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05-11 CHARLES II (1660 1685) No firm religious convictions Fond of pleasure, fun and women Made compromises, so long

g he provided a stable govt that will allow him to have a nice life Parl disagrees (with what?) Restoration Parl Packed w/ Royalists (not very tolerant) => Restorarion Settlement +General Pardon: all who had taken part of the trial of K will be trialed (a public display of the hatred towards the Puritans) +Confiscated lands: those lands taken away from Royalists were to be returned to their rightful owners, but not those that they had to sell to pay the taxes imposed by Puritans +Religious question is left unsolved by this Parl Parl votes taxes for K, but the amount voted wouldnt be enough -> Ensure that K would have to call Parl often 1661 Cavalier Parl (packed w/ Royalists) Throughout 3 years -> Clarendon Code Edward Hyde (Earl of Clarendon) -> minister of Charles I -> secretary of Charles II in exile -> main minister of Charles II (Lord Chancellor) Clarendon Code: Official regulation of religion (4 acts) 1- Corporation Act 1661 Future membership of a town corporation would depend on taken communion w/ the CofE (ensured that they wouldnt be any more Puritans in the HofC (town corp = ruled the borough) 2- Act of uniformity 1662 All clrgymen had to use the English prayer book in its revised version (drafted by Arch of Canterbury) => control the services (no Puritans services allowed) 1662 Charles attempts some toleration. Promises not to inforce act of uniformity, of Parl agrees 3- Conventicle Act 1662 No religious meetings of more than 4 people could be held unless they conform to the CofE 4- Five Mile Act 1663 Expelled Puritan ministers from the boroughs where they lived or worked and could not get within 5 miles of them, unless they took an oath not to attempt any alteration in the Church or State -> they take to the streets and beocme beggars, sometimes performing Puritan rituals on the road K needs money Charles gets married to Catherine of Barganza -> sterile and very religious -> daughter of K John IV of Portugal

-> He married for the dowry (la dote) = included lands in Tangier and Bombay (besides the money) Had over 20 illegitimate children (that could never be Ks) 1665 Charles agrees to the sale of Dunkirk (port in France) to Louis XIV (France) -> approved by Parl (since it was difficult to defend it) French-English policy = agreed on eliminating Holland 1665 1667 2nd Anglo-Dutch War (again, eliminating the Dutch as commercial rivals) England attacks New Netherlands (dutch colony in NorthAm) -> Enligsh commander = Ks brother, James Duke of York Lord High Admiral -> Conquers New Netherlands => becomes Engl colony (now, New York) This war does not provide a definitely blow to the Dutch -> England is hit by two major events: 1- Great Plague 1665 Outbreak of bubonic plague. It was worse in ports and big cities -> the rich went away (moved to countryside) -> The Court moves to Oxford 2- Great Fire of London 1666 (stopped the plague) Started in a bakers shop and spreaded Was stopped by blowing up whole areas w/ gunpowder (to avoid spreading) Most of the city burned down Diary of Samuel Pepys -> lived across the Thames and from his window he could see everything (relevance?) Sir Chritopher Wren -> rebuilds most of the city churches (also St Pauls cathedral) => Charles quickly made peace w/ the Dutch (truce) He couldnt afford a war England kept New York First 7 years of Charles reign (1660-1667) = Clarendon years Marked by no religious toleration K decides to rule w/o Parl and w/ the help of a council of 5 ministers => The Cabal (the initials of the last names of each minister) 3 of them had close links w/ Puritans 2 had close links w/ RCs 1667-1673 = Cabal years Religious toleration (at least on Ks side) Charles makes a deal w/ Louis XIV, by which France will help against Holland Charles will get 70,000 pounds -> Charles promises to openly declare his RC 1672 Charles provokes incidents w/ the Dutch

Declaration of Indulgence By which: +The non-conformists were granted freedom to worship in public +RCs were allowed to worship in private => a K declaration to do away w/ a Parliamentary law (the Clarendon Code) 05-13 rd 1672 1674 3 Anglo-Dutch War Alliance of England + France against Holland Charles II + Louis XIV thought the war would be short (Wrong!) 1673 Charles has to recall Parl (lack of money) Parl (against religious toleration!) +votes necessary grants on condition that he cancells the Declaration of Indulgence + 1673 - Test Act: +all govt officials as well as Army and Navy officers had to take a test to prove they took communion with CofE -> James Duke of York openly declares his RC and refuses to take test Louis XIV desserts Charles and makes peace w/ Holland -> Charles makes peace w/ Holland (1674) by Treaty of Westminster Results of the crisis: - The breakup of the Cabal (marks the end of the policy of toleration) - James openly declares his RC (bring a widower, he married the ultra-catholic Italian princess Modena) - Lord Ashley Cooper, former member of the Cabal, feels so disappointed at K that he would become the leader of the opposition against Charles 1674 1678 Earl of Danby => Danby years: - Policy of no religious toleration - Friendship towards Holland* - Financial / economic growth => K collects a larger revenue from customs duty * Holland = Protestant France = Catholic Marriage treaty: William of Orange (ruler of Holland) to James elder daughter

Parl -> K has strong opponents in HofC -> advocating religious toleration for non-conformists (Puritans) and Parl Supremacy (K should share power w/ Parl)

Popish Plot 1678 Titus Oates + Israel Tonge said they had discovered a Catholic plot to kill Chuck and put James on the throne (who would restore RC) -> It wasnt true but the population thought that it actually existed => revived and spread anti-catholicism => Louis XIV withdraws subsidy Parl -> a letter by Danby asking Louis for money is shown => Danbys downfall (hes dismissed) => Parl turns against Charles Catholics are executed = chaos -> Charles calles new elections Shafsbury wins

1679 1st Whig Parl Opposition against K Shafsbury -> leader of HofC -> policy of exclusion of James -> Proposes the execution of James - Commons: pass it - Lords: reject it - Commons: insist - Charles: dissolves Parl Whig Parl passes Habeas Corpus Act Protects physical freedom (no one could be kept under arrest for more than 24 hs w/o charges being pressed against them) K calls new elections Shafsbury wins by an even larger majority 1680 1681 2nd Whig Parl Shafsbury demands the exclusion of James and his two daughters (Mary+Anne although they were protestant) from the line of succession -> Proposes fixing the line of succession on George Duke of Monmouth (eldest illegitimate son of Charles II) => Implications: Parl decides the line of succ (not God) Passed by Commons -> Charles suspends the session of Parl for 1 year, in the hopes that he would gather the support of the Lords to throw out the bill -> he gets the support of the Lords - Chuck recalls Parl - HofL rejects the bill - Chuck dissolves Parl Tense situation in the pop Calls for elections again 1681 3rd Whig Parl Shafsbury wins (again) Charles starts negotiating w/ Shafsbury -> He promises: - a regiency w/ James living in exile - the ruling of the country would be done by Mary => Shafs rejects it => Charles makes a new deal w/ Louis XIV - gives Charles enough money to rule w/o Parl Louis feared William of Orange (married to Mary) => he feared an Anglo-Dutch alliance EXCLUSIONISTS KS SUPORTERS (WHIGS) (TORIES) Parliamentary supremacy In favour of religious toleration for nonconformists (not RC) Connected to trading interests (traders/bankers) Strong in urban centres Royal supremacy Strong CofE Connected to the landed interests (land owners) Strong in the field (campo)

Tory = bandit (in Irish) Whig = scottish rebel who rose against the Lowlands Originally they were groups within the HofC, not parties Enormous financial expansion -> Ks at peace

They were insults

Rye House Plot Consisted in a plan to murder Charles + James when they were going to stop at the Rye House Inn -> and to place George Duke of Monmouth on the throne => After investigations: -> many Whigs were involved (executed) -> Shafsbury escapes and goes to exile to Holland (he dies there) George escapes to Holland New Royalist counter-attack -> by cancelling many if the towns charters (those that made them boroughs) Charles converted to RC and died Highlights of Charles reign - very clever ruler (shrewd) - No religious conviction => wasnt tied to any side, his interests were personal - 2nd + 3rd A-D wars -> success for the English Economic expansion (in England + overseas) Reconstruction of England -> new style of architecture (w/ stone) Rebirth of arts, letters and science -> the austerity of Puritans is gone Theatres are reopened - Restoration comedies (simply to entertain) were in fashion - Now with female actresses (!) Science -> Chuck creates the Royal Society -> Isaac Newton (1st chairman) Become fashionable: - Drink coffee Imported from the colonies - Smoke tobacco - Snuff Writers - John Milton - John Rhydon - Daniel Defoe

05-18 JAMES II (1685 1688) Brother of Charles II Lord High Admiral of the Navy (responsible for the conquest of New Netherlands) Publicly declared his RC -> lost his position (as Lord Admiral?) His daughters were Protestants Married (for the 2nd time) to the ultra-catholic Italian princess Modena Abrupt and severe Metal powers in decline 52 y/o when came to the throne Believer in divene right of Ks He was a limited man Passions in life: - RC - Ships + Navy - Royal rights - Women The nation was loyal to the monarchy -> it was better than what they had gone through w/ the Puritans He was crown by Coronation Rights of the CofE -> Promised to: -> Not make any changes to the CofE -> Be Head of Church Parl -> the Tories win elections -> vote James the necessary amount of money He appoints judge Jeffreys to the Privy Council -> He orders the trial of Titus Oates (a reaction to the Popish plot) Punishment: - 3000 lashes - Life imprisionment - Regular exposure in the pillory Jeffreys starts the prosecution of non-conformists Duke of Monmouth -> gathered an army in the south of Engl (to crown Monmouth) Earl of Argile -> was going to raise the Highlands -> he fails -> He arrives at the South and arranges the homeless Battle of Sedgmoor -> Monmouth is defeated -> captured and executed Jeffreys is put in charge of punishing the rebels (The bloody Assize) Whoever had been involved will be punished (as traitors) - Over 3,000 will be hanged - Over 800 will be sold as slaves in the West Indies - Revenge on Scotland was planned James claims he isnt safe -> enlarges his troops from 6,000 to 30,000 on the excuse that there could be another revolt against him He appoints RC officials for his guard, Irish officials to the Army and RC ministers -> goes against the Test Act => K is openly breaking the law 1685 French warning

Louis XIV (on the advice of his last wife) attempts to make all of France RC (he revokes the Edict of Nantes*: - Hugenot churches have to be demolished - Hugenot ministers have to leave the country - Hugenot children will be raised as RC => Hugenots emigrate to Holland -> They were a prominent group (rich, hard-working, skilled) ) *1598 - Henry IV of France accepted the crown on the condition that the French Hugenots (calvinists) were granted religious freedom James makes England RC again -> Parl demands reduction of the Army => James dissolves Parl James sets up a new court of High Comission (chair = Jeffreys) -> appoints Catholics to other main positions => Opposition of the CofE James has very little support -> turns to the non-conformists, Penn (a Quaker) K issues the 1st Declaration of Indulgence (Doing away w/ a law, w/o Parl consent) -> K grants freedom of worship to RC + non-conformists + -> suspended all other penal laws (fines + imprisionment) Reaction: people think is doubtfully legal, but dont do anything 1688 2nd Declaration of Indulgence Stated the same as the 1st one, but w/ the promise of calling Parl within 6 months to settle matters K orders the declaration to be read in all churches Reaction of the clergymen: only read in 6/7 churches => openly disobey Arch of Canterbury (= Sancroft) } 6 other bishops will petition K to withdraw the declaration on grounds of its illegality Seditious = rebellion James orders the arrest of the 7 bishops on the grounds of seditious libel against the authority Trial Veredict = not guilty Libel = slaunder -> popular rejoicing (even among James troops) (calumnias e injurias) Deterioration of the political atmosphere 1688 His wife gices birth to a male heir -> 7 prominent men of Parl are going to send a secret invitation to James sonin-law (William of Orange) to come to Engl w/ an army and save protestantism (on the grounds that the child wasnt James) William feared Louis XIV and his expansionist plans -> he waits -> Louis warns James and offers him an army (James rejects it) -> William arrives in Engl on Nov 5th 1688 and marches towards London James makes concessions -> dimisses his RC -> promises to call Parl

William offers calling a Parl to settle the dispute -> James refuses until William leaves Engl (who is held captive and allowed to escape to France) Negotiations are now carried out between Parl and William Parl offers making Mary Q, and not W (he threatens w/ going back to Holland) Convention Parl Offers the crown jointly to W+M (first and only time in history) Now they are the rules of Holland and K+Q of Engl+Scotland => Parl ruling over the succession line made through a doc 1689 Bill of Rights 05-20 WILLIAM III + MARY II (1689 1702) Mary died in 1694 Importance of this reign: 1- Marks the end of divine right of Ks 2- Marks the beginning of a period of hostility towards France (1689 1815, defeat of Napolean @ Waterloo) - Rivalry over the control of American colonies 3- Marks the beginning of a period of religious toleration for non-conformists 4- Marks the triumph of Whig principles: - Parliamentary supremacy (James has been taken off the throne) - Religious toleration for non-conformists - Commercial interests Ks private life still conditioned certain aspects of his reign William calls elections Parl => Bill of Rights - Offers crown to W+M - Places a considerable number of limitations (for them and future Ks) Bill of Rights Political settlement The aristocracy defending its own interests K cannot: - suspend a law or its inforcement - dispend a law (declare it null+void) - create courts (like the High Comission) - levy money unless it is granted by Parl - tend any laws concerning taxes - have a standing army w/o Parl consent Right of Protestants to have weapons Freedom of election Freedom of speech+debate during Parl sessions Limit to penal sentences Jurors have to be correctly sworn into the jury (Jurors = in trials of high treason have to be landowners) Legal protection in penal cases -> no punishment until theres a definite sentence

Parl has to meet periodically France -> the English Ks had not given up their claim over France Establish a line of succession (through Mary) 1689 Financial Settlement 1- Annual grants of money (granted by Parl once a year) 2- The estimate of expenditure (budget, had to be presented by K) 3- Auditing of accounts (Parl will check if the money granted had been used for its purpose) => stronger financial control in the hands of Parl 1689 Toleration Act Religious settlement Grants: - Freedom of worship for all except RCs + Unitarians - RCs + non-conformists were still excluded from public office Scotland Had its own settlement: Claim of Right (very similar to Bill of Rights) In the North of Scotland, many of the clans refuse to accept W (supported the return of James aka the Jacobites) Jacobite movement in the Highlands led by Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee ->March South and meet the southern scottish forces @ the battle of Killiecrankie (1689) => Jacobites win (dundee is killed in the battle) -> Jacobite movement in Scotland is leaderless (lies dormant) Clan = extended family w/ a leader who can call courts + demand military service William forces the clan chiefs to take an oath of allegiance (reluctant to take it) The McDonalds of Glencoe arrive late (after the term for taking the oath had expired) -> they are massacred (Massacre of Glencoe) 06-01 Ireland RC majority -> rebel against the protestant Army James II returns to Ireland 3 months after the deposition => Is crowned in Ireland -> They take control over most of the island (except lster) William crushes the rebellion James retaliates by calling an Irish Parl (packed w/ RCs) 1690 Battle of Boyne The defeat marks the end of the Jacobite rebellion James flees to the continent William imposes the Treaty of Limmerick (place of the last battle) 1691 Terms: Catholics: - were debarred from certain professions (e.g. Headmasters)

And could not: - vote - sit in Parl - serve in a jury - be members of the Navy/Army Irish trade is to be controlled directly by England Only concession: permit Catholic worship

They could only become poor

1689 1697 War of English Succession (aka: Nine Years War, War of the Grand Alliance, War of the League of Augsburg, King Williams War) Start = Anglo-Dutch-Scottish alliance Allied naval superiority (stronger than the French Navy) On land, things did not go that smoothly France + Jacobites Vs England + Scotland + Austria + Spain + Some Italian and German stated William was not a particularly good general End = Treaty of Ryswick Why? 1- They were running out of resources 2- Louis XIV already had the Spanish succession in mind Louis XIV recognized William as rightful heir Conquests are restored (Except city of Strasburg, which the French kept) Result = Success for William France was interested in expanding to the North, to the Spanish Neteherlands Internal Affairs William needed money for war Merchants make more money during war (!) => Whigs supported the war and came up w/ aplan to get money -> Bank of England (1694) Created as a joint stock company Whigs will raise 1 million pounds at an 8% interest rate (w/ guaranteed return by the State) The suscribers became stock holders of the Bank of Engl (supply money for State) William + Whigs are more than happy :D Bank of England is successful in creating the national debt (still goes on to the present day) 1696 Whigs introduce a system of recoinage -> introduce paper money (an abstraction of wealth) => it injects more money into the economy 1695 Bank of Scotland is created Greater support of the Whigs from William Whigs: feel more and more powerful William: has to rely more and more on the Whigs for money

When the war is over, William is going to spend long periods abroad in Holland and not return to England 1701 Act of Settlement 1- Further define the Protestant succession, exclude the Catholic Stuarts -> Annes last surviving child had died (?) -> Parl will have a saying in defining the line of succession 2- Place a number of limitations on the monarchs Before Act of Succession, Ks powers: - Head of the executive - In charge of foreign affairs - Power to inforce laws - Decision of govt - Chose ministers - Power of veto (1705 Q Anne, last monarch to veto a law) The succession line was set in Frederick+Elizabeths daughter, princess Sophia The future K or Q cannot be or marry a RC Limitations: - K/Q has to be part of the CofE (husband/wife can be of any other protestant religion) - Parl will not fight Ks wars - K/Q cannot go out of the country w/o Parl consent - Decisions regarding Engl will be taken in Engl by the Privy Council, not abroad - No foreigner can be: - given titles or lands - member of Parl / office - minister - Judges cannot be dismissed by impeechment Spain By 1700 it was clear that the Spanish dinasty (Habsburg) was coming to an end -> The last member (Charles II) was near his death So sb had to be chosen K of Spain Claimants: + Austrian Habsburgs (in the figure of Archduke Charles of Austria) -> 2nd son of Leopold II of Austria (HRE) + French dauphin (Eldest son of Louis XIV) It was a geopolitical problem If Austria got the crown, France would be in the middle (literally-geographically) If France got the Spanish crown, it would be too powerful William takes part bc this could overturn the balance of power Charles II was bery offended by the complete disregard of Spain in the negotiations and in his will leaves the throne to a grandson of Louis XIV (Philip of Anjou) Louis XIV accepts the crown on behalf of his grandson -> Philip V of Spain -> reinstalls the Bourbon dinasty in Spain

War of Spanish Succession (1701 1713) William starts making preparations for the war -> makes an alliance Engl+Scotland+Holland -> against France James II dies in exile Louis XIV crowns James son James III Engl joins the war + William dies leaving the country at war William+Mary Round-up - End of divine right of Ks - K is still powerful, but Parl gradually increases its power - Advance towards party govt - Religious toleration for non-conformists - Closer relations w/ Scotland - Worse relations w/ Ireland - Marks the beginning of a long confrontation w/ France which will come to an end in 1815 w/ the defeat of France 06-03 QUEEN ANNE (1702 1714) James IIs younger daughter Rather pathetic figure when she came to the throne (physically speaking) Married to George of Denmark She had lost all of her children Very limited woman (in knowledge and interests) Interests: - Religion (Protestantism) - Food - Intimate friendships w/ women War of Spanish Succession (1701 1713) Anne kept with Williams alliance Commander of the troops = John Churchill, Duke of Mrlborough (a Tory) -> wife = Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough (Qs lover) Qs Cabinet (ministers) Mainly Tories at first As the war drags on, she chooses mainly Whigs (had money for war)

CABINET = meeting of the important ministers

Lord Godolphin -> holds office untill 1710 Q doesnt attend the meetings with her ministers. Little by little Godolphin will take over the role of presiding the Privy Council meetings => He sometimes is called Prime Minister (develops the idea of Prime Ministership) Godolphin calls meeting w/ the most relevant members of the Privy Council -> these were calles Cabinet Meertings Jacobites: Followers of James (now that James II has died, the followers of his son, James Edward Stuart crowned James III by the French-)

Sides of the War: England Scotland Holland Hanover Austria Some German States France Spain and its possessions (in Europe) [some Italian states, Spanish Netherlands] Bavaria Jacobites

VS

England: defend Holland + drive the French out of the Spanish Netherland 1704 Battle of Blenheim Big victory for Marlborough Defeats French + Bavarian army and saves Austria Portugal joins against Philip V Marlborough fights in Spain to drive the French out (Marlborough = Mambr O.O) Fighting all over Western Europe The war goes on until the resources ran out By 1705 the only Tories in the Cabinet were Marlborough and Godolphin Internal Affairs Union w/ Scotland When James I becomes K, just the crowns unite, Scotland had its own Parl Scottish Parl: Several grievances against Will: - Wills neglect (?) - Joined the war w/o consulting - Economically speaking, the Scots got nothing out of being ruled by Engl English joint-stock companies -> the Scots wanted the same thing. => They create A Company Of Scotland Trading To Africa And The Indies (to oppose the West Indies companies) Scots wanted to set up a colony for themselves -> Dariem scheme => made a settlement in the golf of Dariem (present day Panama) It had been left unexplored by the Spaniards because of the dangers it entailed Made 3 unsuccessful settlements and the company went bankrupt => They blame England and demand a solution (= a complete union or a complete separation) Will had agreed to the union. Q agreed too and appointed a committee to discuss the union Against the union: Scottish Jacobites, high Tories (that rejected Presb) and extremists Presb 1703 The meetings are adjourned

1704 1706 Scots start pressing for separation saying that after Qs death they will choose their own K -> raise a militia in case the Hanovarians are forced over English retaliation: 1705 Aliens Act Stated that if by the time of Qs death, her successor was not accepted, all Scots were going to be treated as aliens and all Scottish products banned from England => growing tension 1706 Fresh commission presents a proposal -> Q agrees -> passed by both Parl (London + Edinburgh) 1707 Act of Union w/ Scotland Terms: united under 1 K, 1 Parl + 1 Flag Special coat of arms is designed to represent the two countries Lion = England Unicorn = Scotland Rose = England Thisle (cardo) = Scotland

Coat of Arms

England

Scotland

Ireland

Union Jack

+ All trading barriers are taken down + Presb is recognized as the established church in Scotland + Scot kept its own legal system except those conflicting w/ the union + Scotland will have representation in the London Parl: - 45 commons - 16 peers + Taxation = Scotland has to pay 1/40 of the land tax + Compensation for the failure of the Dariem scheme May 31st 1707 Both Parl accept the terms of the Bill, becoming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Edinburgh Parl dissolves itself Spanish War There are several victories, but there never is a decisive battle 1709 unsuccessful peace negotiation Louis XIV was willing to make peace Growing discontent over all European countris over the cost of this long war 1709 Q Anne quarrels w/ Sarah Churchill, banishes her from the court -> becomes dependant on Abigail Masham (close conections w/ extreme Tories) -> advises Q to start reappointing dismissed Tories => She reappoints Robert Harley -> is made Lord Treasurer -> dismisses Godolphin + Whigs

1711 Harley starts negotiations w/ France, is stabbed and wounded Robert St John takes over -> reduces support for Marlborough + carries out different peace negotiations The emperor of Austria dies -> Archduke Charles becomes the new emperor => Emperor Charles V (now if Austria + Spain unite, it will be too powerful) St John carries out negotiations by which he promises to split the Spanish possessions between France + Austria: Philip V (France) gets Spain + Spanish America Charles V (Austria) gets European possessions (Spanish Netherlands+Northern Italy) England gets a generous reward Whigs want the war to continue George of Hanover (Sophias son) is going to be offended by what the Tories are doing => From this moment onwards he considers the Tories traitors 1713 Treaty of Utrecht + Philip V is K of Spain and the Spanish possessions + France + Spain are never to unite + Austria keeps Sp Netherlands (now Austrian Netherlands, pff) + North of Italy + France recognizes Anne and her successors + Dutch are given a better barrier against France + Britain keeps Gibraltar, Menorca, Novascotia and Newfoundland + Britain gets the Asiento (the exclusive right of British ships to transport slaves to the Sp colonies => acquire the monopoly of slave trade) Towards the end of Annes reign, St John starts secret negotiations to bring James Edward Stuart as K after Annes death (James E Stuart = The Old Pretender -> wants to remain a RC) Secret plots -> Anne hears about them + dismisses St John. George of Hanover is brought over 1st Aug 1714 George is proclaimed K (George = Protestant) 3rd Aug Anne dies General rejoicing Tories are considered Jacobites 06-08 Social life of the 18th C (under Anne) Population: 8 million Sparcely populated = no large concentrations of people, w/ the exception of London The majority remained in rural areas Many devoted to agriculture: cattle + farming Wheat, oats + barley (cebada) => cereals The planting system was still that of the feudal times (three-field rotation)

Livestock: Sheep mainly, cattle, poultry, fish (in coastal towns) Few vegetables (little to none) Industries: mainly manufacturers related to textiles (mainly woolen) -> domestic system of production -> for the home family -> rough, low-quality -> linen (in Ireland), silk Coal: extracted superfitially, used for heating and cooking Iron: worked in a workshop by the blacksmith, for - weaponry - cannon / cannonballs - buckles / buttons - cooking utensils Trade: carried out on ships (long-distance) Searoutes to: - France, Russia, Sweden - Colonies (the Americas, India, outposts in Africa) Internal trade: on roads -> many were private (= turn pikes, toll roads) => safer (had gates + gatekeepers and, sometimes, fences) Highwaymen: robbed people on roads Britains advantages: - Large coastal area w/ ports - Network of land routes - System of coaches (diligencias) - Rivers Postal service had already been stablished London: centre of culture Controlled port, court and cultural life of the British Islands Coffee Houses: prominent men start discussing politics outside Parl Science! - Copernican theory (heliocentric) - Newtons discoveries (in different fields) - Medicine: still very primitive, basically physiology (anatomy+function of different organs) -> some studies of anatomy -> 1st primitive microscope - End of superstition - End of witch-hunting GEORGE I (1714 1727) 54 y/o Son of Sophia (descendent of Stuart line) He had his wife locked up in a castle in Germany Did not encourage social life Not a popular K Never learned English Court life = limited

Two ladies in waiting = German girls (the maypole + the elephant) Spends a lot of time in Hanover, hunting He trusted the Whigs (who believed in Parl supremacy) K didnt care about English matters Minister: Sir Robert Walpole (a Whig, very sinister) - Gives G whatever he wants and concentrates political power in his own hands - Remains as PM for 20 years Sir Robert Walpole Member of the lower nobility Eton + Cambridge Married to the daughter of a timber merchant w/ a huge dowry In the last years of Ws reign, he was first appointed to HofC Kit Kat Club -> political club Always in debt 1708 appointed Secretary of War -> Anne dismissed him and put him in the tower for keeping some of the money (sticky fingers!), he remains there until Qs death Given a minor position in govt = Paymaster General of the Forces (surrounded by money) 1715 Parl Walpole (member of HofC) leads a vigorous attack against the Tories accusing them of being Jacobites St John -> flees the country and becomes secretary to James Edward Stuart It is discovered that St John was planning a joint invasion w/ the Earl of Mar in Scotland -> Walpole accusations seem to be right on the spot Rebellion of the 15 (15) 06-15 1715 Jacobite rebellion People behind it: Earl of Mar + James Edward Stuart (brought up in the French Court RC) Battle of Preston + Sheriffmuir By April 1716 the rebellion is over (Jacobites forces defeated) Reasons for the failure: - Military incompetence of the Jacobites - Death of Louis Xiv + coming to the throne of Louis XV - The Whigs openly support the Hanovarian succession - James E Stuart refused to abandon his RC => Promoted to First Lord of the Treasury Walpole Incredibly popular among Whigs Prominent figure in Parl The South-Sea Bubble He disagrees w/ some of the measures of govt and resigns

The English had set up a company (The South-Sea Comp) under Q Anne as a jointstock comp and given the monopoly to SouthAm + Pacific Islands and an important share of the slave trade to SpanishAm -> started growing in wealth + offered govt a deal -> 1720 offered the govt taking over the national debt as a private debt in exchange for the full monopoly of trade -> the deal is made. Everybody is happy at first -> everyone wants to buy shares March 1720 price of 1 share = 100 pounds June 1720 price of 1 share = 1050 pounds The price of the shares starts dropping and everyone starts selling Sept 1720 price of 1 share = 300 pounds => Everyone wants to sell and the company goes bankrupt -> national panic Walpole comes up w/ a solution: - to restore of the previous income of the company (stabilize the price of the stocks) - limits criminal investigation to as few as possible (the dirty deals would be covered up) -> the dealers are very gtateful => Walpole is made Lord Chancellor -> remains from 1722 to 1742 -> unscrupulous, corrupt Two maxims in life (attributed to him): - Everyman has his price - Let sleeping dogs lie What he did say: Im not a Saint, no Spartan, no reformer Leading minister for over 20 years -> had more power and influence than any other PM before or after With the Restoration appeared the Cabinet (presided by K) Reasons for Walpole staing in power for so long: 1. George didnt speak English and didnt care about the British affairs of state 2. Kept Ks favour (he gave G everything he wanted) 3. K appointed bishops, judges + officers suggested by Walpole -> W fills the key positions w/ his friends 4. W is the head of the majority party in HofC -> he controls it System if representation - Still that of the Middle Ages

The bulk was in the burgeoisie

Rotten boroughs: nobody lived there, but still two people sat for it in HofC (some of the boroughs were created over 300 years before) Pocket boroughs: the ones you could buy Voting: open announcement -> was done publicly GEORGE II (1727 1760) Walpoles policy He will try to keep things as they are + Preserving peace (=/= from before) -> Britain will not take part in the Polish Succession War + Encouraging trade (country grows in commercial interests) -> w/o govt intervention + Keeping taxes low (for the rich) + Maintaining the status quo Common denominator of Hanovarians -> father quarrels w/ son Challenges to Walpoles Power 1. Louis XV (an infant) + the regent wanted as little trouble as possible (Foreign policy) 2. 1727 -> Death of George I -> had banished his son from court When GII comes to power, he dismisses all his fathers ministers Walpole is replaced by an incompetent + Q Caroline of Anspach will have W reappointed -> he persuades K w/ a larger grant of money on annual basis 3. 1733 -> Excise Bill (tax on specific goods) -> Plan: to introduce excise on goods sold (tobacco + wine) -> very unpopular (it was payed on the moment of purchase) Counterpart = smuggling was very unpopular Walpole was attacked in Parl and had to withdraw the Bill 4. 1736 -> Porteous Riots 2 Scottish smugglers were captured -> found guilty and sentenced to death -> the people started marching + demonstrating against the penalty + Capn Porteous (Commander of the city guard) opened fire against the crowd (big mistake!) -> Porteous is tried and found guilty -> a reprieve (= indulto) came from London pardoning Porteous -> mobs broke into the prision and hnaged Porteous -> loss of support of the Scottish MPs to Walpole Eventually, Edinburgh is only fined 5. 1736 -> Gin drinking Gin was very popular -> caused a serious social problem Walpole attempted to put a stop to it -> Gin Bill: put a duty on Gin and forced retailers to buy a license from govt => Riots break out (of course) => Bill is withdrawn W loses the support of everybody concerned w/ the Gin Industry 06-17 Further attacks on Walpole His credibility is being eroded Hes going to be severely criticised on news papers and on stage Operetta -> The beggars opera (incredibly popular) Beggars have a secret organization to arouse pity in the people and get money theres a corrupt cop that takes part of the org (the cop is dressed as Walpole) Retaliation -> 1737 Licencing Act (a form of censorship)

Inforced until the 1960s It limited the presentation of plays to 2 theatres The new plays needed to get a license from the Lord Chamberlain in order to be performed 1737 -> Death of Q Caroline (GIIs wife / Ws friend and supporter) A group of members of the Commons called The Young Patriots (= The Patriot Boys) thought that Britain should have a stronger foreign policy in order to defend different principles. Leader = William Pitt (The Elder) Believed that England had a great destiny if it concentrated its efforts and energies on its true interests (i.e. colonial trade) Britain had to do anything possible in order to strenghen its colonial trades -> acquire markets in which English merchants could trade goods -> Go to war for purely economic reasons (to defend the interests of the commercial class) Pitt will make violent attacks to Walpole in HofC, that his supporters will widen (?) his hostility towards W payed off => Walpole steps down 1740 1748 Austrian Succession War Britain will be involved -> against France Most powerful European countries: France Holy Roman Empire (Austria) Emperor Charles VI (HRE) dies in 1740 -> had no son (only a daughter) HRE = a loose confederation of different states who recognized as authority the HREmperor (Protector of the Pope) the crown had become hereditary (K of Austria) Aproximately 1700 states formed part of HRE The Electors (sometimes 7, sometimes 9) elected (outwardly) the Emperor Charles VI tried to persuade the European rulers to accept his daughter Maria Theresa either as Empress or, if not, making her Q of Austria and her husband (Francis), Emperor When CVI dies, these proposals will be left aside Why? The Elector of Brandenburgh (Frederick the Great of Prusian) wanted to enlarge his possessions and, if possible, overrun Austria Frederick invades Silesia -> war breaks out originally between Austria and Prusia France wanted many of the territories controlled by Austria => joins Frederick + Prusia George II joins Austria (he was also Elector of Hanover) Pitts policy triumphs (a war policy against France) George II is the last K to command troops (to go to war himself) While the war is going on, there will be a serious internal crisis in England

Bonny = good looking in Scottish 45 Last Jacobite Uprising (The Forty-Five) Led by Charles Edward Stuart (the Young Pretender / Bonny Prince Charlie) -> James Edward Stuarts son / James IIs grandson Lands in Scotland and soon raises the Highlands Gathers an army and defeats the governor general -> Battle of Prestonpans Now controls Scotland -> he invades England but instead of marching to London, he marches to ____?____ Several Jacobite wins 1746 Battle of Culloden -> Jacobite forces defeated by George IIs son (Duke of Cumberland) -> Jacobites can never recover (they march back to Highlands) Chales escapes to France -> END OF JACOBITE MOVEMENT This branch of the Catholic Stuarts dies out Reasons for the fialure of the 45 + Jacobitism was only strong in Highlands -> England was more loyal to the Protestant Hanovarians (although Hanovarians were not popular, they were not hated) George II will punish Highlands tried to destroy the clan system + forbid use of the tartan (form of identification) + clan chiefs will not be allowed to hold courts or demand military service + school + roads are built to reduce isolation Meanwhile in Europe... War of Austrian Succession goes on It drags on until the powers agree to make peace (truce, will not last for long) Treaty of Eix-La Chapelle + Return of conquests (Except for Prusia -> keeps Silesia) + Maria Theresa is recognized as Empress (1st blow that Prusia gives Austria to stop its expansion ??) 06-22 1756 1763 The Seven Years War Britain/ Prusia vs France/Austria/Russia At first, military disasters for Britain Until G appoints Pitt and Newcastle to make a new arrangement Pitt will get a chance to put his beliefs to practice Objectives: + Secure British supremacy at sea (investing a lot of money on the navy) + trying to seize as many French possessions and markets as possible + Keeping Frederick the Great fighting on the field Frederick the Great - Very intelligent and knew many things - Inclined to the arts - Enlightened despot - He will modernize the Prusian states: - militarize the states -> introduce a rational organization

-> he creates specific miniters to deal w/ specific areas of the country => organization according yo the pyramidal structure of the army (response and delegation) => develops bureocratic organization of the State -> provides a strong org to Prusian states Aim of Prusia: to expand at whatever cost -> very well organized army => efficient fighting Pitt wanted to keep Frederick busy fighting in Europe so Britain could concentrate on acquiring possessions from France Military conquest - Attack French Senegal and Dakar (carve out an area that will become a British colony Gambia) - Defeat the French @ Quiveron Bay + Leigos (Africa) => take away territories from France - Conquer French India -> Robert Clive (a civil servant) conquer of Bengal => worked for the East India Co. leader of the English Land Forces in India that will defeat the French forces @ the Battle of Arcot, by which the English will control South East India - Conquest of Canada Montreal + Quebec (by 1760 General Wolfe) The war makes Pitts policy triumphant 1757 1763 War of American Independence The French help the Americans Confrontations w/ France and Britain on opposite sides:

Over a hundred years of conflict Ends w/ British superiority Hannah Arendt Revolution (political) Classical concept (Ancient Greece + Rome): - Related to astronomy. Cyclical process by which sth started and went round till it gets back to where it was => going back to its origins =/= Modern concept Plato Pure forms of govt + 1 person ruling for the benefit of all = monarchy

+ A group of people ruling for the benefit of all = Aristocracy + Everybody ruling for the benefit of all = Democracy Impure forms of govt + 1 person ruling for his own benefit = Tyranny + A group of people ruling for their own interests = Oligarchy + Nobody rules for anybody = Demagogery (?) Hydric societies -> First city-states => the power is given to the people that can control the water Modern concept: not going back, breaking away from the status quo