves propelling the ball in front of oneself with a series of small kicks. It is best practised by starting slowly and building up speed. Because it requires the use of both feet, many beginners find themselves held back by their weak foot. The only answer to this is practice - and it does get better. A large part of dribbling technique comes in shielding the ball from opposition players. Beginner dribblers often find themselves kicking the ball farther when they want to speed up, exposing themselves to tackles. The key to dribbling quickly is not to use more power but to make contact more frequently by moving the feet faster.

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A look at all the international football playing nations - Looking at the history of the sport in these countries.

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As managers are unable to get on the field themselves, the formation is a vital way for them to enforce their vision on the players. The type of formation selected by the manager reflects the sort of football you can expect them to play, so understanding what the most commonly used formations signify is key to understanding football. 4-4-2 (Four Four Two) Formation The most common and adaptable formation in modern football, the weakness of 44-2 is the gaps between the central defenders, midfielders and the strikers. As such, a huge burden is placed on the central midfield to augment defense and attack.

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4-4-2 Formation

Precisely because of this all-round contribution, the wings play a vital role in spurring on attacks and supporting the strikers. This was evident in the approach of Manchester United and Arsenal during the late 1990s and early 2000s. The former utilised David Beckham and Gary Nevilles ability to deliver crosses from deep positions (as well as Beckhams abilities from set-pieces), while the latter relied heavily on the goalscoring contributions both of right-winger Freddie Ljungberg and left-winger Robert Pires. However, the two sides contrasting attitudes in central midfield reflects the subtle variations in the 4-4-2. Whereas Manchester Uniteds first-choice midfield of Paul Scholes and Roy Keane married a powerful but diminutive mixture of a goalscoring attacking midfielder and a box-to-box tough-tackler, Arsenal emphasised a tall, powerful combination with their own tough-tackling box-to-box midfielder, Patrick Vieira, and a strict holding midfielder in Gilberto Silva. 4-5-1 (Four Five One) Formation A formation which has grown in popularity in recent times, the 4-5-1 is fundamentally defensive, but can be tweaked to provide more of an offensive threat. The essential qualities of the 4-5-1 are a three-man central midfield and a lone striker, typically a target man. By packing the midfield, a technically strong passing side will come unstuck and provide opportunities for counter-attacking football. When on the attack, the 4-5-1 is heavily dependent on the wingers supporting the lone striker.

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4-5-1 Formation

Perhaps the best illustration of 4-5-1 in full flow is Jose Mourinhos system. Both as manager of FC Porto and Chelsea, Mourinho founded his sides on strong defensive line-ups and an excellent holding midfielder, while the attack relied on a hardworking front man and a goal-scorer in midfield. At Chelsea, his defensive stalwarts were the captain and central defender John Terry and the holding midfielder Claude Makll. Alongside the Frenchman, Frank Lampard provided the bulk of goals from central midfield, ably supported by Joe Cole and Arjen Robben on the wings and Didier Drogbas efforts up front. The side was extremely successful, picking up back-to-back Premiership titles in 2005 and 2006, building on Mourinhos previous achievement at Porto in winning the 2004 Champions League trophy. 4-3-3 (Four Three Three) Formation In some ways, the 4-3-3 is covered in the description of the 4-5-1. However, whereas the 4-5-1 starts with the wingers supporting the central midfielders, the 43-3 encourages the wingers to act as true forwards and the formation generally emphasises attack more than defense.

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4-3-3 Formation

This theory was put into action by Frank Rijkaard as manager of Barcelona. Faced with the problem of how to accommodate Ronaldinho, Samuel Etoo and Lionel Messi, as well as a host of central midfielders, Rijkaard adopted a 4-3-3. The triangle up front of the aforementioned players was supported by a creative and defensive midfield backbone of the playmaker Xavi, the holding midfielder Edmilson and either Andrs Iniesta or Thiago Motta as an all-rounder. The side was hugely successful, picking up back-to-back La Liga titles in 2005 and 2006 and the Champions League trophy in 2006. The Diamond Formation (4-3-1-2 - Four Three One Two) The diamond in the formation refers to the midfield, with an attacking midfielder and a holding midfielder employed and flanked by two wingers, who move in-field slightly to shore up the gaps in the centre. To cover for the lack of width in the side, the full-backs become wingbacks and start slightly higher up the pitch.

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4-3-1-2 Formation

The diamond formation is typically associated with the World Cup-winning English national team in 1966, christened the wingless wonders. In recent times though, the employment of the diamond usually revolves around a single player. The Argentinian national side in the 2006 World Cup held an extremely fluid diamond formation which gave Juan Roman Riquelme space to instigate attacks, while AC Milan under Carlo Ancelotti in 2004 used the diamond to assist the Brazilian playmaker Kak. 5-3-2 (Five Three Two) Formation In theory, the 5-3-2 is a purely defensive-minded line-up. The three central defenders provide extra resoluteness, while the three in midfield are all located around the centre circle. There is also a notable gap between midfield and attack, and the wing-play is the sole responsibility of the fullbacks.

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5-3-2 Formation

However, the most famous modern practitioners of this system, the 1990s West German national side, were no slouches in front of goal. On their way to the World Cup in 1990, they scored an exceptional 15 goals, with the midfielder Lothar Matthus notching 4 on his own. As a result, the 5-3-2 is something of a tactical enigma, though rarely seen today

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