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Chapter 5 : Mechanical Properties

Learning Objectives : 1) State Hookes law, and note the conditions under which it is valid. 2) Compute the elastic modulus from a stress-strain diagram. 3) Distinguish between elastic and plastic deformations, both by definition, and in terms of behavior on a stressstrain plot. 4) Given an engineering stress-strain diagram for a metallic material, determine (a) the proportional limit, (b) the yield strength (0.002 strain offset), and (c) the tensile strength, and (d) estimate the percent elongation. 5) Define anelasticity.

6) For the tensile deformation of a ductile cylindrical specimen, describe changes in specimen profile to the point of fracture. 7) Give a brief definition of ductility, and schematically sketch the engineering stress-strain behaviors for both ductile and brittle metals. 8) For metallic materials cite how elastic modulus, tensile and yield strengths, and ductility change with increasing temperature.

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Introduction
When in service, many materials are subjected to forces or loads.
The mechanical behavior of a material reflects the relationship

between its response and deformation to an applied load or force. Therefore, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the material and to design the member from which it is made such that any resulting deformation will not excessive and fracture will not occur. The mechanical properties are determined by performing tests. The consistency in the manner in which tests are conducted and in the interpretation of their results is accomplished by using standardized testing techniques ( coordinated by professional societies e.g. the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)) What are mechanical properties? Mechanical properties relate deformation to an applied load or force Why do we study mechanical properties? To know the characteristics of the material so that any resulting deformation will not be excessive and fracture will not occur The mechanical properties of metals determine the range of usefulness of the metal and establish the service that can be expected. Mechanical properties are also used to help specify and identify metals

How to determine mechanical properties of a material? By performing standard test method

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Concepts of stress and strain


Types of loading

Tension

Compression

Shear

Torsion

If a load is static (changes relatively slow with time) & is applied uniformly over a cross section of a member, the mechanical behaviour may be determined by simple stress-strain test Tension test The most common mechanical stress-strain test A specimen is mounted by its end into the holding grips of the testing apparatus (e.g. Universal Testing Machine (UTM), Instron, Monsanto) The specimen is deformed, usually to fracture with gradually increasing tensile load that is applied uniaxially along the long axis of a specimen During testing, the applied load and the resulting elongations are measured and recorded on a strip chart as load vs. elongation

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To compare specimens of different sizes, the load is calculated per unit area (normalization) Engineering stress,
=
F A0

(N/m2) @ Pa (N/mm2) @ MPa

F = load applied perpendicular to specimen cross-section (N) A0 = cross-sectional area before application of the load (m2) The units of engineering stress (stress) are megapascals (MPa) 1MPa = 106 N/m2 Engineering strain,
=
l i l 0 l = l0 l0

m m

@ unitless

l0 = original length li = instantaneous length Compression test

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Similar to the tensile test, except that the force is compressive and the specimen contracts along the direction of the stress Compression tests are used when a materials behaviour under large and permanent strains is desired or when the material is brittle in tension *Stress & strain are positive for tensile loads and negative for compressive loads

Stress-strain diagram

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Shear and Torsional test Shear stress (pure shear),


=
F A0

N m2

F = load applied perpendicular to specimen cross-section (N) A0 = cross-sectional area before application of the load (m2) Shear strain, = tan Torsion is a variation of pure shear Shear stress (in Torsion), is a function of applied torque Shear strain (in Torsion), is related to the angle of twist

Shear

Torsion

Elastic Deformation

There are two kinds of deformation in solid materials: Elastic deformation. When the stress is removed, the material returns to the dimension it had before the load was applied. Valid for small strains (except the case of rubbers). Deformation is reversible, non permanent Plastic deformation. When the stress is removed, the material does not return to its previous dimension but there is a permanent, irreversible deformation.

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In tensile test, if the deformation is elastic, the stress and strain are proportional to each other through the relationship

= E

This is known as Hookes law

E is the slope of stress-strain curve E is Youngs Modulus or elastic modulus or tensile modulus, has the same units as , N/m2. This modulus is a measure of stiffness of a material (resistance to elastic deformation) modulus, stiffness, strain E is large for ceramics (stronger ionic bond) and small for polymers (weak covalent bond) Due to thermal vibrations, the elastic modulus decreases with temperature. For shear stress-strain relationship

= G

G = shear modulus Anelasticity. Time dependent elastic behaviour. The behaviour is elastic but the stress-strain curve is not immediately reversible. It takes a while for the strain to return to zero

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Elastic properties of materials

The ratio of lateral and axial strains is called the Poissons ratio, v
v =

Material subject to tension shrinks laterally. Those subject to compression, bulge


lateral axial

v is dimensionless, sign shows that lateral strain is in opposite sense to longitudinal strain The elastic modulus, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio are related by E = 2G(1+ v)

Plastic Deformation

Yielding and Yield Strength

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The reason for plastic deformation, in normal materials, is not that the atomic bond is stretched beyond repair, but the motion of dislocations, which involves breaking and reforming bonds.
If the stress is too large, the strain deviates from being proportional

to the stress. The point at which this happens is the proportional limit (Point P) because there the material yields, deforming permanently (plastically)

Since the position of this point may not be determined precisely, a straight line is drawn parallel to the elastic portion of the curve at some specified strain offset, usually 0.002. (For metals, elastic deformation extend to strains of about 0.005)

The intersection of the offset line and the curve defines the yield strength, y and its corresponding stress is yield stress

For low-carbon steel, the stress vs. strain curve includes both an upper and lower yield point (yield point phenomena). The yield strength is defined in this case as the average stress at the lower yield point
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The magnitude of the yield strength for a metal is a measure of its resistance to plastic deformation

Tensile Strength Tensile strength / ultimate tensile strength the stress at the maximum on the engineering stress-strain curve

This stress corresponds to the maximum stress that can be sustained by a structure in tension; if this stress is applied and maintained, fracture will occur At this point, the phenomenon of necking starts and fracture occurs at the neck For structural applications, the yield stress is usually a more important property than the tensile strength, because once it is passed, the structure has deformed beyond acceptable limits Fracture strength the stress at fracture

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Ductility

The ability to deform before breaking. It is a measure of the degree

of plastic deformation that has been sustained at fracture.

A material that experiences very little or no plastic deformation upon fracture is termed brittle.
Ductility can be given either as percent maximum elongation

max

or maximum area reduction Can be defined by percent elongation


l f l0 % EL = l 100 0

Can be defined by percent area reduction


A0 A f % AR = A 0 100

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