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SI(Systme International d'Units)

1. International units SI and the method of use

TECHNICAL DATA

Excerpt from JIS Z 8203(1985)

1-1. Sphere of application This standard specifies how to use the International System of Units SI) other international unitary systems, as well ( and as units used in correlation with units from international systems, and other units which made be used. 1-2. Terminology and definitions Terminology used in this specification and definitions thereof are as follows (1)International System Coherent system of units adopted and recommended by the International committee on Weights and Measures. of Units SI) ( It contains base units and supplementary units, units derived from them, and their integral exponents to the 10th power. SI is the abbreviation of Systeme International d'Unites(International System of Units). (2)SI unit (3)Base unit Generic term used to describe base units, supplementary units or derived units of the International System of Units(SI). Those units given in Table 1. (4)Supplementary unit Those units given in Table 2. Volume Length Mass Time Electric current Thermodynamic temperature Amount of substance Luminous intensity Unit Meter Kilogram Second Ampere Kelvin Mole Candela Sign m kg s A K mol cd

1-3. Integral multiplication in SI units (1)Prefixes The multiple for composing the integral multiplication of 10 in SI units, names of prefixed and their symbols are shown in Table 4. Table 4. Prefixes Multiple to be combined with unit 10 18 10 15 10 12 10 9 10 6 10 3 Prefixes Name Exsa Peta Tera Giga Mega Kilo Symbol E P T G M k Multiple to be combined with unit 10 2 10 10 -1 10 -2 10 -3 10 -6 Prefixes Name Hect Deca Deci Centi Milli Micro Symbol h da d c m O Multiple to be combined with unit 10 -9 10 -12 10 -15 10 -18 Prefixes Name Nano Pico Femt Ato Symbol n p f a

Table 1. Base unit Definition

1 The meter is the distance light travels in of a second in a vacuum. 299, 792, 458 The kilogram is a unit of mass(not weight nor force)equal to the mass of an , international prototype stored in Sevres, France. The second is a fundamental unit of time, equal to 9,192,631,770 periods of radiation corresponding to the transition between two superfine levels of the ground state of an atom of cesium-133. The ampere is a unit of electric current, defined as a 2M10-7 newton force of attraction exerted at 1 meter intervals between two parallel current-carrying linear conductors that are infinitely small in circular cross-sectional area and infinitely long in length. 1 The kelvin is a unit of absolute temperature equal to of the absolute temperature of the triple point of water. 273.16 The mole is the amount of substance of a system (with a specific composition)which contains as many elementary units 1 ) there are atoms of carbon in 0.012 kilogram of pure nuclide carbon 12. ( as The mole is used to specify both the elementary unit and system. The candela is a unit of luminous intensity, defined as the luminous intensity of a steradian light source which emits a 1 a monochrome radiation at a frequency of 540M1012, in a specified direction and at a force equal to 683 watts.

2. Table of conversion rate of JIS units attendant upon switchover to SI units


(The units contained in bold lines are SI units.) N Force 1 1M10 -5 9.806 65 dyn 1M10 5 1 9.806 65M10 5 kgf Viscosity 1.019 72M10 -1 1.019 72M10 -6 1 Pa s C 1 1M10 -3 1M10 -1
2

cP 1M10 3 1 1M10 2

P 1M10 1M10 -2 1

1 Note) P 1 Pa s C Pa or N/m 2 1 Stress 1M10 6 9.806 65M10 9.806 65M10


6 4 2,

=1 dyn s/cm =1 g/cm s C C =1 N S/m 2 ,1 cP=1mPa s C C Kinematic viscosity m 2 /s 1 1M10 -6 1M10 -4


2

MPa or N/mm 2 1M10 1 9.806 65 9.806 65M10


-2 2 -6

kgf/mm 2 1.019 72M10 1 1M10


-2 -7

kgf/cm 2 1.019 72M10 1.019 72M10 1M10 1


2 -5

cSt 1M10 6 1 1M10 2


2

St 1M10 4 1M10 -2 1

1.019 72M10 -1

Note( 1 )aThe elementary unit must be specified and must be an atom, molecule, ion, electron, photon or a specified group of such units. Table 2. Supplementary unit Volume Plane angle Solid angle Unit Radian Steradian Sign rad sr Definition The radian is a unit of plane angle, defined as the central angle of a circle determined by two radii and an arc joining them, all of the same length. The steradian is the unit of measurement for solid angles, equal to the solid angle subtended center of a sphere by a portion of the surface of the sphere whose area equals the square of the sphere's radius.

Note)1 St=1cm /s, 1 cSt=1mm /S

Note)1 Pa=1 N/m

1Mpa N/mm

Pa 1 Pressure 1M10
3

kPa 1M10 -3 1 1M10 3 1M10 2 9.806 65M10 1.013 25M10 9.806 65M10
2 2 -3 -1

MPa 1M10 -6 1M10 1 1M10 -1 9.806 65M10 -2 1.013 25M10 9.806 65M10 1.333 22M10
-1 -6 -4 -3

bar 1M10 -5 1M10 1M10 1 9.806 65M10 -1 1.013 25 9.806 65M10 1.333 22M10
-5 -3 -2

kgf/cm 2 1.019 72M10 -5 1.019 72M10 1.019 72M10 1.019 72 1 1.033 23 1M10 1.359 51M10
-4 -3 -2

atm 9.869 23M10 -6 9.869 23M10 9.869 23 9.869 23M10 -1 9.678 41M10 -1 1 9.678 41M10 1.315 79M10
-5 -3 -3

mmH 2 0 1.019 72M10 -1 1.019 72M10


2

mmHg or Torr

7.500 62M10 -3 7.500 62 7.500 62M10 3 7.500 62M10 2 7.355 59M10 2 7.600 00M10 2 7.355 59M10 -2 1

(5)Derived units

The units of derived quantity in International units. Those are expressed algebraically in terms of the base units and supplementary units. Besides, the derived units that have proper names are shown in Table 3. Table 3. The derived units having proper names Symbol m2 m3 m/s m/s 2 m -1 kg/m 3 A/m A/m mol/m 3 m3/kg cd/m 2
2

1M10 6 1M10 5 9.806 65M10 4 1.013 25M10 9.806 65 1.333 22M10


5

1.019 72M10 5 1.019 72M10 4 1M10 4 1.033 23M10 1 1.359 51M10


4

Example of the units derived from the base units Volume Area Volume Velocity Acceleration Wave numbers Density Electric current density Magnetic field strength Concentration of substance Specific volume Luminance Square Cubic Meter/second Meter/second 2 Every meter Kilogram every cubic meter Ampere every square meter Ampere every meter Mole every cubic meter Cubic meter every kilogram Candela every square meter Derived units Name

Volume Frequency Force Pressure, stress Energy, work, heat


Work rate, process rate, power, electric power

Derived units Name Herz Newton Pascal Joule Watt Coulomb Bolt Farad Ohm Siemens Weber Tesla Henry
Celsius degree or Degree

Symbol Hz N Pa J W C V F S Wb T H A lm lx Bq Gy Sv

Expressing method by derived unit or supplementary unit/others 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Hz=1s -1 N=1kg m/s 2 C Pa=1N/m 2 J=1N m C W=1J/s C=1A s C V=1J/C F=1C/V =1V/A S=1 -1 Wb=1V s C T=1Wb/m2 H=1Wb/A t= (t+273.15) K lm=1cd sr C lx=1lm/m2 Bq=1s-1 Gy=1J/kg Sv=1J/kg

1.333 22M10

Note) 1 Pa=1 N/m2


Work, energy, quantity of heat Thermal conductivity

J 1 3.600 M10
6

kW h C 2.777 78M10 1 2.724 07M10


-6 -7

kgf m C 1.019 72M10 3.670 98M10 1 4.268 58M10 2


-1 5

kcal 2.388 89M10 8.600 0M10 2.342 70M10 1


-4 2 -3

W/(m K) C 1 1.162 79 W/(m 2C ) K 1 1.162 79 J/(kg K) C 1 4.186 05M10


-3

kcal/(h m A) CC 8.600 0M10 -1 1 kcal/(h m 2C ) C A 8.600 0M10 -1 1


kcal/(kg A) C cal/(g A) C

Electric charge, quantity of electricity


Potential, potential difference, voltage, electromotive force

C 1 C Note) 1 J=1 W s, J=1N m Power, heat flow rate W 1 9.806 61 7.355 M10 2 7.5 1.162 79 kgf m/s C 1.019 72M10 -1 1 M10 1.185 72M10 -1 PS 1.359 62M10 -3 1.333 33M10 -2 1 1.580 95M10 -3 kcal/h 8.600 0 M10 -1 8.433 71 6.325 29M10 2 1

Magnetic flux density, magnetic induction

Inductance Celsius temperature Light flux Illumination Radioactivity Quantity of absorption radio Radio equivalent

Lumen Lux Becquerel Gray Sievert

Specific heat

Coefficient of heat transfer

Electrostatic capacity, capacitance Electric resistance Conductance Magnetic flux

9.806 65 4.186 05M10 3

1.162 79M10 -3

2.388 89M10 -4 1

Note) 1 W=1 J/s, PS:French horsepower

1163

1164

QUENCHING, SURFACE TREATMENT AND HARDNESS TESTS


Heat-treatment for steel materials
Name
Vickers hardness Quenching depth

TECHNICAL DATA

CONVERSION TABLE OF HARDNESS


Brinell hardness(HB) Ball:10mm in diameter Load:3,000kgf

TECHNICAL DATA

Excerpt from SAE J 417 (1983)

( Conversion table for approximate values for steel according to Rockwell hardness C scale (mm) Strain Applicable material Typical materials SKS3 SKS21 SUJ2 SKH51 SKS93 SK4 S45C SCM415 SNCM220 S45C Remark (HRC) (HV) Rockwell Vickers Tungsten hardness hardness Standard carbide C scale ball ball
68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 (18) (16) (14) (12) (10) (8) 940 900 865 832 800 772 746 720 697 674 653 633 613 595 577 560 544 528 513 498 484 471 458 446 434 423 412 402 392 382 372 363 354 345 336 327 318 310 302 294 286 279 272 266 260 254 248 243 238 230 222 213 204 196 188 180 173 166 160 (500) (487) (475) (464) 451 442 432 421 409 400 390 381 371 362 353 344 336 327 319 311 301 294 286 279 271 264 258 253 247 243 237 231 226 219 212 203 194 187 179 171 165 158 152 (739) (722) (705) (688) (670) (654) (634) 615 595 577 560 543 525 512 496 481 469 455 443 432 421 409 400 390 381 371 362 353 344 336 327 319 311 301 294 286 279 271 264 258 253 247 243 237 231 226 219 212 203 194 187 179 171 165 158 152

(HV)

Rockwell hardness( )
(HRA) A scale Load:60kgf Diamond conical penetrator (HRB) B scale Load:100kgf Ball of 1.6mm (1/16in) dia. (HRD) D scale Load:100kgf Diamond conical penetrator

Rockwell superficial hardness Diamond conical penetrator 15-N 30-N 45-N scale scale scale Load:15kgf Load:30kgf Load:45kgf
93.2 92.9 92.5 92.2 91.8 91.4 91.1 90.7 90.2 89.8 89.3 88.9 88.3 87.9 87.4 86.9 86.4 85.9 85.5 85.0 84.5 83.9 83.5 83.0 82.5 82.0 81.5 80.9 80.4 79.9 79.4 78.8 78.3 77.7 77.2 76.6 76.1 75.6 75.0 74.5 73.9 73.3 72.8 72.2 71.6 71.0 70.5 69.9 69.4 84.4 83.6 82.8 81.9 81.1 80.1 79.3 78.4 77.5 76.6 75.7 74.8 73.9 73.0 72.0 71.2 70.2 69.4 68.5 67.6 66.7 65.8 64.8 64.0 63.1 62.2 61.3 60.4 59.5 58.6 57.7 56.8 55.9 55.0 54.2 53.3 52.1 51.3 50.4 49.5 48.6 47.7 46.8 45.9 45.0 44.0 43.2 42.3 41.5 75.4 74.2 73.3 72.0 71.0 69.9 68.8 67.7 66.6 65.5 64.3 63.2 62.0 60.9 59.8 58.6 57.4 56.1 55.0 53.8 52.5 51.4 50.3 49.0 47.8 46.7 45.5 44.3 43.1 41.9 40.8 39.6 38.4 37.2 36.1 34.9 33.7 32.5 31.3 30.1 28.9 27.8 26.7 25.5 24.3 23.1 22.0 20.7 19.6 -

Through hardening

Max. 750

Full depth

Varies according to material.

High-C steel C>0.45%

CNot applicable to long or precision parts such as spindles, etc.

(Hs) Tensile strength Rockwell Shore (Approximate value) hardness MPa C scale hard(kgf/mm 2) 3 ness 2 ( ) ( )
97 95 92 91 88 87 85 83 81 80 78 76 75 74 72 71 69 68 67 66 64 63 62 60 58 57 56 55 54 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 44 43 42 41 41 40 38 38 37 36 35 35 34 33 32 31 29 28 27 26 25 24 24

85.6 85.0 84.5 83.9 83.4 82.8 82.3 81.8 81.2 80.7 80.1 79.6 79.0 78.5 78.0 77.4 76.8 76.3 75.9 75.2 74.7 74.1 73.6 73.1 72.5 72.0 71.5 70.9 70.4 69.9 69.4 68.9 68.4 67.9 67.4 66.8 66.3 65.8 65.3 64.7 64.3 63.8 63.3 62.8 62.4 62.0 61.5 61.0 60.5 -

(109.0) (108.5) (108.0) (107.5) (107.0) (106.0) (105.5) (104.5) (104.0) (103.0) (102.5) (101.5) (101.0) 100.0 99.0 98.5 97.8 96.7 95.5 93.9 92.3 90.7 89.5 87.1 85.5 83.5 81.7

76.9 76.1 75.4 74.5 73.8 73.0 72.2 71.5 70.7 69.9 69.2 68.5 67.7 66.9 66.1 65.4 64.6 63.8 63.1 62.1 61.4 60.8 60.0 59.2 58.5 57.7 56.9 56.2 55.4 54.6 53.8 53.1 52.3 51.5 50.8 50.0 49.2 48.4 47.7 47.0 46.1 45.2 44.6 43.8 43.1 42.1 41.6 40.9 40.1 -

2075 (212) 2015 (205) 1950 1880 1820 1760 1695 1635 1580 1530 1480 1435 1385 1340 1295 1250 1215 1180 1160 1115 1080 1055 1025 1000 980 950 930 910 880 860 840 825 805 785 770 760 730 705 675 650 620 600 580 550 530 515 (199) (192) (186) (179) (173) (167) (161) (156) (151) (146) (141) (136) (132) (127) (124) (120) (118) (114) (110) (108) (105) (102) (100) ( 97) ( 95) ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 93) 90) 88) 86) 84) 82) 80) 79) 77) 75) 72) 69) 66) 63) 61) 59) 56) 54) 53)

68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 (18) (16) (14) (12) (10) ( 8) ( ( ( ( 6) 4) 2) 0)

Carburizing and quenching High frequency quenching Nitriding

Max. 750

Standard:0.5 Max. 2 1~2

Moderate

Low-C steel C<0.3% Medium-C steel C0.3~0.5% Nitriding steel

Max. 500

High

900~1000

0.1~0.2

Low

SACM645 S45C SCM415 SK3 Stainless SWP-B

Tuftriding

Carbon steel:500 SUS:1000

0.01~0.02

Low

Steel materials

Bluing

Wire rod

CQuenching parts. CQuenching depth specified on drawings. CApplicable to precision parts. CQuenching parts. CExpensive in small volume lot. CGood strain resistance. CObtains highest hardness of all quenching techniques. CApplicable to precision parts. CApplicable to spindles for radial bearing. CGood fatigue resistance and wear resistance. CSame corrosion resistance as zinc plating. CNot applicable to precision parts because ait can not be polished after heat-treatment. CApplicable to dry bearings. CLow-temperature annealing. CRemoves internal stress in forming to enhance elasticity.

Hardness tests and applicable parts


Test method Principle CA(Steel or superhard alloy) ball indenter is used to indent the test surface. Hardness is given as a quotient minus the surface area of the indent, computed from the diameter. CThe standard or test load is applied via a diamond or boll indenter. Hardness is read on a tester. Applicable heat-treated parts CAnnealed parts CNormalized parts CAnchored materials Features 1Applicable to uneven materials and forged products because indent is large. 2Not applicable to small or thin specimens. 1Hardness value obtained quickly. 2Applicable as intermediate test to actual products. 330 types caution required. 1Extremely easy to operate. Data obtained quickly. 2Applicable to large parts. 3Indent is kept shallow, therefore is applicable to actual products. 4Compact and light-weight. Portable. 1Applicable to small and thin specimens. 2Applicable to all materials because of diamond indenter. Remark

1.Brinell hardness

JISZ2243

2.Rockwell hardness

CQuenched-Tempered parts CCarburized surfaces CNitrided surfaces CThin sheets like copper, brass, bronze, etc. CQuenched-Tempered parts CNitrided parts CLarge carburized parts, etc.

JISZ2245

3.Shore hardness

CThe specimen is set on a table. A hammer is dropped from a uniform height. Hardness is based on how high the hammer bounces.

JISZ2246

4.Vickers hardness

CUses a diamond 136B square pyramid indenter. Hardness value is obtained as the surface area of the indent, computed from the length of the diagonal lines of the indent.

CThin parts hardened by high frequency quenching, carburizing, nitriding, electrolytic plating, ceramic coating, etc. CHardened layer depth in carburized and nitrided parts

JISZ2244

( ( ( (

6 4 2 0

) ) ) )

Notes( 1 ) The figures in blue are based on Table 1 of ASTM E 140 Adjusted by SAE, ASM and ASTM in collaboration) ( . 2 2 2 ( ) 1MPa=1N/mm =1/9.80665kgf/mm 3 ( ) The figures in parentheses are less frequently used values and are for reference only.

1165

1166

SURFACE ROUGHNESS
Categories of surface roughness

TECHNICAL DATA

Excerpt from JIS B 0601(1994)and JIS B 0031(1994)

TECHNICAL DRAWINGS

TECHNICAL DATA

METHOD OF INDICATING SURFACE TEXTURE ON DRAWINGS

Excerpt from JIS Z B 0031(1994)

Positions of respective indicating symbols relative to indicating symbol of surface


Each grain surface position is indicated as shown in Fig. 1.This includes surface roughness, cut-off value or reference length, processing method, symbol of direction of lay, surface waviness, etc.
Fig. 1 Legend a :Value of Ra b :Processing method
b f c g

Definitions and indications for surface roughness parameters for industrial products) specified. They are arithmetical mean roughness Ra) ( are ( , maximum height Ry)ten-point mean roughness Rz) mean spacing of profile irregularities Sm)mean spacing of local peaks of the profile S) ( , ( , ( , ( and profile bearing length ratio tp)Surface roughness is given as the arithmetical mean value for a randomly sampled area. [Mean center line ( . roughness Ra 75) defined in the annexes of JIS B 0031 and JIS B 0061]. ( is Typical ways for obtaining surface roughness Arithmetical mean roughness Ra) (
A section of standard length is sampled from the mean line on the roughness chart. The mean line is laid on a Cartesian coordinate system wherein the mean line runs in the direction of the x-axis and magnification is the y-axis.The value obtained with the formula on the right is expressed in micrometer (Om)when y=f(a) . Y
m

c :Cutoff value. Evaluation length c :Reference length. Evaluation length d :Symbol of direction of lay f :Parameter other than Ra With tp, parameter/cutoff level) ( g :Surface waviness according to JIS B 0610) (

Ra= r

f( x ) d x

a e d

c g e d

Ra

X r

Note: Items other than a and f are added as necessary. Reference:The location of lay of e in Fig. 1.is given as the finish allowance in ISO 1302. Symbol Meaning Parallel to the projected surface on which the direction of lay of the cutting blade is indicated. (ex) Shaped surface Figure

IExamples indicating surface texture on drawing


Indicating symbol of surface

Maximum peak Ry) (


A section of standard length is sampled from the mean line on the roughness chart. The distance between the peaks and valleys of the sampled line is measured in the y direction. The value is expressed in micrometer Om) ( .
Note:To obtain Ry, sample only the standard length. The part, where peaks and valleys are wide enough to be interpreted as scratches, should be avoided.

m
Rp Ry

Direction of lay of cutting blade

Rv

Indicating symbol of surface requiring removal press

Ry=Rp+Rv

Ten-point mean roughness Rz) (


Yp 1

m
Yp 2 Yp4 Yp 5 Yp 3

A section of standard length is sampled from the mean line on the roughness chart. The distance between the peaks and valleys of the sampled line is measured in the y direction. Then, the average peak is obtained among 5 tallest peaks Yp) as ( , is the average valley between 5 lowest valleys Yv) ( . The sum of these two values is expressed in micrometer Om) ( .

Perpendicular to the projected surface on which the direction of lay of the cutting blade is indicated. (ex) Shaped surface when viewed ( from the side)machined or cyli, ndrical ground surface. Intersection of two diagonal lines on the projected surface on which the direction of lay of the cutting blade is indicated. (ex) Honing finished surface

Indicating symbol of surface on which no removal process is permitted


Direction of lay of cutting blade

Y V1

Y V2

Y V3

Y V4

Y V5

Rz=

Yp1+Yp2+Yp3+Yp4+Yp 5 + Yv1+Yv 2+Yv 3+Yv 4+Yv 5

Examples indicating the upper limits of Ra


(a) 25 (b) 6.3 (c) 25

5
Yp1, Yp2, Yp3, Yp4, Yp5: Tallest 5 peaks within sample Yv1, Yv2, Yv3, Yv4, Yv5: Lowest 5 peaks within sample

Direction of lay of cutting blade


25 6.3 25

Reference:Relationship between arithmetical mean roughness Ra) conventional symbols ( and


Arithmetical mean roughness Ra Preferred number series 0.012 0.025 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.6 3.2 6.3 12.5 25 50 100 a a a a a a a a a a a a a a
Cut-off value c(mm)

Max. height Ry

Ten-point mean roughness Rz

Indication of surface texture on drawings

Preferred number series 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 s s s s s 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.8 z z z z z

Standard length of RyCRz r (mm) 0.08 0.25

Triangular indication

0.08 0.25 0.012 ~ 0.2

Multidirectional intersection or nondirectional point on the projected surface on which the direction of lay of the cutting blade is indicated. (ex) Rapping finished surface, super finished surface, face milled or end milled surface in surfacing feed direction Concentric circles roughly centered on the same on the surface on which the direction of lay of the cutting blade is indicated. (ex) Facing surface

Examples indicating direction of lay

Examples indicating the upper limit and lower limit of Ra


(a) 6.3 1.6 6.3 1.6 (b)

0.8

0.4 3.2 12.5 50

~ ~ ~ ~

1.6 6.3 25 100

1.6 s 3.2 s 6.3 s 12.5 s 25 s

1.6 z 3.2 z 6.3 z 12.5 z 25 z 50 100 200 400 z z z z

0.8

0.25 8

0.25 8 ~

50 100
200 400

s s s s

Radiating shape roughly centered on the same point on the surface on which the direction of lay of the cutting blade is indicated.

Examples indicating processing method


(a) Front milled 3.2 3.2 (b) M

GThe interdependence for 3 classes is not strictly enforced. GThe evaluation length of Ra, Ry and Rz:Five times the cut-off value standard length respectively.

1167

1168

SURFACE ROUGHNESS BY DIFFERENT PROCESSING METHODS


Arithmetical mean roughness Ra Former designations of surface roughness Max. height Rmax. Standard values of standard length(mm) Triangular indication Forging Casting Die casting Hot rolling Cold rolling Drawing Extruding Sandblasting Rolling Face cutter grinding Planing Precision Tumbling 0.025 0.1 -S 0.05 0.2 -S 0.25 l l l l 0.1 0.4 -S 0.2 0.8 -S 0.4 1.6 -S 0.8 3.2 -S 0.8 l l l 1.6 6.3 -S 3.2 12.5 -S 2.5 l l 6.3 25 -S 12.5 50 -S 8 l 25 100 -S 50 200 -S 25 100 400 -S

TECHNICAL DATA

INDICATIONS OF GEOMETRICAL TOLERANCE ON DRAWINGS


IKinds and symbols of geometrical tolerances
Kind of tolerance Straightness tolerance Flatness tolerance
t
t

TECHNICAL DATA

Excerpt from JIS B 0021(1984)

Symbol

Definition of tolerance zone


Where symbol F is attached before the numerical value indicating a tolerance zone, this tolerance zone is a zone in a cylinder of diameter t. The tolerance zone is a zone held between two parallel planes a distance t apart.

Examples of diagrammatical indication and its interpretation


F0.08 Where a tolerance frame is connected to the dimension showing the diameter of a cylinder, the axis of the cylinder shall be contained a cylinder of 0.08mm diameter. This surface shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.08mm apart.

Ft

0.08

Precision Precision Form tolerance

Circularity tolerance
t

The tolerance zone in the considered plane is a zone between two concentric circles a distance t apart.

0.1

The circumference in any section normal to the axis shall be contained between two concentric circles 0.1mm apart on the same plane. 0.1 The considered surface shall be contained between two coaxial cylinder surfaces 0.1mm apart.

Cylindricity tolerance

The tolerance zone is a zone contained between two coaxial cylinder surfaces a distance t apart.

Profile tolerance of line

The tolerance zone is a zone held between two lines enveloping circles of diameter t, the centers of which are situated on a theoretically exact profile line. The tolerance zone is a zone held between the two surfaces enveloping the spheres of diameter t, the centers of which are situated on a theoretically exact profile surface. The tolerance zone is a zone held between two parallel planes parallel to the datum plane and a distance t apart from each other. Where symbol F is attached before the numerical value indicating the tolerance, the tolerance zone is a zone within a cylinder of diameter t perpendicular to the datum plane. The tolerance zone is a zone held between two parallel planes inclined at the specified angle to the datum plane and a distance t apart from each other. The tolerance zone is a zone within a circle or sphere of diameter t having its center at the theoretically exact location, hereinafter referred to as the ""true location"". Where symbol F is attached before the numerical value indicating the tolerance, the tolerance zone is a zone within a cylinder of diameter t whose axis agrees with the datum axial straight line. The tolerance zone is a zone held between two parallel planes a distance t apart from each other and arranged symmetrically about the datum median plane.

F t

0.04

In any cross-section parallel to the projection plane the considered profile shall be contained between two lines enveloping circles of 0.04mm in diameter, the centers of which are situated on a surface having the theoretically exact profile.

Profile tolerance of surface

0.02

SFt

Carving( Slotting)
Cutter grinding Precision boring Working method Filing Round grinding Boring Drilling Reaming Broach grinding Shaving Hone finishing Super finishing Buffing Paper finishing Lapping Liquid honing Burnishing Surface rolling Electric discharge carving Wire cut electric spark Chemical polishing Electrolytic abrasion Precision Precision Precision Precision Run-out tolerance Precision Precision Precision Precision Location tolerance Grinding Precision Fine Medium Rough Precision Precision Positional tolerance Coaxiality tolerance or concentricity tolerance Symmetry tolerance Circular run-out tolerance Total run-out tolerance
Measuring plane

Precision Orientation tolerance Precision Precision Fine Precision Medium Rough

Parallelism tolerance

0.01 A

The considered surface shall be contained between two surfaces enveloping the spheres of diameter 0.02mm, the centers of which are situated on a surface having the theoretically exact profile. The surface shown by the arrow of the leader line shall be contained between two planes parallel to the datum plane A and 0.01mm apart from each other in the direction of the arrow of the leader line. The axis of the cylinder shown by the arrow of the leader line shall be contained within a cylinder of diameter 0.01mm perpendicular to the datum plane A.

Perpendicularity tolerance

Ft

F0.01 A

A 0.08 A

Angularity tolerance

40B
A B
60

The surface shown by the arrow of the leader line shall be contained between two parallel planes which are inclined at 40B with theoretical exactness to the datum plane A and which are 0.08mm apart from each other in the direction of the arrow of the leader line.

F0.03 AB

True location

100
A

The point shown by the arrow of the leader line shall be contained within a circle of 0.03mm diameter having its center at the true location 60mm and 100mm apart, respectively, from the datum straight line A and from the datum straight line B.

F0.01 A The axis shown by the arrow of the leader line shall be contained within a cylinder of 0.01mm diameter whose axis agrees with the datum axial straight line A. 0.08 A The median surface shown by the arrow of the leader line shall be contained between two parallel planes 0.08mm apart form each other and arranged symmetrically about the datum median plane A.
The run-out in the radial direction of the cylinder surface shown by the arrow of the leader line shall not exceed 0.1mm on any measuring plane normal to the datum axial straight line when the cylinder is rotated by one rotation about the datum axial straight line A-B. The total radial run-out of the cylinder surface shown by the arrow of the leader line shall not exceed 0.1mm at any point on the cylinder surface when the cylinder part is rotated about the datum axial straight line A-B with a relative movement in the axial direction.

Ft

The tolerance is a zone between two concentric circles whose centers agree with the datum axial straight line on any measuring plane normal to the datum axial straight line and which are a distance t apart Tolerance surface from each other in the radial direction.

0.1 A-B
F F

B 0.1 A-B

The tolerance zone is a zone between two coaxial cylinders having axes agreeing with the datum axial straight line and a distance t apart from each other in the radial direction.

Lines used in the drawings in the column of ""definition of tolerance zone"" indicate the following meanings: Thick solid line or broken line:Feature Thick alternate long and short dash line:Datum Thin solid line or broken line:Tolerance zone Thin alternate long and short dash line:Center line Thin alternate long and two short dashes line:Supplementary projection plane or sectional plane. Thick alternate long and two short dashes line:Projection of a feature to supplementary Projection plane or sectional plane

1169

1170

Loose fit

Light rolling fit

Clearance fit

Can be moved relatively

Rolling fit

Precision rolling fit

Push fit Lubricated fit

Transition fit

Driving fit

Light press fit

Cannot be moved relatively

Press fit

Interference fit

Strong press fitC Shrinkage fitCCooling fit

Press fit

Interference fit

Clearance fit

Driving fit

Rolling fit

Clearance fit

Clearance fit

Clearance fit

Clearance fit

Clearance fit

Clearance fit

Transition fit

Transition fit

Lubricated fit

Interference fit

Transition fit

Strong press fit

Shrinkage fit

Tolerance zone class of shaft f6 g5 g6 h5 h6 js5 js6 k5 k6 m5 m6 n6 p6 e7 f6 f7 g6 h6 h7 js6 js7 k6 m6 n6 p6 r6 s6 t6 u6 x6 d9 e8 e9 f7 f8 h7 h8 c9 d8 d9 g8 e9 h8 h9 b9 c9 d9

Loose rolling fit Light rolling fit

Tolerance zone class of shaft M6 JS6 K5 M6 N6 P6 F6 F7 G6 G7 H6 H7 JS6 JS7 K6 K7 M6 M7 N6 N7 P6 P7 R7 S7 T7 U7 X7 E7 F7 F8 H7 H8 D8 D9 E8 E9 F8 H8 H9 B10 C9 C10 D8 D9 D10 E8 E9 H8 H9

SYSTEM OF LIMITS AND FITS

50 H7 0 H6 H8 H9

H10

200

150

-50

100

Variation of tolerance Om) (

Variation of tolerance Om) (

-100

50

Excerpt from JIS B 0401(1986)

-150

h5

h6

h6

Interference fit

h7

h8 -200
*This table shows the case when basic size is over 18mm to 30mm.

-50
*This table shows the case when basic size is over 18mm to 30mm.

Clearance fit

1171
H6 c9 The part which allows a large clearance space or the part requires clearance space. Functionally, the part which requires large clearance space Piston ring and piston ring groove The part which can be enlarged to make clearance space to make assembly easier. Expanse. Positioning error is large. Fit of loosening safety pin The part which requires proper clearance space in the high temperature. Length of fit is long. The part which allows a large clearance space or the part requires clearance space. The part which allows a slight clearance space or the part requires clearance space high grade fit)The bearing part which has slight clearance space and good ( . lubrication. The bearing part which is working under the condition of high temperature, high speed and high load(high grade pressure feed lubrication) . Fit which can be mobile due to proper clearance space high grade fit) ( . The general cold bearing part of grease or oil lubrication. Ordinary fit parts. (Disassembling is often done.) Fit of exhaust valve seat The general rotating or traveling part. Main bearing for crankshaft (The condition of good lubrication is required.) General traveling part Stripper bolt MSB e9) ( For reducing Production cost Safety cost Crank web and pin bearing(Side surface) Exhaust valve cage and traveling part of spring sheet Piston ring and piston ring groove H7 H8 H9 Applicable part Functional classification Application example d9 d9

TECHNICAL DATA

e7 f7 f8 The continuous rotary part of light load precision machine. Fit which can be mobile in spite of small clearance space spigot and positioning) ( . Precision traveling part. The part which requires precision movement without any slack. h7 h8 h9

e8

e9

f6

f7

Insertion part of cooling exhaust valve cage General shaft and bushing Guide lifter pin g6) ( Lever for ling system and bushing Pin for link system and lever Key and key groove Valve stem of precision control valve Fit of rim and boss Dowel pin MSTH (h7) Fit of toothed gear of precision gear mechanism

g5

g6

h5 h5 h6 js5 k6 js6 Mounting part which is given a little leeway. High-precision positioning where both are immovable. Fit which can be assembled and disassembled by wood or lead hammer.

h6

Fit which can be moved manually with using a lubricator high grade positioning) ( . Special precision traveling part. Stationary part which is not of great importance.

BASIS OF SELECTION FOR FITS


Fit between joint flanges Governor way and pin Transmission of Fit of rim of toothed gear and boss power can not be done by only junction power of fit. Fixation of gear pump shaft and casing Reamer bolt Reamer bolt Dowel pin MSTM (m6) Fixation of piston of hydraulic system and shaft Fit of joint flange and shaft Flexible plate coupling and gear(passive side) Precision fit Punch SPAS, etc. m5) ( Insertion of valve guide for inlet valve Die MHD, etc.(m5)

k5

m6

Fit which can be assembled and disassembled by an iron hammer or hand press(Key or such The part which items are required to prevent other components from rotating) . requires precision High-precision positioning. movement without any slack. Same as the above for assembling and disassembling. High-precision positioning which does not tolerate any clearance space. Fit which requires considerable power for assembling and disassembling. High-precision fixed mounting.(Key or such items are required for large torque transmission.)

m5 n5 n6 p5 r5 t6 u6 x6 s6 Fixed firmly together, so that permanent assembling can be sought with shrinkage fit, cooling fit and strong press fit for assembling. Press fit for light alloy. r6 Same as the above for assembling and disassembling. Shrinkage fit, cooling fit and strong press fit for large dimension components. p6 Fit which requires much power for assembling and disassembling.(Key or such items are required for large torque transmission.) However, when non-ferrous components are fitted together, press fit power will be activated. Standard press fit fixing between iron and iron or between bronze and copper.

n6

Small power can be transmitted by junction Insertion of valve guide for inlet valve Straight die MSD, etc.(n5) power of fit. Fixation of gear and shaft(small torque) Flexible plate coupling and gear(active side) Hard to disassemble without damaging components.

Excerpt from "Usage of JIS series" Manual for Designing (Precision Ver.)

Joint and shaft Fixation of bushing for bearing Considerable power Insertion of valve seat for inlet valve Dowel pin MST p6) ( can be transmitted by junction power of fit. Fixation of joint flange and shaft(large torque) Fixation of driving gear and boss Fixation of bushing for bearing Press die parts are shown in the application example for the item written in red letters.

1.1 Commonly used hole-basis fits

2.1 Commonly used shaft-basis fits Basic shaft h5 h6 h7 h8 h9 Tolerance zone class of hole Transition fit H6 JS6 K6 M6 N6 * F6 G6 H6 JS6 K6 M6 N6 F7 G7 H7 JS7 K7 M7 N7 E7 F7 H7 F8 H8 D8 E8 F8 H8 D9 E9 H9 D8 E8 H8 C9 D9 E9 H9 B10 C10 D10 Clearance fit
Notice *) will make exceptions according to the size steps. ( Fits

Tolerance zone class of shaft Basic hole Clearance fit Transition fit Interference fit g5 h5 js5 k5 m5 H6 f6 g6 h6 js6 k6 m6 n6 * p6 * n6 f6 g6 h6 js6 k6 m6 p6 * r6 * s6 t6 u6 x6 H7 e7 f7 h7 js7 f7 h7 H8 e8 f8 h8 d9 e9 d8 e8 h8 H9 c9 d9 e9 h9 H10 b9 c9 d9
Notice *) will make exceptions according to the size steps. ( Fits

Interference fit P6 P6 * P7 * R7 S7 T7 U7 X7

TECHNICAL DATA

1.2 Mutual relations of tolerance zone in commonly used hole-basis system of fits Basic hole H6 H7 H8 Clearance fit Transition fit Interference fit Clearance fit Fit

H9

H10

2.2 Mutual relations of tolerance zone in commonly used shaft-basis system of fits Basic shaft h5 h6 h7 h8 Fit

h9

h9

1172

1173
Deviations of holes to be used in commonly used fits Basic size step (mm) Over or less B10 C9 C10 D8 D9 D10 E7 E8 Tolerance zone class of hole E9
5 6 7 -

Unit:Om K6 K7 M6 M7 N6 N7 P6 P7 R7 S7 T7 U7 X7

F6

F7

F8

G6

G7

H6

H7

H8

H9

H10 JS6 JS7

3 6 10 14 18 24 30 +16 0 12 +25 0 +39 0 +62 +100 8 0 0 +3 -13 +7 -18 -4 -20 0 -25 -12 -28 -8 -33 40 30 +244 +162 +194 +160 +110 +110 10 +98 +117 +149 +65 +65 +65 +61 +40 +73 +40 +92 +40 +33 +20 +41 +20 +53 +20 +20 +7 +28 +7 +13 0 +21 0 +33 0 +52 0 +84 6.5 0 +2 -11 +6 -15 -4 -17 0 -21 -11 -24 -7 -28 -18 -31 -14 -35 24 -20 -41 18 +220 +138 +165 +150 +95 +95 9 +77 +50 +93 +120 +50 +50 +50 +32 +59 +32 +75 +32 +27 +16 +34 +16 +43 +16 +17 +6 +24 +6 +11 0 +18 0 +27 0 +43 0 +70 5.5 0 +2 -9 +6 -12 -4 -15 0 -18 -9 -20 -5 -23 -15 -26 -11 -29 -16 -34 -21 -39 14 10 6

+180 +85 +100 +140 +60 +60 +188 +100 +118 +140 +70 +70 +208 +116 +138 +150 +80 +80 -26 -44 -27 -48

TECHNICAL DATA

+34 +20 +48 +30 +62 +40

+45 +20 +60 +30 +76 +40

+60 +20 +78 +30 +98 +40

+24 +14 +32 +20 +40 +25

+28 +14 +38 +20 +47 +25

+39 +14 +50 +20 +61 +25

+12 +6 +18 +10 +22 +13

+16 +6 +22 +10 +28 +13

+20 +6 +28 +10 +35 +13

+8 +2 +12 +4 +14 +5

+12 +2 +16 +4 +20 +5

+6 0 +8 0 +9 0

+10 0 +12 0 +15 0

+14 0 +18 0 +22 0

+25 0 +30 0 +36 0

+40 3 0 +48 4 0 +58 4.5 0

0 -6 +2 -6 +2 -7 -2 -8 -1 -9 -3 -12 -2 -12 0 -12 0 -15 -4 -10 -5 -13 -7 -16 -4 -14 -4 -16 -4 -19 -6 -12 -9 -17 -12 -21 -6 -16 -8 -20 -9 -24 -10 -20 -11 -23 -13 -28 -14 -24 -15 -27 -17 -32 -18 -28 -19 -31 -22 -37 -20 -30 -24 -36 -28 -43 -33 -51 -38 -56 -46 -67 -56 -77 -17 -42 -25 -50 -34 -59 -

0 -10 +3 -9 +5 -10

-21 -37

+19 0 15

+30 0

+46 0

+74 +120 9.5 0 0

+4 -15

+9 -21

-5 -24

0 -30

-14 -33

-9 -39

-26 -45

-21 -51

+22 0 17

+35 0

+54 0

+87 +140 11 0 0

+4 -18

+10 -25

-6 -28

0 -35

-16 -38

-10 -45

-30 -52

-24 -59

-33 -54 -40 -61 -51 -76 -61 -86 -76 -106 -91 -121 -111 -146 -131 -166

TOLERANCES OF COMMONLY USED HOLE FITS

+25 0 20

+40 0

+63 +100 +160 12.5 0 0 0

+4 -21

+12 -28

-8 -33

0 -40

-20 -45

-12 -52

-36 -61

-28 -68

-33 -54 -39 -64 -45 -70 -55 -85 -64 -94 -78 -113 -91 -126 -107 -147 -119 -159 -131 -171

+29 0

+46 0

+72 +115 +185 14.5 23 0 0 0

+5 -24

+13 -33

-8 -37

0 -46

-22 -51

-14 -60

-41 -70

-33 -79

-42 -72 -48 -78 -58 -93 -66 -101 -77 -117 -85 -125 -93 -133 -105 -151 -113 -159 -123 -169 26 +5 -27 +16 -36 -9 -41 0 -52 -25 -57 -14 -66 -47 -79 -36 -88 -

+32 0

+52 0

+81 +130 +210 16 0 0 0

Excerpt from JIS B 0401(1986)

+36 0

+57 0

+89 +140 +230 18 0 0 0

28

+7 -29

+17 -40

-10 -46

0 -57

-26 -62

-16 -73

-51 -87

-41 -98

+270 +182 +220 +170 +120 +120 +119 +142 +180 +75 +89 +112 +41 +50 +64 +25 +34 +280 +192 +230 +80 +80 +80 +50 +50 +50 +25 +25 +25 +9 +9 40 50 +180 +130 +130 +310 +214 +260 50 65 +190 +140 +140 +146 +174 +220 +90 +106 +134 +49 +60 +76 +29 +40 +320 +224 +270 +100 +100 +100 +60 +60 +60 +30 +30 +30 +10 +10 65 80 +200 +150 +150 +360 +257 +310 80 100 +220 +170 +170 +174 +207 +260 +107 +126 +159 +58 +71 +90 +34 +47 +380 +267 +320 +120 +120 +120 +72 +72 +72 +36 +36 +36 +12 +12 100 120 +240 +180 +180 +420 +300 +360 120 140 +260 +200 +200 +440 +310 +370 +208 +245 +305 +125 +148 +185 +68 +83 +106 +39 +54 140 160 +280 +210 +210 +145 +145 +145 +85 +85 +85 +43 +43 +43 +14 +14 +470 +330 +390 160 180 +310 +230 +230 +525 +355 +425 180 200 +340 +240 +240 +565 +375 +445 +242 +285 +355 +146 +172 +215 +79 +96 +122 +44 +61 200 225 +380 +260 +260 +170 +170 +170 +100 +100 +100 +50 +50 +50 +15 +15 +605 +395 +465 225 250 +420 +280 +280 +690 +430 +510 250 280 +480 +300 +300 +271 +320 +400 +162 +191 +240 +88 +108 +137 +49 +69 +750 +460 +540 +190 +190 +190 +110 +110 +110 +56 +56 +56 +17 +17 280 315 +540 +330 +330 +830 +500 +590 315 355 +600 +360 +360 +299 +350 +440 +182 +214 +265 +98 +119 +151 +54 +75 +910 +540 +630 +210 +210 +210 +125 +125 +125 +62 +62 +62 +18 +18 355 400 +680 +400 +400 +1010 +595 +690 400 450 +760 +440 +440 +327 +385 +480 +198 +232 +290 +108 +131 +165 +60 +83 +1090 +635 +730 +230 +230 +230 +135 +135 +135 +68 +68 +68 +20 +20 450 500 +840 +480 +480 Note:This table shows that the upper figures are the upper deviation and the lower figures are the lower deviation. +40 0 +63 0 +97 +155 +250 20 0 0 0 31 +8 -32 +18 -45 -10 -50 0 -63 -27 -67 -17 -80

-55 -45 -95 -108

-30 -60 -32 -62 -38 -73 -41 -76 -48 -88 -50 -90 -53 -93 -60 -106 -63 -109 -67 -113 -74 -126 -78 -130 -87 -144 -93 -150 -103 -166 -109 -172

Tolerance zone class of shaft


h5 h6 h7 h8 h9 js5 js6 js7 t6

Deviations of shafts to be used in commonly used fits Basic size step (mm) d8 d9 e7 e8 e9 f6 Over or less b9 c9
3 6 10 14 18 24 30 24 30 40 18 14 3

Unit:Om

2 2.5 3

3 4 4.5

5 6 7

-140 -60 -165 -85 -140 -70 6 -170 -100 -150 -80 10 -186 -116 -150 -95 -193 -138 -50 -77

-20 -34 -30 -48 -40 -62

-20 -45 -30 -60 -40 -76 -50 -93

-14 -24 -20 -32 -25 -40 -32 -50

-14 -28 -20 -38 -25 -47 -32 -59

-14 -39 -20 -50 -25 -61 -32 -75

-6 -12 -10 -18 -13 -22 -16 -27

f7 -6 -16 -10 -22 -13 -28

f8 -6 -20 -10 -28 -13 -35

g5 -2 -6 -4 -9 -5 -11

g6 h4 * -2 0 -8 -3 -4 0 -12 -4 -5 0 -14 -4

0 -4 0 -5 0 -6 -16 -34 -16 -43 -6 -14 -6 -17 0 -5 0 -8

0 -6 0 -8 0 -9 0 -11

0 -10 0 -12 0 -15 0 -18

0 -14 0 -18 0 -22

0 -25 0 -30 0 -36

k5 +4 0 +6 +1 +7 +1
0 -27 0 -43

k6 +6 0 +9 +1 +10 +1

m5 +6 +2 +9 +4 +12 +6

m6 n5 * +8 +8 +2 +4 +12 +13 +4 +8 +15 +16 +6 +10

n6 +10 +4 +16 +8 +19 +10

p6 +12 +6 +20 +12 +24 +15

r6 +16 +10 +23 +15 +28 +19

s6 +20 +14 +27 +19 +32 +23

u6 +24 +18 +31 +23 +37 +28

TECHNICAL DATA

5.5

+9 +1

+12 +1

+15 +7

+18 +7

+20 +12

+23 +12

+29 +18

+34 +23

+39 +28

+44 +33 -

-160 -110 -212 -162

-65 -65 -98 -117

-40 -61

-40 -73

-40 -92

-20 -33

-20 -41

-20 -53

-7 -16

-7 -20

0 -6

0 -9

0 -13

0 -21

0 -33

0 -52

4.5

6.5

10

+11 +2

+15 +2

+17 +8

+21 +8

+24 +15

+28 +15

+35 +22

+41 +28

+48 +35

x6 +26 +20 +36 +28 +43 +34 +51 +40 +56 +45 +67 +54 +77 +64

0 -11

0 -16

0 -25

0 -39

0 -62

5.5

12

+13 +2

+18 +2

+20 +9

+25 +9

+28 +17

+33 +17

+42 +26

+50 +34

+59 +43

0 -13

0 -19

0 -30

0 -46

0 -74

6.5

9.5

15

+15 +2

+21 +2

+24 +11

+30 +11

+33 +20

+39 +20

+51 +32

0 -15

0 -22

0 -35

0 -54

0 -87

7.5 11

17

+18 +3

+25 +3

+28 +13

+35 +13

+38 +23

+45 +23

+59 +37

+60 +41 +62 +43 +73 +51 +76 +54

+72 +53 +78 +59 +93 +71 +101 +79

+54 +41 +64 +48 +70 +54 +85 +66 +94 +75 +113 +91 +126 +104

+54 +41 +61 +48 +76 +60 +86 +70 +106 +87 +121 +102 +146 +124 +166 +144

TOLERANCES OF COMMONLY USED SHAFT FITS

0 -18

0 -25

0 -40

0 0 -63 -100

12.5

20

+21 +3

+28 +3

+33 +15

+40 +15

+52 +27

+68 +43

+147 +122 +159 +134 +171 +146

0 -20

0 -29

0 -46

0 0 10 -72 -115

14.5

23

+24 +4

+33 +4

+37 +17

+46 +17

+60 +31

+79 +50

+117 +92 +125 +100 +133 +108 +151 +122 +159 +130 +169 +140 0 -23 0 -32 0 -52 0 0 11.5 16 -81 -130 26 +27 +4 +36 +4 +43 +20 +52 +20 +66 +34 +88 +56 -

Excerpt from JIS B 0401(1986)

0 -25

0 -36

0 -57

0 0 12.5 18 -89 -140

28

+29 +4

+40 +4

+46 +21

+57 +21

+73 +37

+98 +62

-170 -120 -232 -182 -80 -80 -50 -50 -50 -25 -25 -25 -9 -9 0 -7 -180 -130 -119 -142 -75 -89 -112 -41 -50 -64 -20 -25 40 50 -242 -192 -190 -140 50 65 -264 -214 -100 -100 -60 -60 -60 -30 -30 -30 -10 -10 0 -8 -200 -150 -146 -174 -90 -106 -134 -49 -60 -76 -23 -29 65 80 -274 -224 -220 -170 80 100 -307 -257 -120 -120 -72 -72 -72 -36 -36 -36 -12 -12 0 -240 -180 -174 -207 -107 -126 -159 -58 -71 -90 -27 -34 -10 100 120 -327 -267 -260 -200 120 140 -360 -300 -280 -210 -145 -145 -85 -85 -85 -43 -43 -43 -14 -14 0 140 160 -380 -310 -208 -245 -125 -148 -185 -68 -83 -106 -32 -39 -12 -310 -230 160 180 -410 -330 -340 -240 180 200 -455 -355 -380 -260 -170 -170 -100 -100 -100 -50 -50 -50 -15 -15 0 200 225 -495 -375 -242 -285 -146 -172 -215 -79 -96 -122 -35 -44 -14 -420 -280 225 250 -535 -395 -480 -300 250 280 -610 -430 -190 -190 -110 -110 -110 -56 -56 -56 -17 -17 0 -540 -330 -271 -320 -162 -191 -240 -88 -108 -137 -40 -49 -16 280 315 -670 -460 -600 -360 315 355 -740 -500 -210 -210 -125 -125 -125 -62 -62 -62 -18 -18 0 -680 -400 -299 -350 -182 -214 -265 -98 -119 -151 -43 -54 -18 355 400 -820 -540 -760 -440 400 450 -915 -595 -230 -230 -135 -135 -135 -68 -68 -68 -20 -20 0 -840 -480 -327 -385 -198 -232 -290 -108 -131 -165 -47 -60 -20 450 500 -995 -635 Note:This table shows that the upper figures are the upper deviation and the lower figures are the lower deviation.

0 -27

0 -40

0 -63

0 0 13.5 20 -97 -155

31

+32 +5

+45 +5

+50 +23

+63 +23

+80 +108 +40 +68

+88 +63 +90 +65 +93 +68 +106 +77 +109 +80 +113 +84 +126 +94 +130 +98 +144 +108 +150 +114 +166 +126 +172 +132

1174

SOCKET HEAD CAP SCREWS


1. Shapes and dimensions
0 B (min. Fdk
)

TECHNICAL DATA

Excerpt from JIS B 1176 (1988)

t W

Chamfered end. Provided that even an unpainted end is acceptable for M4 or less.

t W

2. L,R and R of socket head cap screw s g


Nominal diameter of thread d) ( L Nominal min length
Drill bottom

Circular cone bottom

M3

M4

M5

M6

M8

M10

0 B (min.

M12 (M14) M16 rs min and r max g

(M18)

M20

(M22)

M24

(M27)

M30

12

rs rg k ( b Reference) L

12

Incomplete thread part (2P or less)

max 5.24 6.24 8.29 10.29 12.35 16.35 20.42 25.42 30.42 35.5 40.5 45.5 50.5 55.6 60.6 65.6 70.6 80.6 90.7 100.7 110.7 120.7 130.8 140.8 150.8 160.8 180.8

rs rg rs rg rs rg rs rg rs rg rs rg rs rg rs rg rs rg rs rg rs rg rs rg rs rg rs rg rs rg min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max

da ds

5 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 Unit:mm 45 50 55 60 65 70 80 90 100

4.76 5.76 7.71 9.71 11.65 15.65 19.58 24.58 29.58 34.5 39.5 44.5 49.5 54.4 59.4 64.4 69.4 79.4 89.3 99.3

S
The inside chamfering may be worked on hexagonal socket.

Head worked with roundness or chamfering

Largest condition of radius under bead

Roundness Fdw r

Fdk

( f max.) =1.7t max.) ( da max.) (max.) ( -ds ( r max.) = 2 ( r max.) accordance with the values of the is following table.

da

45B ax.) (m

ds

4.5 9.5

7 12 6.5 11.5 16.5 10 15 20 4 9 14 19 24 8 13 18 23 28 6 11 16 21 26 31 11 16 5.75 12 5.5 10.5 15.5 20.5 25.5 30.5 40.5 50.5 60.5 13 18 5.25 14

r
Chamfering

21 10.75 17 26 15.75 22 31 20.75 27 36 25.75 32 30.75 37 35.75 42 45.75 52

Nominal diameter of thread d) ( (15) Pitch of screw thread P) ( b dk da ds e f k r Reference


* Max. Basic size) (

M3 0.5 18 5.5 5.68 5.32 3.6 3 2.86 2.87 0.51 3 2.86 0.1 2.5 2.52 2.580 2.560 1.3 0.3 5.07 1.15

M4 0.7 20 7 7.22 6.78 4.7 4 3.82 3.44 0.60 4 3.82 0.2 3 3.02 3.080 3.080 2 0.4 6.53 1.4

M5 0.8 22 8.5 8.72 8.28 5.7 5 4.82 4.58 0.60 5 4.82 0.2 4 4.02 4.095 4.095 2.5 0.5 8.03 1.9

M6 1 24 10 10.22 9.78 6.8 6 5.82 5.72 0.68 6 5.70 0.25 5 5.02 5.140 5.095 3 0.6 9.38 2.3

M8 1.25 28 13 13.27 12.73 9.2 8 7.78 6.86 1.02 8 7.64 0.4 6 6.02 6.140 6.095 4 0.8 12.33 3.3

M10 1.5 32 16 16.27 15.73 11.2 10 9.78 9.15 1.02 10 9.64 0.4 8

M12 1.75 36 18 18.27 17.73 13.7 12 11.73 11.43 1.45 12 11.57 0.6 10

(M14) 2 40 21 21.33 20.67 15.7 14 13.73 13.72 1.45 14 13.57 0.6 12 12.032 12.212 12.142 7 1.4 20.17 5.8

M16 2 44 24 24.33 23.67 17.7 16 15.73 16.00 1.45 16 15.57 0.6 14 14.032 14.212 14.142 8 1.6 23.17 6.8

(M18) 2.5 48 27 27.33 26.67 20.2 18 17.73 16.00 1.87 18 17.57 0.6 14 14.032 14.212 14.142 9 1.8 25.87 7.7

M20 2.5 52 30 30.33 29.67 22.4 20 19.67 19.44 2.04 20 19.48 0.8 17 17.050 17.230 10 2 28.87 8.6

(M22) 2.5 56 33 33.39 32.61 24.4 22 21.67 19.44 2.04 22 21.48 0.8 17 17.050 17.230 11 2.2 31.81 9.5

M24 3 60 36 36.39 35.61 26.4 24 23.67 21.73 2.04 24 23.48 0.8 19 19.065 19.275 12 2.4 34.81 10.4

(M27) 3 66 40 40.39 39.61 30.4 27 26.67 21.73 2.89 27 26.48 1 19 19.065 19.275 13.5 2.7 38.61 12.1

M30 3.5 72 45 45.39 44.61 33.4 30 29.67 25.15 2.89 30 29.48 1 22 22.065 22.275 15.5 3 43.61 13.1

23 10.75 19 28 15.25 24 33 20.25 29 38 25.25 34 48 35.25 44 58 45.25 54 68 55.25 64 66.25 74 75.25 84 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 6 11 16 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96 106 16 21 26 36 46 56 66 76 86 96 106 116 4.5 9.5 19.5 29.5 39.5 49.5 59.5 69.5 79.5 17 22 32 42 52 62 72 82 92 5.5 15.5 25.5 35.5 45.5 55.5 65.5 75.5 85.5 18 28 38 48 58 68 78 88 98 11.5 21.5 31.5 41.5 51.5 61.5 71.5 81.5 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 105 125 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 9 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 99 119 139 159 179 199 219 24 34 44 54 64 74 84 94 114 10.5 20.5 30.5 40.5 50.5 60.5 70.5 28 38 48 58 68 78 88

Max.** Min. Max. Max. Basic size) ( Min. Min. Max. Max. Basic size) ( Min. Min.
Nominal designation (Basic size)

110 109.3 120 119.3 130 129.2 140 139.2 150 149.2 160 159.2 180 179.2

89.5 102 99.5 112

95.5 108

91.5 104

119.5 132 115.5 128 111.5 124 135.5 148 131.5 144

90.5 108

200 199.05 200.95 220 219.05 220.95 240 239.05 240.95 260 258.95 261.05 280 278.95 281.05 300 298.95 301.05

134 110.5 128 154 130.5 148 174 150.5 168 194 170.5 188 214 190.5 208 234 210.5 228

Min. Max.(14) Column 1 Column 2

8.025 10.025 8.175 10.175 8.115 10.115 5 1 15.33 4 6 1.2 17.23 4.8

t v dw w

Min. Max. Min. Min.

Reference:Dimensions of counterboring and bolt hole for the socket head cap screws. Unit:mm
D' dk H' k D' dk H' ' ds d' d d2 d2 d k
Nominal diameter of thread d) (

(14) Notes The column 1 of s max.)shall apply to cap screws of 8.8 and 10.9 in strength division and those of A 2-50 and A 2-70 in property division. ( The column 2 shall apply to cap screws of 12.9 in strength division. Provided that the column 1 can apply to those of 12.9 in strength division in accordance with the agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer. Furthermore, the s(max.)of M 20 and over in nominal designation of screw thread shall apply to all of cap screws strength division and property division. (15) Notes Cap screws having a nominal designation appended with parentheses shall not be used as far as possible. Remarks 1.In this case, dk max.)shall be the value of * given in this table. ( Furthermore, where the cap screws without knurl are required, the orderer shall specify it. Provided that dk max.)shall ( be the value of * given in this table. 2.The nominal length r)recommendable to the nominal designation of screw thread shall be within the frame of bold lines. ( Furthermore, the cap screws shorter than the position of dotted line in nominal length r Shall be whole threads and the length of the incomplete thread at the underhead part shall be approx. 3P. 3.the r max.) and r min.)for the cap screw, of which the nominal length r)is longer than the position of dotted line, ( ( ( g s shall be in accordance with the following formula: r max.) ( g =Nominal length r) ( -b r min.) g max.)-5P ( =r ( s

M3 3 3.4 5.5 6.5 3 2.7 3.3 2.6

M4 4 4.5 7 8 4 3.6 4.4 3.4

M5 5 5.5 8.5 9.5 5 4.6 5.4 4.3

M6 6 6.6 10 11 6 5.5 6.5 5.1

M8 M10 M12 M14 M16 M18 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 8 9 13 14 8 7.4 6.9 10 11 16 10 12 14 18 12 14 16 21 23 14 16 18 24 26 16 18 20 27 29 18 20 22 30 32 20 22 24 33 35 22 24 26 36 39 24 27 30 40 43 27 30 33 45 48 30 28 32

ds d' dk D' k H' H" d2

ds d'

17.5 20 9.2 11

12.8 14.5 16.5 18.5 20.5 22.5 25 15.2 17.5 19.5 21.5 23.5 25.5 29

8.6 10.8 13

8.6 10.4 12.2 14.2 15.7 17.7 19.7 21.2 24.2 26.7

1177

1178

TABLE OF HOLE SIZE BEFORE THREADING


1.Metric coarse thread
Nominal diameter of thread
M M M M M M M M M M M M 1 M 0.25 1.1 M 0.25 1.2 M 0.25 1.4 M 0.3 1.6 M 0.35 1.7 M 0.35 1.8 M 0.35 2 M 0.4 2.2 M 0.45 2.3 M 0.4 2.5 M 0.45 2.6 M 0.45

TECHNICAL DATA

SUITABLE AXIAL FORCE AND TIGHTENING TORQUE OF BOLTS


IAxial force and fatigue limit in tightening bolts
Max. dimension Grade 2 Grade 3
14.68 15.15 15.68 16.15 16.21 16.68 17.15 18.21 18.68 19.15 20.21 20.68 21.15 22.21 22.68 23.15 23.21 23.68 24.15 24.68 25.21 25.68 26.15 26.21 26.68 27.15 27.25 28.21 28.68 29.15 30.21 30.68 30.25 31.21 31.68 33.68 33.25 34.21 34.68 36.68 36.25 37.21 37.68 37.25 38.21 38.68 38.27 39.25 40.21 40.68 41.27 42.25 43.21 43.68 44.27 45.25 46.21 46.68 47.25 48.21 48.68 14.75 15.22 15.75 16.22 16.31 16.75 17.22 18.31 18.75 19.22 20.31 20.75 21.22 22.31 22.75 23.22 23.31 23.75 24.22 24.75 25.31 25.75 26.22 26.31 26.75 27.22 27.38 28.31 28.75 29.22 30.31 30.75 30.38 31.31 31.75 33.75 33.38 34.31 34.75 36.75 36.38 37.31 37.75 37.38 38.31 38.75 38.42 39.38 40.31 40.75 41.42 42.38 43.31 43.75 44.42 45.38 46.31 46.75 47.38 48.31 48.75

TECHNICAL DATA

Last dimension Grade 2CGrade 3


0.73 0.83 0.93 1.08 1.22 1.33 1.42 1.57 1.71 1.87 2.01 2.12 2.46 2.85 3.24 3.69 4.13 4.92 5.92 6.65 7.65 8.38 9.38 10.11 11.84 13.84 15.29 17.29 19.29 20.75 23.75 26.21 29.21 31.67 34.67 37.13 40.13 42.59

Max. dimension Grade 2 Grade 3


0.78 0.89 0.98 1.14 1.32 1.42 1.52 1.67 1.84 1.97 2.14 2.23 2.60 3.01 3.42 3.88 4.33 5.15 6.15 6.91 7.91 8.68 9.68 10.44 12.21 14.21 15.74 17.74 19.74 21.25 24.25 26.77 29.77 32.27 35.27 37.80 40.80 43.30 2.64 3.05 3.47 3.92 4.38 5.22 6.22 6.98 7.98 8.75 9.75 10.53 12.31 14.31 15.85 17.85 19.85 21.38 24.38 26.92 29.92 32.42 35.42 37.98 40.98 43.49

Nominal diameter of thread


M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M 16 M 1.5 16 M 1 17 M 1.5 17 M 1 18 M 2 18 M 1.5 18 M 1 20 M 2 20 M 1.5 20 M 1 22 M 2 22 M 1.5 22 M 1 24 M 2 24 M 1.5 24 M 1 25 M 2 25 M 1.5 25 M 1 26 M 1.5 27 M 2 27 M 1.5 27 M 1 28 M 2 28 M 1.5 28 M 1 30 M 3 30 M 2 30 M 1.5 30 M 1 32 M 2 32 M 1.5 33 M 3 33 M 2 33 M 1.5 35 M 1.5 36 M 3 36 M 2 36 M 1.5 38 M 1.5 39 M 3 39 M 2 39 M 1.5 40 M 3 40 M 2 40 M 1.5 42 M 4 42 M 3 42 M 2 42 M 1.5 45 M 4 45 M 3 45 M 2 45 M 1.5 48 M 4 48 M 3 48 M 2 48 M 1.5 50 M 3 50 M 2 50 M 1.5

Last dimension Grade 2CGrade 3


14.38 14.92 15.38 15.92 15.84 16.38 16.92 17.84 18.38 18.92 19.84 20.38 20.92 21.84 22.38 22.92 22.84 23.38 23.92 24.38 24.84 25.38 25.92 25.84 26.38 26.92 26.75 27.84 28.38 28.92 29.84 30.38 29.75 30.84 31.38 33.38 32.75 33.84 34.38 36.38 35.75 36.84 37.38 36.75 37.84 38.38 37.67 38.75 39.84 40.38 40.67 41.75 42.84 43.38 43.67 44.75 45.84 46.38 46.75 47.84 48.38

CDetermine a suitable axial force to tighten the bolt within a range of elasticity in which the maximum value is 70% of the specified bearing force in the calibrated wrench method. CThe fatigue strength of the bolt due to repetitive load should not exceed the allowable value. CDo not make the tightened piece sunk in the bearing surface of bolt and nut. CDo not break the tightened piece by tightening.

There are several methods of tightening the bolt, including the calibrated wrench method, yield controlled tightening method, angle control method, and bolt stretch method.

ICalculation of axial force and tightening torque


Relation of axial force Ff is indicated in equation 1) ( . Ff=0.7MyMAsEE (1) Tightening torque TfA is found in equation 1) ( . TfA=0.35k 1+1/Q) yCAsCdEE ( (2) k :Torque coefficient d :Port diameter of bolt cm] [ Q :Tightening coefficient 2 y :Bearing force 112kgf/mm when the strength class is 12.9) ( As :Effective sectional area of bolt mm ] [
2

M 3 M 0.5 M 3.5 M 0.6 M 4 M 0.7 M 4.5 M 0.75 M 5 M 0.8 M 6M 1 M 7M 1 M 8 M 1.25 M 9 M 1.25 M 10 M 1.5 M 11 M 1.5 M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M 12 M 1.75 14 M 2 16 M 2 18 M 2.5 20 M 2.5 22 M 2.5 24 M 3 27 M 3 30 M 3.5 33 M 3.5 36 M 4 39 M 4 42 M 4.5 45 M 4.5 48 M 5

IExample
Find suitable torque and axial force to tighten soft steel plates with a socket cap head screw M6 (strength class 12.9)in the condition of oil lubrication. CFrom equation 2)the suitable torque is: ( , TfA=0.35k 1+1/Q) yCAsCd ( TA TA =0.35C0.17 1+1/1.4) ( 112C20.1C0.6 =138 kgfCcm] [ CFrom equation 1)axial force Ff is: ( , Ff=0.7MyMAs =0.7M112M20.1 =1576 kgf] [ IStandard value of tightening coefficient Q
Tightening coefficient

IToque coefficients in various combinations of the surface treatments of bolt, tightened piece materials, and internal thread materials

2.Metric fine pitch thread


Nominal diameter of thread
M 2.5 M 0.35 M 3 M 0.35 M 3.5 M 0.35 M 4 M 0.5 M 4.5 M 0.5 M 5 M 0.5 M 5.5 M 0.5 M 6 M 0.75 M M M M M 7 M 0.75 8M 1 8 M 0.75 9M 1 9 M 0.75

Last dimension Grade 2CGrade 3


2.12 2.62 3.12 3.46 3.96 4.46 4.96 5.19 6.19 6.92 7.19 7.92 8.19 8.65 8.92 9.19 9.92 10.19 10.38 10.65 10.92 12.38 12.92 13.38 13.92

Max. dimension Grade 2 Grade 3


2.22 2.72 3.22 3.60 4.10 4.60 5.10 5.38 6.38 7.15 7.38 8.15 8.38 8.91 9.15 9.38 10.15 10.38 10.68 10.91 11.15 12.68 13.15 13.68 14.15 3.64 4.14 4.64 5.14 5.42 6.42 7.22 7.42 8.22 8.42 8.98 9.22 10.22 10.42 10.75 10.98 11.22 12.75 13.22 13.75 14.22

Surface Torque treatment coefficient & lubrication k 0.145 0.155 Steel bolt 0.165 Black oxide film 0.175 Oil lubrication 0.185 0.195 0.215 0.25 Steel bolt 0.35 Black oxide film 0.45 not lubricated 0.55

Combination (a) Tightened piece material-Internal thread material (b) (a) (b) SCM-FC FC-FC SUS-FC S10C-FC SCM-S10C SCM-SCM FC-S10C FC-SCM SCM-SUS FC-SUS AL-FC SUS-S10C SUS-SCM SUS-SUS S10C-S10C S10C-SCM S10C-SUS AL-S10C AL-SCM SCM-AL FC-AL AL-SUS S10C-AL SUS-AL AL-AL S10C-FC SCM-FC FC-FC S10C-SCM SCM-SCM FC-S10C FC-SCM AL-FC S10C-S10C SCM-S10C AL-S10C AL-SCM SCM-AL FC-AL AL-AL

Q 1.25 1.4 1.6 1.8

Surface condition Lubrication Bolt nut Torque wrench Manganese phosphate Torque wrench Not treated or treated Lubricated with Not treated or treated with phosphate oil or MoS2 paste Torque controlled wrench with phosphate Impact wrench Torque wrench Not treated or treated Not treated not lubricated Torque controlled wrench with phosphate Tightening method

Convention of strength class ex. 12. 9 Bearing force yield stress) ( :90% of the mianimum value of tensile strength 10. 9 The minimum value of tensile strength is 1220N/mm{124kgf/mm2} Bearing force yield stress) ( :90% of the minimum value of tensile strength The minimum value of tensile strength is 1.040N/mm2{106kgf/mm2}

S10C:Unrefined soft steel SCM:Refined steel(35HRC) FC:Cast iron(FC200) AL:Aluminum SUS:Stainless(SUS304)

IInitial clamping force and tightening torque

M 10 M 1.25 M 10 M 1 M 10 M 0.75 M 11 M 1 M 11 M 0.75 M 12 M 1.5 M 12 M 1.25 M 12 M 1 M 14 M 1.5 M 14 M 1 M 15 M 1.5 M 15 M 1

Strength rank Effective 12.9 10.9 8.8 4.8 Nominal diameter sectional area of thread As Yield load Initial clamping force Tightening torque Yield load Initial clamping force Tightening torque Yield load Initial clamping force Tightening torque Yield load Initial clamping force Tightening torque mm2 kgf kgf kgfCcm kgf kgf kgfCcm kgf kgf kgfCcm kgf kgf kgfCcm M 3 M0.5 5.03 563 394 17 482 338 15 328 230 10 175 122 5 M 4 M0.7 8.78 983 688 40 842 589 34 573 401 23 305 213 12 M 5 M0.8 14.20 1590 1113 81 1362 953 69 927 649 47 493 345 25 M 6 M1 20.10 2251 1576 138 1928 1349 118 1313 919 80 697 488 43 M 8 M1.25 36.60 4099 2869 334 3510 2457 286 2390 1673 195 1270 889 104 M10 M1.5 58.00 6496 4547 663 5562 3894 567 3787 2651 386 2013 1409 205 M12 M1.75 84.30 9442 6609 1160 8084 5659 990 5505 3853 674 2925 2048 358 M14 M2 115.00 12880 9016 1840 11029 7720 1580 7510 5257 1070 3991 2793 570 M16 M2 157.00 17584 12039 2870 15056 10539 2460 10252 7176 1670 5448 3814 889 M18 M2.5 192.00 21504 15053 3950 18413 12889 3380 12922 9045 2370 6662 4664 1220 M20 M2.5 245.00 27440 19208 5600 23496 16447 4790 16489 11542 3360 8502 5951 1730 M22 M2.5 303.00 33936 23755 7620 29058 20340 6520 20392 14274 4580 10514 7360 2360 M24 M3 353.00 39536 27675 9680 33853 23697 8290 23757 16630 5820 12249 8574 3000 (Note)CTightening condition:Use of a torque wrench(oil lubricated surfaceCTorque coefficient k=0.17CTightening coefficient Q=1.4) CUse this table as a reference. The torque coefficient varies depending on the use condition. CThis table contains edited excerpt from the catalogs of Kyokuto Seisaksho.

1179

1180

k TECHNICAL DATAl

STRENGTH OF BOLTS, SCREW PLUGS AND DOWEL PINS


Pt :Tensile load in the axial direction kgf] [ b:Yield stress of bolt kgf/mm2] [ t :Allowable stress of bolt kgf/mm2] [ (t=b/safety factor ) As:Effective sectional area of bolt mm2] [ As=Qd2/4 d :Effectiveness of bolt core diameter) ( [mm] ISafety factor of Unwin based on tensile strength Material Steel Cast iron Copper, soft metal
Allowable stress= Reference strength Safety factor

k TECHNICAL DATAl

CALCULATION OF CUBIC VOLUME


Solid Volume V Solid Hollow cylinder
V= Q d 2 h 4 Q V= 4 h D 2 -d 2 ) ( d D t ( =Qth D-t) ( =Qth d+t) r h h

IStrength of bolts
1)When tensile load is applied to the bolt Pt=tMAsEEE (1) =Qd2t/4EE (2)

Static load 3 4 5

h2 h

Repeated load Impact load Pulsating Reversed 5 8 12 6 10 15 5 9 15

Volume V

Solid Circular cone

Volume V

Truncated cylinder

V= Q r 2 h 3 =1.0472r 2 h

Reference strength:Yield stress for ductile materials Fracture stress for brittle materials

Q h +h = 4 d2 1 2 2

(Example)Find a suitable size when a socket head cap screw receives tensile load of P=200kgf repeatedly pulsating) ( . (Socket head cap screw material:SCM435, 38~43HRC, strength class:12.9) From equation 1) ( As=Pt/t =200/22.4 =8.9[mm2] Find an effective sectional area greater than this value from the table at the right. M4 of 14.2 mm2 be the selection. will If fatigue strength is taken into account, M6 of allowable load 213kgf in 12.9 should be selected. 2)Selection must be based on fatigue strength for the bolts such as the stripper bolt which receives impact load from tension. (As the above example, 200kgf load is applied. Stripper bolt material:SCM435, 33~38HRC, strength class 10.9) From the table at the right, M8 of 318 kgf found when allowable load of strength is class 10.9 is over 200kgf. Accordingly, MSB10 having M8 screw and axial diameter of 10mm is the selection. Use dowel pins when shearing load is applied. Yield stress in strength class 12.9 is b=112 kgf/mm2 . Allowable stress t=b/safety factor safety factor is 5 from the above table) ( =112/5 =22.4[kgf/mm2]

Pyramid

h1

h h V= 3 A= 6 arn A=Area of base h r =Radius of inscribed circle a =Length of a side of a regular polygon

Truncated pyramid
V= h(A+a+ Aa) 3 h A,a=Area of both ends

Sphere
V= 4 Qr 3 =4.1888r 3 3 Q = 6 d 3 =0.5236d 3

IFatigue strength of bolts In case of screws:Fatigue strength is 2 million times) (


Strength rank Effective Nominal 12.9 10.9 sectional area diameter Fatigue strength* Allowable load Fatigue strength* Allowable load As of thread mm2 kgf/mm2 kgf kgf kgf/mm2 M 4 8.78 13.1 114 9.1 79 M 5 14.2 11.3 160 7.8 111 M 6 20.1 10.6 213 7.4 149 M 8 36.6 8.9 326 8.7 318 M10 58 7.4 429 7.3 423 M12 84.3 6.7 565 6.5 548 M14 115 6.1 702 6 690 M16 157 5.8 911 5.7 895 M20 245 5.2 1274 5.1 1250 M24 353 4.7 1659 4.7 1659
Fatigue strength* is corrected excerpt from "Estimated values of fatigue limit of metric screw threads for machine screws, bolts and nuts" Yamamoto) ( .

n =Number of the sides of a regular polygon V= Qh (3r-h) 3 = Qh(3a 2 +h 2 ) 6 a is the radius.


2

Spherical crown

Spherical segment
V= 2 Qr 2 h 3 =2.0944r 2 h

Spherical belt
b a h

V= Qh(3a 2 +3b 2 +h 2 ) 6

Ellipsoid

4 V= 3 Qabc In case of a spheroid (b=c) b

Torus
V=2Q2 Rr 2 R r d =19.739Rr 2
2 = Q Dd 2 4

Barrel

When circumference makes a curve equal to the circular arc, r V= Q (2D 2 +d 2 ) 12 When its periphery makes a r curve equal to a parabolic line, V=0.209 r 2 Dd+1/4d 2 ) (2D

IStrength of screw plugs


Find allowable load P when screw plug MSW30 receives impact load. (MSW30 material:S45C, tensile strengthb for 34~43HRC is 65kgf/mm2.) If MSW breaks by shearing force applied to the core diameter part, allowable load P=tMA. =3.9M107.4 =4190 kgf] [ Find the allowable shearing force based on the core diameter of internal thread if tapping is made of soft material. Shearing sectional area A=Core diameter d1MQML (Core diameter d1M-P) A=(M-P) QL=(30-1.5) QM12 =1074 mm2] [ Yield stress0.9MTensile strengthb=0.9M65=58.2 Shearing stress0.8MYield stress =46.6 Allowable shearing stress Qt=Shearing stress/safety factor 12 =46.6/12=3.9 kgf/mm2] [

V= 4 Qab 2 3

=2.4674Dd 2

M Core diameter d1 P

IHow to calculate the weight


Weight g] [ =Volume cm3] [ MDensity Example:Soft steel FD=16 L=50mm, the weight is: Q W= D2MLMDensity =Q M1.62M5M7.85 79 g] [
4 4

ICharacteristics of Metals
Material Soft steel SKD11 Powdered high-speed steel(HAP40) Cemented carbide V30 Cast iron SUS304 Oxygen free copper C1020 6/4 Brass C2801 Aluminum A1100 Duralumin A7075 Titanium
Pkgf

Density [g/cm 3 ] 7.85 7.85 8.07 14.1 7.3 8.0 8.9 8.4 2.7 2.8 4.5

Young's modulusE [Kgf/mm 2 ] 21000 21000 23300 56000 7500~10500 19700 11700 10300 6900 7200 10600

Thermal expansion coefficient [M10 -6/A] 11.7 11.7 10.1 6.0 9.2~11.8 17.3 17.6 20.8 23.6 23.6 8.4

FD

IMethod for finding changes dimensions due to thermal expansion


Example:SKD11 FD=2 The volume of dimension change when a pin of L=100mm is heated to 2A is =Coefficient of thermal expansionMTotal lengthMChange in temperature =11.7M10-6M100mmM100A =0.117 mm] [ 100 [20A] 0.117 [120A] Avoid using the dowel pins in such a way as load is applied to the screw part.

IStrength of dowel pins


Find a suitable size when a dowel pin receives 800kgf repetitive pulsating) ( shearing load. Dowel pin material:SUJ2CHardness 58HRC or more) ( P=AM =QD2/4 D= (4P)(Q) /
= (4M800)(3.14M19.2) /

b for yield stress of SUJ2=120 kgf/mm2] [ Allowable shearing strength=bM0.8/safety factor =120M0.8/5 =19.2 kgf/mm2] [

7.3 For MS dowel pin, select D8 or larger size. When larger size dowel pins are used, tools and stocks can be reduced.

IFinding strain with Young's modulus E


ExampleFind amount of strain when load P=1000kgf is applied to F10ML60 pin.(Material:SKD11) PL E= A = PL = 1000M60 78.5M21000 AE 0.036mm Q 2 Sectional area A= 4 D

F2

1Kgf/mm 2 =9.80665M10 6 Pa

1181

The calculations shown above are only examples of finding strength. For actual calculation, various conditions, such as accuracy of inter-hole pitch, perpendicularity of holes, surface roughness, circularity, plate materials, parallelism, quenching, precision of press machine, quantity of production, and wear of tools, should be taken into account. Use these examples as a reference for calculating strength. (They are not guaranteed values.)

L F10

1182